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triangle. Note that

!

Y cos 2 1

(a + b)(b + c)(c + a) =

= .

cos 2 cos 2 cos 2 cos 2 cos 2

3

4 1

,

3 cos2 cos2 cos2

2 2 2

or

3 3

4 cos cos cos .

2 2 2 2

From the identity 4 cos 2 cos 2 cos 2 = sin + sin + sin , the inequality is

equivalent to

3 3

sin + sin + sin .

2

But f (x) = sin x is a concave function on (0, ) and the conclusion follows

from Jensens inequality.

5. Let a, b, c be positive real numbers such that a + b + c = 1. Prove that

a2 + b2 + c2 + 2 3abc 1.

(Poland, 1999)

q

bc

Solution. Let cyc x = a . It follows that cyc(a = yz). The inequality

becomes

x2 y 2 + y 2 z 2 + x2 z 2 + 2 3xyz 1,

where x, y, z are positive real numbers such that xy + yz + zx = 1. Note that

the inequality is equivalent to

(xy + yz + zx)2 + 2 3xyz 1 + 2xyz(x + y + z),

or

3 x + y + z.

Applying substitution S1 cyc(x = tan 2 ), it suffices to prove

tan + tan + tan 3.

2 2 2

The last inequality clearly holds, as f (x) = tan x2 is convex function on (0, ),

and the conclusion follows from Jensens inequality.

6. Let x, y, z be positive real numbers. Prove that

s

p p p (x + y)(y + z)(z + x)

x(y + z) + y(z + x) + z(x + y) 2

x+y+z

(Darij Grinberg)

s s s

x(x + y + z) y(x + y + z) z(x + y + z)

+ + 2.

(x + y)(x + z) (y + z)(y + x) (z + x)(z + y)

cos + cos + cos 2,

2 2 2

where , , are the angles of a triangle. Using transformation T1 cyc(A =

2 ),

where A, B, C are angles of an acute triangle, the inequality is equivalent to

There are many ways to prove this fact. We prefer to use Jordans inequality,

that is

2

sin for all (0, ).

2

The conclusion immediately follows.

1 1 1 1 1 1

+ + 3 + + .

a b c ab bc ca

1 1 1 1

+ + + = 4.

bc ca ab abc

1 1 1

, , = 2 sin2 , 2 sin2 , 2 sin2 ,

bc ca ab 2 2 2

where , , are angles of a triangle. It follows that

!

2 sin 2 sin 2 2 sin 2 sin 2 2 sin 2 sin 2

1 1 1

, , = , , .

a b c sin 2 sin sin 2

2

sin 2 sin 2 sin 2 sin 2 sin 2 sin 2 3

+

+ sin + sin + sin .

sin 2 sin 2 sin 2 2 2 2 2

The right-hand side of the inequality is well known. For the left-hand side we

use trasnformation T2 backwards. Denote by x = s a, y = s b, z = s c,

where s is the semiperimeter of the triangle. The left-hand side is equivalent

to

x y z 3

+ + ,

y+z x+z x+y 2

which a famous Nesbitts inequality, and we are done.

8. Let a, b, c (0, 1) be real numbers such that ab + bc + ca = 1. Prove that

3 1 a2 1 b2 1 c2

a b c

+ + + + .

1 a2 1 b2 1 c2 4 a b c

(Calin Popa)

of a triangle. Because a, b, c (0, 1), it follows that tan A2 , tan B2 , tan C2 (0, 1),

that is A, B, C are angles of an acute triangle. Note that

!

a sin A2 cos A2 tan A

cyc = = .

1 a2 cos A 2

Thus the inequality is equivalent to

1 1 1

tan A + tan B + tan C 3 + + .

tan A tan B tan C

Now observe that if we apply transformation T1 and the result in Theorem

1, we get

tan A + tan B + tan C = tan A tan B tan C.

Hence our inequality is equivalent to

(tan A + tan B + tan C)2 3 (tan A tan B + tan B tan C + tan A tan C) .

This can be written as

1

(tan A tan B)2 + (tan B tan C)2 + (tan C tan A)2 0,

2

and we are done.

9. Let x, y, z be positive real numbers. Prove that

r r s

16(x + y + z)3

r

y+z z+x x+y

+ + .

x y z 3(x + y)(y + z)(z + x)

s

X (x + y)(z + x) 4(x + y + z)

(y + z) .

cyc

x(x + y + z) 3

s !

(x + y)(z + x) a

cyc (y + z) = = 4R sin ,

x(x + y + z) cos 2 2

and

4(x + y + z) 4R(sin + sin + sin )

= ,

3 3

where , , are angles of a triangle with circumradius R. Therefore it suffices

to prove that

3

sin + sin + sin sin cos + sin cos + sin cos .

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

we obtain

3 1

cos + cos + cos .

2 3 2 2 2

Finally, we observe that f (x) = sin x2 is an increasing function on [0, ], while

g(x) = cos x2 is a decreasing function on [0, ]. Using Chebyschevs inequality,

we have

X

1

sin + sin + sin cos + cos + cos sin cos ,

3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Problems for independent study

r

a b c 3

+ + .

b+c c + a a+b 2

r r r r r r

1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1+ 1 1+ 1 16

a b b c c a

(A. Teplinsky, Ukraine, 2005)

1 1 1 1

+ + 2+ .

a+b b+c c+a 2

(Le Trung Kien)

(APMO, 2004)

x + yz + x + yz + x + yz xyz + x + y + z.

(APMO, 2002)

b+c c+a a+b a b c

+ + 4 + + .

a b c b+c c+a a+b

(Mircea Lascu)

7. Let a, b, c be positive real numbers, such that a + b + c = abc. Prove that

ab + bc + ca 9(a + b + c).

(Belarus, 1996)

8. Let a, b, c be positive real numbers. Prove that

s

b+c c+a a+b abc

+ + +2 2

a b c (a + b)(b + c)(c + a)

(a 1)(b 1)(c 1) 6 3 10.

that

0 ab + bc + ca abc 2.

REFERENCES

[1. ] Titu Andreescu, Zuming Feng, 103 Trigonometry Problems: From the Training

of the USA IMO Team, Birkhauser, 2004

[2. ] Titu Andreescu, Vasile Cirtoaje, Gabriel Dospinescu, Mircea Lascu - Old and

New Inequalities, GIL Publishing House, 2004

2007

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