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Numerical Model of a Parallel Flow Minichannel Evaporator With New Flow Boiling Heat Transfer Correlation

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ScienceDirect

j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w. e l s e v i e r. c o m / l o c a t e / i j r e f r i g

evaporator with new flow boiling heat transfer

correlation

a

Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China

b

School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China

c

New Energy Vehicle Division, Shanghai Automotive Industry Cooperation, Shanghai 201804, China

A R T I C L E I N F O A B S T R A C T

Article history: In this paper, a distributed parameter (DP) numerical model with the new proposed flow

Received 29 July 2015 boiling heat transfer correlation was established for parallel flow minichannel (PFMC) evapo-

Received in revised form 27 October rator. DP model validation was made by comparing the measured values obtained on

2015 experimental studies, which were conducted under refrigerant mass flow rate range of 34.6

Accepted 28 October 2015 245.6 kg h1 and evaporation pressure of 200500 kPa. The effects of four different flow boiling

Available online 11 November 2015 heat transfer correlations on DP model performance were investigated. Results showed that

the new correlation predicted 99% of experimental data in 30% error bands. Moreover, the

Keywords: DP model with the new correlation yielded the mean absolute error (MAE) of 1.5%, 9.1%,

Distributed parameter 18.8%, 14.2% and 19.8% in prediction of cooling capacity, outlet air temperature, refriger-

Flow boiling heat transfer ant superheat, air side and refrigerant side pressure drop, respectively. The presented DP

New correlation model can be implemented to evaluate the performance of PFMC evaporator, and there-

Numerical model fore can save efforts on component and system design and optimization.

Parallel flow minichannel 2016 Elsevier Ltd and International Institute of Refrigeration. All rights reserved.

evaporator

coulement parallles avec une nouvelle corrlation du

transfert de chaleur par bullition en coulement

Mots cls : Paramtre distribu ; Transfert de chaleur par coulement en bullition ; Nouvelle corrlation ; Modle numrique ; Mini

canaux coulement parallle ; vaporateur

* Corresponding author. Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China. Tel.: +86 21 34206260;

Fax: +86 21 34206814.

E-mail address: gubo@sjtu.edu.cn (B. Gu).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2015.10.032

0140-7007/ 2016 Elsevier Ltd and International Institute of Refrigeration. All rights reserved.

2 international journal of refrigeration 63 (2016) 113

Nomenclature

Bo boiling number S suppression factor

Co confinement number u velocity, ms1

cp specific heat capacity, Jkg1 K1 x refrigerant quality

Dh hydraulic diameter, mm heat transfer coefficient, Wm2 K1

d humidity, g kg1 thickness, mm

E enhancement factor f fin thickness, mm

Fd fin width, mm data value

Ff fluid-surface parameter angle, degree

Fh fin height, mm thermal conductivity, Wm1 K1

Fp fin pitch, mm viscosity, Pas

Fr Froude number moisture separation coefficient

f friction factor density, kg m3

G mass flux, kg m2 s1 surface tension, Nm1

g gravitational acceleration, ms2 two-phase multiplier

h specific enthalpy, kJ kg1 refrigerant state factor

i latent heat of evaporation, kJ kg1

j j factor Subscript

k liquid or vapor a air side

Ll louver length, mm ac acceleration

L element length, m cb convective boiling

Lp louver pitch, mm exp experimental

M mole mass, gmol1 fr friction

m mass flow rate, kg h1 in inlet

n data number liq liquid

Pr Prandtl number nb nucleate boiling

p pressure, kPa new new proposed

pc critical pressure, kPa out outlet

p pressure drop, Pa or kPa pre predicted

Q cooling capacity, W r refrigerant side

q heat flux, Wm2 sat saturated

Re Reynolds number sp single phase

Tl tube length, m spec specific

Tp tube pitch, m tp two-phase

t temperature, C vap vapor

We Weber number w tube wall

1. Introduction is dominated by forced convection flow boiling at high quali-

ties, where one function is independent of another one.

