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Supersonic Natural Laminar Flow Wing Design

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at High-Reynolds-Number Conditions

Yoshine Ueda

Tokyo Business Service Co. Ltd., Tokyo 160-0023, Japan

Kenji Yoshida

Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Tokyo 181-0015, Japan

Kisa Matsushima

University of Toyama, Toyama 930-8555, Japan

and

Hiroaki Ishikawa

Sankosoft Co. Ltd., Tokyo 169-0075, Japan

This paper describes an effective method to create a new ideal pressure distribution for designing a

three-dimensional natural-laminar-flow wing at high-Reynolds-number conditions to reduce friction drag of a

large-size supersonic transport with 300 passengers. This ideal pressure distribution consists of a useful functional

form with parameters that are adjusted to be widely applicable to general wing planforms. Furthermore, this

research proposes an improvement to the design flow of a conventional computational-fluid-dynamics-based

inverse design method developed previously by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency for a natural-laminar-

flow wing design. An idealized pressure distribution and its validity to achieve approximately 35% laminar flow

region of the wing surface on a cranked arrow type planform are presented at the condition of Mach 2.0 and high

Reynolds number of approximately 126 million based on mean aerodynamic chord. A representative cross-

sectional shape of the designed wing is introduced as an example, and it is shown that a distinguishing feature is

characterized by a smaller curvature near the attachment line. A further ideal pressure distribution for an Ogee-

type planform with swept angle varied continuously in spanwise direction is then created as a test case for more

complicated planforms.

An = coefficients of a new ideal Cp distribution spanwise coordinates of wing

for natural-laminar-flow wing design at = boundary-layer thickness

high-Reynolds-number conditions , = nondimensional chordwise and spanwise

CL = lift coefficient coordinates of wing

Cp = pressure coefficient

Cp;attachment = pressure coefficient at attachment line I. Introduction

Cp0 = pressure coefficient at leading edge

c

fn

=

=

dimensional local chord length

base functions of a new ideal Cp distribution

F RICTION drag reduction is one of the most challenging subjects

in the aerodynamic design of aircraft at supersonic speed as well

as subsonic speed. Usually, the pressure drag of a supersonic aircraft

for natural-laminar-flow wing design at is optimized with a slender body and a thin low-aspect-ratio wing,

high-Reynolds-number conditions especially from the viewpoint of wave drag reduction. However, for

M = flight Mach number the realization of a next-generation supersonic transport aircraft

MAC = mean aerodynamic chord (SST), it is well known that there are both economical and environ-

N = integrated amplification rate of instability wave mental issues that the first-generation SST such as the Concorde has

computed by boundary-layer stability equation experienced. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has

ReMAC = Reynolds number based on mean researched and developed several key technologies to overcome

aerodynamic chord these issues since 1997 including some design concepts to reduce

airframe drag, sonic boom, acoustic noise at takeoff and landing, and

structural weight, which are directly linked to both of the previous

issues. In particular, to advance low drag design, it is necessary to

reduce the friction drag of supersonic aircraft, which is not usually

considered. For highly swept wings, however, it is difficult to

maintain the laminar boundary-layer state over the wide wing region

because of the generation of crossflow instabilities near the leading

edge.

In the late 1990s, a challenging concept to reduce friction drag at

supersonic speed was created in the United States [1]. The concept

*Researcher, Aircraft Systems Research Group, Institute of Aeronautical consisted of an accelerated chordwise pressure gradient over a wide

Technology; yueda@chofu.jaxa.jp. upper surface region of a slightly swept wing with a supersonic

Project Manager, D-SEND Project Team, Institute of Aeronautical

Technology; yoshida.kenji@jaxa.jp. leading edge to suppress the TollmienSchlichting instability (TSI).

Professor, Mechanical Engineering and Sciences; kisam@eng.u-toyama The concept also included a sharpened leading edge to reduce wave

.ac.jp. drag and was referred to as the natural-laminar-flow (NLF) wing-

Researcher, Aircraft Systems Research Group, Institute of Aeronautical design concept because of the passive boundary-layer control. The

Technology; hiroaki@chofu.jaxa.jp. effectiveness of this concept was verified in flight tests at supersonic

UEDA ET AL.

deg

deg

deg

deg

speed using a scaled wing model mounted on an F-15 fighter. The compared. The procedure was continued until the difference between

concept has already been patented and is to be adopted for the them reached a convergence tolerance.

SuperSonic Business Jet project planned by Aerion Corporation. The present NLF wing-design concept derived by JAXA was

During the same period an alternative NLF wing-design concept validated in the flight test of a scaled supersonic experimental vehicle

for a highly swept wing with a subsonic leading edge was called NEXST-1 in 2005 (see the right part in Fig. 1 [2,4]). This

independently developed in Japan [2]. The subsonic leading edge configuration was designed by applying representative pressure-drag

usually has a rounded shape to reduce lift-dependent drag by reduction concepts as well as the friction-drag reduction concept of

applying a warped wing-design concept and to improve aerodynamic the NLF wing design. Before the flight test, a wind-tunnel test was

performance by maintaining attached flow due to its drooped leading carried out by JAXA using a 23.3% scaled model. The effectiveness

edge at low speed. This concept consists of an ideal chordwise and of the concept was then qualitatively confirmed by comparing wind-

spanwise pressure distribution for NLF condition on the upper tunnel test results with the transition measurements at an off-design

surface of the highly swept wing. It was derived to suppress the condition (see the left part in Fig. 1 [5]). A qualitative comparison is

crossflow instability (CFI) at the front part of the wing and the TSI aft made because the natural transition process is strongly affected by the

portion, by using a recent transition prediction technique. In this inherent freestream turbulence of a wind tunnel and the precise

derivation, the three-dimensional laminar boundary layer was transition location is difficult to determine.

