Synchronization of Digital Signals --- 1 To understand the concepts and details of SONET correctly, it is important to be clear about the meaning

of synchronous, asynchronous, and plesiochronous. In a set of synchronous signals, the digital transitions in the signals occur at exactly the same rate. There may, however, be a phase difference between the transitions of the two signals, and this would lie within specified limits. These phase differences may be due to propagation time delays or jitter introduced into the transmission network. In a synchronous network, all the clocks are traceable to one primary reference clock (PRC). The accuracy of the PRC is better than ±1 in 1011 and is derived from a cesium atomic standard. If two digital signals are plesiochronous, their transitions occur at almost the same rate, with any variation being constrained within tight limits. For example, if two networks must interwork, their clocks may be derived from two different PRCs. Although these clocks are extremely accurate, there is a difference between one clock and the other. This is known as a plesiochronous difference. In a set of asynchronous signals, the transitions of the signals do not necessarily occur at the same nominal rate. Asynchronous, in this case, means that the difference between two clocks is much greater than a plesiochronous difference. For example, if two clocks are derived from free-running quartz oscillators, they could be described as asynchronous. Introduction to Synchronization Synchronous versus Asynchronous Traditionally, transmission systems have been asynchronous, with each terminal in the network running on its own recovered clock timing. In Digital transmission, “timing” is one of the most fundamental operations. Since these clocks are not synchronized, large variations can occur in the clock rate and thus the signal bit rate. For example, an E3 signal specified at 34 Mbit/s ±20 ppm (parts per million) can produce a timing difference of up to 1789 bit/s between one incoming E3 signal and another. Asynchronous multiplexing uses multiple stages. Signals such as asynchronous E1s (2 Mbit/s) are multiplexed (bit-interleaving), extra bits are added (bit-stuffing) to account for the timing variations of each individual stream and are combined with other bits (framing bits) to form an E2 (8 Mbit/s) stream. Bit-interleaving and bit-stuffing is used again to multiplex up to E3 (34 Mbit/s). The E1s are neither visible nor accessible within an E3 frame. E3s are multiplexed up to higher rates in the same manner. At the higher Asynchronous rate, they cannot be accessed without demultiplexing. In a synchronous system, such as SDH, the average frequency of all clocks in the system is the same. Every slave clock can be traced back to a highly stable reference clock. Thus, the STM-1 rate remains at a

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nominal 155.52 Mbit/s, allowing many synchronous STM-1 signals to be multiplexed without any bit-stuffing. Thus, the STM-1s are easily accessed at a higher STM-N rate. Low-speed synchronous virtual container (VC) signals are also simple to interleave and transport at higher rates. At low speeds, 2.048 Mbit/s E1 signals are transported within synchronous VC-12 signals which run at a constant rate of 2.304 Mbit/s. Single-step multiplexing up to STM-1 requires no bit-stuffing and VCs are easily accessed. A mechanism known as “pointers,” operating in conjunction with buffers, accommodates differences in the reference source frequencies and phase wander, and so prevents data loss during synchronization failures. Synchronizations Hierarchy Digital switches and digital cross-connect systems are commonly employed in the digital network synchronizations hierarchy. The network is organized with a master-slave relationship with clocks of the higher level nodes feeding timing signals to clocks of the lower-level nodes. All nodes can be traced up to a Primary Reference Clock (PRC). Jitter Jitter in technical terms is the deviation in or displacement of some aspect of the pulses in a high-frequency digital signal. As the name suggests, jitter can be thought of as shaky pulses. The deviation can be in terms of amplitude, phase timing, or the width of the signal pulse. Another definition is that it is "the period frequency displacement of the signal from its ideal location." Among the causes of jitter are electromagnetic interference (EMI) and crosstalk with other signals. Jitter can cause a display monitor to flicker; affect the ability of the processor in a personal computer to perform as intended; introduce clicks or other undesired effects in audio signals, and loss of transmitted data between network devices. The amount of allowable jitter depends greatly on the application. Jitter is the time variation of a periodic signal in electronics and telecommunications, often in relation to a reference clock source. Jitter may be observed in characteristics such as the frequency of successive pulses, the signal amplitude, or phase of periodic signals. Jitter is a significant, and usually undesired, factor in the design of almost all communications links (e.g., USB, PCI-e, SATA, OC-48). Jitter period is the interval between two times of maximum effect (or minimum effect) of a signal characteristic that varies regularly with time. Jitter frequency, the more commonly quoted figure, is its inverse. Generally, very low jitter frequency is not of interest in designing systems, and the low-frequency cutoff for jitter is typically specified at 1 Hz.

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Types [edit] Random jitter Random Jitter, also called Gaussian jitter, is unpredictable electronic timing noise Deterministic jitter Deterministic jitter is a type of clock timing jitter or data signal jitter that is predictable and reproducible. The peak-to-peak value of this jitter is bounded, and the bounds can easily be observed and predicted. Total jitter Total jitter (T) is the combination of random jitter (R) and deterministic jitter (D): T = Dpeak-to-peak + 2× n×Rrms, in which the value of n is based on the bit error rate (BER) required of the link. A common bit error rate used in communication standards such as Ethernet is 10−12. Dejitterizer A dejitterizer is a device that reduces jitter in a digital signal. A dejitterizer usually consists of an elastic buffer in which the signal is temporarily stored and then retransmitted at a rate based on the average rate of the incoming signal. A dejitterizer is usually ineffective in dealing with low-frequency jitter, such as waiting-time jitter. Buffer: In computing, a buffer is a region of memory used to temporarily hold data while it is being moved from one place to another. Typically, the data is stored in a buffer as it is retrieved from an input device (such as a keyboard) or just before it is sent to an output device (such as a printer) Telecommunication buffer A buffer routine or storage medium used in telecommunications compensates for a difference in rate of flow of data, or time of occurrence of events, when transferring data from one device to another. Buffers are used for many purposes, such as
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interconnecting two digital circuits operating at different rates, holding data for use at a later time, 3

4 x E1 .704 defines 32 channels of 64Kb/s to form 2. Channel 0 is for timing used to synchronize the multiplexers at each end of the link.048Mb/s where channel 0 is used for framing.91 microseconds 8 bits from one channel is sent down the line followed by 8 bits from the next channel during the next 3. You will often see the standard G. They typically serve many customers each with their own requirements so the systems have to be reliable. Introduction The Transmission System is traditionally seen as the link between main WAN switching centers.702.704.703 mentioned with G. this is because G. 2. whereby the basic primary multiplexer 2.• • • allowing timing corrections to be made on a data stream. thus 32 channels are used once every 125 microseconds. These Transmission Systems consist of large bandwidth highways that form the backbone to the network. Channels 1 to 15 and 17 to 31 are for voice or data whilst channel 16 is used for Common Channel Signaling (CCS) or Channel Associated Signaling (CAS). • E2. Delaying the transit time of a signal in order to allow other operations to occur.048Mb/s was called E1 and the hierarchy is based on multiples of 4 E1s. ITU-T G.91 microseconds and so on in a round robin fashion throughout all the channels. Phase variations with frequency content above 10 Hertz are considered jitter.[1] Wander variations are those that occur over a period greater than 1 s (second).703 defines the unframed physical interface coaxial (75 ohm) or RJ48 (120 ohm) used for the E1/T1 connection at the client premises. resilient and flexible. while those with a frequency below 10 Hz are referred to as wander. Wander In telecommunication. Every 3. Time Division Multiplexing is used. wander are long-term low-frequency random variations of the significant instants of a digital signal from their ideal positions.8Mb/s 4 . Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) As bandwidth demand grew the technology called Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy PDH) was developed by ITU-T G. Rather than have two wires for every voice or data conversation.048Mb/s trunks were joined together by adding bits (bit stuffing) which synchronized the trunks at each level of the PDH. The connection at the end is either a 75 ohm coax. collecting binary data bits into groups that can then be operated on as a unit. 120 ohm coax or a 150 ohm UTP/STP.

This means that if a 140Mb/s fiber is near a particular site and a new customer requires a 2Mb/s link. E2 tributaries are faster than the E1 tributaries and so on. Inserting and dropping out traffic from different customers can only happen at the level at which the customer is receiving the traffic. digital transmission systems and hierarchies have been based on multiplexing signals which are plesiochronous (running at almost the same speed). 4 x E4 .• • • E3.A.565Mb/s The E3 tributaries are faster than the E2 tributaries. Multiplexers on the same level of the hierarchy remove the spare bits and are synchronized with each other at that level only.34Mb/s E4. the timing between Primary Rate Muxes (combines 30 x 64Kb/s channels into 2. Multiplexers on one level operate on a different timing from multiplexers on another level. 4 x E2 . various parts of the world use different hierarchies which lead to problems of international interworking. so extra bits are added called Justification bits. These needs to be synchronized with other tributaries. These tell the multiplexers which bits are data and which are spare. Also. then a whole set of demultiplexers are required to do this. for example. Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) Traditionally. between those countries using 1. 5 .048 Mbit/s systems.048Mb/s E1) will be different from the timing between 8Mbit muxes (combines up to 4 x 2Mb/s into 8Mb/s).S. 4 x E3 .140Mb/s E5. and Japan) and those using the 2.544 Mbit/s systems (U. For instance.

To recover a 64 Kbit/s channel from a 140 Mbit/s PDH signal. Limitations of PDH Network: The main limitations of PDH are: Inability to identify individual channels in a higher-order bit stream. Increasing traffic over the past decade has demanded that more and more of these 6 . 8-2 demultiplex. each running at 64Kbps (known as E1 and described by the CCITT G. PDH requires “steps” (140-34. At the E1 level. There’s no standardized definition of PDH bit rates greater than 140 Mbit/s. There are different hierarchies in use around the world. This is due to the bitstuffing used at each level. 34-140 multiplex) to drop out or add an individual speech or data channel (see Figure 1).703 specification). Plesiochronous Transmission. 34-8. Insufficient capacity for network management.048Mbit/s bearer consisting of 30 time division multiplexed (TDM) voice channels. timing is controlled to an accuracy of 1 in 1011 by synchronizing to a master Cesium clock. Digital data and voice transmission is based on a 2. Specialized interface equipment is required to interwork the two hierarchies. 2-8. 8-34. Most PDH network management is proprietary. it’s necessary to demultiplex the signal all the way down to the 2 Mbit/s level before the location of the 64 Kbit/s channel can be identified.

During this time rates have increased through 8.basic E1 bearers be multiplexed together to provide increased capacity. and 140Mbit/s. with tolerances on an absolute bit-rate ranging from 30ppm (parts per million) at 8Mbit/s to 15ppm at 140Mbit/s. Transmission Hierarchies Following ANSI’s development of the SONET standard. the ITU-T undertook to define a standard that would address interworking between the 2048 Kbit/s and 1554 Kbit/s transmission hierarchies.g.048Mbit/s bearers. Tables 1 and 2 compare the Non-synchronous and Synchronous transmission hierarchies. 4 x 8Mbit/s to 1 x 34Mbit/s) requires the padding of each tributary by adding bits such that their combined rate together with the addition of control bits matches the final aggregate rate. higher rate bearers in the hierarchy are operated plesiochronously.680 base channels. and now even this is insufficient. with each link carrying 7. Multiplexing such bearers (known as tributaries in SDH speak) to a higher aggregate rate (e. The highest capacity commonly encountered today for inter-city fiber optic links is 565Mbit/s. 34. 7 . That effort culminated in 1989 with ITU-T’s publication of the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) standards. Unlike E1 2. Plesiochronous transmission is now often referred to as plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH).

708 . 8 . Existing PDH can interface into SDH. Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) originates from Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) in the US. G. STM-1 (155Mb/s) is 63 x E1. G781). There are three G transmission series recommendations that are very important: • • • G. Network topologies are more flexible.709 . The benefits of SDH are: • • • • • Different interfaces or different bandwidths can connect (G708.SDH Bit Rates G. It includes capabilities for bandwidth on demand and is also made up of multiples of E1. The optical interface is standard (G957).The SDH Network Node Interface. so SDH was developed. There is flexibility for growth.Synchronous Multiplexing structure.5 GB/s) is 4 x STM-4. Network Management is easier to perform (G774 and G784).Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) Management is very inflexible in PDH.707 . STM-4 (622Mb/s) is 4 x STM-1 and STM-16 (2.

In addition. via Time Division Multiplexing (TDM). When the VC is aligned in the Tributary Unit (TU) a Pointer is added which indicates the phase of the particular VC. The POH uses Bit Interleaved Parity (BIP) to monitor errors. into Tributary Unit Groups (TUG). To create the VC12 a Path Overhead (POH) is added. One AU forms an STM-1. The VCs and the pointers are incorporated into the section overhead of the Synchronous Transport Module (STM). there are fault indicators. 4 AUs form an STM-4. Let us follow a 2Mb/s pipe through the hierarchy. 9 . In the diagram below. If the C bits are 0s then the corresponding S bits contain data and if the C bits are 1s then the S bits are not defined.With the exception of 8Mb/s. You can also get STM-16 and STM-64. The Signal Label is normally set at 2 to indicate asynchronous data. The TUGs are collated into Administrative Units (AU) via more VCs where more pointers are added (these being fixed relative to the frame). Far End Block Error (FEBE). The 2Mb/s PDH first enters a container C12 which compensates for the varying speeds via the use of stuff bits (R). Remote Fail Indicator (RFI) and Far End Receive Failure (FERF). TU's are then grouped. Stuff opportunities are identified by S1 and S2 and these are controlled by the control bits C1 and C2 respectively. different PDH outputs are 'mapped' into Containers (C) and then into fixed size Virtual Containers (VC). O represents Overhead channel bits and I represent Information bits.

Synchronizing SDH The internal clock of an SDH terminal may derive its timing signal from a Synchronization Supply Unit (SSU) used by switching systems and other equipment. this terminal can serve as a master for other SDH nodes. Next. This is achieved by interleaving the bytes of each TU12 in turn. You can see that 3 x 7 x 3 = 63 2Mb/s circuits can be contained in VC 4. Thus. Phase variation can be due to Jitter (from regeneration and multiplexing equipment) and Wander (temperature differences within the transmission media). If the phase of the VC12 changes then the value of the pointer changes such that if data is running faster than the TU then the pointer value is increased and if the data speed is slower then the pointer value is decreased. The following diagram illustrates three TU12s entering a TUG2 at three different times with the VC12 pointers indicating where the POH is for each: The TU12 is multiplexed into a TUG 2 along with 2 other TU12s.A pointer is added to the VC12 which defines the phase alignment of the VC12 and these changes during transmission. VC12s created by different multiplexers may not be synchronous so the TU adds a pointer at a fixed position within the TU. seven TUG 2s are byte interleaved into a TUG 3 and then three TUG 3s can be byte interleaved to form the VC4 (see the SDH diagram above). Present standards specify that an SDH 10 . This difference in speed can be up to one byte per frame in SDH. The value of the pointer indicates the start of the VC12. providing timing on its outgoing STM-N signal. Other SDH nodes will operate in a slave mode with their internal clocks timed by the incoming STM-N signal.

Introduction to SDH SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) is a standard for telecommunications transport formulated by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). SDH was first introduced into the telecommunications network in 1992. 11 . previously called the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT).network must ultimately be able to derive its timing from a PRC.