Compared with conventional evaporators, parallel flow However, the flow mechanisms can coexist as refrigerant quality

minichannel (PFMC) evaporators with hydraulic diameter increases. Ong and Thome (2011) stated that the nucleate and

in 1 mm range attract much attention because of their convective boiling contributions can be superimposed by a very

superior thermal performance, compact structure, and reduc- complex mechanism. According to Bertsch et al. (2009b), flow

tion of refrigerant charge (Qi et al., 2009; Shao et al., 2010). boiling heat transfer coefficients increased with heat flux in-

Refrigerant heat transfer characteristics in high surface-to- crease and decreased with hydraulic diameter increase. The

volume ratio minichannels, especially for the two-phase flow increase of saturation pressure led to heat transfer increase

boiling region, are quite different from those in traditional (Saitoh et al., 2005). Saitoh et al. (2007) suggested that refrig-

channels (Jokar et al., 2006; Kandlikar, 2002; Thome et al., erant dry out initially occurred on the upper tube due to gravity

2004). effect.

During flow boiling process, the refrigerant quality in- Numerous correlations for flow boiling heat transfer pre-

creases, and flow boiling occurs until refrigerant reaches the diction have been proposed, which can be divided into four

superheated state. In general, the flow boiling heat transfer categories: superposition model, selection model, fitting model,

mechanism in minichannels is simplified as a combination of and phenomenological model (Bertsch et al., 2009a; Kaew-On

nucleate boiling and convective boiling. The nucleate boiling et al., 2011; Quibn et al., 2009; Saisorn et al., 2010; Wojtan et al.,

heat transfer is more prominent than convective flow boiling 2005; Zhang et al., 2004). As for the superposition model, flow

international journal of refrigeration 63 (2016) 113 3

boiling heat transfer is regarded as a sum of nucleate boiling conditioning system, it is necessary to develop the numerical

and convective boiling. In the selection model, the larger one model for PFMC evaporator with R134a as working fluid, which

between nucleate boiling and convective boiling contribu- would help save experimental energy and cost during the design

tions is adopted as heat transfer result. The fitting model is and optimization of automobile air conditioning system.

constituted by dimensionless parameters based on experi- In the present study, a DP model with the new proposed

mental data fitting. Moreover, the phenomenological model is flow boiling heat transfer correlation was established for PFMC

a local flow pattern oriented model, which considers the dry evaporator and 116 sets of experimental data were presented

angle based on different regimes. for DP model validation. Compared with three existing corre-

Accurate correlations for flow boiling heat transfer predic- lations, the new correlation showed optimum performance in

tion are the foundation for PFMC evaporator numerical flow boiling heat transfer prediction. The effects of flow boiling

modeling, which could help reduce the time associated with heat transfer correlations on DP model prediction perfor-

product design and development therefore leading to more cost- mance were evaluated. DP model with the new proposed

effective and energy efficient components and systems. Kim correlation could predict PFMC evaporator performance with

and Bullard (2001) developed a finite volume model for micro the highest precision. The MAEs of cooling capacity, outlet air

channel evaporator with CO2 as working fluid. Several corre- temperature, refrigerant superheat, air side pressure drop, and

lations for air side and refrigerant side were compared before refrigerant side pressure drop predictions were 1.5%, 9.1%, 18.8%,

selecting appropriate correlations, which indicated that the 14.2%, and 19.8%, respectively.

simulation results of refrigerant side pressure drop behavior

showed maximum relative error of 13.1%. Brix et al. (2010) pro-

posed a discretized steady-state model for PFMC evaporator

with CO2 as refrigerant. They found that the cooling capacity 2. PFMC evaporator and experimental setup

reduction was mainly caused by non-uniform airflow and

uneven refrigerant inlet quality. Zhao et al. (2012) developed 2.1. PFMC evaporator

a simulation model with the effectiveness-NTU method for

minichannel evaporator using R1234yf as working fluid. Results PFMC evaporators are generally constituted of parallel flow

indicated that new proposed correlations were required in order minichannel tubes, louvered fins, collection header, and allo-

to get high precision. Only existing empirical correlations cation header. Refrigerant flows through minichannel tubes in

were used in developed model for calculating heat transfer parallel with the same pass while in series from pass to pass.

coefficients. In order to predict evaporator performance, several The schematic of studied PFMC evaporator was illustrated in

studies have been conducted and applied successfully with dis- Fig. 1a, which was double-deck type with four flow passes and

tributed parameter (DP) model (Jia et al., 1995, 1999; Tso et al., each flow pass consisted of eight tubes. Detail structures of

2006). However, DP models for minichannel evaporator are minichannel and louvered fin were presented in Fig. 1b. The

limited in open literatures. Since minichannel evaporator with geometric parameters of PFMC evaporator were summarized

R134a as working fluid is commonly used in automobile air in Table 1.