first computed, and then the relationship between the stability The NEXST-1 concept was 11.5 m in total length, representing an

characteristics and pressure distributions were analyzed in detail 11% scale model of a large-size SST with 300 passengers and was

using a three-dimensional compressible stability equation. Finally, an manufactured through structural design and manufacturing processes

ideal pressure distribution was found for suppression of CFI. The similar to a full-scale aircraft development process. The surface was

shape of an ideal pressure distribution is characterized by a rapid polished to achieve a high-quality surface smoothness. The resulting

acceleration region in less than 2% chord length near the leading edge smoothness was equivalent to the same level as the wind-tunnel test

and almost flat (namely, no pressure gradient) or very gradual model; the average roughness height was less than approximately

acceleration in the remaining area. CFI near the leading edge is 1 m. In the flight test, it was observed that the transition was delayed

suppressed in the former shape of the pressure distribution, while the to approximately 40% chordwise location from the leading edge at a

evolution of the TSI is suppressed in the latter shape. design point (M 2, an altitude of 18 km, design lift coefficient

Following these developments a computational-fluid-dynamics- CL 0.1). This result showed that the supersonic NLF wing-design

based inverse design method was used to design the main wing concept, which was considerably different from the Aerion concept

realizing this ideal pressure coefficient Cp distribution [2]. First, in the United States mentioned previously, was well validated (see the

the flowfield around an initial configuration was analyzed by right part in Fig. 1 [4]). However, the effect of the NLF wing-design

computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and the difference between the concept was significantly reduced at approximately 2.4 times the

CFD-based Cp and the ideal Cp distributions on the wing were Reynolds number than the design point, namely M 2, an altitude of

calculated. To reduce the difference in results, the wing section shape 12.7 km, CL 0.1. Although the mean roughness height was less

was modified by applying a relationship between the variation of Cp than approximately 1 m, its influence on transition was of concern

distribution and the gradient of the wing section shape, which were because the boundary layer becomes thin at a Reynolds number 2.4

based on the supersonic lifting surface theory [3]. Such a modified times higher than the design point. However, because laminar flow

shape is usually made by adding the correction quantity to the was detected by the transition measurement sensors located near the

original shape and performing moderate smoothing of the modified leading edge, we concluded that the roughness had little influence

wing contour as a three-dimensional surface. Furthermore, the on transition. This result appears to show the basic influence of

flowfield around the modified shape was solved again by CFD; the Reynolds number effect on the instability of the boundary layer. As a

CFD-based Cp and the ideal target Cp distributions were then result, this concept was not effective at the high Reynolds numbers

for a full-scale aircraft, and the necessity of further improvement was

Data available online at http://aerioncorp.com [retrieved 4 January 2013]. recognized [4].

UEDA ET AL.

This paper describes the subsequent research results on the on such supersonic trailing edge, which experiences no pressure

improvements cited previously. One of the principal results is to recovery at the trailing edge.

propose an ideal Cp distribution, which is very effective for an NLF Thus, it is expected that such an ideal chordwise pressure

wing design at high-Reynolds-number conditions. According to the distribution becomes the so-called step function shape. However, the

NLF wing-design concept developed in the NEXST-1 project, it is pressure distribution cannot be a step function because the leading-

necessary to develop a narrower and steeper acceleration region near edge radius is finite in nature. It is necessary to make the Cp

the leading edge to reduce the amplification rate of crossflow distribution a narrow acceleration region (i.e., linearly accelerated

instability (CFI) at a Reynolds number higher than the NEXST-1 velocity region to a specific chordwise length). During the flight test,

design point. However, because it has a limitation related to finite it was confirmed that such a steep acceleration can be achieved by

leading-edge radius, a new concept is proposed, which puts a slight comparing with measured Cp data at the design point.

sharp deceleration just after that steep acceleration region. In As mentioned previously, analysis of NEXST-1 flight test data

addition, a functional form expressing an ideal Cp distribution is made it clear that the transition due to CFI could not be suppressed at

created [6] to make it easier to apply to a variety of different Reynolds number higher than the design point. The primary cause of

planforms. Then, a systematic method to determine each coefficient such a situation was attributed to the magnitude of the crossflow

of the functional form is proposed [6] by considering the relationship velocity component, which did not change significantly when the

between each coefficient and transition characteristics. Reynolds number increased. However, the instability (amplification

The background and outline for deriving the present ideal Cp rate) of the boundary layer was shown to increase as a solution of the

distribution suitable for an NLF wing design at high Reynolds stability equation [7,8]. Therefore, to understand the Reynolds

number are described in Sec. II. Transition analysis results on its number effect on transition phenomenon, it is necessary to analyze

effectiveness for a representative cranked arrow type planform are the stability characteristics of three-dimensional laminar boundary

also explained in Sec. II. An improved method for the current NLF layers in detail.

wing design is introduced in Sec. III. The cross-sectional shape of the Current authors aim for the establishment of the NLF wing-design

NLF wing designed at high Reynolds number for a large-size SST method to contribute to the friction-drag reduction of the supersonic

with 300 passengers is then introduced and compared with a aircraft; the transition prediction is placed in the core of this method.

conventional shape like the Concorde. Finally, as an example In general, it is difficult to predict a transition point theoretically and

of applying the current NLF wing-design concept to a more quantitatively because the transition is generated by a complicated

representative planform with a swept angle changing continuously in physical mechanism based on the instability wave in the laminar

the spanwise direction, for example an Ogee planform of the boundary layer growing linearly (amplification) and then non-

Concorde, an ideal Cp distribution is presented, which shows the linearly. However, the current eN method, which is based on a linear

NLF wing effect at a high Reynolds number. stability theory [8] with the locally parallel approximation of the

boundary layer, is considered to be a very useful engineering

approach. It can estimate the behavior of the transition point by

II. Ideal Pressure Distribution for Natural Laminar introducing the threshold value (N factor) of transition criteria based

Flow Wing at High Reynolds Number on several comparisons between the experimental data and computed

A. Analysis for Ideal Cp Distribution N factors. Because this method treats three-dimensional boundary

In general, because a pressure gradient in the spanwise direction layers, it is possible to consider TSI and CFI at the same time.

exists in the acceleration region from the attachment line near the Consequently, it is the current authors opinion that this method

leading edge in three-dimensional swept wings, external streamlines is advantageous because it describes the fundamental transition

at the boundary-layer edge are curved toward the wing tip. Moreover, phenomenon of the three-dimensional boundary layers [7]. In

the flow within the boundary layer is more strongly curved because particular, the validity of the eN method, which is used at this time, is

its speed is slower than that at the external streamline position. confirmed by comparison and analysis with the measurement data of

As a result, the velocity component develops in the direction the NEXST-1 flight test [810]. As a result, the current authors

perpendicular to the external streamline; this component is called believe that the eN method was effective for understanding the

crossflow. Because the component becomes zero at a wall and fundamental correlation of the pressure distribution and transition

external streamlines, there is an inflection point in its velocity profile. point of the three-dimensional wing.