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. . ... . .. . .. .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . Contents What is SDH? . . . . .. . . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . .i Introduction To SDH . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . if more detailed information is required. . . Consult the actual material from ITU-T. . . .. . . .. . .. .. .. . .SDHStandardPrimer SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer What is SDH? This document is intended as an introductory guide to the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) multiplexing standard. . paying particular attention to the latest revision. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . a comprehensive Glossary appears at the end of this document. . . . . . . . . . . . . Standards in the telecommunications field are always evolving. . For help in understanding the language of SDH telecommunications... . . . . . . . . . .1 Background .. .. . . . . . . ..1 14 . . . . . . ... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . .... . . . . . Use this primer as an introduction to the technology of SDH. . ... . ... . Information in this SDH primer is based on the latest information available from the ITU-T standardisation organization.... . . . . . . . .. .. ..

. .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . ..5 Regenerator Section Overhead . . .. . . .. . . . . . 13 SDH Anomalies. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . Failures. . . . . .. . . . . . . .4 Synchronous versus Asynchronous . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . 15 Definitions . . .5 SDH Overhead . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . .. .7 Multiplex Section Overhead .. . . . . . .. . . . 17 Negative Pointer Justification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. ... . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . 15 SDH Pointers . . . . . . 17 Positive Pointer Justification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . ... .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 SDH Error Performance Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . ... . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . .8 Higher-Order Path Overhead (VC-4/VC-3) . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 10 Lower-Order Path Overhead (VC-2/VC1) .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . Defects. . 2 Limitations of PDH Network . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . .. . . . ... . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . .. . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 17 Payload Pointers . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .3 Transmission Hierarchies . . . . .. . .. . . . ... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . ..2 Basic SDH Signal . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .4 Synchronisation Hierarchy . . . . . .. . . 18 15 . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Virtual Container . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . .1 SDH Advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Evolution of Timing and Synchronisation . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . and Alarms . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . . . .. . .. .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .Synchronisation of Digital Signals . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . .. . . . .. .. . .. . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . ..4 Synchronising SDH . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Introduction to Synchronisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 SDH Frame Structure . . . . . .. . . . .. .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . ..

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Multiplex Section Protection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Add/Drop Multiplexer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Automatic Protection Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K1/K2 Bytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 1+1 Protection . . . . . . . . . 27 Mesh Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Wideband Digital Cross-connect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 SDH Network Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Regenerator . 25 Terminal Multiplexer . . . . . . . . . .SDH Multiplexing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 TU Multiframe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Flexible Multiplexer . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 SDH Network Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Point-toPoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Benefits of SDH – Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Point-to-Multipoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 SDH Tributary Multiplexing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 1:N Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer TU Payload Pointer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Tributary Unit Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Broadband Digital Crossconnect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Ring Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Enhanced OAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . digital cross-connects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 SONET Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Mbit/s) which greatly simplifies the interface to digital switches. . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 www. . . . . . . . . .com/optical iii 1 www. . . . . . . . . . . The comprehensive SDH standard is expected to provide the transport infrastructure for worldwide telecommunications for at least the next two or three decades. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Glossary . . . 29 Reduced Back-to-Back Multiplexing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and add-drop multiplexers. . . . . . . . . . . 29 Enhanced Performance Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Optical Interconnect . . . . . . 31 Further Information . . previously called the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SDH was first introduced into the telecommunications network in 1992 and has been deployed at rapid rates since then. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Mbit/s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . It’s deployed at all levels of the network infrastructure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 ITUT: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 SDH Reference Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATM. . . . . . . . 17 . . . . 30 Convergence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . including the access network and the long-distance trunk network. . .tektronix. . . . . . 29 Multi-point Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . SDH is also defined for use on radio relay links. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and at electrical interfaces between equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pointers. . . . . . . . . . and SDH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The definition of a synchronous multiplexing format for carrying lower-level digital signals (such as 2 Mbit/s. . . . 31 SONET and SDH Hierarchies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . satellite links. 29 Grooming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUX/DEMUX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .com/optical Primer SDH Telecommunications Standard Introduction To SDH SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) is a standard for telecommunications transport formulated by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). . . . . . . It’s based on overlaying a synchronous multiplexed signal onto a light stream transmitted over fibre-optic cable. . . . . . . . . . . . These advantages include: A reduction in the amount of equipment and an increase in network reliability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The provision of overhead and payload bytes – the overhead bytes permitting management of the payload bytes on an individual basis and facilitating centralised fault sectionalisation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The increased configuration flexibility and bandwidth availability of SDH provides significant advantages over the older telecommunications system. . .tektronix. . . . . . . . . . . .

Because SDH is synchronous. the CCITT became involved so that a single international standard might be developed for fibre interconnect between telephone networks of different countries.The availability of a set of generic standards. Currently. In order to multiplex this type of signal.S. or low-frequency wander introduced in the transmission network. SDH Advantages The primary reason for the creation of SDH was to provide a long-term solution for an optical mid-span meet between operators. Although these clocks are extremely accurate. if two networks need to interwork. which enable multi-vendor interoperability. The accuracy of the PRC is better than ±1 in 1011 and is derived from a cesium atomic standard. Synchronisation of Digital Signals To correctly understand the concepts and details of SDH. in this case. For example. most fibre and multiplex systems are plesiochronous. If two digital signals are Plesiochronous. to establish a standard for connecting one fibre system to another. and this would lie within specified limits. it allows single-stage multiplexing and demultiplexing. In a set of Synchronous signals. The users of this equipment wanted standards so they could mix and match equipment from different suppliers. This ability is referred to as multi-vendor interworking and allows one SDH-compatible network element to communicate with another. Plesiochronous. This is known as a plesiochronous difference.811. In the case of Asynchronous signals. which may have previously existed solely for interface purposes. The second major advantage of SDH is the fact that it’s synchronous. and maintenance procedures. In plesiochronous networks. Background Before SDH. the digital transitions in the signals occur at exactly the same rate. The resulting international standard is known as Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH). with a variety of transmission rates. their clocks may be derived from two different PRCs. that is. and to replace several network elements. These phase differences may be due to propagation time delays. there’s a small frequency difference between one clock and the other. an entire signal had to be demultiplexed in 18 . This means that the timing may vary from equipment to equipment because they are synchronised from different network clocks. the transitions of the signals don’t necessarily occur at the same nominal rate. multiplexing formats. These limits are set down in ITU-T recommendation G. means that the difference between two clocks is much greater than a plesiochronous difference. a process known as bit-stuffing is used. it’s important to be clear about the meaning of Synchronous. to allow equipment from different vendors to communicate with each other. thereby requiring multi-stage multiplexing and demultiplexing. all the clocks are traceable to one Stratum 1 Primary Reference Clock (PRC). The task of creating such a standard was taken up in 1984 by the Exchange Carriers Standards Association (ECSA) in the U. the first generations of fibre-optic systems in the public telephone network used proprietary architectures. SDH defines synchronous transport modules (STMs) for the fibre-optic based transmission hierarchy. There may however be a phase difference between the transitions of the two signals. they could be described as asynchronous. Bit-stuffing adds extra bits to bring all input signals up to some common bit-rate. their transitions occur at “almost” the same rate. Asynchronous. For example. In brief. The definition of a flexible architecture capable of accommodating future applications. equipment line codes. and Asynchronous. In the late stages of the development. In a synchronous network. if two clocks are derived from free-running quartz oscillators. with any variation being constrained within tight limits. This single-stage multiplexing eliminates hardware complexity. thus decreasing the cost of equipment while improving signal quality.

showing add/drop function. This is due to the bit-stuffing used at each level. This capability allows for such things as the transmission of high-speed packet-switched services. There’s no standardised definition of PDH bit rates greater than 140 Mbit/s.S.048 Mbit/s system. contribution video. it’s necessary to demultiplex the signal all the way down to the 2 Mbit/s level before the location of the 64 kbit/s channel can be identified. Limitations of PDH Network The main limitations of PDH are: Inability to identify individual channels in a higher-order bit stream. PDH multiplexing by steps. digital transmission systems and hierarchies have been based on multiplexing signals which are plesiochronous (running at almost the same speed). SDH supports the transport of signals based on the 1. 34-8. To recover a 64 kbit/s channel from a 140 Mbit/s PDH signal.048 Mbit/s 32 E0 19 . Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) Traditionally. accommodating the existing digital hierarchy signals. and Japan) and those using the 2. 34 Mbit/s.order to access a particular channel. PDH Hierarchy Signal Digital Bit Rate Channels E0 64 kbit/s One 64 kbit/s E1 2. SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer www. In SDH format. PDH requires “steps” (140-34. and 140 Mbit/s levels. various parts of the world use different hierarchies which lead to problems of international interworking. Specialized interface equipment is required to interwork the two hierarchies.com/optical Basic SDH Signal The basic format of an SDH signal allows it to carry many different services in its Virtual Container (VC) because it is bandwidth-flexible.tektronix. 34-140 multiplex) to drop out or add an individual speech or data channel (see Figure 1).A. 140-34 DEMUX 34-8 DEMUX 34-140 MUX 8-34 MUX 2-8 MUX 140 Mbit/s 140 Mbit/s 8 Mbit/s 2 Mbit/s 34 Mbit/s Drop & Add 8 Mbit/s 34 Mbit/s 8-2 DEMUX 3 www. between those countries using 1. That effort culminated in 1989 with ITU-T’s publication of the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) standards. In addition. SDH makes individual channels “visible” and they can easily be added and dropped. Insufficient capacity for network management.com/optical 2 Figure 1. then the non-accessed channels had to be re-multiplexed back together in order to be sent further along the network to their proper destination. Most PDH network management is proprietary. Non-Synchronous.544 Mbit/s systems (U. ATM. There are different hierarchies in use around the world. In other words. the ITU-T undertook to define a standard that would address interworking between the 2048 kbit/s and 1554 kbit/s transmission hierarchies. 2-8. Also. for example. SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer Table 1. However. and distribution video. only those channels that are required at a particular point are demultiplexed.5 Mbit/s hierarchy. SDH still permits transport and networking at the 2 Mbit/s.tektronix. 8-34. Tables 1 and 2 compare the Non-synchronous and Synchronous transmission hierarchies. Transmission Hierarchies Following ANSI’s development of the SONET standard. thereby eliminating the need for back-to-back multiplexing. 8-2 demultiplex.

with each terminal in the network running on its own recovered clock timing. large variations can occur in the clock rate and thus the signal bit rate. the STM-1 rate remains at a nominal 155. Bit-interleaving and bit-stuffing is used again to multiplex up to E3 (34 Mbit/s). Synchronisation Hierarchy Digital switches and digital cross-connect systems are commonly employed in the digital network synchronisation hierarchy. For example.08 Mbit/s 622 Mbit/s STM-4 252 E1 or 4 E4 2488.52 Mbit/s 155 Mbit/s STM-1 63 E1 or 1 E4 622. 20 . In digital transmission. At low speeds.304 Mbit/s. such as SDH. transmission systems have been asynchronous. this terminal can serve as a master for other SDH nodes. In a synchronous system. Synchronising SDH The internal clock of an SDH terminal may derive its timing signal from a Synchronisation Supply Unit (SSU) used by switching systems and other equipment.E2 8. All nodes can be traced up to a Primary Reference Clock (PRC). E3s are multiplexed up to higher rates in the same manner.048 Mbit/s E1 signals are transported within synchronous VC-12 signals which run at a constant rate of 2.264 Mbit/s 64 E1 Table 2. providing timing on its outgoing STM-N signal. Asynchronous multiplexing uses multiple stages. allowing many synchronous STM-1 signals to be multiplexed without any bit-stuffing. “timing” is one of the most fundamental operations. Thus.368 Mbit/s 16 E1 E4 139. extra bits are added (bit-stuffing) to account for the timing variations of each individual stream and are combined with other bits (framing bits) to form an E2 (8 Mbit/s) stream. Evolution of Timing and Synchronisation This is a time of great change for Timing and Synchronisation in the network and there are many challenges for operators and suppliers – and many issues to resolve: Synchronisation networks are changing with the introduction of SDH. they cannot be accessed without demultiplexing.4 Gbit/s STM-16 1008 E1 or 16 E4 9953. This is discussed in more detail later in this primer. the average frequency of all clocks in the system is the same.” operating in conjunction with buffers. Low-speed synchronous virtual container (VC) signals are also simple to interleave and transport at higher rates. The E1s are neither visible nor accessible within an E3 frame. Signals such as asynchronous E1s (2 Mbit/s) are multiplexed (bit-interleaving).52 Mbit/s. Thus.28 Mbit/s 10 Gbit/s STM-64 4032 E1 or 64 E4 39813.84 Mbit/s 51 Mbit/s STM-0 21 E1 155. The network is organized with a master-slave relationship with clocks of the higherlevel nodes feeding timing signals to clocks of the lower-level nodes. an E3 signal specified at 34 Mbit/s ±20 ppm (parts per million) can produce a timing difference of up to 1789 bit/s between one incoming E3 signal and another. Since these clocks are not synchronised.448 Mbit/s 128 E0 E3 34. A mechanism known as “pointers. SDH Hierarchy Bit Rate Abbreviated SDH SDH Capacity 51. the STM-1s are easily accessed at a higher STM-N rate. Present standards specify that an SDH network must ultimately be able to derive its timing from a PRC.32 Mbit/s 2. Other SDH nodes will operate in a slave mode with their internal clocks timed by the incoming STM-N signal. At the higher asynchronous rate.12 Mbit/s 40 Gbit/s STM-256 16128 E1 or 256 E4 STM = Synchronous Transport Module Introduction to Synchronisation Synchronous versus Asynchronous Traditionally. Every slave clock can be traced back to a highly stable reference clock. and so prevents data loss during synchronisation failures. 2. Single-step multiplexing up to STM-1 requires no bit-stuffing and VCs are easily accessed. accommodates differences in the reference source frequencies and phase wander. Thus.

12 columns VC-3 48. and sync standards have been developed (Tektronix is contributing expertise at ITU and ETSI). Copies can be requested from Tektronix offices or by visiting www. H2. network timing. Note that it can start (indicated by the J1 path overhead byte) at any point within the STM-1 frame. 261 columns www.tektronix. Jitter/Wander measurement technology is changing from analogue to digital. New test equipment standards are being developed (Tektronix is taking a leading role at ITU). The first column is for Path Overhead. 85 columns VC-4 150.912 Mbit/s 9 rows. Carried within the VC capacity. Within the Section Overhead.960 Mbit/s 9 rows. Virtual Container SDH supports a concept called virtual containers (VC). The start location of the J1 byte is indicated by the pointer byte values. as described later in the Pointers section. VCs are used to transport lower-speed tributary signals.com/optical 6 Primer SDH Telecommunications Standard 21 .tektronix.336 Mbit/s 9 rows. and the last five rows are used for the Multiplex Section Overhead.com. 3 columns VC-12 2. Virtual Containers (VC) SDH Digital Bit Rate Size of VC VC-11 1. is the Path Overhead and the Container (see Figure 3).tektronix. The frame lasts for 125 microseconds. Transport networks are evolving and hybrid SDH/PDH has specific problems due to the quantisation of network phase variation as pointer justifications. which has its own frame structure of nine rows and 261 columns. which can itself carry other containers. it’s followed by the payload container. New services such as video and ATM depend on excellent timing and network sync to deliver good Quality of Service. These and many other timing and sync issues are addressed in another publication from Tektronix: Performance Assessment of Timing and Synchronisation in Broadband Networks. Virtual Containers can have any phase alignment within the Administrative Unit. Figure 3 illustrates the location of a VC-4 within the STM1 frame.com/optical 4 5 www. The STM-1 frame consists of overhead plus a virtual container capacity (see Figure 2). therefore. Through the use of pointers and offset values. VCs can be carried in the SDH payload as independent data packages. leading to dramatically new instrument capabilities. Table 3 lists the names and some of the parameters of the virtual containers. SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer www. row-by-row.728 Mbit/s 9 rows. SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer Table 3. and is scrambled immediately prior to transmission to ensure adequate clock timing content for downstream regenerators.com/optical SDH Frame Structure The STM-1 frame is the basic transmission format for SDH. The VC plus the pointers (H1. and this alignment is indicated by the Pointer in row four. 4 columns VC-2 6. The first nine columns of each frame make up the Section Overhead. The STM frame is transmitted in a byte-serial fashion. Virtual containers can also be concatenated to provide more capacity in a flexible fashion. H3 bytes) is called the AU (Administrative Unit). New equipment. there are 8000 frames per second.tektronix.the historical PDH-based sync network will be replaced by an SDH-based architecture. and the last 261 columns make up the Virtual Container (VC) capacity. the first three rows are used for the Regenerator Section Overhead.304 Mbit/s 9 rows.