(a) (b)

Fig. 1 (a) The schematic of PFMC evaporator; (b) detail structures of minichannel and louver fin.

4 international journal of refrigeration 63 (2016) 113

Parameters Values Parameters Values

2

Air flow area (m ) 0.44 Fin pitch (mm) 1.2

Air heat transfer area (m2) 3.86 Hydraulic diameter (mm) 0.8

Refrigerant area (m2) 0.23 Fin thickness (mm) 0.2

Core size (mm3) 200*220*32 Louver angle (degree) 27

Fin width (mm) 10 Number of tubes 32

Fin height (mm) 7 Flow pass arrangement 8-8-8-8

Tube wall thickness (mm) 0.2

2.2. Test system and test conditions Since PFMC evaporators were usually utilized in automo-

bile air conditioning system, the test conditions were arranged

The schematic of PFMC evaporator test bench was shown in by considering working conditions of automobile air condi-

Fig. 2. The experimental setup was composed of a vapor com- tioning system. Therefore, experimental parameters were set

pression refrigeration system, two air-handling units, a within the following range: evaporator air inlet temperature:

measurement system, a control unit, and a data acquisition 25, 30 and 35C; air inlet relative humidity: 50%; air inlet ve-

system (DAS). The tested PFMC evaporator using R134a as locity: 4 and 6 ms1. The system operating parameters were as

refrigerant was included in the refrigeration system, which was following: scroll compressor speed: 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000 and

mainly consisted of a scroll compressor, a parallel flow con- 6000 rpm; EEV opening: 250500 pulses (with 25 pulses as a

denser, and an electronic expansion valve (EEV). Scroll step); condenser air inlet velocity: 6 and 8 ms1; condenser air

compressor speed, EEV opening and fan speed were con- inlet temperature: 35, 38 and 43C.

trolled by the external controller in order to adjust refrigerant

mass flow rate, evaporating pressure, refrigerant quality, and

air velocity. Two air-handling units were used to maintain con- 2.3. Uncertainty analysis

denser chamber and evaporator chamber at required

Accuracies of measured parameters were shown in Table 2. After

temperature and humidity. Platinum resistance thermom-

achieving steady state, all parameters were recorded by the DAS

eters (PRTs) and type-T thermocouples were utilized to measure

for data processing, analysis, and storage. The criterion for

air and refrigerant temperature, respectively. Humidity sensors

judging a stable operating condition was assumed that the heat

were installed at airflow inlet and outlet. Refrigerant mass flow

transfer difference between refrigerant side (Qr) and air side

rate was metered by a Coriolis-effect flow meter mounted at

(Qa) was within 2% error bands. Equations for energy con-

the condenser exit. Pressure transducers were respectively in-

servation and balance were given in Eqs. (1)(3).

stalled at compressor outlet, PFMC evaporator inlet and outlet.

The air velocity passing through PFMC evaporator was varied

by controlling fan input voltage. Q r = mr (hr ,out hr ,in ) (1)

international journal of refrigeration 63 (2016) 113 5

Measured variables Facilities Range Accuracy

Air temperature (C) PRT sensor 0100 0.3C

Humidity (%) Humidity sensor 0100 1%

Air velocity (ms1) Blower with control unit 010 5%

Refrigerant temperature (C) Type T thermocouple 50 to 120 0.3C

Refrigerant pressure (kPa) Pressure transducer 02500 3.4 kpa

Refrigerant mass flow rate (g s1) Coriolis-effect flow meter 0 to 200 2%

2 (Q r Q a ) (Q r + Q a ) < 2% (3) w

Q w,i = Lw,i Aw,spec (t wout t win ) (5)

w

Based on the uncertainty calculation method proposed by

Moffat (1988), the measurement uncertainties of Qr and Qa were Q a,i = i a,i La,i Aa,spec (t a,i t wout ,i ) (6)

in the range of 02.5% and 03.8%, respectively. More details

for uncertainty analysis were supplied in the Appendix A. where, r,i and a,i were refrigerant and air side heat transfer

coefficients for the ith element, Wm2 K1. Lr,i, La,i and Lw,i were

the element length respectively calculated from refrigerant, air

3. Distributed parameter model for PFMC and tube wall side, m. Ar,spec, Aa,spec and Aw,spec were the heat trans-

evaporator fer areas per unit length of refrigerant side, air side and tube

wall side, m2. w was aluminum thermal conductivity, Wm1 K1.