It is well known that this condition induces inviscid instability and is The eN method integrates a disturbance amplification factor based

unavoidable in swept wings. Hence, it is of primary importance to on the linear stability theory of the three-dimensional compressible

make the crossflow small near the leading edge. laminar boundary layer in the external streamline direction and

The simplest approach is to avoid pressure gradients along the estimates the N factor. In the case of three-dimensional disturbances,

spanwise direction. However, it is generally difficult to realize such a however, models or assumptions [8,10] are required because there are

condition because three-dimensional swept wings have upwash due unknowns in the stability theory. Two models referred to as envelope

to trailing vortices near wing tips, and as a result, Cp values increase strategy [7] and fixed- strategy [7] were used in the present study.

toward the tip region. Although the crossflow cannot be eliminated, The envelope strategy assumes that only the propagation direction

another approach to control the crossflow, namely to suppress the giving the maximum amplification rate for each frequency at each

growth of the disturbance due to crossflow instability (CFI), is required. chordwise location is chosen, and the transition location is estimated

One possible solution is that the acceleration region near the using the envelope curve of the N factors, which are obtained by

leading edge, which strongly contributes to the growth of the integrating each amplification rate in the chordwise direction.

disturbance due to CFI, is made as short as possible in the chordwise According to the test results in the low-turbulence supersonic wind

direction. According to this concept, JAXA has already created an tunnel by NASA, N 14 was proposed as one of the transition

ideal chordwise pressure distribution for the design of the NEXST-1 judgment criteria in the flight test condition [11]. Moreover, from the

vehicle [2]. This pressure distribution consists of a narrow analysis of the NEXST-1 flight test result, N 12.5 was found to

acceleration region near the leading edge and an almost flat or slightly correspond closely to the measured transition location (Fig. 1 [2,4]).

gradual acceleration region toward the trailing edge. The former is The advantage of the fixed- strategy is that two different states of

effective to suppress the CFI, and the latter is derived to suppress the chordwise growth of the amplification rates by CFI and TSI can be

the TollmienSchlichting instability (TSI). The main wing of a separated. However, the increase of the time for analysis cannot be

conventional supersonic aircraft usually has a subsonic leading avoided. Therefore, it is recognized that the fixed- strategy is an

edge from the viewpoint of wave drag reduction; that is, the leading effective model for clarifying the transition nature than prediction of

edge of the main wing is placed inside the Mach cone. On the other transition location.

hand, the trailing edge is often placed outside the Mach cone, namely Figures 2a and 2b show the N factors computed with both envelope

the supersonic trailing edge, because of the structural design and fixed- strategy at 30% semispanwise station (ys 0.3) and

considerations. The latter shape of the ideal Cp distribution is based three representative flight test conditions [9,10]; only the traveling

UEDA ET AL.

16 16 16

14 14 14

12 12 12

10 10 10

8 8 8

6 6 6

4 4 4

2 2 2

0 0 0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0 0.1 0.2 0.3

12

10

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3

Fig. 2 Stability analysis on NEXST-1 Cp distribution based on the computed traveling crossflow modes for three typical flight test conditions [9,10].

crossflow modes were computed in these cases. In general, the N a threshold at a certain Reynolds number, the transition rapidly shifts

factor computed by the fixed- strategy becomes smaller than that of to a CFI-type condition. Therefore, it seems that the transition

the envelope strategy. In the case of the envelope strategy, the higher location moves sharply up to the region near the leading edge (pattern

N factor is attributed to the maximum amplification factors, which II). The transition location then moves by a small amount nearer to the

are chosen at each location and subsequent integration of those aft of the leading edge (pattern III). The design point ( No:4) in the

factors. In contrast, the fixed- strategy can split TSI and CFI by NEXST-1 was shown to be lower than the Reynolds number

computing only frequencies and wave numbers of disturbances that producing pattern II, although the higher Reynolds number condition

contribute the most to CFI and TSI. These conditions are the design (Re No:5) was larger. Therefore, the essence of NLF wing design at

point (indicated with No:4), an off-design point ( No:2), and high-Reynolds-number conditions is to develop a Reynolds number

a higher-Reynolds-number condition (Re No:5), which is that produces an optimum pattern II [9,10]. As mentioned next, the

approximately 2.4 times the design point. In the comparison of current authors investigated and developed a new Cp distribution for

these N factors computed with the envelope strategy as shown in such an NLF wing design.

Fig. 2a, it was found that the N factor clearly decreased at the design

point ( No:4) compared to the off-design point. Then, from the B. Derivation and Characteristics of New Ideal Cp Distribution

comparison of measured transition location data (indicated with

XT exp) and the N factors computed with the fixed- strategy, it First, one of the most effective ways to suppress CFI growth is to

was considered that the nature of transition measured at the off- narrow the acceleration region near the leading edge as much as

design point ( No:2) and the higher Reynolds number condition

(Re No:5) were CFI as compared with TSI at the design point. It

means that the ideal pressure distribution for the NEXST-1 design

was not always effective. To improve such a situation, the crossflow

region should be shortened because the instability due to CFI

becomes much stronger as Reynolds number increases. However,

from the viewpoint of designing a real wing with finite leading-edge

radius, it is understood that an extremely shortened acceleration

region is not possible.

From the analysis of transition characteristics of the NEXST-1

flight test data, it is thought that Reynolds number behavior on the

transition location of a swept wing with NLF condition, which is

dominated by TSI or CFI, can be schematically summarized as shown

in Fig. 3 [9,10]. When Reynolds number is low, the amplification of

the N factor due to CFI near the leading edge is fully suppressed, and

the N factor is dominated by TSI. Consequently, the transition

location slowly moves forward at the aft part of the wing, as

illustrated in the right figure (pattern I). However, the N factor due to Fig. 3 Reynolds number influence on transition movement for a highly

CFI grows as Reynolds number increases. When the N factor exceeds swept NLF wing [10].

UEDA ET AL.