Virtual container structure showing VC-4. STM-1 frame structure.tektronix. 9 Rows Administrative Unit Capacity of the Virtual Container 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Regenerator Section Overhead Multiplex Section Overhead Pointers H1 H2 H3 STM-1 = 270 Columns (2430 bytes) 1 byte = One 64 kbit/s channel H1H1H1 H2H2H2 H3H3H3 Frame = 125 s Frame = 125  s Frame = 125  s Overhead width = 9 columns Figure 3. They are: Regenerator Section 22 . The overhead and transport functions are divided into layers.Figure 2. 9 Rows STM-1 = 270 Columns Regenerator Section Overhead Multiplex Section Overhead 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Pointers B2 D4 D7 K2 A1 B1 D1 H1 A1 B2 A1 B2 A2 E1 D2 H2 A2 H2 A2 H2 J0/ Z0 F1 D3 H3 H3 D10 D5 D6 D8 D9 D11 D12 S1 M1 E2 Frame = 125  s Frame = 125  s Frame = 125  s Bounded by 261 columns Wrap-around within SDH payload B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1 J1 K1 Path Overhead H3 7 www.com/optical SDH Overhead The SDH standard was developed using a client/server layer approach (see Figure 4).

The Regenerator Section Overhead is found in the first three rows of Columns 1 through 9 of the STM-1 frame (see Figure 5). Path Termination Section Termination Multiplex Section Termination Path Termination Section Termination Service (2 Mbit/s.. with each layer building on the services provided by all the lower layers. SDH network layers. STM-1 Regenerator section overhead. SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer Figure 4.) Mapping Demapping PTE Path Multiplex Section Regenerator Section Regenerator Section Multiplex Section REG Service Mapping Demapping Legend: PTE = Path Terminating Element REG = Regenerator ADM = Add/Drop Multiplexer REG ADM PTE Figure 5. This section details the different SDH overhead information. This might be two regenerators. the Regenerator Section Overhead is shown in Table 4. 140 Mbit/s. specifically: Regenerator Section Overhead Multiplex Overhead Path Overhead Regenerator Section Overhead The Regenerator Section Overhead contains only the information required for the elements located at both ends of a section. or two pieces of line terminating equipment. Byte by byte. STM-1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A1 B1 D1 H1 B2 D4 23 .. a piece of line terminating equipment and a regenerator.Multiplex Section Path The layers have a hierarchical relationship.

are reserved for future international standardisation. which are located at positions S[1. A2 bytes are unscrambled. A1 has the binary value 11110110. J0 Regenerator Section (RS) Trace message – It’s used to transmit a Section Access Point Identifier so that a section receiver can verify its continued connection to the intended transmitter. The coding of the J0 byte is the same as for J1 and J2 bytes. between consecutive network elements excluding the regenerators).tektronix. The Multiplex Section Overhead is found in Rows 5 to 9 of Columns 1 through 9 of the STM-1 frame (see Figure 6). Regenerator Section Overhead Byte Description A1 and A2 Framing bytes – These two bytes indicate the beginning of the STM-N frame. 24 . B1 RS bit interleaved parity code (BIP-8) byte – This is a parity code (even parity). The A1. Byte by byte. The frame alignment word of an STM-N frame is composed of (3 x N) A1 bytes followed by (3 x N) A2 bytes. This byte is defined only for STM-1 number 1 of an STM-N signal. SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer Table 4. used to check for transmission errors over a regenerator section.D6 D10 S1 A1 ⊗ ⊗ H1 B2 A1 ⊗ ⊗ H1 B2 A2 E1 D2 H2 K1 D5 D8 D11 A2 ⊗ ⊗ H2 A2 H2 M1 J0 F1 D3 H3 K2 D6 D9 D12 E2 H3 H3 Regenerator Section ⊗ = Media-dependent bytes www.7N] of an STM-N signal (N > 1). the Multiplex Section Overhead is shown in Table 5.6N+2] to S[1.com/optical 8 Multiplex Section Overhead The Multiplex Section Overhead contains the information required between the multiplex section termination equipment at each end of the Multiplex section (that is. Z0 These bytes. and A2 has the binary value 00101000.

this byte is defined only for STM-1 number 1 of an STM-N signal. Administration and Maintenance (OAM) between pieces of section terminating equipment. STM-1 Multiplex Section 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A1 B1 D1 H1 B2 D4 D6 D10 S1 A1 ⊗ ⊗ H1 B2 A1 H1 B2 A2 E1 D2 H2 K1 D5 D8 D11 A2 ⊗ ⊗ H2 A2 H2 M1 J0 F1 D3 H3 K2 D6 D9 D12 E2 H3 H3 9 www. F1 RS user channel byte – This byte is set aside for the user’s purposes. D3 RS Data Communications Channel (DCC) bytes – These three bytes form a 192 kbit/s message channel providing a message-based channel for Operations. The channel can be used from a central location for control. D1. it can be read and/or written to at each section terminating equipment in that line. E1 RS orderwire byte – This byte is allocated to be used as a local orderwire channel for voice communication between regenerators. Figure 6.com/optical 25 . monitoring. and other communication needs. D2. administration.Its value is calculated over all bits of the previous STM-N frame after scrambling. then placed in the B1 byte of STM-1 before scrambling.tektronix. Therefore. STM-1 Multiplex section overhead.

The Path Overhead is found in Rows 1 to 9 26 . 7. K1 and K2 Automatic Protection Switching (APS channel) bytes – These two bytes are used for MSP (Multiplex Section Protection) signaling between multiplex level entities for bi-directional automatic protection switching and for communicating Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) and Remote Defect Indication (RDI) conditions. The value is placed in the three B2 bytes of the MS Overhead before scrambling. This message may be emulated by equipment failures and will be emulated by a Multiplex Section AIS signal.811 PRC 0100 SSU-A (G. Multiplex Section Overhead Byte Description B2 Multiplex Section (MS) bit interleaved parity code (MS BIP-24) byte – This bit interleaved parity N x 24 code is used to determine if a transmission error has occurred over a multiplex section. Following is the assignment of bit patterns to the four synchronisation levels agreed to within ITU-T (other values are reserved): Bits 5-8 0000 Quality unknown (existing sync.812 local) 1011 G.813 Option 1 Synchronous Equipment Timing Clock (SEC) 1111 Do not use for synchronisation. M1 MS remote error indication – The M1 byte of an STM-1 or the first STM-1 of an STM-N is used for a MS layer remote error indication (MS-REI). These bytes are provided for all STM-1 signals in an STM-N signal.tektronix. www.com/optical 10 Higher-Order Path Overhead (VC-4/VC-3) The Path Overhead is assigned to. This value is truncated at 255 for STM-N >4. E2 MS orderwire byte – This orderwire byte provides a 64 kbit/s channel between multiplex entities for an express orderwire. maintenance. remote provisioning. It’s even parity. and is calculated overall bits of the MS Overhead and the STM-N frame of the previous STM-N frame before scrambling. Bits 2 to 8 of the M1 byte are used to carry the error count of the interleaved bit blocks that the MS BIP24xN has detected to be in error at the far end of the section.812 transit) 1000 SSU-B (G. S1 Synchronisation status message byte (SSMB) – Bits 5 to 8 of this S1 byte are used to carry the synchronisation messages.SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer Table 5. monitoring. network) 0010 G. administration and other communication needs). and transported with the Virtual Container from the time it’s created by path terminating equipment until the payload is demultiplexed at the termination point in a piece of path terminating equipment. It’s a voice channel for use by craftspersons and can be accessed at multiplex section terminations. and 8 of the K2 byte before scrambling. The Multiplex Section Remote Defect Indication (MS-RDI) is used to return an indication to the transmit end that the received end has detected an incoming section defect or is receiving MS-AIS. K1 Byte K2 Byte Bits 1-4 Type of request Bits 1-4 Selects channel number 1111 Lock out of Protection Bit 5 Indication of architecture 1110 Forced Switch 0 1+1 1101 Signal Fail – High Priority 1 1:n 1100 Signal Fail – Low Priority Bits 6-8 Indicate mode of operation 1011 Signal Degrade – High Priority 111 MS-AIS 1010 Signal Degrade – Low Priority 110 MS-RDI 1001 (not used) 101 Provisioned mode is bi-directional 1000 Manual Switch 100 Provisioned mode is unidirectional 0111 (not used) 011 Future use 0110 Wait-to-Restore 010 Future use 0101 (not used) 001 Future use 0100 Exercise 000 Future use 0011 (not used) 0010 Reverse Request 0001 Do Not Revert 0000 No Request Bits 5-8 Indicate the number of the channel requested D4 to D12 MS Data Communications Channel (DCC) bytes – These nine bytes form a 576 kbit/s message channel from a central location for OAM information (control. MS-RDI is generated by inserting a “110” code in positions 6.

64 format string plus 1-byte CRC-7. SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer Table 6. B3 Path bit interleaved parity code (Path BIP-8) byte – This is a parity code (even).tektronix. Byte by byte.of the first column of the VC-4 or VC-3 (see Figure 7). used to determine if a transmission error has occurred over a path. J1 J1 VC-n Path Trace B3 B3 Path BIP-8 C2 C2 Path Signal Label G1 G1 Path Status F2 F2 Path User Channel H4 H4 TU Multiframe Indicator F3 F3 Path User Channel K3 K3 Automatic Protection Switching N1 N1 Network Operator (TCM) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Section Overhead Path Overhead 11 www.6) mapping 0001 0101 15 FDDI (ISO Standard 9314) mapping 0001 0110 16 Mapping of HDLC/PPP (Internet Standard 51) framed signal 0001 0111 17 Mapping of Simple Data Link (SDL) with SDH self synchronising scrambler 0001 1000 18 Mapping of HDLC/LAP-S framed signals 0001 1001 19 Mapping of Simple Data Link (SDL) with set-reset scrambler 0001 1010 1A Mapping of 10 Gbit/s Ethernet frames (IEEE 802.264 kbit/s into the Container-4 0001 0011 13 ATM mapping 0001 0100 14 MAN DQDB (IEEE Standard 802. C2 Path signal label byte – This byte specifies the mapping type in the VC-N. 27 . Therefore the bi-directional path in its entirety can be monitored.368 kbit/s or 44. Standard binary values for C2 are: MSB LSB Hex Code Interpretation Bits 1-4 Bits 5-8 0000 0000 00 Unequipped or supervisory-unequipped 0000 0001 01 Equipped – non-specific 0000 0010 02 TUG structure 0000 0011 03 Locked TU-n 0000 0100 04 Asynchronous mapping of 34.com/optical SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer Byte Description G1 Path status byte – This byte is used to convey the path terminating status and performance back to the originating path terminating equipment.736 kbit/s into the Container-3 0001 0010 12 Asynchronous mapping of 139. Higher-order path overhead (VC-4/VC-3). A 64-byte free-format string is also permitted for this Access Point Identifier. Higher-Order Path Overhead Byte Description J1 Higher-Order VC-N path trace byte – This user-programmable byte repetitively transmits a 15-byte. the Higher Order Path Overhead is shown in Table 6. E. from either end of the path.3) 1100 1111 CF Obsolete mapping of HDLC/PPP framed signal 1110 0001 E1 Reserved for national use :::: 1111 1100 FC Reserved for national use 1111 1110 FE Test signal. O.181 specific mapping 1111 1111 FF VC-AIS Figure 7. This allows the receiving terminal in a path to verify its continued connection to the intended transmitting terminal. Its value is calculated over all the bits of the previous virtual container before scrambling and placed in the B3 byte of the current frame.

H4 Position and Sequence Indicator byte – This byte provides a multi frame and sequence indicator for virtual VC-3/4 concatenation and a generalized position indicator for payloads. For equipment supporting RDI.432 may include LCD as a trigger condition. clause 9. For mapping of DQDB in VC-4.432. The valid range of the slot offset indicator value is 0 to 52. Equipment conforming to an earlier version of this standard may include PLM as a trigger condition. allocated for protection at the VC-4/3 path levels. server defects (AIS. 12345678 REI RDI Reserved Spare Table 6 (contd) www. Bits 1-2 are used for the LSS code as described in IEEE Standard 802. or UNEQ. bit 7 is set to the inverse of bit 6.. For the E-RDI codes. the content is payload specific (e.1. TIM. the VC-4 and VC-3 levels. The following codes are used: Bits 5-7 Meaning Triggers 001 No remote defect No remote defect 010 E-RDI Payload defect PLM 101 E-RDI Server defect AIS. The receiver is required to ignore their content. this code was triggered only by an AIS or LOP defect. F2 Path user channel byte – This byte is used for user communication between path elements. The slot offset indicator contains a binary number indicating the offset in octets between the H4 octet and the first slot boundary following the H4 octet. A received value of 53 to 63 corresponds to an error condition.g. Following is the E-RDI G1 (bits 5-7) code interpretation: Bits 5-7 E-RDI Interpretation 000 No remote defect (Note 1) 001 No remote defect 010 E-RDI Payload defect (Note 2) 011 No remote defect (Note 1) 100 E-RDI Server defect (Note 1) 101 Remote E-RDI Server defect 110 Remote E-RDI Connectivity defect 111 Remote E-RDI Server Defect (Note 1) NOTE 1: These codes are generated by RDI supporting equipment and are interpreted by E-RDI supporting equipment as shown.4/G. 1001 0 0001 1 0010 2 0011 3 0100 4 0101 5 0110 6 0111 7 28 . LOP 110 E-RDI Connectivity defect TIM.tektronix. K3 bits 5-8 are allocated for future use.2 may include LCD as a trigger condition. NOTE 2: ATM equipment complying with the 08/96 version of ITU-T Recommendation I. Bits 5 to 7 may be used to provide an enhanced remote defect indication with additional differentiation between the payload defect (PLM).3.Byte G1 is allocated to convey back to a VC-4-Xc/VC-4/VC-3 trail termination source the status and performance of the complete trail. These bits have no defined value. H4 can be used as a multiframe indicator for VC-2/1 payload).com/optical 12 SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer Byte Description N1 Network operator byte – This byte is allocated to provide a Higher-Order Tandem Connection Monitoring (HO-TCM) function.707. Note that for some national networks. Bits 1-4 Incoming Error Count (IEC). It is not necessary for the interpretation to identify if the equipment supports RDI or E-RDI.6. UNEQ). this code is triggered by the presence or absence of one of the following defects: AIS. F3 Path user channel byte – This byte is allocated for communication purposes between path elements and is payload dependent. K3 APS signalling is provided in K3 bits 1-4. LOP. ATM equipment complying with the 1993 version of ITU-T Recommendation I. In the latter case. LOP) and connectivity defects (TIM. the H4 byte carries the slot boundary information and the Link Status Signal (LSS). N1 is allocated for Tandem Connection Monitoring for contiguous concatenated VC-4. Bits 3-8 form the slot offset indicator. UNEQ The E-RDI G1 (bits 5-7) code interpretation provides for interworking with equipment which supports RDI.