The distributed parameter (DP) method was implemented to w was the tube wall thickness, m. The moisture separation co-

develop PFMC evaporator numerical model, which was divided efficient i showed in Eq. (7) was used to characterize latent

into three parts, namely, refrigerant side, tube side and air side. heat transfer caused by mass transfer (Deru, 2003).

Each control volume was treated as a simple cross-flow ar-

rangement between refrigerant and air stream, as showed in da,i dw,i

1 + 2051 da,i dw,i

Fig. 3. To simplify the research, main assumptions were made i = c p,i (t a,i t w,i ) (7)

1 da,i < dw,i

(Zhao et al., 2012):

(1) Refrigerant flow and airflow were one-dimensional ho- where, da,i and dw,i were the air absolute humidity under element

mogenous flows; air temperature (ta,i) and tube wall temperature (tw,i), respec-

(2) Heat conduction along axial direction and radiation heat tively. cp,i was air specific heat of the ith element, Jkg1 K1.

transfer were negligible;

3.2. Air side heat transfer and pressure drop

(3) Refrigerant distribution was uniform;

(4) Refrigerant pressure drops caused by the header were

Louver fins showed significant effects on air side heat trans-

neglected;

fer performance and the conventional Nusselt number was not

(5) Thermal physical properties were identified with the

applicable to calculate air side heat transfer coefficients. In this

average value of inlet and outlet parameters.

study, j factor and f factor empirical correlations were applied

to calculate air side heat transfer and pressure drop, respec-

3.1. Heat transfer control equations

tively (Kim and Bullard, 2001). For dry conditions, j factor

and f factor empirical correlations were given by Eqs. (8) and

Heat transfers between refrigerant side and tube wall side (Qr,i),

(9).

inner wall side and outer wall side(Qw,i), tube wall side and air

side (Qa,i) were expressed in Eqs.(4)(6), respectively.

( 90 )

0.13 0.29 0.235 0.279 0.05

f

0.257 0.68

0.487

j = ReLp

FP Fh Fd Ll TP

LP LP LP LP LP LP

(8)

1.682 1.22 0.818 1.97

0.781

0.444

Fp Fh Fd Ll

f = ReLp L L L L

90 p p p p (9)

(100 < ReLp < 600)

tures, ReLp = DLpGa a ; DLp was the hydraulic diameter based on

louver fin, DLp = 2FpFh (F + 2

p )

Fp2 4 + Fh2 ; Fp, Fh, Fd were fin pitch,

fin height and fin width, mm; Ga was air mass flux, kgm2s1;

Fig. 3 Control volume of the DP model. a was air viscosity, Pas; was louver angle, degree; Lp and Ll

6 international journal of refrigeration 63 (2016) 113

were louver pitch and length, mm; Tp was tube pitch, mm; f 3.3.2.2. KB_Correlation. KB_Correlation (Kandlikar

was fin thickness, mm. and Balasubramanian, 2004) was used to represent a

For wet conditions, the effect of condensation water on heat selection model, which considered the larger value between

transfer performance decreases as Reynolds number in- nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficient and convective boiling

creases (Kim and Bullard, 2002). The air side heat transfer heat transfer coefficient as the flow boiling heat transfer

and pressure drop were calculated from Eqs. (10) and (11), coefficient.

respectively.

nb = [0.6683Co 0.2 + 1058Bo 0.7Ff ] (1 x )0.8 liq (17)

( )

0.171 0.29 0.248 0.275 0.05

f

0.25 0.68

0.512

j = ReLp FP Fh Fd Ll TP (10)

90 LP LP LP LP LP LP

cb = [1.136Co 0.9 + 667.2Bo 0.7Ff ] (1 x )0.8 liq (18)

2.635 1.22 0.823 1.97

0.798

0.395

Fp Fh Fd Ll

f = ReLp liq = 0.023liq DhReliq

0 .8 0 .4

L L L L

90 Prliq (19)

p p p p (11)

(80 < ReLp < 300)

tp = max ( nb, cb ) (20)

3.3. Refrigerant side heat transfer and pressure drop

where, Co = ( vap liq ) (1 x x)0.8; Bo was boiling number,

0 .5

3.3.1. Superheated vapor heat transfer correlation Bo = q (irGr ) ; q was heat flux, Wm2; ir was evaporation latent

As for superheated vapor region, refrigerant heat transfer co- heat, kJ kg1; Gr was refrigerant mass flux, kg m2 s1. The fluid-

efficients were obtained from the DittusBoelter correlation as surface parameter (Ff) for R134a was 1.63.

shown in Eq. (12).