Fig. 4 Boundary-layer computations on the NEXST-1 flight test conditions [9,10].

possible. Second, the knowledge obtained in a comparison of words, the acceleration region near the leading edge must have as

transition characteristics of the NEXST-1 flight test results at the short a distance as possible, and then a steep deceleration region

angle of attack on the design point and the off-design point is effective with a relatively longer distance should be made after the steep accel-

for developing a further approach. Figures 4a and 4b are comparisons eration region. After that, a much longer and gradual acceleration

of chordwise Cp distributions and crossflow profiles at ys 0.3 at region is necessary until the trailing edge of the wing. Furthermore, a

two conditions, namely the design point ( No:4) and the off-design useful functional form described in the following equation was

point ( No:2) of the NEXST-1 flight test [9,10]. From the viewpoint examined, which was able to express the aforementioned tendency

of computing the laminar boundary layer on a three-dimensional based on a Cp distribution shape for various kinds of planforms

curved surface and external streamlines near the leading edge (Fig. 5 [6]). The final ideal Cp distribution is outlined next; Fig. 6 [6]

precisely, a laminar boundary-layer method was adopted based on the illustrates its outline schematically:

general curvilinear coordinate system described in [12]. From the

figure, it is observed that the crossflow faces the same direction from

X

4

x X XLE Y

the leading edge at approximately 40% chordwise location at the off- Cp ; An fn ; where ;

design point because of the large acceleration region at the front part n0

cy cY

of the wing shown in Fig. 4a. In contrast, the direction of the

y Y

crossflow at the design point reverses immediately near the leading

edge. From the stability results shown in Fig. 2b, it is found that, even s s

if the crossflow velocity (absolute value) is large near the leading

edge, its absolute value consequently decreases by reversing its where

direction. In this case, the amplification of the N factor due to CFI

can be suppressed at the design point. Therefore, to suppress the f0 ; 1

amplification of the disturbance due to CFI, it is suggested that the

crossflow velocity component must be decreased immediately as the f1 ; expB1 1

flow goes downstream. To achieve this more effectively, it is

f2 ; expB2 1

advantageous to change the direction of the crossflow velocity

component to the opposite side rapidly. f3 ; expB3 P1 1

As a consequence, it was concluded that CFI could be reduced by

changing the direction of the crossflow near the leading edge. In other f4 ; P2 (1)

UEDA ET AL.

The definition of each coefficient in Eq. (1) are as follows. A0 is a however, transition analysis must be executed again with the final

Cp level at the leading edge; A1 is a suction peak level near the leading designed configuration, and it is necessary to confirm the transition

edge; A2 is to lower a Cp level by deceleration just after the steep location desired before the design process. A basic approach for the

acceleration near the leading edge; A3 is a Cp level at a representative spanwise variation of each coefficient is summarized next.

chordwise location (e.g., xc 0.05) of the neighborhood of the

leading edge; A4 is a gradient of Cp from that chordwise location to 1. A0

the trailing edge; B1 is a steep acceleration gradient at the leading Because this is a Cp value at the leading edge (not attachment line)

edge; B2 is a deceleration gradient (an adverse pressure gradient) after from the definition in Eq. (1), it is the most effective to use the Cp

the steep acceleration; B3 is a reacceleration gradient after the value computed with a CFD solver on an initial configuration.

deceleration by B2 ; and P1 is a parameter to adjust a starting point of However, the current authors also confirmed that a combination of the

the reacceleration by B3. As the value of P1 becomes small, the following isentropic relation and an empirical factor is approximately

reacceleration point moves toward the leading edge. In contrast, as effective because it was understood that the value of A0 Cp0 does

the value of P1 becomes large, the reacceleration point moves toward not influence transition characteristics greatly:

the trailing edge. P2 is a parameter to determine a gradient of Cp after

reaccelerated by B3. Cp becomes linear with small P2 and curvilinear

with large P2 . Subsequently, it is necessary for these coefficients to be 1

varied in the spanwise direction. A useful approach to establish these Cp;attachment f1 0.2M2 1 sin2 LE g3.5 1

0.7M2

values is described next.

Transition analysis is necessary after setting the previous Cp0 Cp at xc0 0.86 Cp;attachment :assumption (2)

coefficients as parameters. Cp distribution parameters are then

chosen in order that the transition location is the most delayed at Here, LE is the swept-back angle of the leading edge, and the first

each spanwise station. At this stage, it is necessary to analyze the equation is an isentropic relation on the attachment-line Cp value

three-dimensional laminar boundary layer with high precision. In (indicated by Cp;attachment ). A factor of 0.86 of the second equation is a

particular, three-dimensional wing shape near the leading edge is so-called empirical factor that the current authors obtained from

important and sensitive for transition characteristics. Because a wing experience.

configuration is undetermined at the first stage of a CFD-based

inverse design process, it is often useful to use an initial configuration

2. A1

in the design process as mentioned later. At the end of the process,

In a three-dimensional swept wing, the absolute value of Cp level

averaged over the midchordwise region generally increases (namely,

decreases as pressure) toward the wing tip monotonically. It is also

necessary to maintain such spanwise tendency of the Cp level even at

the NLF wing design from the viewpoint of maintaining its spanwise

loading. Therefore, an averaged chordwise Cp level value (A1 ) is

proposed by the following equation:

Z

1 0.8

A1 Cp;average Cp;upper ; d (3)

0.6 0.2

3. A3

As mentioned previously, A3 is a Cp level at a representative

chordwise location near the leading edge. A value of 5% at the

chordwise location is usually chosen; it is then effective to use the Cp

value computed with CFD on the initial configuration.

4. A2 , A4 , B1 , B2 , and B3

These coefficients should be treated as free parameters because

they are characterized as an ideal Cp distribution. In other words,

Fig. 6 Functional expression of new ideal Cp distribution for NLF wing these parameters must be determined by each transition analysis at

design at high-Reynolds-number condition [6]. each spanwise station.

UEDA ET AL.

