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Sensitivity Analysis

October 24, 2017

In todays lecture you must have come across burn out velocity, hyperbolic
excess velocity, escape velocity, heliocentric frame of reference, Earth frame of
reference. I will work out some problems and add theory to give you grasp of
the terms.

Burnout velocity

GSLV MK II with lift-off 640000 kg is launched vertically upward. Propellant

is consumed at a constant rate of 4500 kg/s and is ejected at a velocity of 2548
m/s relative to the rocket. Burn time is 100 s. Calculate the velocity of the
rocket at burnout.
v = ve ln gt
M qt
Where q- flow rate. M is lift off mass and ve is exhaust velocity.

Substituting relevant values will give v = 2114.4m/s. This will be burnout

velocity. This velocity is what you can control. Any error in this velocity will
lead to change in Departure velocity

Hyperbolic excess velocity

If you launch a spacecraft with velocity equal to escape velocity, your space-
craft has limited options after leaving gravitational field of planet. It takes a
parabolic path.

But if you are going to give additional velocity to spacecraft over the es-
cape velocity- then the excess velocity will not change assuming there are NO
OTHER PLANETS NEARBY to impart external force.

In absence of external force, spacecraft continues to move with velocity which

is higher than the escape velocity.

v 2 = vbo 2 vesc 2

In previous example discussed, if the Earth was taken as departure planet,
then escape velocity is 11.2 km/s. This means that the spacecraft will not be
able to escape with given burnout velocity of 2.1 km/s.

[NOTE: The problem was solved for first stage of GSLV. It may achieve
velocity greater than 2.1 km/s with higher stages. The values given in problem
are approximation based on Isp and Mass (M)]

Departure Velocity

Departure velocity is measured with respect to Heliocentric frame. So wee

can write departure velocity as

vD = v1 + v
Here v1 is planets velocity around the Sun. It is given by expression:

v1 =

where R is 1 AU.

Spacecraft is traveling with velocity= vesc + v . From the expression for

planets velocity and spacecraft velocity, you can find the velocity relative to
the Sun. This velocity is given by Departure velocity

Let burn out velocity be 13 km/s. Then hyperbolic excess velocity is given
v = vb2
v = 3.6km/s and v1 = 7.707km/s
So departure velocity is 3.6 km/s + 7.707 km/s= 11.307 km/s.

Prove that vD = v1 + v