3.3.2.3. SM_Correlation. SM_Correlation (Sun and Mishima,

sp = 0.023 vap DhRevap

0 .8 0 .4

Prvap (12) 2009) was a modified LazarekBlack correlation (Lazarek and

Black, 1982), which was correlated by experimental data. Di-

where, Pr was Prandtl number, Pr = c p . mensionless parameters such as Reynolds number (Re), boiling

number (Bo) and Weber number (We) were included in the

3.3.2. Flow boiling heat transfer correlation fitting correlation.

In this section, three existing flow boiling heat transfer cor-

relations namely, B_Correlation (Bertsch et al., 2009a), 6Re1liq.05Bo 0.54 liq

tp = (21)

KB_Correlation (Kandlikar and Balasubramanian, 2004) and We0.191

liq ( liq vap )

0.142

Dh

SM_Correlation (Sun and Mishima, 2009) were introduced, which

were respectively chosen to represent superposition model, se- where, We was Webb number, We = Gr2 Dh ( liq ) ; was surface

lection model and fitting model by considering evaporator tension, Nm1.

working conditions and working fluid properties. In addition,

a new proposed correlation was developed based on modify- 3.3.2.4. New correlation. In developing new flow boiling heat

ing superposition model. transfer correlation, two critical aspects should be solved out,

namely, correlation format and correlation coefficients. Gen-

3.3.2.1. B_Correlation. B_Correlation (Bertsch et al., 2009a) was erally, Reynolds number (Re) and Prandtl number (Pr) were used

a superposition model for flow boiling heat transfer coeffi- to show the effect of flow regime and thermal/momentum

cient (tp) prediction by improving Chen type correlation (Chen, diffusivity. Weber number (We) was introduced to character-

1966), which included nucleate boiling (nb) and convective ize the effect of tube hydraulic diameter and Froude number

boiling (cb), as shown in Eqs. (13)(16). (Fr) was included to represent the gravity factor. It was dem-

onstrated that the two-phase heat transfer coefficient in small

tp = nb (1 x ) + cb [1 + 80 ( x2 x6 ) e0.6Co ] (13) channel was a function of LockhartMartinelli parameter (Xtt),

which was utilized to express the influence of refrigerant quality

(x) on flow boiling heat transfer (Saitoh et al., 2005). In this study,

nb = 55 ( p pc ) ( log 10 ( p pc ))0.55 M 0.5q0.67

0.12

(14)

the correlation for R134a mininchanel flow boiling heat trans-

fer prediction was determined based on flow boiling mechanism

cb = cb,liq (1 x ) + cb,vap x (15) analysis afore mentioned, which was expressed in Eq. (22). The

new convective boiling enhancement factor (Enew) was defined

D as a function of Xtt and We. The nucleate boiling suppression

0.0688 h RekPrk

k Tl factor (Snew) was combined with Bo, Fr, We, and x. Enew and Snew

cb,k = 3.66 + 23 (16) were respectively given by Eqs. (23) and (24). The coefficients

Dh Dh

1 + 0 . 04 Re Pr

Tl k k in the developed correlation were decided by database with

the least square method.

where, x was refrigerant quality; pc was critical pressure, kPa;

Co was confinement number, Co = [g ( liq vap ) Dh2 ]

0.5

; M was tp = Enew liq + Snew nb (22)

mole mass of R134a, gmol1; k represented for liquid or vapor;

Tl was tube length, m. Enew = (1 + 9.8Xtt0.2 ) Wevap

0.32

(23)

international journal of refrigeration 63 (2016) 113 7

Correlation Parameter range

B_Correlation Dh: 0.16-2.92 mm; Co: 0.3-4; Gr: 203000 kgm2s1; q: 41150 kWm2; tsat: -194-97 C; x: 0-1

KB_Correlation Dh: 0.19-2.92 mm; Gr: 50570 kgm2s1; q: 5.4690.75 kWm2; Reliq: 4102995; x: 0-0.98