Table 1 Coefficients of the functional expression on the NEXST-1 NLF wing design

ys A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 B1 B2 B3 P1 P2

0.2 0.181 0.22 0.021 0 0.011 500 100 0 1 1

0.3 0.164 0.22 0.015 0 0.007 500 50 0 1 1

0.4 0.1488 0.22 0.0075 0 0.011 400 80 0 1 1

0.5 0.196 0.26 0.032 0 0.01 700 110 0 1 1

0.6 0.2596 0.26 0.1 0 0.012 900 210 0 1 1

0.7 0.2794 0.301 0.085 0 0.011 1300 200 0 1 1

0.8 0.2873 0.35 0.05 0 0.0085 900 140 0 1 1

0.9 0.283 0.35 0.05 0 0.009 900 140 0 1 1

5. P1 and P2 combination of each coefficient, which was able to delay the transition

As for these coefficients, the current authors found from location estimated using an eN method with envelope strategy, was

experience that it was useful to adopt P1 2.0, P2 1.0 as initial then examined. Next, for several spanwise stations slightly away from

default values. Of course, in a process of constituting various Cp the representative stations on both sides, a separate transition analysis

distributions based on the parameters of A2 , A4 , B1 , B2 , B3 through based on those coefficients at each station was performed. The most

the transition analysis referred to previously, the default values might desirable combination of coefficients was then determined by making

be modified. fine adjustments to the transition location delay.

After repeating this step, the authors finally found a new ideal Cp

6. Further Issues in Determining Each Coefficient distribution with an effective functional expression that could express

In determining each coefficient according to the basic approach the transition performance accurately. The values of each coefficient

referred to previously, the smoothness of both chordwise and are summarized in Table 2, and the new ideal Cp distribution is

spanwise ideal Cp distribution (namely Cp contour) is very important illustrated in Fig. 8 [6]. The values of A0 , A3 , and A4 are constants in

because irregularities of the Cp contour have the possibility of the inner and outer wing regions, but A1 only shows a tendency to

producing irregularities of the wing surface designed with a CFD- vary in the curvilinear spanwise direction. This can be expressed

based inverse method. Therefore, it is important to select approximately using the following equation:

2.04 1.83 0.4952 0.0695 0.2085; 0 < 0.5

A1 (4)

0.91164 2.40143 2.25382 0.8274 0.4427; 0.5 < 1.0

representative spanwise stations for transition analysis coarsely at The results of boundary-layer and transition analysis on the new

first. For example, the NEXST-1 NLF wing is a cranked arrow-type ideal Cp distribution are presented in Figs. 9 and 10. Ideally,

planform where the swept angle of the leading edge changes the boundary-layer and transition characteristics for the latest

discontinuously at ys 0.5 (having a kink in the leading edge). In configuration designed with a CFD-based inverse method should be

that case, the Cp distribution according to the aforementioned analyzed to evaluate the true transition characteristics on the new

approach has changed discontinuously at the kink station, because ideal Cp distribution. As a first step in setting the target Cp

the Cp;attachment changes discontinuously at the station. Therefore, distribution for the NLF wing design, the authors decided to use the

ys 0.3 and 0.7 were initially chosen as two representative NEXST-1 wing configuration as an approximation. This approach

spanwise stations of inner and outer wing regions before a more was chosen because the main purpose of this study was to evaluate the

suitable combination of each coefficient were investigated. The effectiveness of the ideal Cp distribution expressed with the present

appropriate spanwise stations in the right and left sides of the two functional form.

representative stations were then added to investigate the spanwise

tendency of each coefficient in each area. Finally, the spanwise

distribution of each coefficient was interpolated with the least square

approximation technique. A validated example for the NEXST-1

wing is described later.

As a first step, the authors examined the reproducibility of the

target Cp distribution for the NEXST-1 NLF wing design in its

current functional form. According to the previous method for

determining each coefficient, the most suitable combination of

each coefficient was determined and summarized in Table 1. The

functional form using these coefficients was shown to reproduce the

target pressure distribution accurately, as shown in Fig. 7, particularly

at the steep acceleration near the leading.

An attempt was then made to create an ideal Cp distribution for the

NEXST-1 wing planform (see the planform shown in Fig. 5) at high

Reynolds number (ReMAC 126 million where MAC 25 m)

corresponding to a large-size SST assumed. According to the basic

method to determine each coefficient, ys 0.3 and 0.7 were first Fig. 7 Comparison of the current functional expression and the target

chosen as two representative spanwise stations. An effective Cp distribution of the NEXST-1 NLF wing.

UEDA ET AL.

ys A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 B1 B2 B3 P1 P2

0.15 0.167394 0.225 0.015 0.02 0.005 90000 1500 20 2 1

0.20 0.167394 0.231 0.015 0.02 0.005 90000 1500 20 2 1

0.30 0.167394 0.2415 0.015 0.02 0.005 90000 1500 20 2 1

0.40 0.167394 0.2515 0.015 0.02 0.005 90000 1500 20 2 1

0.50 0.167394 0.267 0.015 0.02 0.005 90000 1500 20 2 1

0.51 0.250316 0.35 0.015 0.01 0 90000 500 10 2 1

0.60 0.250316 0.366 0.015 0.01 0 90000 500 5 2 1

0.70 0.250316 0.3686 0.015 0.01 0 90000 500 5 2 1

0.80 0.250316 0.376 0.015 0.01 0 90000 500 5 2 1

0.90 0.250316 0.3777 0.015 0.01 0 90000 500 10 2 1

Figure 9 shows the crossflow velocity profiles computed at situation, then the transition may be delayed. This means that the

ys 0.3. The new ideal Cp distribution shows that the crossflow transition N values may be larger than 14. For example, if the N value

velocity changes near the leading edge immediately in the positive is assumed to be 16, then CFI is suppressed, and TSI becomes

side (outer wing direction) from the negative side (inner wing dominant as seen in Fig. 10b. The new ideal Cp distribution is shown

direction). Further, the absolute value of crossflow velocity is to be highly effective at suppressing CFI (Fig. 10).

constrained to small values up to xc0.3, with a slightly larger The transition location predicted across the entire upper surface,

crossflow velocity afterward. This result is attributed to the fact that based on the new ideal Cp distribution, is summarized in Fig. 11 [6].

the gradual acceleration gradient to the trailing edge following the The transition criterion is used for both N 14 and 12.5. In the case

immediate deceleration region near the leading edge is stronger than of N 14, the transition is predicted to be located at approximately

the target Cp distribution for the NEXST-1 NLF wing design. 35% chordwise location at ys 0.3 and 70% chordwise location at

Figures 10a and 10b show the N factors at ys 0.3 computed ys 0.7. As for the laminar flow rate, approximately 45% of the

with envelope and fixed- strategies, respectively; only the traveling upper surface area is estimated to be laminar flow. Consequently, it is

crossflow modes were computed in these cases. NASA [11] first shown that the present functional form, combined with the most

proposed an N factor of N 14 computed with the envelope suitable coefficients described in Table 2, make a significant

strategy, corresponding to a transition in flight environment; an improvement at high Reynolds number, corresponding to a full-scale

approximate N factor of N 12.5 was found in comparison with the SST, in comparison with previous conventional NLF wing-design

NEXST-1 transition measurement data [2,4]. In the case of both concepts (e.g., NEXST-1).

