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Kinematics

1. Introduction Student today we are going to study the Kinematic aspect of the fluid i.e., the of fluid or liquid in motion without considering the forces causing motion. In this topic we will first deal with different types of flow, which exists like laminar or turbulent flow, path line or streak line .The study of these types flow effect the different changes to occur suppose in case of hydraulic turbine if flow is turbulent through the penstock then the head available at the end of pipe will be low leading to less energy available for the generation of power but if we know in advance the kind of flow corrective can be taken to ensure that laminar flow occurs leading to increase in the generation of power . Like in the examples quoted above we as mechanical engineers need to have to have good understanding of the different kind of flow that exists. Hence the topics that will be under our ambit of discussion need a through under standing . Kinematics is defined as that branch of science, which deals with the motion of particles without considering the forces causing motion. The velocity at a point in a flow field at any time is studied in this branch of fluid mechanics. Once the velocity is known, then the pressure distribution and hence forces acting on the fluid can be determined 2. Method of Describing Fluid Motion The fluid motion is described by two methods. They are : i. Lagrangian method ii. Eulerian method. In the Lagrangian method a single fluid particle is followed during its motion and its velocity, acceleration, density etc are described. In case of Eulerian method, the velocity, acceleration, pressure, density etc are described at a point in a flow field. The Eulerian is commonly used in fluid mechanics. 3. Streamline A streamline is an imaginary curve drawn through a flowing fluid in such away that the tangent to it at any point gives the direction of velocity of the flow at that point. Since a fluid is composed of fluid particles, the pattern of flow of fluid may be represented by a series of stream lines, obtained by drawing a series of curves through flowing fluid such that the velocity vector at any point is tangential to the curves .The fig below show some of the stream lines for a flow pattern in the xy plane in which a stream line passing through appoint P(x,y) is tangential to the velocity vector V at P.If u and v are the components of V along x and y directions, then v/u = tan = dy/dx Where dy and dx are the y and x components of the differential displacement ds along the streamline in the immediate vicinity

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of P.Therefore the differential equation for the stream lines in the xy plane may be written as dx/u = dy/v; Or (udy – vdx) A general differential equation for three dimensional flow may however be obtained in the manner as dx/u = dy/v = dz/w

FLUID MECHANICS

4. Stream Tube A stream tube is a tube imagined to be formed by a group of streamlines passing through a small closed curve, may or may not be circular. Since the stream tube is bounded on all sides by streamlines and since the velocity has no component normal to a streamline, there can be no flow across the bounding surface of stream tube. Therefore a fluid may enter or leave the stream tube only at its ends. A stream tube with a cross-sectional area small enough for the variation of velocity over it to be negligible is sometimes termed, as stream filament .The concept of stream tube is quite useful in analyzing several fluid flow problems, Since the entire flow field may be divided into large number of stream tubes, thus yielding a clear picture of entire pattern of flow. However, only in steady flow a stream tube is fixed in space.

**e.g., Flow of liquid through a pipe of uniform bore running completely full at constant velocity.
**

Steady, Non-uniform Flow

FLUID MECHANICS

Conditions change from point to point but do not with time. e.g., Flow of a liquid at constant flow rate through a tapering pipe running completely full. Unsteady, uniform Flow: e.g. when a pump starts-up. Unsteady, non-uniform Flow: e.g. Conditions of liquid during pipetting out of liquid.

Laminar Flow

Laminar flow is defined as that type of flow in which the fluid particles move along well defined path or stream line and all the stream lines are straight and parallel. Thus the particle moves in laminas or layers gliding smoothly over adjacent layer. This type of flow is also called streamline or viscous flow.

Turbulent Flow

Turbulent flow is that type of flow in which the fluid particle move in zig zag way .Due to the movement of fluid particle in the zig zag way, the eddies formation take place which are responsible for high energy loss .For a pipe flow, the type of flow is determined by a non dimensional number VD/ν called the Reynolds number Where D = diameter of the pipe V = Mean velocity of flow in the pipe ν = Kinematic viscosity of the fluid If the Reynolds number is less than 2000, the flow is called Laminar flow .If the Reynolds number is more than 4000,it is called turbulent flow.

Rotational Flow

Rotational flow is that type of flow in which in which fluid particles while moving along a stream also rotate about their own axis.

Irrotational Flow

**5. Types of Fluid Flow
**

Steady Flow

Irrotational flow is defined as that type of in which the fluid particles while along stream line, do not rotate about their own axis, that type of flow is called Irrotational flow. 6. Continuity Equation Let us make the mass balance for a fluid element as shown below: (an open-faced cube)

When the velocity at each location is constant, the velocity field is invariant with time and the flow is said to be steady. (dv/dt)XoYoZo =0

Uniform Flow

Uniform flow occurs when the magnitude and direction of velocity do not change from point to point in the fluid. Flow of liquids through long pipelines of constant diameter is uniform whether flow is steady or unsteady. Non-uniform flow occurs when velocity, pressure etc., change from point to point in the fluid.

Steady, Uniform Flow

Conditions do not change with position or time.

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Mass Balance

Notes

FLUID MECHANICS

Accumulation rate of mass in the system = all mass flow rates in - all mass flow rates out —> 1

**Thema si t es s e a a yi s a t“s“y “z. The flow into s n h ytm t n ntn i x
**

the system through face 1 is

And the flow out of the system through face 2 is

Similarly for the faces 3, 4, 5, and 6 are written as follows:

Substituting these quantities in equn.1, we get

Dividing the above equation by ∆x∆y∆z:

Now we let ∆x∆y and ∆z each approach zero simultaneously, so that the cube shrinks to a point. Taking the limit of the three ratios on the right-hand side of this equation, we get the partial derivatives.

This is the continuity equation for every point in a fluid flow whether steady or unsteady, compressible or incompressible. For steady, incompressible flow, the density r is constant and the equation simplifies to

For two-dimensional incompressible flow this will simplify still further to

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