SM_Correlation Dh: 0.21-6.5 mm; Gr: 441500 kgm2s1; q: 5109000 kWm2

Reliq: 1243600; Revap: 30340000; x: 0-1

New_Correlation Dh: 0.16-6.5 mm; Gr: 201500 kgm2s1; q: 4109000 kWm2; Re: 12340000; x: 0-1

Bo0.02Fr 0.04 e0.81 x to calculate outlet parameters at each element based on inlet

Snew = (24)

1 104 ReliqEnew0.79 conditions. The refrigerant state was determined in order to

calculate refrigerant heat transfer coefficient. The tube wall tem-

where, Fr = Gr2 ( liq

2

gDh ) ; g was gravitational acceleration, ms2; perature was firstly assumed and finally determined when the

liq and nb were same as Eqs. (19) and (14). The application error between element lengths respectively calculated by re-

ranges of four flow boiling correlations were summarized in frigerant side and air side was within a satisfying range (106).

Table 3. After calculation of the present control volume, outcomes would

be assigned to the next control volume as input parameters.

3.3.3. Refrigerant side pressure drop The iteration process stopped when calculated tube length and

The single phase refrigerant pressure drop was calculated based tube number were in a limited error with actual values. The

on the correlation as showed in Eqs. (25) and (26). entire program was developed under Visual Basic (VB)

environment.

L Gr2

psp = f (25)

Dh 2vap

64 ReDh (ReDh 2300)

f = (26)

0.25

0.3164ReDh (ReDh > 2300) 4.1. Database for correlation validation

where, f was fanning friction factor; ReDh was Reynolds number Before investigating the effects of flow boiling heat transfer cor-

based on channel hydraulic diameter. relations on the PFMC evaporator numerical model, four

As for two-phase region, refrigerant pressure drop was mainly correlations provided in Section 3.3.2 were validated with ex-

contributed by acceleration (pac), friction (pfr), and gravity (pg), perimental data. The database for flow boiling heat transfer

as shown in Eq. (27). Generally, the gravity can be neglected in correlation validation was constituted by 236 data points, which

PFMC evaporator compared with acceleration and friction. were collected from open literature (Bertsch et al., 2009a; Lie

et al., 2006; Shiferaw et al., 2007, 2009). All these data points

ptp = pac + p f + pg (27) were applicable to R134a and test conditions were in accor-

dance with evaporator working conditions. The database range

Acceleration pressure drop (Zhao et al., 2012) was ex-

for correlation validation was presented in Table 4.

pressed in terms of PFMC evaporator inlet and outlet conditions,

which was evaluated by Eq. (28).

4.2. Database for DP model validation

xout2

(1 xout )2 xin2 (1 xin )2

pac = Gr2 + + (28) The database for DP model validation was formed by 116 sets

out vap (1 out ) liq in vap (1 in ) liq

of obtained experimental data, which were demonstrated in

where, was refrigerant state factor, Fig. 5. The Cooling capacities (Q), air outlet temperatures (ta,out),

1 refrigerant superheats (tr,sup), air side pressure drops (pa), and

= 1 + (vap liq ) (1 x ) x .

23

Zhang and Webbs correlation (Zhang and Webb, 2001) was 8780 W, 6.722.7C, 13.136.5C, 104.1177.7 Pa, and 4.789.5 kPa,

adopted for friction pressure drop calculation. respectively.

p fr =

liq Dh xout

xin

2dx (29) 4.3. Correlation and model assessment

where, L tp was the length of two-phase region, m;

them against the database from the global level. Two widely

was two-phase multiplier, = (1 x ) + 2.87x ( p pc ) +

2 2 2 1

1.68x (1 x ) ( p pc )

0 .8 0.25 1.64

.

lute error (MAE) and the maximum absolute error (MAX), which

were respectively defined by Eqs. (30) and (31).

3.4. Model simulation methodology

1 n pre,i exp,i

The simulation methodology for PFMC evaporator was sum- MAE = exp,i 100%

n i =1

(30)

marized in Fig. 4. The first step in the iterative procedure was

8 international journal of refrigeration 63 (2016) 113

pre,i exp,i showed the MAX of 200.2% and the MAE of 44.9%. B_correlation

MAX = max 100% (31) can be employed to predict accurately when < 5500 Wm2 K1.