N 14 and 12.5, it is assumed that the predicted transition is

dominated by CFI based on the fixed- strategy result. The authors

expected the transition might develop into TSI at high Reynolds III. Natural Laminar Flow Wing-Design Procedure

number (ReMAC 126 million at MAC 25 m) by using the A. Refinement of CFD-Based Inverse Design Procedure

new ideal Cp distribution as illustrated in Fig. 3, although this A CFD-based inverse design method is also used for the design of

Cp distribution made CFI dominant. A large transition delay an NLF wing at high-Reynolds-number conditions, due to its

(approximately 33% chordwise location based on N 14) was similarity to the NEXST-1 airplane. Initially, the new ideal Cp

estimated in comparison with the authors previous result distribution shape, which consists of the functional form defined in

(approximately 2% location), described in [13]. Eq. (1), is applied to the upper surface of the wing; this is necessary to

As expected, the transition behavior due to CFI is strongly specify the target Cp distribution for the NLF wing design. A Cp

dependent on the transition criterion of N 14. It is not clear, distribution is then adopted for the lower surface, similar to the

however, whether N 14 is valid in such a high-Reynolds-number NEXST-1 design. This is derived by considering an optimum load

condition. The threshold of transition N factor may be lower than 14 distribution (namely, Cp Cp;lower Cp;upper ) based on a warped

because the transition is easily induced by the much stronger wing design to reduce lift-dependent drag. Because the target Cp

influence of the surface roughness condition at a high-Reynolds- distribution for the NLF wing design at high-Reynolds-number

number condition than at a low-Reynolds-number condition. conditions always has a very steep acceleration near the leading edge

Alternatively, it is possible that the viscous instability (i.e., TSI) is followed by a steep deceleration as previously shown, it seems to be

suppressed at a higher-Reynolds-number condition. If the influence difficult to design the NLF wing with a finite leading-edge radius to

of surface roughness condition is suppressed sufficiently in this realize a new target Cp distribution completely using a conventional

Fig. 8 New ideal Cp distribution for the NLF wing design at high-Reynolds-number condition [6].

UEDA ET AL.

1.0

0.9 x/c=0.001

x/c=0.01

0.8

x/c=0.05

0.7 x/c=0.1

x/c=0.15

0.6 x/c=0.2

x/c=0.25

y/

0.5

x/c=0.3

0.4 x/c=0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0

0.01 0.005 0 0.005 0.01

V/Ue Fig. 11 Transition analysis on the new ideal Cp distribution at high-

Fig. 9 Crossflow velocity profiles computed on the new ideal Cp Reynolds-number condition [6].

distribution at high-Reynolds-number condition.

configuration. The design cycle should then be continued until the

desired transition characteristics are obtained.

In this design process, each configuration at each design cycle is

used for the computation of the boundary layer. Therefore, it is the

authors belief that such an improvement to the inverse design

procedure can supplement the validity for adopting the ideal Cp

distribution based on the present functional form as a target Cp

distribution for the NLF wing design. Furthermore, a parameter

adjustment routine to create the ideal Cp distribution is incorporated

in the uppermost stream of the overall design flow of the inverse

design procedure. The proposed design flow is summarized in the

upper portion of Fig. 12 [6].

At present, JAXA has not yet designed a complete three-

dimensional NLF wing using the new CFD-based inverse design

procedure and the new ideal Cp distribution described previously.

The procedure based on a linear theory (i.e., lifting surface theory)

and used in the NEXST-1 NLF wing design is not sufficiently

accurate when modifying the curvature near the leading edge because

of the steep acceleration and immediate steep deceleration regions.

An improvement to this situation is currently under investigation by

JAXA. However, JAXA has derived airfoil shapes at several

spanwise stations for the previous target Cp distribution, which is

almost flat toward the trailing edge after a slight sharp deceleration

region near the leading edge, at high Reynolds number. This target Cp

distribution was created with the functional form of Eq. (1). The

combination of each coefficient is summarized in Table 3, and the

previous target Cp distribution at ys 0.3 is shown in Fig. 13.

JAXA has already determined that the transition analysis results on

this Cp distribution predict an approximate laminar flow value of

30% on the upper surface area using a transition criterion of N 14

at the same high-Reynolds-number condition (ReMAC 126 million

at MAC 25 m) and based on the condition in Fig. 11 (which

approximately showed the 35% laminar flow region mentioned

previously). The most delayed transition position was then predicted

at the spanwise station of ys 0.4, and its chordwise location was

estimated to be approximately 40% of chord length.

A representative airfoil cross-sectional shape at ys 0.4 for the

designed NLF wing is denoted in Fig. 14a with a thick solid line;

Fig. 10 Transition analysis on the new ideal Cp distribution at high-

NEXST-1 and Concorde-like configurations are included in this

Reynolds-number condition based on the computed traveling crossflow

modes. figure for comparison. The NEXST-1 airfoil shape, which was

designed at approximately 1/10th of the present Reynolds number,

achieved laminar flow in approximately 40% of the flow region

CFD-based inverse design method. Therefore, at such a high- during the flight test [4]. The Concorde-like configuration presented

Reynolds-number condition, the present target Cp distribution in Fig. 14a was originally designed by JAXA based on a well-known

should not be recognized as the goal to be converged at the iterative technical document [14] and public information (see Fig. 5).

process of the inverse design technique. It is more realistic to consider Although no NLF wing-design concept was applied on the latter

it as a guideline for advancing the iterative process. This means that a airfoil shape, a warped wing concept with both conical camber and

transition analysis should be carried out at every iterative step after chordwise thickness distribution (NACA 64A003) was applied. The

UEDA ET AL.

Fig. 13 Previous target Cp distribution for the NLF wing design at high-

Reynolds-number condition.

