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In this work, ﬁrst the diﬀerential equation characterizing position vector of spacelike curve is obtained in Lorentzian plane L2. Then the special curves mentioned above are studied in Lorentzian plane L2. Finally some characterizations of these special curves are given in L2.

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1 DEPARTMENTS OF MATHEMATICS,

KIRKLARELI UNIVERSITY, 39100 KIRKLARELI, TURKEY,

2 BUCA FACULTY OF EDUCATION,

DOKUZ EYLUL UNIVERSITY, 35150, BUCA-IZMIR, TURKEY,

E-MAILS: 1 YASINUNLUTURK@KLU.EDU.TR,

2 SUHA.YILMAZ@DEU.EDU.TR, 1 MURADIYE.1001@HOTMAIL.COM

vector of spacelike curve is obtained in Lorentzian plane L2 . Then the spe-

cial curves mentioned above are studied in Lorentzian plane L2 . Finally some

characterizations of these special curves are given in L2 .

Keywords: Spacelike curve, Lorentzian plane, circular indicatrices, Smarandache

curves, curves of constant breadth.

1. Introduction

and so some of classical differential geometry topics are extended to Lorentzian

manifolds. For instance in [13], author deeply studies theory of the curves and

surfaces and also presents mathematical principles about theory of Relativitiy. Also,

T. Ikawa presents some characterizations of the theory of curves in an indefinite-

Riemannian manifold [7].

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

JOURNAL OF MAHANI MATHEMATICAL RESEARCH CENTER

VOL. 6, NUMBERS 1-2 (2017) 1-12.

MAHANI

c MATHEMATICAL RESEARCH CENTER

1

2 Y. UNLUTURK, S. YILMAZ AND M. CIMDIKER

There are lots of interesting and important problems in the theory of curves at

differential geometry. One of the interesting problems is the problem of character-

ization of a regular curve in the theory of curves in the Euclidean and Minkowski

spaces, see, [3, 6].

Special curves are obtained under some definitions such as Smarandache curves,

spherical indicatrices, and curves of constant breadth, and etc.: Smarandache curves

are regular curves whose position vectors are obtained by the Frenet frame vectors

on another regular curve. These curves were firstly introduced by Turgut and

Ylmaz in [14]. Then many researches occured about the different characterizations

of Smarandache curves in Euclidean and Minkowsi spaces, see [1, 4]. Spherical

indicatrix is the locus of a point whose position vector is equal to the unit tangent

T, the principal normal vector N, and the principal binormal vector B at any

point of a given curve in the space. Spherical indicatrices have been studied in

many works as special curves [15, 16]. As you know, spherical indicatrix turns into

circular indicatrix in the plane. Curves of constant breadth were firstly introduced

by Euler as another special curve [5]. Then in chronological order, it was studied

in [2, 10, 12, 17].

Our motivation was to see the corresponding results of the special curves men-

tioned above in Lorentzian plane L2 . As much as we look at the classical differential

geometry literature of the works in Lorentzian plane L2 , the works were rare, see,

[7, 9, 11, 18]. First, we obtain the differential equation characterizing position vec-

tor of spacelike curve in Lorentzian plane L2 . Then we study the special curves

in L2 . We give some characterizations of these special spacelike curves in L2 .

2. Preliminaries

spacelike if g(r, r) > 0, or r = 0, timelike if g(r, r) < 0 and null if g(r, r) = 0 for

r = 0 [8].

A curve x is a smooth mapping

x : I L2 ,

CONTRIBUTIONS TO DIFFERENTIAL ... JMMRC VOL. 6, NUMBERS 1-2 (2017) 3

denote the orthogonal coordinate representation of x as x=(x1 (s), x2 (s)) and also

the vector

dx dx1 dx2

(2) =( , )=T

ds ds ds

is called the tangent vector field of the curve x = x(s). If tangent vector field of

x(s) is a spacelike, timelike or null then, the curve x(s) is called spacelike, timelike

or null, respectively [7].