exp,i

KB_Correlation predictions were shown in Fig. 7b. The data

where, pre and exp were predicted and experimental values; closely followed 70% to 30% error bands, which showed the

n was the number of data points. MAX and the MAE of 78.2% and 53.9%, respectively. Compari-

sons between experimental data with SM_Correlation

predictions were given in Fig. 7c. Most predictions were within

80% to 30% error bands, which gave the MAX and the MAE

5. Results and discussions of 88.1% and 48.6%, respectively. Fig. 7d demonstrated the errors

yielded by the new correlation. Nearly all data fell in 30% error

5.1. New correlation verification

bands. Compared with published correlations, the new pro-

posed correlation with the MAX of 32.3% and the MAE of 7.9%

The new proposed flow boiling heat transfer correlation was

showed satisfying accuracy in flow boiling heat transfer

found to fit the correlation validation database precisely. The

prediction.

determined enhancement factor (Enew) and the suppression

Additionally, the proportions of data falling within the range

factor (Snew) were plotted against Reynolds number (Re) in Fig. 6.

of 30% and 50% error bands were presented in Table 5.

It was noticed that Enew increased while Snew decreased with

B_Correlation captured 73% of all data in 50% error bands.

Re increase, which indicated that the convective boiling con-

KB_Correlation demonstrated 39% of the data within 30% error

tribution increased while the nucleate boiling contribution

bands and 57% within 50% error bands. 50% of all predic-

decreased during the evaporation process. The results derived

tions by SM_Correlation fell in 50% error bands. The new

from this paper were similar with Mahmoud and Karayiannis

proposed correlation displayed the best performance with 99%

research (Mahmoud and Karayiannis, 2013).

of predictions in 30% error bands.

Comparisons of experimental and predicted heat transfer co- In order to show the effects of flow boiling heat transfer cor-

efficients were illustrated in Fig. 7. Fig. 7a presented relations on the DP model, refrigerant quality (x) and heat

B_Correlation predictions and experimental values, which transfer (Q) varying along the refrigerant flow direction (Li/L)

Table 4 The database for flow boiling heat transfer correlation validation.

pr (kPa) Dh (mm) q (kWm2) Gr (kgm2s1) x r (Wm2K1)

Min 239.7 0.21 8 125 0 1907.7

Max 488.4 6.5 19.6 1500 1 14572.9

international journal of refrigeration 63 (2016) 113 9

of the large difference in local heat transfer predictions,

the DP model showed robust performance in PFMC heat trans-

fer prediction. The reason for this is that the air side heat

transfer is the limiting constraint. These predictions would

supply guidance in flow pass and tube arrangement

optimization.

Comparisons between experimental and predicted heat

transfer performance were shown in Fig. 9. From Fig. 9a, it could

be noticed that the DP model using selected correlations except

for SM_Correlation showed cooling capacity predictions

within 30% error bands. SM_Correlation gave the MAX and

the MAE of 45.9% and 27.7%, respectively. DP model with

B_Correlation demonstrated the MAX of 18.4% and the MAE

of 7.1%. DP model with KB_Correlation showed the MAX of

11.1% and the MAE of 3.2%. DP model with the new correla-

tion showed the best performance, showing the MAX and the

MAE of 5.4% and 1.5%.

The outlet air temperature is closely related to thermal

comfort. The experimental results and predicted outlet air tem-

peratures were demonstrated in Fig. 9b. DP model with

SM_Correlation showed the worst performance with the MAX

and the MAE of 57.5% and 29.4%, respectively. DP model with

B_Correlation showed the MAX of 26.5% and the MAE of 10.8%.

DP model with KB_Correlation gave the MAX and the MAE of

45.5% and 19.5%, respectively. DP model with the new pro-

posed correlation demonstrated the best performance with the

Fig. 5 PFMC evaporator experimental parameters range.

MAX of 22.1% and the MAE of 9.1%.

Refrigerant superheat at PFMC evaporator outlet is an es-

sential parameter for the intelligent control of air conditioning

were given in Fig. 8. The figure illustrated the calculated results

systems. DP model predicted superheats were shown in Fig. 9c.

under mr =92.2 kg h1, pr =288 kPa, and ua =4 ms1. From Fig. 8a,

Superheat predictions with SM_Correlation were zero for all

refrigerant was predicted to reach superheat vapor state at

experimental conditions, which further clarified large predic-

about Li/L = 0.4 except for SM_Correlation. Combining with

tion errors in cooling capacity and air outlet temperature.