com/optical Lower-Order Path Overhead (VC-2/VC-1) The bytes V5. – ODI. and path status of the VC-2/VC-1 paths. The bit assignments for the V5 byte and the byte-by-byte Lower Order Path Overhead is shown in Table 7. The V5 byte is the first byte of the multiframe and its position is indicated by the TU-2/TU-1 pointer. Bits 7-8 Operate in a 76 multiframe as: – Access point identifier of the Tandem Connection (TC-APId). ODI. In this manner. Bit 5 Operates as the TC-REI of the Tandem Connection to indicate errored blocks caused within the Tandem Connection. signal label.2.2. TC-RDI. – Reserved capacity (for future standardization). Bits 1-2 Allocated for error performance monitoring. otherwise it is set to zero. V3. ODI and Reserved (see following) Frame # Bit 7 definition Bit 8 definition 73 Reserved (default = “0”) TC-RDI 74 ODI Reserved (default = “0”) 75 Reserved (default = “0”) Reserved (default = “0”) 76 Reserved (default = “0”) Reserved (default = “0”) 12345678 IEC TC-REI OEI TC-APId. This bit is set to one if a failure is declared. indicating to the far end that AU/TU-AIS has been inserted into the egressing AU-n/TU-n at the TCsink due to defects before or within the Tandem Connection. The Virtual Container path Signal Label coding is: 000 Unequipped or supervisory-unequipped 001 Equipped – non-specific 010 Asynchronous 011 Bit synchronous 29 . SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer Table 7. Bit 3 A VC-2/VC-1 path Remote Error Indication (LP-REI) that is set to one and sent back towards a VC2/VC-1 path originator if one or more errors were detected by the BIP-2. – TC-RDI. Lower-Order Path Overhead Byte Description V5 VT path overhead byte. A Bit Interleaved Parity (BIP-2) scheme is specified. but excludes V1.1000 8 1110 Incoming AIS NOTE: To guarantee a non all-zeroes N1 byte independent of the incoming signal status. Bit 4 A VC-2/VC-1 path Remote Failure Indication (LP-RFI). J2. A failure is a defect that persists beyond the maximum time allocated to the transmission system protection mechanisms. indicating to the far end that defects have been detected within the Tandem Connection at the near end Tandem Connection sink. and K4 are allocated to the VC-2/VC-1 POH. and V4. it complies with the generic 16-byte string format given in 9. Frame # Bits 7-8 definition 1-8 Frame Alignment Signal: 1111 1111 1111 1110 9-12 TC-APId byte #1 [ 1 C1C2C3C4C5C6C7 ] 13-16 TC-APId byte #2 [ 0 X X X X X X X ] 17-20 TC-APId byte #3 [ 0 X X X X X X X ] :: 65-68 TC-APId byte #15 [ 0 X X X X X X X ] 69-72 TC-APId byte #16 [ 0 X X X X X X X ] 73-76 TC-RDI. reserved Table 6 (contd) 13 www. V2.tektronix. otherwise set to zero. When zero errors in the BIP-8 of the incoming signal are detected. N2. Includes POH bytes. The V5 byte provides the functions of error checking. it is required that the IEC code field contains at least one “1”. it is possible for the Tandem Connection sink at the tail end of the Tandem Connection link to use the IEC code field to distinguish between unequipped conditions started within or before the Tandem Connection. an IEC code is inserted with “1”s in it.2. Bits 5-7 Provide a VC-2/VC-1 signal label. Bit 6 Operates as the OEI to indicate errored blocks of the egressing VC-n.

This 16-byte frame is identical to the 16-byte frame of the J1 and J0 bytes. Bits 7-8 Operate in a 76 multiframe as: – The access point identifier of the Tandem Connection (TC-APId). A 16-byte frame is defined for the transmission of Path Access Point Identifiers. and VC-11 level. Failures. reserved Incoming AIS 15 www. This guarantees that the contents of N2 is not all zeroes at the TC-source. ODI and Reserved (see following) Frame # Bit 7 definition Bit 8 definition 73 Reserved (default = “0”) TC-RDI 74 ODI Reserved (default = “0”) 75 Reserved (default = “0”) Reserved (default = “0”) 76 Reserved (default = “0”) Reserved (default = “0”) K4 Bits 1-4 are allocated for APS signalling for protection at the Lower-Order path level.2. otherwise set to zero. – The TC-RDI. Bits 5-7 are reserved for optional use. 12345678 BIP-2 REI RF I Signal Label RDI www. – The ODI. and Alarms The SDH frame structure has been designed to contain a large amount of overhead information.2.com/optical SDH Anomalies. Bit 4 Operates as an “incoming AIS” indicator.100 Byte synchronous 101 Reserved for future use 110 Test signal. ODI. Bits 1-2 Used as an even BIP-2 for the Tandem Connection. VC-12.181 specific mapping 111 VC-AIS Bit 8 Set to 1 to indicate a VC-2/VC-1 path Remote Defect Indication (LP-RDI). TC-RDI. Defects. Bit 6 Operates as the OEI to indicate errored blocks of the egressing VC-n.tektronix. Frame # Bits 7-8 definition 1-8 Frame Alignment Signal: 1111 1111 1111 1110 9-12 TC-APId byte #1 [ 1 C1C2C3C4C5C6C7 ] 13-16 TC-APId byte #2 [ 0 X X X X X X X ] 17-20 TC-APId byte #3 [ 0 X X X X X X X ] :: 65-68 TC-APId byte #15 [ 0 X X X X X X X ] 69-72 TC-APId byte #16 [ 0 X X X X X X X ] 73-76 TC-RDI. Bit 5 Operates as the TC-REI of the Tandem Connection to indicate errored blocks caused within the Tandem Connection.tektronix. O.com/optical 14 SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer Table 7 (contd) Byte Description N2 Allocated for Tandem Connection Monitoring for the VC2. Bit 3 Fixed to “1”.2. The overhead information provides for a variety of management and other functions such as: Alarm Indication Signals (AIS) Error Performance Monitoring using BIP-N Pointer Adjustment Information 30 . – Reserved capacity (for future standardization). This enables the detection of an unequipped or supervisory unequipped signal at the Tandem Connection sink without the need of monitoring further OH-bytes. J2 Used to repetitively transmit a Lower-Order Access Path Identifier so that a path receiving terminal can verify its continued connection to the intended transmitter. indicating to the far end that TU-AIS has been inserted at the TC-sink into the egressing TU-n due to defects before or within the Tandem Connection. b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7 b8 BIP-2 "1" TC-REI OEI TC-APId. Bit 8 is reserved for future use and has no defined value. it complies with the generic 16-byte string format given in 9. indicating to the far end that defects have been detected within the Tandem Connection at the near end Tandem Connection sink.

Anomaly – The smallest discrepancy which can be observed between the actual and desired characteristics of an item. In addition. LO PTE HO PTE MSTE RSTE RSTE RSTE MSTE HO PTE LO PTE Regenerator Section (RSOH) Multiplex Section (MSOH) Higher Order Path Lower Order Path Alarm Transmission Alarm Detection RDI (V5) RDI (G1) 31 . Multiplex Section Overhead. Definitions Alarm – The maintenance signal used in the digital network to alert downstream equipment that a defect or equipment failure has been detected. Table 8 and Figure 9.Path Status Path Trace Section Trace Remote Defect. according to the different SDH levels. Higher-Order Path Terminating Equipment (HO PTE) and Lower-Order Path Terminating Equipment (LO PTE) produce Remote Error Indications (REI) based on errors detected in the HO Path and LO Path BIP respectively. and Failure Indications Signal Labels New Data Flag Indications Data Communications Channels (DCC) Automatic Protection Switching (APS) Control Orderwire Synchronisation Status Message Much of this overhead information is involved with alarm and in-service monitoring of the particular SDH sections. that follow the definitions. the control of consequent actions. All defects listed in Figure 8 are described in Table 8. and the determination of fault cause. Error. The occurrence of a single anomaly does not constitute an interruption in the ability to perform a required function. SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer Figure 8. list the criteria for errors and the performance monitoring for errors. Examples of SDH Defects are: OOF AIS RDI LOF LOP LOM Failure – The inability of a function to perform a required action which has persisted beyond a maximum time allocated. and Path Overheads. Interaction between defects in forward and backward directions. These BIP checks are inserted in the Regenerator Section Overhead. The REI signals are sent back to the equipment at the originating end of a path. Examples of SDH anomalies are: B1 BIP B2 BIP Path B3 BIP REI Pattern Bit (OOS test) Defect – The density of anomalies has reached a level where the ability to perform a required function has been interrupted. Defects are used as input for performance monitoring. SDH Error Performance Monitoring Error performance monitoring in the SDH is based on Bit-InterleavedParity (BIP) checks calculated on a frame-by-frame basis.

Loss of Frame. Indication RDI was previously known as FERF (Far End Receiver Failure). or equipment fault. Failures. LOP Loss of Pointer LOP state occurs when N consecutive invalid pointers are received or N consecutive New Data Flags (NDF) are received (other than in a concatenation indicator). REI can be identified as: • MS-REI (Multiplex Section Remote Error Indication) • HP-REI (Higher-order Path Remote Error Indication) • LP-REI (Lower-order Path Remote Error Indication) RDI Remote Defect A signal returned to the transmitting Terminating Equipment upon detecting a Loss of Signal. The LOS state will clear when two consecutive framing patterns are received and no new LOS condition is detected. an RFI is sent to the far end and will initiate a path protection switch if this function has been provisioned. OOF Out of Frame Alignment OOF state occurs when several consecutive SDH frames are received with invalid (errored) framing patterns (A1 and A2 bytes). It’s generated to replace the normal traffic signal when it Signal contains a defect condition in order to prevent consequential downstream failures being declared or alarms being raised. RDI can be identified as: • MS-RDI (Multiplex Section Remote Defect Indication) • HP-RDI (Higher-order Path Remote Defect Indication) • LP-RDI (Lower-order Path Remote Defect Indication) RFI Remote Failure A failure is a defect that persists beyond the maximum time allocated to the transmission system protection mechanisms. The maximum time to detect OOF is 625 microseconds. The LOF state clears when Alignment an in-frame condition exists continuously for a specified time in microseconds. LOF Loss of Frame LOF state occurs when the OOF state exists for a specified time in microseconds. or AIS defect.tektronix.RDI (K2) RDI (K2) RDI (G1) RDI (V5) MS AIS LOP LOS LOF AU-AIS LOP TU-AIS (V1.com/optical 16 Primer SDH Telecommunications Standard Table 8. or 10. Anomalies. Defects. LOP state is cleared when three equal valid pointers or three consecutive AIS indications are received. 32 . It could be due to a cut cable. OOF state clears within 250 microseconds when two consecutive SDH frames are received with valid framing patterns.V2) MS AIS LOS LOF LOS LOF Tributary AIS (H1. excessive attenuation of the signal.H2) www. Indication When this situation occurs. Indication This indication was previously known as FEBE (Far End Block Error). Alarms Abbreviation Description Criteria LOS Loss of Signal LOS is raised when the synchronous signal (STM-N) level drops below the threshold at which a BER of 1 in 103 is predicted. 9. LOP can be identified as: • AU-LOP (Administrative Unit Loss of Pointer) • TU-LOP (Tributary Unit Loss of Pointer) AIS Alarm Indication AIS is an all-ONES characteristic or adapted information signal. The time for detection and clearance is normally 3 milliseconds. where N = 8. AIS can be identified as: • MS-AIS (Multiplex Section Alarm Indication Signal) • AU-AIS (Administrative Unit Alarm Indication Signal) • TU-AIS (Tributary Unit Alarm Indication Signal) REI Remote Error An indication returned to a transmitting node (source) that an errored block has been detected at the receiving node (sink).

the corresponding block is assumed to be in error. In other words. the possible range is: Total STM-1 bytes – Section Overhead bytes = Pointer value range For example: (2430 – 81)/3 = 783 valid pointer positions That is. LSS Loss of Sequence Out-of-service bit error measurements using pseudo-random sequences can only be performed if the reference sequence Synchronisation produced on the receiving side of the test set-up is correctly synchronised to the sequence coming from the object under test. The following requirement is applicable to all ITU-T O. In order to achieve compatible measurement results. if the Payload Pointer has a value of 87. BIP-2 error BIP-2 error Parity errors contained in bits 1 and 2 (BIP-2) of byte V5 of a VC-m (m=11. B2 error B2 error Parity errors evaluated by byte B2 (BIP-24 x N) of an STM-N shall be monitored. Because the Section Overhead bytes are not counted. The pointer value indicates the offset in bytes from the pointer to the first byte of the VC. which is a binary number.2) shall be monitored. the VC payload pointer indicates where in the container 33 . there’s a pointer. the corresponding block is assumed to be in error. the N-bits.com/optical SDH Pointers SDH provides payload pointers to permit differences in the phase and frequency of the Virtual Containers (VC-N) with respect to the STM-N frame.150 Recommendations dealing with error performance measurements using pseudo-random sequences. Sequence synchronisation shall be considered to be lost and re-synchronisation shall be started if: • The bit error ratio is ≥ 0. the corresponding block is assumed to be in error. Lower-order pointers are also provided to permit phase differences between VC-1/VC-2 and the higher-order VC-3/VC-4. within each STM-N frame. 17 www. On a frame-by-frame basis. or • It can be unambiguously identified that the test sequence and the reference sequence are out of phase. then the VC-4 begins in the byte adjacent to the H3 byte of the Overhead. if the VC-4 Payload Pointer has a value of 0.4) shall be monitored.tektronix. the value of the pointer has a range of 0 to 782. For example. If any of the eight parity checks fail.RFI can be identified as: • LP-RFI (Lower-order Path Remote Failure Indication) B1 error B1 error Parity errors evaluated by byte B1 (BIP-8) of an STM-N shall be monitored. The bytes H1 and H2 (two 8-bit bytes) of the Overhead can be viewed as one value (see Figure 9). known as the VC Payload Pointer. the VC is allowed to “float” within the STM-1 frame capacity. If any of the eight parity checks fail. then the VC-4 begins in the byte adjacent to the K2 byte of the Overhead in the next row. which is the J1 byte. For a VC-4 payload. is carried in bits 7 through 16 of the H1-H2 pointer word. and thus an arbitrary change in the value of the pointer. Payload Pointers When there’s a difference in phase or frequency. the pointer value is adjusted. this pointer is located in columns 1 and 4 of the fourth row of the Section Overhead. and starting points are at 3-byte increments for a VC-4 payload. These four bits. B3 error B3 error Parity errors evaluated by byte B3 (BIP-8) of a VC-N (N = 3. The VC pointer value that accompanies the New Data Flag will indicate the new offset. are known as the New Data Flag. it’s necessary that the sequence synchronisation characteristics are specified.12. If any of the N x 24 parity checks fail. the payload pointer indicates the offset between the VC payload and the STM-N frame by identifying the location of the first byte of the VC in the payload. To accomplish this.20 during an integration interval of 1 second. the corresponding block is assumed to be in error. a process known as byte stuffing is used. that indicates where the actual payload container starts. If any of the two parity checks fail. In other words. The pointer value. To make this possible. The first four bits of the VC-4 payload pointer make provision for indicating a change in the VC.