In the rest of the paper, we will consider spacelike curves. While the tangent

vector field T is spacelike, N is timelike. We can have the arclength parameter s

and have the Frenet formula

[ ] [ ] [ ]

T 0 T

(3) = . ,

N 0 N

where = (s) is the curvature of the unit speed curve x = x(s) [11]. The vector

field N is called the normal vector field of the curve x(s). Note that since T, N = 0,

T is a timelike vector, and also N spacelike vector. Given (s) is the slope angle of

the curve, then as in [8], we have

d

(4) = (s).

ds

Let = (s) be an unit speed spacelike curve on the plane L2 . Then we can

write position vector of (s) with respect to Frenet frame as

(5) X = X(s) = 1 T + 2 N,

where 1 and 2 are arbitrary functions of the arc length parameter s. Differen-

tiating (5) and using Frenet equations we have a system of ordinary differential

equations as follows:

d1

2 1 = 0,

ds

(6)

d2 + = 0.

1

ds

Using (6)1 in (6)2 we obtain

4 Y. UNLUTURK, S. YILMAZ AND M. CIMDIKER

d 1 d1

(7) [ ( 1)] + 1 = 0.

ds ds

So, according to 1 , the equation (7) is the differential equation of second order

which is a characterization for the curve x = x(s).

Using change of variable

s

(8) = 0

ds

in (7), we arrive at

d2 1 d

(9) + 1 = ,

d2 d

1

where = .

By the method of variation of parameters and differential solution of (9) we have

[ ] [ ]

(10) 1 = e A 0 e d + e B + 0 e d ,

[ ] [ ]

(11) 1 = e 0

ds

A 0

e d + e 0 ds B + 0 e d .

d1

Denoting differentiation of the equation (11) as = (s), and using (6), then

ds

we have

1

(12) 2 = [(s) 1] .

According to the above expression we can give the following theorem:

Theorem 3.1. Let = (s) be an arbitrary unit speed spacelike curve in

Lorentzian plane L2 , then position vector of the curve = (s) with respect to the

Frenet frame can be composed by

[ ] [ ]

X = X(s) = (e A 0 e d + e B + 0 e d )T

1

+( [(s) 1])N.

CONTRIBUTIONS TO DIFFERENTIAL ... JMMRC VOL. 6, NUMBERS 1-2 (2017) 5

Lorentzian plane L2 . Position vector and curvature of the curve satisfy the differ-

ential equations of third order as follow

[ ]

d 1 d2 d

+ = 0.

ds ds2 ds

plane L2 . Then Frenet derivative formula holds (3)1 in (3)2 , we easily have

[ ]

d 1 dT

(13) + T = 0.

ds ds

d

Let = T = . So, expression of (13) can be written as follows:

ds

[ ]

d 1 d2 d

(14) + = 0.

ds ds2 ds

Let us solve the equation (13) with respect to T . Here we know ,

T = (t1 , t2 ) = (1 , 2 ).

Using the change of variable (8) in (14) according to the parameter of T , we get

d2 t1 d2 t2

(15) + = 0, + = 0,

d2 d2

t1 = 1 cos + 2 sin ,

(16)

t = cos + sin ,

2 3 4

where i R for 1 i 4.

4. Special curves in L2

In this section we will study some special spacelike curves such as Smarandache

curves, circular indicatrices, and curves of constant breadth in Lorentzian plane L2 .

6 Y. UNLUTURK, S. YILMAZ AND M. CIMDIKER

tion vector is composed by Frenet frame vectors on another regular curve, is called

a Smarandache curve. We will study T N Smarandache curve as the only Smaran-

dache curve of Lorentzian plane L2 .

Definition 4.1 (T N Smarandache curves). Let = (s) be a unit speed

spacelike curve in L2 and {T , N } be its moving Frenet frame. The curve = (s)

is said to be T N Smarandache curve whose form is

1

(17) (s ) = (T N ) .

2

= (s). Differentiating (17) with respect to s gives us

d ds 1

(18) = = ( N + T ) .

ds ds 2

Rearranging of this expression, we get

ds 1

(19) T = ( N + T ) .

ds 2

By (18), we have

ds

(20) = .

ds

Hence using (19) and (20), we find the tangent vector of the curve as follows:

(T + N )

(21) T = .

2

Differentiating (21) with respect to s, we have

dT ds ( T + N )

(22) = .

ds ds 2

Substituting (20) in (22), we obtain

(T + N )

T = .

2

The curvature and principal normal vector field of the curve are, respectively,

(23) (T )2 (N )2

T = = = 0,

2

and

(T + N )

(24) N = .

(T )2 (N )2

CONTRIBUTIONS TO DIFFERENTIAL ... JMMRC VOL. 6, NUMBERS 1-2 (2017) 7

Thus the expressions in (23) and (24) simply mean that the Smarandache curve

of a spacelike plane curve is a straight line.