Fig. 8b, it can be concluded that more than 80% of the heat

Compared to experimental data, DP model with B_Correlation,

KB_Correlation and new proposed correlation showed the MAX

of 100%, 100% and 88.6% and the MAE of 51.6%, 48.5%, and 18.8%

in superheat prediction, respectively. The calculated super-

heat is generally smaller than the experimental superheat. The

reason can be attributed to that the refrigerant remain in the

liquid state that dissolved in the oil is not taken into account,

which would lead to the mass flow rate larger than the ex-

perimental value. It was concluded that the effects of flow

boiling heat transfer correlations on PFMC evaporator numeri-

cal model should not be overlooked. Accurate predictions in

flow boiling heat transfer would lead to precise PFMC evapo-

rator performance predictions.

Prediction errors in air side and refrigerant side pressure

drop with air velocity and refrigerant mass flow rate were sup-

plied in Fig. 10, which were based on the DP model with the

new proposed correlation. The MAEs of air side and refriger-

ant side pressure drop were 14.2% and 19.8%, respectively. As

can be seen from Fig. 10a, the error of air side pressure drop

prediction was related to the air velocity, which confirmed the

stability of the DP model. From Fig. 10b, the prediction of re-

frigerant pressure drop showed lower precision compared with

cooling capacity and air outlet temperature prediction. The

reason was that the local pressure drop caused by the header

Fig. 6 The enhancement factor and suppression factor was not taken into consideration. In addition, the refrigerant

with Re. mal-distribution was neglected. It is worth noting that

10 international journal of refrigeration 63 (2016) 113

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

Fig. 7 Comparison between flow boiling heat transfer correlations (a) B_Correlation; (b) KB_Correlation; (c) SM_Correlation;

(d) New_Correlation.

evaporator.

Table 5 Comparisons between published correlations

and new correlation.

Correlations Proportion Proportion

within 30% within 50% 6. Conclusions

B_Correlation 52% 73%

KB_Correlation 39% 57% In this paper, a numerical model for PFMC evaporator was es-

SM_Correlation 26% 50%

tablished by applying the distributed parameter (DP) method.

New_Correlation 99% 100%

To verify the presented model, PFMC evaporator perfor-

Fig. 8 Predictions of refrigerant quality and heat transfer along the refrigerant flow direction.

international journal of refrigeration 63 (2016) 113 11

(a) (c)

(b)

Fig. 9 Predictions of PFMC evaporator heat transfer performance (a) cooling capacity; (b) outlet air temperature; (c)

refrigerant superheat.

mance was tested under 116 experimental conditions. A new of China (Grant No. 2013BAG03B01). The authors appreciate

minichannel flow boiling heat transfer correlation was pro- Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation (SAIC) for the supply

posed based on experimental data collected from published of parallel flow minichannel evaporator.

literature, which gave the mean absolute error (MAE) of 7.9%.

The accuracy of the DP model was examined with four dif-

ferent flow boiling heat transfer correlations. The results showed

that the DP model using the new correlation obtained the Appendix A: Data reduction and uncertainty

highest precision, which demonstrated the MAEs of 3.2%, 9.1%, analysis

18.8%, 14.2%, and 19.8% in predicting cooling capacity, outlet

air temperature, refrigerant superheat, air side and refriger-

All data were recorded with a Keithley 2700 data acquisition

ant side pressure drop, respectively. Therefore, the developed

system and ExceLINX data acquisition software. Data were

DP model with the new proposed flow boiling heat transfer cor-

scanned every 2 seconds and monitored via a graphic window.

relation can provide practical information for PFMC evaporator

After achieving steady state, data were averaged over 10

performance analysis and optimization. Furthermore, the DP

minutes. Using the averaged data, thermodynamic and per-

model accuracy would be improved by taking refrigerant dis-

formance calculations were performed under Engineering

tribution factor and flow pass arrangement in to consideration.

Equation Solver (EES) software. The specific enthalpy R134a (hr)

was expressed as a function of refrigerant temperature (tr) and

pressure (pr), as shown in Eq. (A1). The specific enthalpy of mois-

Acknowledgments ture air was derived from psychometric chart using temperature

(ta) and relative humidity (), which was shown in Eq. (A2).

The authors would like to acknowledge financial support pro-

vided by the National Science and Technology Support Program hr = f (t r, pr ) (A1)

(a) (b)

Fig. 10 Predictions of PFMC evaporator pressure drop (a) air side pressure drop; (b) refrigerant side pressure drop.

12 international journal of refrigeration 63 (2016) 113

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2 2 2

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