and 15 of the pointer word are inverted in one frame. Because the alignment of the container advances in time. Figure 9. if the VC is running more slowly than the STM-1 frame. otherwise it’s not defined. bits 7. or Decrement bits). The actual positive stuff byte immediately follows the H3 byte (that is. 10. these bits are inverted. allowing the alignment of the container to slip back in time. to perform frequency justification. The pointer is incremented by one in the next frame. Positive Pointer Justification When the data rate of the VC is too slow in relation to the rate of the STM-1 frame. H3 Pointer action byte – This byte is used for frequency justification. SDH Pointers Byte Description H1 and H2 Pointer bytes – These two bytes. Simply put. when the data rate of the VC is too fast in relation to the rate of the STM-1 frame. and 16 of the pointer word are inverted. thus allowing 5-bit majority voting at the receiver (these bits are known as the I-bits or Increment bits). Periodically. the VC payload pointer. when the VC is about one byte off. It’s used to align the VC and STM-1 Section Overheads in an STM-N signal. if the VC is running more quickly than the STM-1 frame. this is known as negative stuffing. thus allowing 5-bit majority voting at the receiver (these bits are known as the D-bits. 9. these bits are inverted. Payload pointer – positive justification. the stuff byte is within the VC portion). indicating that negative stuffing must occur. This is known as positive stuffing. H1 H2 H3 H1 H2 H3 H1 H2 H3 34 . therefore a pointer value change) can occur. and the subsequent pointers contain the new value. Depending on the pointer value.tektronix. 14. 11. every now and then pulling an extra byte from the flow and stuffing it into the Overhead capacity (the H3 byte) gives the VC a one-byte advance (see Figure 11). 13.com/optical 18 Simply put.capacity a VC starts. there must be at least three frames in which the pointer remains constant before another stuffing operation (and. The byte only carries valid information in the event of negative justification. In both positive or negative cases. and the stuff byte is made up of non-information bits. when the VC is about one byte off. the negative stuff opportunity within the Overhead. indicating that positive stuffing must occur. and to indicate STM-1 concatenation. 12. SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer Figure 10. specify the location of the VC frame. the byte is used to adjust the fill input buffers. actual data is written in the H3 byte. SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer Table 9. every now and then “stuffing” an extra byte in the flow gives the VC a one-byte delay (see Figure 10). The pointer is decremented by one in the next frame. Periodically. and the byte stuffing process allows dynamic alignment of the VC in case it slips in time. 3 X AU-3 H1 H1 H1 H2 H2 H2 H3 H3 H3 1 X AU-4 H1 Y Y H 2 1 1 H 3 H 3 H 3 1 = All 1s Y = 1001SS11 (S bits unspecified) www. An additional byte is stuffed in. and the subsequent pointers contain the new value. Thus. bits 8. Negative Pointer Justification Conversely. the payload capacity must be moved forward. Pointer 9-byte structure.

com/optical SDH Multiplexing The multiplexing principles of SDH follow. Figure 12 illustrates the ITU-T SDH multiplexing structure defined in Rec. At the lowest level. Aligning – This process takes place when a pointer is included in a Tributary Unit (TU) or an Administrative Unit (AU). and AU-4. A positive stuff byte immediately follows the H3 byte. H1 H2 H3 H1 H2 H3 H1 H2 H1 H2 H3 Frame N + 1 Frame N Frame N + 2 Frame N + 3 P P P–1 500  s elapsed J1 J1 J1 J1 The VC moves forward in time when a data byte has been stuffed into the H3 byte. the xN label indicates the multiplexing 35 . to allow the first byte of the Virtual Container to be located. at certain points in the multiplexing hierarchy. Actual payload data is written in the H3 byte. These initial functions allow the payload to be multiplexed into TU groups (TUGs).tektronix. using these terms and definitions: Mapping – A process used when tributaries are adapted into Virtual Containers (VCs) by adding justification bits and Path Overhead (POH) information.728 Mbit/s to VC-4 at 150. containers (C) are input to virtual containers (VC). some spare capacity has been designed into the SDH frame to provide enough space for all the various tributary rates. Multiplexing – This process is used when multiple lower-order path layer signals are adapted into a higher-order path signal. The notations in the boxes. Next. but are required to fill up the particular frame. where pointer processing operations are implemented. Payload pointer – positive justification.336 Mbit/s) are covered by the SDH hierarchy. Therefore. this space capacity is filled with “fixed stuffing” bits that carry no information. Stuffing – As the tributary signals are multiplexed and aligned. VC-3.707.H1 H2 H3 Frame N + 1 Frame N Frame N + 2 Frame N + 3 P P P+1 500 s elapsed J1 J1 J1 J1 Extra bytes allow the VC to slip back in time. I-bits Figure 11. Various containers (ranging from VC-11 at 1. are explained in Table 10. or when the higher-order path signals are adapted into a Multiplex Section. such as C-1. The purpose of this function is to create a uniform VC payload by using bit-stuffing to bring all inputs to a common bit-rate ready for synchronous multiplexing. H3 D-bits 19 www. As Figure 12 illustrates. VCs are aligned into tributary units (TUs). G.

SDH multiplexing structure. 4 (Higher-Order) C-N. plus POH for the specific level TU-N N = 1 to 3 VC-N plus tributary unit pointer TUG-2 1. 3 (AU-n) Either 1 AU-4 or multiplex of 3 AU-3s STM-N N = 1.integer used to multiplex the TUs to the TUGs. TU-11 VC-11 C-11 Aligning Mapping x1 x1 x3 x3 x1 x1 x3 x4 x7 x7 STM-1 AUG-1 AU-4 VC-4 AU-3 VC-3 C-4 C-3 C-2 C-12 VC-3 VC-2 VC-12 TU-3 TU-2 TU-12 TUG-2 TUG-3 Pointer processing Multiplexing x4 x1 x1 STM-16 AUG-16 VC-4-16c VC-4-4c x1 x4 STM-64 AUG-64 x1 x1 x4 STM-4 C-4-4c C-4-16c x1 STM-0 x1 x1 STM-256 VC-4-256c C-4-256c x1 VC-4-64c C-4-64c AU-4-256c AU-4-64c AU-4-16c AU-4-4c AUG-256 AUG-4 x4 www. TUG-2s. or TUG-3s. 4. The next step is the multiplexing of the TUGs to higher level VCs.tektronix. 3 or 4 (TU-N) Multiplex of various TU-Ns TUG-3 TU-3 or 7 TUG-2s TU-3 or multiplex of 7 TUG-2s AU-N N = 3.com/optical 20 Primer SDH Telecommunications Standard Table 10. These VCs are multiplexed with fixed byte-stuffing to form administration units (AUs) which are finally multiplexed into the AU group (AUG). 2 (Lower-Order) Single C-n plus VC POH VC-N N = 3. and TUG-2 and TUG-3 are multiplexed into VC-3 (ANSI mappings) and VC-4. SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer Figure 12.com/optical SDH Tributary Multiplexing 36 .tektronix. SDH Multiplexing Structure Term Contents User C-N N = 1 to 4 Payload at lowest multiplexing level VC-N N = 1. This payload then is multiplexed into the Synchronous Transport Module (STM). 4 VC-N plus AU pointer AUG 1. 16. 64 AUGs N synchronously-multiplexed STM-1 signals POH = Path Overhead C = Container TU = Tributary Unit AU = Administrative Unit VC = Virtual Container TUG = Tributary Unit Group STM = Synchronous Transport Module 21 www.

rather than a TU-3 with its associated TU-3 pointer. making a total of seven TUG-2 groups.In order to accommodate mixes of different TU types within a VC-4. the 500-microsecond multiframe is overwritten on. each of which may contain seven TUG-2s or a single TU-3. In this case the four columns provide a signal rate of 2. The TU groups have no overhead or pointers. four consecutive 125microsecond frames of the VC-4 are combined into one 500-microsecond structure.048 Mbit/s signal. called Group 1. The columns in a TU Group are not consecutive within the VC. could accommodate the 2. the first six bits are unassigned and this is denoted by the X. NPI (Null Pointer Indicators) are used to indicate when a TUG-2 structure is being carried. SDH tributary structure showing TUG-3 multiplexing in VC-4.304 Mbit/s. called a TU Multiframe. This particular TU is simply designated a TU-12. For example. and starting with column 3. As a result. The Tributary Unit columns within a group are not placed in consecutive columns within that group (Figure 14). With each TU Group using 12 columns of the VC-4. In other words. The columns of the individual TUs within the TU Group are byte-interleaved as well. a TU group could contain one of the following combinations: Three TU-12s (with four columns per TU-12) One TU-2 (with twelve columns per TU-2) TU Multiframe In the floating TU mode. Tributary Unit Group The first TUG-2 Group within a TUG-3. and so on. Each size of TU is known as a “type” of TU. is found in every seventh column. and aligned to the 125-microsecond VC-4s. (Only the last two bits of the H4 byte have a value of 0 or 1 assigned. or 4 columns by 9 rows. This figure also shows several columns allocated for fixed stuffing. allowing capacity for overhead. There can be a mix of the different TU Groups. the TUs are grouped together (refer to the previous SDH Multiplexing Hierarchy diagram – Figure 12). The occurrence of the TU Multiframe and its phase is indicated in the VC-N Path Overhead. they are byte-interleaved column-by-column with respect to the other TU groups (see Figure 13). a value XXXXXX01 in the Multiframe Indicator byte indicates that the next VC-4 contains the second frame in the TU Multiframe. A value XXXXXX00 in the Multiframe Indicator byte indicates that the next STM frame contains the first frame in the TU Multiframe. they are just a way of multiplexing and organizing the different TUs within the VC-4 of a STM-1. skipping columns 1 and 2 of the TUG-3. the first TUG-3 could contain twelve TU-12 and three TU-2. by the Multiframe Indicator byte (H4). note that the number of columns in each of the different Lower-Order TU types are all factors of 12. Tributary Units are optimized in different sizes to accommodate different signals. A 36-byte structure.) SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer Figure 13. STM-1 VC-4 Virtual Container 261 Columns of 9 Rows 1 140 Mb/s or 3 TUG-3 Path Overhead 2 Stuff Columns Pointer for TU-3 or NPI for TUG-2 37 . Other signals require TUs of different sizes. A VC-4 that is carrying Tributary Units is divided into three TUG-3.

TU pointers allow AU and TU payloads to differ in phase with respect to each other and the network while still allowing AUs and TUs to be synchronously multiplexed. V1 to V4. and V4 (see Figure 15).tektronix. SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer Figure 15. Pointer for TU-3 or NPI for TUG-2 Path Overhead VC-3 or Stuffing for TUG-2 TUG-3 Group 1 made up of 7 TUG-2 Groups or 1TU-3 34 Mb/s 134567123––1234567 TUG-2 Group 2 (made up of 12 columns) TU-12 TU-12 TU-12 TU-12 www. and it can be viewed as one word. TU multiframe structure. is made up of two 8-bit bytes. The payload pointers V1 and V2 indicate the start of the payload within the multiframe and V3 provides a 64 kbit/s channel for a payload pointer movement opportunity. all VCs within an STM can float independently of each other. The V4 byte is reserved. V2. then the VC-M begins in the byte adjacent to the V2 byte. Four consecutive frames TU Superframe 4 *125 s = 500  s Indication in H4 38 . which is located in positions V1 and V2 of the TU Multiframe. V3. This value indicates the offset in bytes from the end of the pointer (byte V2) to the first byte of the VC. in other words. and the Path Overhead. the value of the pointer for a TU-12 has a range of 0 to 140. That is. TU Payload Pointer The TU Payload Pointer allows dynamic alignment of the lower-order VC-M within the TU Multiframe in much the same fashion as described for the higher-order VC-N. the TU pointer value indicates the offset from the TU to the first byte of the VC. if the TU Payload Pointer has a value of 35. For example. if the TU Payload Pointer has a value of 0.com/optical 22 The Tributary Units also contain payload pointers to allow for flexible and dynamic alignment of the VC. The TU Multiframe overhead consists of four bytes: V1. The V5 byte is the first byte of the VC-M in the first multiframe. The container capacity for each type of TU is shown in Table 11. Each of these four bytes.Path Overhead VC-3 or Stuffing for TUG-2 TUG-3 Group 1 made up of 7 TUG-2 Groups or 1TU-3 34 Mb/s 1 3 ABCABCACABC 134567123––1234567 ––– Figure 14. This payload pointer. The remaining bytes in the TU Multiframe define the TU container capacity which carries the Virtual Container. Tributary unit structures. then the VC-M begins in the byte adjacent to the V3 byte. The container capacity differs for the different TU types because their size varies according to the number of columns in each type. In this case. the V3 and V4 bytes are not counted. The value of the pointer is a binary number found in bits 7 to 16 of V1 and V2. The range of the offset differs for each TU type (see Table 12). The alignment of any one lower-order VC-M is independent of the other VC-Ms. is located in the first byte of the respective TU frame in the TU Multiframe.

(multiframe indication by TU Pointers consist of V1 and V2 Frame 1 H4 byte 00
105

V1 --125  s Frame 2 01
139 0

V2 --34 250  s Frame 3 10
35

V3 --69 375  s Frame 4 11
70

V4 --104

Table 12. TU Container Pointer Values
TU Type Total TU bytes V1 to V4 Pointer Value Range

500  s

TU-11 108 4 104 TU-12 144 4 140 TU-2 432 4 428

Table 11. TU Container Capacity
TU Type TU Capacity TU Pointer TU Container Calculation * Capacity

TU-11 3 x 9 x 4 4 bytes 104 bytes TU-12 4 x 9 x 4 4 bytes 140 bytes TU-2 12 x 9 x 4 4 bytes 428 bytes
* Columns x rows x frames

Four consecutive frames form a TU Superframe 4 *125 s = 500  s Indication in H4 (multiframe indication byte) TU Pointers consist of V1 and V2
23 www.tektronix.com/optical

Automatic Protection Switching

Automatic Protection Switching (APS) is the capability of a transmission system to detect a failure on a working facility and to switch to a standby facility to recover the traffic. This capability has a positive effect on the overall system availability. Only the Multiplex Section in SDH is protected in this automatic fashion. The Multiplex Section protection mechanisms are coordinated by the K1 and K2 bytes in the Multiplex Section Overhead. Path protection is managed at a higher level by network management functions.
Multiplex Section Protection, K1/K2 Bytes

In SDH, the transmission is protected on optical sections from the Near End (the point at which the MS Overhead is inserted) to the Far End (the point where the MS Overhead is terminated). Bytes K1 and K2 in the MS Overhead of the STM-1 signal carry a Multiplex Section Protection (MSP) protocol used to coordinate protection switching between the Near End and the Far End. Protection switching is initiated as a result of one of the following situations:
Signal failure Signal degradation In response to commands from a local craft terminal or a remote network manager

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Two modes of APS are provided: 1+1 protection switching and 1:N protection switching. The K1 byte (see Figure 16) contains both the switching pre-emption priorities (in bits 1 to 4), and the channel number of the channel requesting action (in bits 5 to 8). The K2 byte contains the channel number of the channel that is bridged onto protection (bits 1 to 4), and the mode type (bit 5); as well, bits 6 to 8 contain various conditions such as MS-AIS, MS-RDI, indication of uni-directional or bi-directional switching.
1+1 Protection

In 1+1 protection switching, there is a protection facility (backup line) for each working facility (see Figure 17). At the Near End of the section, the optical signal is bridged permanently (split into two signals) and sent over both the working and the protection facilities simultaneously, producing a working signal and a protection signal that are identical. At the Far End of the section, both signals are monitored independently for failures. The receiving equipment selects either the working or the protection signal. This selection is based on the switch initiation criteria which are either a signal fail (hard failure such as the loss of frame (LOF) within an optical signal), or a signal degrade (soft failure caused by the error rate exceeding some pre-defined value).