0.03

0.02

0.01

z/c

0.00

-0.01

Fig. 12 New CFD-based inverse design method for the NLF wing design

at high-Reynolds-number conditions [6].

-0.02

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

x/c

curvature distributions near the leading edge are highlighted in a) Typical airfoil of the designed NLF wing

Fig. 14b for each airfoil.

The airfoil of the Concorde-like configuration is shown to have a

very large curvature at the attachment line (sc 0.0), but this

curvature decreases sharply in both upstream and downstream 3000

directions. In the case of the NEXST-1 NLF airfoil, the curvature at

the attachment line is slightly lower; the steep decrease of the 3500

curvature in the upstream and downstream directions is almost equal

to that of the Concorde-like configuration. The airfoil of the three-

Curvature (1/r)

2000

dimensional NLF wing designed at high Reynolds number is shown

to have a much lower curvature at the attachment line than that of the 1500

NEXST-1; in this case, the curvature decreases to less than one-third

of the Concorde-like configuration. This value is maintained along 1000

the chordwise length for more than approximately 0.1% chord length

in the upstream and downstream directions from the attachment line. 500

It then decreases sharply aftward to less than 1/10th of the value at the

attachment line. The sudden decrease from the constant curvature 0

-0.004 -0.003 -0.002 -0.001 0.0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006

region of approximately 0.1% chord length produces a sharp

acceleration near the leading edge characterized by the Cp

distribution derived at high Reynolds number. It is well-known that b) Curvature distributions near the leading edge of the designed

Cp distributions have a strong correlation with the second derivative NLF wing

of the configuration and that such curvature distributions influence Fig. 14 NLF wing results designed with the inverse design method at

the character of the NLF wing design. high-Reynolds-number condition.

In the case of a leading edge with a small curvature (i.e., large

radius), the risk of attachment line contamination is a concern; this

risk was investigated by using Polls criterion [15]. In general, although the velocity distribution near the attachment line on the

cross-sectional plane normal to the leading edge is necessary to

estimate so-called Polls index R , it is not easy to predict the velocity

Table 3 Previous target Cp distribution for the NLF wing design distribution accurately. The current approach uses a cylindrical

approximation according to the method described in [16]. The result

ys A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 B1 B2 B3 P1 P2

shown in Fig. 14 was found at Mach 2.0 and a flight altitude of 18 km.

0.3 0.164 0.247 0.016 0 0.001 2000 25 0 1 1 Because the NEXST-1 wing had a swept angle of 66 deg and a

0.5 0.196 0.305 0.016 0 0.001 2000 24 0 1 1

0.7 0.2794 0.4 0.016 0 0.001 2000 23 0 1 1

cylinder with an approximate radius of 2.2 mm, R 131 was

0.9 0.283 0.413 0.016 0 0.001 2000 23 0 1 1 assumed. In this case, no attachment line contamination was

identified because Polls criterion value was less than 245. The flight

UEDA ET AL.

y/s=0.3 y/s=0.5

-0.1 -0.1

Cp

0.0 0.0

Cp

Target Cp

0.1 Target Cp 0.1

Initial

InitialCp

Cp

Initial

Initial Cp Cp

0.2 0.2

0.0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08

x/c x/c

y/s=0.7 y/s=0.9

-0.1 -0.1

Cp

Cp

0.0 0.0

Target Cp

0.1 Target Cp 0.1 Initial CpCp

Initial

Initial

InitialCp

Cp

0.2 0.2

0.0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08

x/c x/c

Fig. 15 Comparison of an ideal and initial chordwise Cp distributions based on the Ogee planform.

test confirmed these results as no transition occurred near the the CFD-based inverse design method based on the lifting surface

attachment line [2]. It should be noted that the radius of the NLF wing theory for geometry modification needs further improvement. The

designed at high Reynolds number increases to approximately 3 design cycle for the configuration illustrated in Fig. 12 was then

times that of the NEXST-1, as shown in Fig. 14b. Because Polls stopped because the new ideal Cp distribution based on the present

index is proportional to the root of the radius based on a cylindrical functional form was created. The improvement of the inverse design

approximation, R 230 was easily estimated for the NLF wing. procedure was considered as mentioned previously. JAXA has

This implies that there is no attachment line contamination because recently worked on designing a new three-dimensional NLF wing

the value is less than Polls criterion value. However, because this using the new ideal Cp distribution and design flow.

value is close to the criterion, it is recognized that techniques are

needed to suppress it. For example, a small spanwise bump with a C. Further Study for an Ideal Cp Distribution in Practical Applica-

curvature constraint used during the inverse design process is tion

necessary to realize the NLF wing effect at high Reynolds number. In a further study, the ideal Cp distribution mentioned previously

The convergence of the Cp distribution in this inverse design was derived for a cranked-arrow-type planform with two different

process was found to be insufficient. It is generally recognized that swept angles. However, to apply an ideal Cp distribution shape with a

ys A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 B1 B2 B3 P1 P2

0.15 0.05160 0.115 0.010 0.025 0.025 90000 1000 20 2 1

0.20 0.05474 0.125 0.012 0.020 0.023 90000 1100 19 2 1

0.30 0.10607 0.185 0.015 0.016 0.020 90000 1500 19 2 1

0.40 0.15347 0.245 0.015 0.015 0.015 90000 2500 18 2 1

0.50 0.23991 0.340 0.015 0.010 0.006 90000 3000 17 2 1

0.60 0.38999 0.495 0.015 0 0.004 90000 3300 0 2 1

0.70 0.44564 0.555 0.016 0 0 90000 3800 0 2 1

0.80 0.41360 0.520 0.017 0 0 90000 4200 0 2 1

0.90 0.302151 0.400 0.018 0 0 90000 4600 0 2 1

0.99 0.06444 0.130 0.019 0 0 90000 5000 0 2 1

Fig. 16 Spanwise distributions for each coefficient based on an ideal Cp distribution and Ogee planform.

UEDA ET AL.

inverse design method is very effective in achieving an NLF wing

with an ideal pressure distribution at a high-Reynolds-number

condition. The present research improves upon an earlier design

flow applied in the development of the NEXST-1 vehicle. A cross-

sectional shape (airfoil) of the NLF wing on a cranked arrow

planform has been established. This planform, introduced as a design

example, was achieved using a CFD-based inverse design method at a

Reynolds number 10 times higher than that of the NEXST-1 flight test

condition. The results provide further understanding of the NLF

airfoil behavior at high Reynolds number.