4.2. Circular indicatrices. Circular indicatrix is the locus of a point whose po-

sition vector is equal to the unit tangent T or the principal normal vector N at

any point of a given curve in the plane. We will characterize tangent and normal

circular indicatrices of spacelike curves in Lorentzian plane L2 .

Tangent circular indicatrices of spacelike curves in L2

Let = (s) be a spacelike curve in Lorentzian plane L2 . If we translate of the

first vector field of the Frenet frame to the center of the unit Lorentzian circle S 1 ,

then we have the tangent circular indicatrix = (s ) in Lorentzian plane L2 .

Here we shall denote differentiation according to s by a dash and differentiation

according to s by a dot. By the Frenet frame, we obtain the tangent vector of

= (s ) as

d ds ds

(25) = = T = N,

ds ds ds

where

ds

(26) T = N, and = (s).

ds

From (25), we have

T = N 2 T,

(27) = T = |( )2 + 4 |.

2 T + N

(28) N = .

2 + 4

Principal normal circular indicatrices of spacelike curves in L2

Let = (s) be a spacelike curve in Lorentzian plane L2 . If we translate of the

second vector field of Frenet frame to the center of the unit circle S 1 , then we have

the principal normal circular indicatrix = (s ) in Lorentzian plane L2 .

We shall follow similar procedure of the tangent circular indicatrix, to determine

relations among Fenet apparatus of circular indicatrices of with Frenet apparatus

8 Y. UNLUTURK, S. YILMAZ AND M. CIMDIKER

as follows

d ds

= = T,

ds ds

where

ds

(29) T = T, and = (s).

ds

Differentiating (29), we obtain

ds

(30) T = T = N,

ds

or in another words,

(31) T = N.

Using (30) and (31) we have the first curvature and the principal normal vector

of the principal normal circular indicatrix = (s ) as

=
T
= 1, and N = N.

4.3. Curves of constant breadth. Let = (s) and = (s) be simple closed

spacelike curves in Lorentzian plane L2 . These curves will be denoted by C and C .

Any point p of the curve lying in the normal plane meets the curve at a single point

q except p. We call the point q as the opposite point of p. We consider curves

in the class as in Fujivara (1914) having parallel tangents T and T in opposite

directions at the opposite points and of the curve.

A simple closed curve of constant breadth having parallel tangents in opposite

directions at opposite points can be represented with respect to the Frenet frame

by the following

(32) = + m1 T + m2 N,

where and are opposite points and mi (s), 1 i 2 are arbitrary functions of

s.

The vector

d =

is called the distance vector between the opposite points of C and C .

Differentiating (32) and considering the Frenet derivative formulae (3), we have

d ds dm1 dm2

= T =T+ T + m1 N + N m2 T.

ds ds ds ds

CONTRIBUTIONS TO DIFFERENTIAL ... JMMRC VOL. 6, NUMBERS 1-2 (2017) 9

Since

d d

= T and = T ,

ds ds

and using Frenet derivative formulas, we get

ds dm1 dm2

(33) T = (1 + m2 )T + (m1 + )N.

ds ds ds

From the definition of curve of constant breadth, there is the relation

(34) T = T,

between the tangent vectors of the curves, and also using (34) in (33), we obtain

ds dm1 dm2

(35) = m2 1, and m1 + = 0.

ds ds ds

Let be the angle between the tangent vector T at a point (s) of an oval and

a fixed direction, then we have

ds 1 ds 1

(36) = = , and = = .

d d

Using (36) in (35), the equation (35) becomes as

dm1

m = + = f (),

2 d

(37)

dm2 = m .

1

d

order as

d2 m2

(38) + m2 = f ().

d2

By general solution of the equation (38) we find

( ) ( )

m2 = sin 0 f (t)et dt + 2 cos 0 f (t)et dt + 1 .

dm2

Using m1 = in (37) we obtain the value of m1 as

d

( ) ( )

m1 = cos 0 f (t) cos tdt + 2 sin 0 f (t) sin tdt + 1 .