SDH Telecommunications Standard
Primer

Figure 16. APS/ MSP, K1/K2 byte functions. K1 K2 1234567812345678
Switch Priority S w i t ch Action Channel Number Provisioned Channel Request Bridged bi-directional switch uni-directional switch MS-AIS Provisioned MS-RDI 1:n/1+1

Figure 17. 1+1 protection switching.

Near End Far End Source Destination
Normal Condition: one signal is chosen per pair Failure Condition: the “best” signal is chosen
Working Facility Protection Facility Working Facility Protection Facility Working Facility Protection Facility

www.tektronix.com/optical 24

Normally, 1+1 protection switching is uni-directional, although if the line terminating equipment at both ends support bi-directional switching, the uni-directional default can be overridden. Switching can be either revertive (the flow reverts to the working facility as soon as the failure has been corrected) or non-revertive (the protection facility is treated as the working facility). In 1+1 protection architecture, all communication from the Near End to the Far End is carried out over the APS channel, using the K1 and K2 bytes. In 1:1 bi-directional switching, the K-byte signaling indicates to the Near End that a facility has been switched so that it can start to receive on the now active facility.
1:N Protection

In 1:N protection switching, there is one protection facility for several working facilities (the range is from 1 to 14). In 1:N protection architecture, all communication from the Near End to the Far End is carried out over the APS channel, using the K1 and K2 bytes. All switching is

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revertive; that is, the traffic reverts to the working facility as soon as the failure has been corrected. In 1:N protection switching, optical signals are normally sent only over the working facilities, with the protection facility being kept free until a working facility fails. Let’s look at a failure in a bi-directional architecture (see Figure 18). Suppose the Far End detects a failure on working facility 2. The Far End sends a message in bits 5 to 8 of the K1 byte to the Near End over the protection facility requesting switch action. The Near End can act directly, or if there’s more than one problem, the Near End decides which is top priority. On a decision to act on the problem on working facility 2, the Near End carries out the following steps:
1. Bridges working facility 2 at the Near End to the protection facility. 2. Returns a message on the K2 byte indicating the channel number of the traffic on the protection channel to the Far End. 3. Sends a Reverse Request to the Far End via the K1 byte to initiate bi-directional switch. 1. Switches to the protection facility to receive. 2. Bridges working facility 2 to the protection facility to transmit back.

On receipt of this message, the Far End carries out the following steps: Now transmission is carried out over the new working facility.

SDH Telecommunications Standard
Primer

Figure 18. 1:N protection switching.

Near End Far End Source Destination
Normal Condition: protection on channel empty Failure Condition: protection channel contains failed line
Working Facility Protection Facilty Working Facility Protection Facility

25 www.tektronix.com/optical

SDH Network Elements
Terminal Multiplexer

The path terminating element (PTE) acts as a concentrator of E1s as well as other tributary signals (see Figure 19). Its simplest deployment would involve two terminal multiplexers linked by fibre with or without a regenerator in the link. This implementation represents the simplest SDH link (Regenerator Section, Multiplex Section, and Path, all in one link). One of the main benefits of SDH as seen by the network operator is the network simplification brought about through the use of synchronous equipment. A single synchronous node can perform the function of an entire plesiochronous “multiplexing by steps”, leading to significant reductions in the amount of equipment used and consequently space and energy savings.
Regenerator

A regenerator (see Figure 20) is needed when, due to the long distance between multiplexers, the signal level in the fibre becomes too low. The regenerator recovers timing from the received signal and replaces the Regenerator Section overhead bytes before re-transmitting the signal; the Multiplex Section overhead, path overhead, and payload are not altered.
Add/Drop Multiplexer

One of the major advantages of SDH is its ability to Add and Drop tributaries directly from higher-order aggregate bit streams. Although network elements (NEs) are compatible at the STM-N level, they may differ in features from vendor to vendor. SDH does not restrict manufacturers from providing a single type of product, nor require them to provide all types. For example, one vendor might offer an add/drop multiplexer with access at E1 only, whereas another might

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Add/Drop multiplexer example.com/optical 26 SDH enables drop-and-continue. for example. It supports hubbed network architectures. for example. an ADM can be deployed at a terminal site or any intermediate location for consolidating traffic from widely separated locations. and connects payloads. Regenerator.tektronix. A single-stage multiplexer/demultiplexer can multiplex various inputs into an STM-N signal. In rural applications. One major difference between a cross-connect and an adddrop multiplexer is that a cross-connect may be used to interconnect a much larger number of STM-1s. Not all bandwidth (program channels) need be terminated at all the nodes. is duplicated. it may be used to segregate highbandwidth from low-bandwidth traffic and send them separately to the high-bandwidth (for example video) switch and a low-bandwidth (voice) switch. This type of cross-connect is similar to the broadband cross-connect 42 . and is then sent to the next node and to subsequent nodes. Wideband Digital Cross-connect An SDH cross-connect accepts various SDH rates. at a TU-12 level (see Figure 22). In ring-survivability applications. When transporting video. the signal is repeated and passed along an alternate route to the destination node. In multi-node distribution applications. Terminal multiplexer example. For example. If the connection cannot be made through one of the nodes. The remaining traffic continues through the network element without requiring special pass-through units or other signal processing. Several ADMs can also be configured as a survivable ring. At an add/drop site. With drop-and-continue. E1 E3 STM-N VC STM-1 E1 E3 STM-N STM-1 Terminal Configuration STM-1 Figure 20. only those signals that need to be accessed are dropped or inserted. Channels not terminating at a node can be passed through without physical intervention to other nodes. SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer Figure 19. one transport channel can efficiently carry traffic between multiple distribution nodes. drop-and-continue provides alternate routing for traffic passing through interconnecting rings in a “matchednodes” configuration. STM-N STM-N STM-N E1 E4 2 Mb/s 140 Mb/s TU AU-4 STM-N STM-N STM-N STM-N www. each programming channel is delivered (dropped) at the node and repeated for delivery to the next and subsequent nodes. The cross-connect can be used for grooming (consolidating or segregating) of STM-1s or for broadband traffic management. STM-N STM-N Figure 21. a signal terminates at one node. a key capability in both telephony and cable TV applications. accesses the STM-1 signals.offer simultaneous access at E1 and E4 rates (see Figure 21).

Point-to-multipoint. PTE REG PTE Figure 26. cross-connecting. The Flexible Multiplexer itself is actually a system of multiplexers and switches designed to perform some traffic concentration and limited switching at a remote location. SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer Figure 25. It avoids the current cumbersome network architecture of demultiplexing. point-to-point service path connections will span across the whole network and will always originate and terminate in a multiplexer. Wideband digital cross-connect example. It’s best used as an SDH cross-connect. Point-to-Multipoint A point-to-multipoint (linear add/drop) architecture includes adding and dropping circuits along the way (see Figure 26). The SDH ADM (add/drop multiplexer) is a unique network element specifically designed for this task. SDH Network Configurations Point-to-Point The simplest network configuration involves two terminal multiplexers linked by fibre with or without a regenerator in the link (see Figure 25). In the future. 43 . the number of subscribers (or lines) that an exchange could serve would be limited by the number of lines served by the exchange. STM-N 140 Mb/s STM-N STM-N E1 E4 AU-4 AU-4 Transparent Switch Matrix STM-N STM-1 2 Mb/s AU-4 AU-4 27 www. or for routing traffic. It is suitable for E1 level grooming applications at cross-connect locations. SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer Figure 22.com/optical Flexible Multiplexer The Flexible Multiplexer (see Figure 24) may be considered a concentrator of low-speed services before they are brought into the local exchange for distribution. It accesses the STM-N signals. STM-N STM-N STM-1 2 Mb/s 140 Mb/s STM-N STM-1 E1 E4 TU-12 TU-12 TU-12 TU-12 TU-12 Switch Matrix Figure 23. The ADM typically is placed in an SDH link to facilitate adding and dropping tributary channels at intermediate points in the network. where it can be used for grooming STM-1s. Broadband digital cross-connect example. and typically switches at an AU-4 level. Point-to-point. the SDH path and the Service path (for example. and then re-multiplexing. One major advantage of wideband digital cross-connects is that less demultiplexing and multiplexing is required because only the required tributaries are accessed and switched. Broadband Digital Cross-connect The Broadband Digital Cross-connect interfaces SDH signals and possibly high-rate tributaries (see Figure 23). If this concentration were not done. for broadband restoration purposes.except that the switching is done at TU-12 level. adding and dropping channels. E1 or E3 links end-to-end) are identical and this synchronous island can exist within an asynchronous network world.tektronix. In this configuration.

com/optical Benefits of SDH – Conclusions A transport network using SDH provides much more powerful networking capabilities than existing asynchronous systems. Cross-connection at higher-order path levels. Pointers. Mesh architecture. For those situations in which synchronisation reference frequency and 44 . using AU-4 granularity in the switching matrix. a lower rate channel such as E1 is directly accessible. and intermediate demultiplexing is not needed to access the bitstreams. The key benefits provided by SDH are the following. the multiplexers have the local intelligence to send the services affected via an alternate path through the ring without a lengthy interruption. Ring architecture. Ring Architecture The SDH building block for a ring architecture is the ADM (see Figure 28). 2. so the need to align the data streams using non-deterministic bit-stuffing is unnecessary. Multiple ADMs can be put into a ring configuration for either Bi-directional or Uni-directional traffic. ADM ADM ADM ADM 29 www. Therefore. have made rings a popular SDH topology. Cross-connection at lower-order path levels. SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer Figure 27. A crossconnect function concentrates traffic at a central site and allows easy re-provisioning of the circuits (see Figure 27). The demand for survivable services. MUX MUX MUX DCS MUX REG REG REG REG Figure 28. Flexible multiplexer example.PTE REG ADM REG PTE Figure 24.com/optical 28 Mesh Architecture The meshed network architecture accommodates unexpected growth and change more easily than simple point-to-point networks. There are two possible implementations of this type of network function: 1.tektronix. MUX/DEMUX As a result of SDH transmission. The main advantage of the ring topology is its survivability. flexibility to rearrange services to alternate serving nodes. diverse routing of fibre facilities. Exchange Switch 64 kb/s STM-1 Remote Locations (subscribers) 64 kb/s SDH Concentrator SDH Concentrator Exchange Voice Data ISDN Public Phone www. for example. if a fibre cable is cut. using TU-12 granlarity in the switching matrix. as well as automatic restoration within seconds. for example. the network clocks are referenced to a highly stable reference point. for example.tektronix.

and helps realize the benefits of traffic grooming. an SDH system can segregate traffic at either an STM-1 or VC level to send it to the appropriate nodes. Today’s SDH standards contain definitions for fibre-to-fibre interfaces at the physical level. and coding. Multi-point Configurations Most existing asynchronous transmission systems are only economic for point-to-point applications. SDH uses pointers to allow the streams to “float” within the payload. leased circuits for data. A multi-point implementation permits STM-N interconnects and mid-span meets. overhead. pulse shapes. and payload mappings. By contrast. whereas SDH can efficiently support a multi-point or cross-connected configuration. With SDH. at an interconnect point. an entire optical signal doesn’t have to be demultiplexed – only the individual VC or STM signals that need to be accessed. they allow a very flexible allocation and alignment of the payload within the transmission frame. It’s possible to groom traffic on asynchronous systems. Grooming eliminates inefficient techniques such as back-hauling. The network provider can purchase one vendor’s equipment and conveniently interface with other vendors’ SDH equipment at either operator locations or customer premises. Enhanced OAM SDH allows integrated network OAM. Users may now obtain the STM-N equipment of their choice and meet with their network provider of choice at that STM-N level. The cross-connect allows many nodes or sites to communicate as a single network instead of as separate systems. such as switched voice. In other words. one connection can reach all network elements within a given architecture. while segregation is the separation of traffic. Cross-connecting reduces requirements for back-to-back multiplexing and demultiplexing. Reduced Back-to-Back Multiplexing In the asynchronous PDH systems. Pointers are the key to synchronous timing. power levels. For example. in accordance with the philosophy of single-ended maintenance. E1s can be multiplexed directly to the STM-N rate. Consolidation means combining traffic from different locations onto one facility. separate links are not required for each network element. Grooming can also provide segregation of services. or video. SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer 45 . The current standards also fully define the frame structure. Remote provisioning provides centralized maintenance and reduced travel for maintenance personnel – which translates to expense savings. Enhancements are being developed to define the messages in the overhead channels to provide increased OAM functionality. Optical Interconnect A major SDH benefit is that it allows mid-span meet with multi-vendor compatibility. Network providers no longer need to own and maintain customer-located equipment. An SDH network can conveniently segregate the switched and non-switched traffic. SDH allows optical interconnection between network providers regardless of who makes the equipment. Note: OAM is sometimes referred to as OAM&P. allowing network providers and their customers to optimize their shared use of the SDH infrastructure.phase may vary. Grooming Grooming refers to either consolidating or segregating traffic to make more efficient use of the network facilities. however to do so requires expensive back-to-back configurations and manual or electronic cross-connects. care must be taken when routing circuits in order to avoid multiplexing and demultiplexing too many times since electronics (and their associated capital cost) are required every time an E1 signal is processed. Because of synchronisation. wavelength. They determine the optical line rate. an incoming SDH line may contain different types of traffic.

Of these. ATM SDH mapping. The interface rate presented to the user may vary between a minimum and maximum rate. Convergence. which allows handling of a dynamically variable mixture of services at different bandwidths. 48 octets make up the user-information field and five octets make up the header. Tektronix is pursuing new opportunities to lead the market by providing test and measurement equipment to users who process or transport voice. 261 AU-4 9 Transport VC-4 Overhead Transport Overhead AU-4 Pointer 46 . The ATM cell consists of two parts: a five-byte header and a 48-byte information field. and SDH Convergence is the trend toward delivery of voice. data. In principle. Each ATM cell is made up of 53 octets. Some broadband services may use Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) – a fast packet-switching technique using short. The cell header identifies the “virtual path” to be used in routing the cell through the network.tektronix. An example of a service that realizes the benefits of a variable-rate interface is that of a video service. SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer Figure 29. Packet networks also easily accommodate traffic of variable speeds. ATM. and video through diverse transmission and switching systems that supply high-speed transportation over any medium to any location.com/optical 30 Enhanced Performance Monitoring Substantial overhead information is provided in SDH to allow quicker troubleshooting and detection of failures before they degrade to serious levels. or bytes (see Figure 29). ATM cell structure. Packet over SDH (PoS) technologies allow the transport of IP packets at SDH rates. Video. Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexes a service into cells that may be combined and routed as necessary. and video signals over high-speed networks. The rate at which cells can be transmitted through the network is dependent upon the physical layer of the network used for transport of the cells. data. image. fixed-length packets called cells. SDH is a logical transport mechanism for ATM. where video can be digitally coded and packetised within ATM or IP cells.www. The virtual path defines the connections through which the cell is routed to reach its destination (see Figure 30). As local and wide area networks converge. however. ATM is quite similar to other packet-switching techniques. A Packet-based network is bandwidth-flexible. the detail of ATM operation is somewhat different. IP. images. Because of the capacity and flexibility that it offers. GFC (UNI) or VPI (NNI) VPI VPI VCI 5 VCI Byte VCI PT CLP Header HEC (48 bytes) (Payload) USER INFO GFC: VCI: Virtual Channel Identifier PTI: Payload Type Indicator VPI: Virtual Path Identifier CLP: Cell Loss Priority HEC: Header Error Check Generic Flow Control Figure 30. which ensures a much more efficient use of the bandwidth made available to the end user.