Acknowledgments

Fig. 17 Estimated transition location on an ideal Cp distribution for Although the main part of this study is based on the patent

NLF wing design based on the Ogee planform. applications for Japan, the United States, France, the United

Kingdom, and Russia, it is very effective and helpful for the authors to

refer to the principal results obtained in the JAXAONERA joint

functional form in NLF wing design for future aircraft, it is desirable research activity from 2009 to 2012 to deepen aerodynamic

to develop a more general wing planform with nonuniform swept consideration for present NLF wing-design subject, in particular,

angle similar to the Ogee planform of Concorde. JAXA has already discussion of Reynolds number effect. The authors would like to

investigated such an extension. A summary of the results based on a express special thanks to Daniel Arnal and Olivier Vermeersch of

Concorde-like configuration at the same Reynolds number condition ONERAThe French Aerospace Lab for performing this joint

as the flight of the real Concorde is presented next. research activity.

The cross-sectional shape of the wing of the Concorde-like

configuration was designed by using a warped wing concept with

conical camber type at the design condition of lift coefficient CL

0.1 at M 2. According to the design flow of Fig. 12, first, each References

chordwise Cp distribution at each spanwise station of the Concorde- [1] Kroo, I., Sturdza, R., Tracy, P., and Chase, J., Natural Laminar Flow for

like configuration was computed with CFD as summarized in Quiet and Efficient Supersonic Aircraft, 40th AIAA Aerospace Sciences

Fig. 15; initial Cp corresponds to the results. The most suitable Meeting & Exhibit, AIAA Paper 2002-0146, Jan. 2002.

combination of each coefficient in the functional form of Eq. (1) was [2] Yoshida, K., Supersonic Drag Reduction Technology in the Scaled

then investigated. Because the swept angle of the leading edge Supersonic Experimental Airplane Project by JAXA, Progress in

Aerospace Sciences, Vol. 45, Nos. 45, 2009, pp. 124146.

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A0 6, A1 6, A2 7, A3 6 (up to ys 0.6), A4 4, Concluding Report of Flight Test Data Analysis on the Supersonic

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in Fig. 15. Transition Measurements on the Natural Laminar Flow Wing at Mach

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upper surface of the wing as the area ratio is approximately laminar at [6] Yoshida, K., Matsushima, K., Ueda, Y., and Ishikawa, H., Japan

the Reynolds number condition (MAC-based Reynolds number of Aerospace Exploration Agency, Tokyo, U.S. Patent Application for a

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Jan. 2012.

planned and advanced NLF wing designs for both the former cranked

[7] Arnal, D., Boundary Layer Transition: Predictions Based on Linear

arrow planform and the present Ogee planform. In these cases, the Theory, AGARD FDP/VKI Special Course on Progress in Transition

aforementioned ideal Cp distribution shapes were used as a guideline Modeling, AGARD, Rept. 793, 1993.

to achieve the present CFD-based inverse design method. [8] Yoshida, K., Sugiura, H., Ueda, Y., Ishikawa, H., Tokugawa, N., Atobe,

T., Takagi, S., Arnal, D., Archambaud, J. P., and Seraudie, A.,

Experimental and Numerical Research on Boundary Layer Transition

IV. Conclusions Analysis at Supersonic Speed: JAXA-ONERA Cooperative Research

Project, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Rept. JAXA-RR-08-

In this study, an early supersonic NLF wing-design concept, 007E, Tokyo, March 2009.

demonstrated by the flight test of the NEXST-1 experimental vehicle [9] Yoshida, K., Ueda, Y., Arnal, D., and Archambaud, J.-P., Stability

conducted by JAXA in 2005, was extended for high-Reynolds- Analysis on Natural Laminar Flow Wing in Supersonic Flow: ONERA-

number conditions, and a new ideal pressure distribution was JAXA Joint Research Program, Proceedings of the 28th International

created. Because the ideal pressure distribution consisted of a useful Congress of the Aeronautical Sciences [CD-ROM], Optimage Ltd.,

functional form with several coefficients as parameters, an effective Brisbane, Australia, Sept. 2012.

approach to find and adjust them has also been proposed. This [10] Yoshida, K., Ueda, Y., Vermeersh, O., and Arnal, D., Experimental

pressure distribution is applicable to any wing planform such as a and Numerical Research on Boundary Layer Transition Analysis at

Supersonic Speed: JAXA-ONERA Cooperative Research Project

cranked arrow or Ogee-type at the Reynolds number conditions (Part 2), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Rept. JAXA-RR-12-

of a large-size SST (300 passengers) as well as Concorde (100 009E, Tokyo, 2013.

passengers). In this article, two different ideal pressure distributions [11] Joslin, R. D., Aircraft Laminar Flow Control, Annual Review of Fluid

were established based on two representative wing planforms. The Mechanics, Vol. 30, Jan. 1998, pp. 120.

planforms influence on delay transition was confirmed by transition doi:10.1146/annurev.fluid.30.1.1

UEDA ET AL.

[12] Iyer, V., Computation of Three-Dimensional Compressible Boundary [15] Poll, D. I. A., Boundary Layer Transition on the Windward Face of

Layers to Fourth-Order Accuracy on Wings and Fuselages, NASA CR- Space Shuttle During Re-Entry, AIAA 20th Thermophysics

4269, 1990. Conference, AIAA Paper 1985-0899, June 1985.

[13] Ueda, Y., and Yoshida, K., Numerical Study on Optimum Pressure [16] Murakami, A., and Stanewsky, E., Boundary Layer Transition on

Distribution for Supersonic Natural Laminar Flow Wing Design, Swept Cylinders at Hypersonic Speeds, AIAA Journal, Vol. 34, No. 4,

Proceedings of the 32nd Fluid Dynamics Conference, Japan Society for 1996, pp. 649654.

Aeronautical and Space Sciences, Tokyo, Japan, 2000, pp. 271274 (in doi:10.2514/3.13123

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[14] Rech, J., and Leyman, C. S., A Case Study by Aerospatiale and British

Aerospace on the Concorde, AIAA Professional Study Series, AIAA,

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