10 Y. UNLUTURK, S. YILMAZ AND M. CIMDIKER

is given as follows

Hence using (32) the position vector of the curve

( ) ( )

= + [ cos 0 f (t) cos tdt + 2 sin 0 f (t) sin tdt + 1 ]T

( ) ( )

+[sin 0

f (t)et dt + 2 cos 0 f (t)et dt + 1 ]N.

write that

(39)

= m21 m22 = const.,

dm1 dm2

(40) m1 m2 = 0.

d d

Taking the system (37) and (40) together into consideration, we obtain

( )

dm1

(41) m1 + m2 = 0.

d

From here, we arrive at

dm1

(42) m1 = 0 or = m2 .

d

According to the expression (42), we will study cases below:

Case 1: If

m1 = 0,

: then from (37) we find that

If

dm1

m1 =0 = const. and also = m2 ,

d

then we obtain

m2 = 0.

If

m1 = k1 , (k1 R),

then the equation (32) turns into

= + k1 T.

CONTRIBUTIONS TO DIFFERENTIAL ... JMMRC VOL. 6, NUMBERS 1-2 (2017) 11

Case 2: If

dm1

= m2 ,

d

then from (37) we have

f () = 0, and m1 = 0

m2 d .

If

dm1

= m2 =0 = k2 = const.,

d

then from (37) we obtain

f () = 0, and m1 = 0

= + k2 N.

References

[1] Ahmad T. Ali, Special Smarandache Curves in the Euclidean Space, Math Combin. Book

Ser., 2(2), 30-36, (2010).

[2] Wilhelm Blaschke, Konvexe Bereichee Gegebener Konstanter Breite und Kleinsten Inhalt,

Math. Annalen, B., 76, 504-513, (1915).

[3] Bang-Yen Chen, When Does the Position Vector of a Space Curve Always Lie in its Rectifying

Plane?, Amer. Math. Monthly, 110, 147-152, (2003).

[4] Muhammed Cetin, Ylmaz Tuncer and Mustafa Kemal Karacan, Smarandache Curves Ac-

cording to Bishop Frame in Euclidean 3-Space, Gen. Math. Notes, 20, 50-56, (2014).

[5] Leonhard Euler, De Curvis Triangularibus, Acta Acad. Petropol., 1778, 3-30, (1780).

[6] S. Izumiya, N. Takeuchi, New Special Curves and Developable Surfaces, Turkish J. Math.,

28(2), 531-537, (2004).

[7] Toshihiko Ikawa, On Curves and Submanifolds in an Indefinite-Riemannian Manifold,

Tsukuba J. Math., 9, 353-371, (1985).

[8] Toshihiko Ikawa, Euler-Savarys Formula on Minkowski Geometry, Balkan J. Geo. Appl., 8(2),

31-36, (2003).

[9] Mustafa Kemal Karacan, Bahaddin Bukcu, Parallel Curve (offset) in Lorentzian Plane, Er-

ciyes Universitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitusu Dergisi, 24 (1-2), 334- 345, (2008).

[10] Omer Kose, On Space Curves of Constant Breadth, Doga Tr. J. Math., 10(1), 11-14, (1986).

[11] Rafael Lopez, The Theorem of Schur in the Minkowski Plane, J. Geom and Phys., 61, 342346,

(2011).

[12] Abdullah Magden, Omer Kose, On the Curves of Constant Breadth in Space, Tr. J. of Math-

ematics, 21(3), 277-284, (1997).

12 Y. UNLUTURK, S. YILMAZ AND M. CIMDIKER

[13] Barrett ONeill, Semi-Riemannian Geometry with Applications to Relativity, Academic Press,

New York, 1983.

[14] Melih Turgut, Suha Ylmaz, Smarandache Curves in Minkowski Space-time, Int J. Math.

Comb., 3, 51-55, (2008).

[15] Suha Ylmaz, Melih Turgut, A New Version of Bishop Frame and an Application to Spherical

Images, J Math Anal Appl., 371, 764-776, (2010).

[16] Suha Ylmaz, Spherical Indicators of Curves and Characterizations of Some Special Curves

in Four Dimensional Lorentzian Space L2 , PhD Dissertation, Dokuz Eylul University, 2001.

[17] Suha Ylmaz, Umit Ziya Savc, and Yasin Unluturk, Spacelike Curves of Constant Breadth

in Minkowski 3-Space E13 , Math Combin Book Ser., 4, 1-6, (2014).

[18] Suha Ylmaz, Notes on the Curves in Loretzian Plane L2 , Int. J. Math. Comb., 1, 38-41,

(2009).

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