544 Mbit/s DS1 signal. Further Information Another publication from Tektronix. ITU TDM multiplexes thirty 64 kbit/s channels (E0) into one 2. the two signals contain different frame structures.5 Mbit/s. making 32 total). Korea.5 Mbit/s and the 2 Mbit/s non-synchronous hierarchies in a single network standard. SONET and SDH Hierarchies SONET and SDH converge at SDH’s 155 Mbit/s base level.52 Mbit/s STM-1 84 DS1 or 3 DS3 63 E1 or 1 E4 STS-12.) into higher-speed circuits (51 Mbit/s.tektronix. SONET Telecommunications Standard Primer reviews the SONET network standard.com/optical SONET Reference Transmission standards in the U. OC-12 622.).53 Byte ATM Cell VC-4 POH J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1 3 5 31 www. it became possible for SDH to accommodate both transmission hierarchies. This modification allows an STM-1 signal to carry multiple 1.28 Mbit/s STM-64 5376 DS1 or 192 DS3 4032 E1 or 64 E4 STS-768.84 Mbit/s STM-0 28 DS1 or 1 DS3 21 E1 STS-3. OC-3 155.52 Mbit/s). defined as STM-1 or “Synchronous Transport Module-1. Canada.. and Hong Kong (ANSI) and the rest of the world (ITU-T) evolved from different basic-rate signals in the non-synchronous hierarchy. An important issue for the ITU-T to resolve was how to efficiently accommodate both the 1. Copies can be requested from Tektronix offices.84 Mbit/s = 155.com. 2 Mbit/s.5 Mbit/s or 2 Mbit/s signals – and multiple STM signals to be aggregated to carry higher orders of SONET or SDH tributaries.4 Gbit/s). Taiwan.544 Mbit/s 24 DS0 E1 2. OC-48 2488.S. Higher SDH rates of STM-4 (622 Mbit/s). and STM-64 (10 Gbit/s) have also been defined. Multiplexing is accomplished by combining – or interleaving – multiple lower-order signals (1. etc. ANSI Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) combines twenty four 64 kbit/s channels (DS0) into one 1. The agreement reached specified a basic transmission rate of 51 Mbit/s for SONET and a basic rate of 155 Mbit/s for SDH. STM = Synchronous Transport Module (ITU-T) STS = Synchronous Transport Signal (ANSI) OC = Optical Carrier (ANSI) Table 14. SONET/SDH Digital Hierarchies SONET Bit Rate SDH SONET Capacity SDH Capacity STS-1.tektronix. SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer Table 13. STM-16 (2. OC-192 9953. 155 Mbit/s.08 Mbit/s STM-4 336 DS1 or 12 DS3 252 E1 or 4 E4 STS-48. SDH’s STM-1 is equivalent to SONET’s STS-3 (3 x 51. OC-1 51. By changing the SONET standard from bitinterleaving to byte-interleaving.32 Mbit/s STM-16 1344 DS1 or 48 DS3 1008 E1 or 16 E4 STS-192.048 Mbit/s 32 E0 ANSI Rate ITU Rate Signal Digital Bit Rate Channels Signal Digital Bit Rate Channels 47 .12 Mbit/s STM-256 21504 DS1s or 768 DS3s 16128 E1 or 256 E4 Note: Although an SDH STM-1 has the same bit rate as the SONET STS-3. Synchronous and non-synchronous line rates and the relationships between each are shown in Tables 13 and 14. Non-Synchronous Digital Hierarchies DS0 64 kbit/s 1 DS0 E0 64 kbit/s 64 kbit/s DS1 1.” The base level for SONET is STS-1 (or OC-1) and is equivalent to 51.048 Mbit/s E1 signal (an extra two channels provide frame alignment and signalling.84 Mbit/s. OC-768 39812. or visit our website at www. Thus. etc.

Administrative Unit (AU) An Administrative Unit is the information structure which provides adaptation between the Higher-Order path layer and the Multiplex Section layer. Attenuation Reduction of signal magnitude or signal loss.com/optical 32 Glossary Add/Drop The process where a part of the information carried in a transmission system is extracted (dropped) at an intermediate point and different information is inserted (added) for subsequent transmission. AIS (Alarm Indication Signal) AMI A code sent downstream indicating an upstream failure has occurred. 6. Backhauling Cumbersome traffic management technique used to reduce the expense of multiplexing/demultiplexing. Analog bandwidth is the range of signal frequencies that can be transmitted by a communication channel or network.DS2 6.448 Mbit/s 128 E0 DS3 44.736 Mbit/s 28 DS1 E3 34. nongovernment organization. Add/Drop Multiplexer (ADM) A multiplexer capable of extracting and inserting lower-rate signals from a higher-rate multiplexed signal without completely demultiplexing the signal. Asynchronous A network where transmission system payloads are not synchronised and each network terminal runs on its own clock.tektronix.312 Mbit/s 96 DS0 E2 8. 1:N APS provides one protection line for every N working lines.368 Mbit/s 16 E1 not defined E4 139. The transfer mode is asynchronous in the sense that the use of the cells depends on the required or instantaneous bit rate. or 8. Bi-directional Operating in both directions. Bandwidth Information-carrying capacity of a communication channel. N is typically 3. Binary N-Zero Suppression (BNZS) Line coding system that replaces N number of zeros with a special code to maintain pulse density required for clock recovery. Automatic Protection Switching (APS) The ability of a network element to detect a failed working line and switch the service to a spare (protection) line. H3 bytes) is called the Administrative Unit (AU). The Virtual Container (VC) plus the pointers (H1. 48 . A standards-setting. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) A multiplexing/switching technique in which information is organized into fixed-length cells with each cell consisting of an identification header field and an information field. Bi-directional APS allows protection switching to be initiated by either end of the line. The line-coding format in transmission systems where successive ones (marks) are alternatively inverted (sent with polarity opposite that of the preceding mark). ANSI American National Standards Institute. Alternate Mark Inversion. which develops and publishes standards for “voluntary” use in the United States. The remaining traffic passes straight through the multiplexer without additional processing. H2.264 Mbit/s 64 E1 www. 1+1 APS pairs a protection line with each working line. usually expressed in decibels.

B-ISDN (Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network) A single ISDN network which can handle voice. i. a pulse of data. data. 49 . However. it’s important to recognize that these terms are not equivalent. a BIP-8 creates eight-bit (one-byte) groups. usually one second. then does a parity check for each of the eight bit positions in the byte. and eventually video services. For example.tektronix. Bit-Stuffing In asynchronous systems. Bit Error rate (BER) is calculated with the formula: BER = errored bits received/total bits sent Block Error rate (BLER) One of the underlying concepts of error performance is the notion of Errored Blocks. each has a distinct meaning: Add/Drop – The process where a part of the information carried in a transmission system is extracted (dropped) at an intermediate point and different information is inserted (added) for subsequent transmission. blocks in which one or more bits are in error. implying more visibility inside the resultant multiplexed bit stream than available with conventional asynchronous techniques. Bits per second (bit/s) The number of bits passing a point every second. then performs a parity check for each bit position in the group.. Demultiplex (DEMUX) is the process of separating two or more signals previously combined by compatible multiplexing equipment to recover signals combined within it and for restoring the distinct individual channels of the signals. Block Error rate (BLER) is calculated with the formula: BLER = errored blocks received/total blocks sent Bit-Interleaved Parity (BIP) A parity check that groups all the bits in a block into units (such as byte). a technique used to synchronise asynchronous signals to a common rate before multiplexing. Bit One binary digit. Map/Demap – A term for multiplexing. A block is a set of consecutive bits associated with the path or section monitored by means of an Error Detection Code (EDC). The remaining traffic passes straight through the multiplexer without additional processing. Multiplex/Demultiplex – Multiplex (MUX) allows the transmission of two or more signals over a single channel. Bit Error Rate (BER) The number of bit errors detected in a unit of time. Don’t Confuse The Terms 33 www. The transmission rate for digital information.e.com/optical BIP-8 (Bit Interleaved Parity-8) A method of error checking in SDH which allows in-service performance monitoring. such as Bit Interleaved Parity (BIP). Broadband CCITT Services requiring over 2 Mbit/s transport capacity.SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer Three sets of terms are often used interchangeably to describe SDH processes.

Defect A limited interruption in the ability of an item to perform a required function. 50 . known as VC-2-5c. Demultiplex (DEMUX) To separate two or more signals previously combined by compatible multiplexing equipment to recover signals combined within it and for restoring the distinct individual channels of the signals. SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer www. Concatenation The linking together of various data structures. usually a pair of channels providing bi-directional communication. A communications path or network. for example two channels joined to form a single channel. Commercially available DWDM systems support the multiplexing of from 8 to 40 wavelengths of light. Coding Violation (CV) A transmission error detected by the difference between the transmitted line code and that expected at the receive end by the logical coding rules. switched.Former name of ITU. and transported through the network as a single entity. Digital Signal An electrical or optical signal that varies in discrete steps. Persistence of a defect can cause a failure. Electrical signals are coded as voltages. including SDH. any concatenated VC structure is multiplexed. Digital Cross-connect (DCS) An electronic cross-connect which has access to lower-rate channels in higher-rate multiplexed signals and can electronically rearrange (cross-connect) those channels. Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) A technique for using overhead bits to detect transmission errors. A failure is caused by the persistence of a defect. In SDH.tektronix.com/optical 34 ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) Organization responsible for defining and maintaining European standards. a number (M) of TUs can be linked together to produce a concatenated container. Circuit Switching Basic switching process whereby a circuit between two users is opened on demand and maintained for their exclusive use for the duration of the transmission. M times the size of the TU. optical signals are coded as pulses of light. Once assembled. Data Communications Channel (DCC) Data channels in SDH that enable OAM communications between intelligent controllers and individual network nodes as well as internode communications. Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) DWDM is the higher capacity version of WDM. which is a means of increasing the capacity of fibre-optic data transmission systems through the multiplexing of multiple wavelengths of light. FEBE (Far End Block Error) See Remote Error Indication (REI). An example of this is the concatenation of five TU-2s to carry a 32 Mbit/s video signal. usually a path with only one direction. Channel Circuit The smallest subdivision of a circuit that provides a type of communication service. Failure A termination of the ability of an item to perform a required function.

MS-AIS maintains operation of the downstream regenerators. Multiplex Section Alarm Indication Signal (MS-AIS) MS-AIS is generated by Section Terminating Equipment (STE) upon the detection of a Loss of Signal or Loss of Frame defect. or MS-AIS defect. At the same time. Map/Demap A term for multiplexing. Pointers identify the starting location of the LO-VC. Framing Method of distinguishing digital channels that have been multiplexed together. Multiframe Any structure made up of multiple frames. and therefore prevents generation of unnecessary alarms. manufacturers. Fixed Stuff A bit or byte whose function is reserved. This overhead supports functions such as 51 . Consolidating or segregating traffic for efficiency. MS-RDI was previously known as Multiplex Section FERF. coordination. Locked Mode A virtual tributary mode that fixes the starting location of the VC. do not carry overhead or payload. on an equipment failure. Fixed stuff locations. generated. LO-VCs in different multiframes may begin at different locations. Loss of Frame. Floating Mode A tributary mode that allows the synchronous payload to begin anywhere in the VC. Mapping The process of associating each bit transmitted by a service into the SDH payload structure that carries the service. implying more visibility inside the resultant multiplexed bit stream than available with conventional asynchronous techniques. Multiplex Section Remote Defect Indication (MS-RDI) A signal returned to the transmitting equipment upon detecting a Loss of Signal. ITU (International Telecommunication Union) An agency of the United Nations responsible for the regulation. and scientific/industrial organizations. Locked mode has less pointer processing than floating mode. For example. Frequency Grooming The number of cycles of periodic activity that occur in a discrete amount of time. standardization. Multiplex Section Overhead (MSOH) 18 bytes of overhead accessed. operators. It functions through international committees of telecommunications administrations. and processed by MS terminating equipment. data and orderwire communication is retained with the downstream equipment. Jitter The short-term variations of the significant instants of a timing signal from their ideal positions in time (where short term implies that these variations are of frequency greater than or equal to 10 Hz).FERF (Far End Receive Failure) See Remote Defect Indication (RDI). mapping an E1 service into an SDH VC-12 associates each bit of the E1 with a location in the VC-12. and development of international telecommunications as well as the harmonization of national policies. SDH has facilities to recognize multiframes at the E1 level and at the VC-N level. HDB3 High Density Bipolar 3. A bipolar coding method that does not allow more than three consecutive zeros. sometimes called reserved locations.

the five basic network elements are: Add/drop multiplexer Broadband digital cross-connect Wideband digital cross-connect Flexible multiplexer Regenerator OAM Operations. A standard architecture for data communications. link. Narrowband Services requiring up to 2 Mbit/s transport capacity. SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer 35 www. Administration. Also called OAM&P. Parity Check An error-checking scheme which examines the number of transmitted bits in a block which hold the value of “one.com/optical Network Element (NE) Any device which is part of an SDH transmission path and serves one or more of the section. Packet Switching An efficient method for breaking down and handling high-volume traffic in a network. an overhead parity bit is set to either one or zero to make the total number of transmitted ones in the data block plus parity bit an even number. For odd parity. performance monitoring. A device to amplify an optical signal without converting the signal from optical to electrical and back again to optical energy. Administration. which amplify with a laser pump diode and a section of erbium-doped fibre. for example. Multiplex (MUX) Multiplexer To transmit two or more signals over a single channel. Overhead Extra bits in a digital stream used to carry information besides traffic signals. and Provisioning) Optical Amplifier Provides the facilities and personnel required to manage a network.” For even parity. OAM&P (Operations.tektronix. would be considered overhead information. Packet switching allows for efficient sharing of network resources as packets from different sources can all be sent over the same channel in the same bitstream.locating the payload in the frame. and line maintenance. Layers define hardware and software required for multi-vendor information processing equipment to be mutually compatible. A device for combining several channels to be carried by a single physical channel. The seven layers from lowest to highest are: physical. presentation. and application. transport. multiplexing or concatenating signals. and semiconductor laser amplifiers. and Maintenance. Maintenance. automatic protection switching. OS (Operations System) OSI Seven-layer Model Sophisticated applications software that manages operation of the entire network. In SDH. Orderwire. The two most common optical amplifiers are erbium-doped fibre amplifiers (EDFAs). the parity bit is set to make the total number of ones 52 . A transmission technique that segments and routes information into discrete units. network. session. line and path-terminating functions. Orderwire A dedicated voice channel used by installers to expedite the provisioning of lines.

The contents of a VC. Path Overhead (POH) Overhead accessed. Regenerator Device that restores a degraded digital signal for continued transmission.) Remote Defect Indication (RDI) A signal returned to the transmitting Terminating Equipment when the receiving Terminating Equipment detects a Loss of Signal. and processed by path-terminating equipment. Remote Error Indication (REI) An indication returned to a transmitting node (source) that an errored block has been detected at the receiving node (sink).S. TU-M pointers locate floating mode tributaries.com/optical 36 Remote Alarm Indication (RAI) A code sent upstream on an En circuit as a notification that a failure condition has been declared downstream.tektronix. A part of the SDH overhead that locates a floating payload structure. Plesiochronous Pointer A network with nodes timed by separate clock sources with almost the same timing. or AIS defect. all the clocks are traceable to one highly stable reference supply. also called a repeater. Path Terminating Equipment (PTE) Payload Network elements such as fibre optic terminating systems which can access. The accuracy of the PRC is better than ±1 in 1011 and is derived from a cesium atomic standard. (RAI signals were previously referred to as Yellow signals. REI was previously known as Far End Block Error (FEBE). SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) The ITU-defined international networking standard whose base 53 . When this situation occurs. an RFI is sent to the far end and will initiate a protection switch if this function has been enabled.in the block an odd number. SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer www. RDI was previously known as Far End Receive Failure (FERF). All SDH frames use AU pointers. generated. and process Path Overhead. network where inter-exchange carrier facilities meet with access facilities managed by telephone companies or other service providers. Payload Capacity The number of bytes the payload of a single frame can carry. Payload Pointer Indicates the beginning of a Virtual Container. PRC (Primary Reference Clock) In a synchronous network. POP (Point-of-Presence) A point in the U. The portion of the SDH signal available to carry service signals such as E1 and E3. AU-N pointers locate the payload. Remote Failure Indication (RFI) A failure is a defect that persists beyond the maximum time allocated to the transmission system protection mechanisms. only floating mode virtual containers use TU pointers. Path A logical connection between a point where a service in a VC is multiplexed to the point where it is demultiplexed. Loss of Frame. the Primary Reference Clock (PRC). generate.

813 slave clock contained within an SDH network element. and Hong Kong that defines optical carrier levels and their electrically equivalent synchronous transport signals. The span between two SDH network elements capable of accessing. Korea. A network where all clocks have the same long term accuracy under normal operating conditions. A signal designed for transport and switching of sub-SDH payloads. see the section of this primer on Multiplex Section Overhead. Yellow Signal See Remote Alarm Indication (RAI). Section Terminating Equipment (STE) Equipment that terminates the SDH Section layer. Tributary Unit Group (TUG) Virtual Container (VC) Contains several Tributary Units. and enhanced OAM&P. generating. synchronous networking. Synchronous A network where transmission system payloads are synchronised to a master (network) clock and traceable to a reference clock. STM-1 is SDH’s base-level transmission rate equal to 155. Slip An overflow (deletion) or underflow (repetition) of one frame of a signal in a receiving buffer. STM-16.812 network equipment clock. Stuffing See bit-stuffing. 54 . Synchronisation Supply Unit (SSU) A G. Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) WDM is a means of increasing the capacity of fibre-optic data transmission systems through the multiplexing of multiple wavelengths of light. SONET allows for a multivendor environment and positions the network for transport of new services. Section Overhead Nine columns of SDH overhead accessed. and processed by section terminating equipment. It contains the Virtual Container (VC) plus a tributary unit pointer. SDH standards were first published in 1989 to address interworking between the ITU and ANSI transmission hierarchies. For further details on the assignment of bit patterns for byte S1. STE interprets and modifies or creates the Section Overhead. Canada. Synchronous Transport Module (STM) A structure in the SDH transmission hierarchy.52 Mbit/s. WDM systems support the multiplexing of as many as four wavelengths. generated. This overhead supports functions such as framing the signal and performance monitoring. SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) A standard for optical transport in the United States. Tributary Unit (TU) A Tributary Unit is an information structure which provides adaptation between the Lower-Order path layer and the Higher-Order path layer. SSM (Synchronisation Status Message) Bits 5 to 8 of SDH overhead byte S1 are allocated for Synchronisation Status Messages. and STM-64 are also defined. SEC (Synchronous Equipment Clock) Section G. Higher rates of STM-4.transmission level is 155 Mbit/s (STM-1). and processing only SDH Section overhead. Wander The long-term variations of the significant instants of a digital signal from their ideal position in time (where long term implies that these variations are of frequency less than 10 Hz).

823 – Control of jitter and wander in PDH systems G. 8448.825 – Control of jitter and wander in SDH systems G.750 (ITU-R) – Architectures and functional aspects of radio-relay systems for SDH-based networks Introduction to SONET/SDH (continued …): Synchronous optical network (SONET) is a standard for optical telecommunications transport. and 44736 kbit/s hierarchical levels G.702 – Digital Hierarchy bit rates G.com/optical SDH Reference Materials ITU-T: G.826 – Error performance parameters and objectives for international.tektronix.783 – Characteristics of SDH equipment functional blocks G.831 – Management capabilities of transport network based on SDH G.SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer 37 www. 2048.958 – Digital line systems based on SDH for use on optical fibre cables I.432 – B-ISDN user-network interface – Physical layer specification M.701 – Vocabulary of digital transmission and multiplexing and PCM terms G. 6312. The increased configuration flexibility and bandwidth availability of SONET provides significant advantages over the older telecommunications system.2100 – Performance limits for bringing-into-service and maintenance of international digital paths.827 – Availability parameters and objectives for path elements of international constant bit-rate digital paths at or above the primary rate G.172 – Jitter and wander measuring equipment for digital systems which are based on the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) O.703 – Physical/electrical characteristics of hierarchical digital interfaces G.780 – Vocabulary of terms for SDH networks and equipment G.784 – SDH management G. sections.707 – Network Node Interface for the SDH G.772 – Protected monitoring points provided on digital transmission systems G.803 – Architecture of transport networks based on the SDH G.706 – Frame alignment and cyclic redundancy check (CRC) procedures relating to basic frame structures defined in Recommendation G. and transmission systems M. which sets industry standards in the United States for telecommunications and other industries.181 – Equipment to assess error performance on STM-N interfaces F.861 – Principles and guidelines for the integration of satellite and radio systems in SDH G.704 G.704 – Synchronous frame structures used at 1544. The comprehensive SONET/synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) standard is expected to provide the transport infrastructure for worldwide telecommunications for at least the next two or three decades. These advantages include the following: • reduction in equipment requirements and an increase in network reliability 55 .841 – Types and characteristics of SDH network protection architectures G.957 – Optical interfaces for equipment and systems relating to the SDH G. constant bit rate digital paths at or above the primary rate G.150 – General requirements for instrumentation for performance measurements on digital transmission equipment O.2101 – Performance limits for BIS and maintenance of SDH paths and multiplex sections O. It was formulated by the ECSA for ANSI.

Background Before SONET. The first step in the SONET multiplexing process involves the generation of the lowest level or base signal. multiplexing formats. The task of creating such a standard was taken up in 1984 by the ECSA to establish a standard for connecting one fiber system to another. which operates at 51. designated optical carrier level N (OC–N). DS–3) and a synchronous structure that greatly simplifies the interface to digital switches. Canada. and Hong Kong—wanted standards so that they could mix and match equipment from different suppliers. the first generations of fiber-optic systems in the public telephone network used proprietary architectures. this base signal is referred to as synchronous transport signal–level 1. 56 . The users of this equipment—regional Bell operating companies and interexchange carriers (IXCs) in the United States. and maintenance procedures.• provision of overhead and payload bytes—the overhead bytes permit management of the payload bytes on an individual basis and facilitate centralized fault sectionalization definition of a synchronous multiplexing format for carrying lower level digital signals (such as DS–1. digital cross-connect switches. Basic SONET Signal SONET defines a technology for carrying many signals of different capacities through a synchronous. flexible. SONET defines optical carrier (OC) levels and electrically equivalent synchronous transport signals (STSs) for the fiber-optic–based transmission hierarchy. Taiwan. An STS–N signal is composed of N byte-interleaved STS–1 signals. with a variety of transmission rates • • • In brief. Synchronous and nonsynchronous line rates and the relationships between each are shown in Tables 1 and 2. or simply STS–1. line codes. Higher-level signals are integer multiples of STS–1. This is accomplished by means of a byteinterleaved multiplexing scheme. Byte-interleaving simplifies multiplexing and offers end-to-end network management. creating the family of STS–N signals in Table 1. and add-drop multiplexers availability of a set of generic standards that enable products from different vendors to be connected definition of a flexible architecture capable of accommodating future applications. Korea. In SONET. This table also includes the optical counterpart for each STS–N signal.84 Mbps. equipment. This standard is called SONET. optical hierarchy.

where a single physical wire pair can be used to carry many simultaneous voice conversations by time-division multiplexing. Non synchronous Hierarchy Signal Bit Rate (Mbps) Channels DS–0 DS–1 DS–2 DS–3 0. OC–12 STS–48.320 28 DS–1s or 1 DS–3 84 DS–1s or 3 DS–3s 336 DS–1s or 12 DS–3s 1...520 622.312 44.. OC–3 STS–12.488.736 1 DS–0 24 DS–0s 96 DS–0s 28 DS–1s What is e1? In: Electronics Engineering [Edit categories] [Improve] e1 the basic data rate of communication in telecom( europeon .080 2...544 6.840 155.064 1. OC–192 9.280 Note: STS = synchronous transport signal. which revised and improved the earlier American T-carrier technology.. The European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) originally standardized the E-carrier system.953..048Mbps. worldwide standards have been created and deployed.376 DS–1s or 192 DS–3s STS–192. E-carrier: In digital telecommunications. and this 57 .344 DS–1s or 48 DS–3s 5.india as well). SONET Hierarchy Signal STS–1. OC–1 STS–3. It is made up to 32 channels of 64 kbps each .Table 1. OC–48 Bit Rate (Mbps) Capacity 51. OC = optical carrier Table 2. so i e1=2.

368 Mbit/s. to control call setup and teardown according to one of several standard telecommunications protocols.048 Mbit/s downstream and 2. and have a transmission speed of 34. but one is used for framing and typically one allocated for signalling call setup and tear down. E-carrier systems permanently allocate capacity for a voice call for its entire duration. This includes Channel Associated Signaling (CAS) where a set of bits is used to replicate opening and closing the circuit (as if picking up the telephone receiver and pulsing digits 58 . Physically E1 is transmitted as 32 timeslots and E3 512 timeslots.048.048 Mbit/s (full duplex. This allows the receiver to lock onto the start of each frame and match up each channel in turn. One timeslot (TS16) is often reserved for signalling purposes. The timeslots are numbered from 0 to 31. This is now widely used in almost all countries outside the USA. E1 An E1 link operates over two separate sets of wires.has now been adopted by the International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T). and alternately transmits a fixed pattern. Unlike Internet data services. each being allocated 8 bits in turn. This ensures high call quality because the transmission arrives with the same short delay (latency) and capacity at all times. A nominal 3 Volt peak signal is encoded with pulses using a method that avoids long periods without polarity changes. The E-carrier standards [1][2] form part of the Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) where groups of E1 circuits may be bundled onto higher capacity E3 links between telephone exchanges or countries. E1 circuits are very common in most telephone exchanges and are used to connect to medium and large companies. 2. This is ideal for voice telephone calls where the voice is sampled into an 8 bit number at that data rate and reconstructed at the other end. operators and/or countries. to detect if the circuit is losing bits (information). E3 lines are used between exchanges. The line data rate is 2. only E1 and E3 versions are used. usually encoded according to A-law algorithm. to remote exchanges and in many cases between exchanges. In practice. The standards allow for a full Cyclic Redundancy Check to be performed across all bits transmitted in each frame. One timeslot (TS0) is reserved for framing purposes. i.e.048 Mbit/s upstream) which is split into 32 timeslots. usually twisted pair cable.000). Canada and Japan. This allows a network operator to provide a private end-to-end E1 circuit between customers in different countries that share single high capacity links in between. Thus each timeslot sends and receives an 8-bit PCM sample. 8000 times per second (8 x 8000 x 32 = 2. but this is not always used.

almost exclusively HDB3 format is used.448 Mbit/s and not 8. without risking the loss of any information. Signal Rate 59 . This allows the E1 systems to be used equally well for circuit switch data calls. Definition Link An unidirectional channel residing in one timeslot of a E1 or T1 Line. ISDN is often used between the local telephone exchange and business premises. In most environments. all 8 bits of each sample are available for each call. Note. because bit interleaving is used. carrying 64 kbit/s (64'000 bit/s) raw digital data.703 specifies several options for the physical transmission. Hierarchy levels The PDH based on the E0 signal rate is designed so that each higher level can multiplex a set of lower level signals. all other levels are designed to carry 4 signals from the level below.192 Mbit/s as one might expect when multiplying the E1 rate by 4). requiring equipment to individually demultiplex every single level down to the one that is required. Line An unidirectional E1 or T1 physical connection. ANSI uses a larger 14-bit CIC and so can accommodate up to 16. type of transmission required etc. whilst SS7 is almost exclusively used between exchanges and operators. In theory. or using tone signalling which is passed through on the voice circuits themselves. and justification bits to account for rate differences between sections of the network. More recent systems used Common Channel Signaling (CCS) such as ISDN or Signalling System 7 (SS7) which send short encoded messages with more information about the call including caller ID.on a rotary phone). Unlike the earlier T-carrier systems developed in North America. each subsequent level has a capacity greater than would be expected from simply multiplying the lower level signal rate (so for example E2 is 8. it is very difficult to demultiplex low level tributaries directly. a single SS7 signaling timeslot can control up to 4096 circuits per signalling channel using a 12-bit Channel Identification Code (CIC)[3]. Framed E1 is designed to carry 30 E0 data channels + 1 signalling channel. Trunk A bidirectional E1 or T1 physical connection. While the original CEPT standard G.384 circuits. multiple signalling channels would be used to provide redundancy in case of faults or outages. thus allowing slightly more efficient use of the overall transmission bandwidth because additional E1 links would use all 31 voice channels. Because of the necessity for overhead bits.

named E for Europe. T1 fully met the goals of voice transmission at the time. 4. The single bit for T1 proved inadequate. this command structure was dictated by AT&T. resulting in a 23 channel system. called SA bits. or ISDN. some 10 years following the commercial success of T1 in the US.448 Mbit/s 34. SS7. (To have their own standard was a European fetish then.) With the hindsight learned from the T1 system. For E1. However. namely the remote terminal command syntax. for which the T1 format was then found wanting. and at one time different rail gauge for each country. and reassign a voice timeslot for SS7 and ISDN. 1. which requires hiccups in counting. T1 has to cope with robbed bit. Since telephone equipment are grouped in 12. compared to the 193-bit frame of T1. Clear 64 Kbit/s data capacity for E1. the number 30 results in acceptable "misalignment" of office wiring plan. Horrors! 5. As expected. 60 . one item remained unfinished.368 Mbit/s 139. then in control of all T1 systems. E1 is indeed a much superior design. 24 for T1. One 8-bit timeslot reserved for OA&M for E1. CEPT wanted to design a different transmission format. size of letter paper.048 Mbit/s 8. If one person from one end of a line segment can send a command to a remote end to effect a loopback. For T1. It was a victim of its own success.E0 E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 64 kbit/s 2.264 Mbit/s 564. 30 voice channels for E1 vs. saving a "truck roll".992 Mbit/s Historical Note on E1 and T1 In 1972. LoopTel 02:51. Conversion between E1 and T1 results in idle channels except for 5 T1 to 4 E1 conversion. 32 8-bit time slots per frame. namely it spawned the digital transmission revolution. then this obviates the need to send a second person to the remote end. Europe decided to develop its own digital transmission technology. In fairness. CEPT had set aside certain bits in TS0 for this purpose. available for CAS. The T1 format resorted to robbed bit signaling for CAS. as for example their TV formats. A basic tool for troubleshooting a failed line is to do loopbacks a section at a time. One 8-bit timeslot reserved for signaling. 2. 1 December 2006 (UTC) [edit] Unfinished Business For all the careful planning and design of the E1 format. The differences are as follows. 3. all numbers powers of 2. shape of electric plugs.

which is exactly what the manufacturers desired.048Mbps. This of course leads to brand loyalty.LoopTel 02:22. 61 . As a result. The resulting data stream has a rate of 2. 2 December 2006 (UTC) E1 lines which are used in Europe are formed when 32 digitized phone lines are combined into a single digital data stream. each manufacturer determined its own proprietary command codes. Europe does not us the DS designation. An E1 terminal of one brand could not communicate with a terminal of another brand in the troubleshooting procedure.the committee could not agree on the exact format of the commands.

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