NATIONAL ANTHEM

(An English Version)

Blessedthou be sacred land, Happy thou be beautious realm, Thou symbol hi$ resolve, of Land Pakistan. of Blissful thou be citadel faith, of The might brother-hood of of man, May nation, country state, and Shine glory in everlasting, Blessedthe ofambition, be goal Our of crescent star, flag and Guide progess perflection, to and Interpreter past, of of the glory Ihepresent, inspirationourfulurc, of Symbol Almighty's of protection,

RASHID SAEED

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LEARNING TO LEAI)

SAEED RASHID

h4ARHABA ENTERPRISES
CIVIL I-INES, JFIELUM

All Rights Reserved
Nameof the book Purpose the book of
Learning To Lead To promote value-oriented leadership The leaders in the making Prof Saeed Rashid Principal Army Public School, Mangla Cantt. Second revised edition 1992 Marhaba Enterprises Civil Lines, Jhelum Ph: P.P.7339 Chan Charagh Printer Gowalmandi,RawalpindiPh:73589

Especially addressed to Author

Dedicated to
The F'utureJinnahs

Address

Edition Publishers

of Pakistan

Printedat

Price DeluxeEdition Paper-back Rs. 200 Rs. L20

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PREFACE fHE AUTHOR
Prof. Saeed Rashid received his formal education

number of years. Being a veteran of Pakistan Movement his firm commitment and life-long mission has been to promote Pakistaniat. As an educationist his main contribution has been in the field of value orientation. He is known for his passion for character-building' His published works are as under: LivingWith LeadershiP
Learning To Lead In Search Of MaturitY From School To College A Lasting Lighthouse The Character And Conduct Of Quaid-e-Azam Hayat-e-Quaid-e-Azam Guftar- o-Kirdar- e-Q uaid- e- Azam Tazkara-e-Iqbal Mukalmat-e-Iqbal Shad Bad Manzil-e-Murad Kirdar-Ki-Kirnain Kirdar Saz Tazkara-e-Shuhada Juraton KaY Nishan Haq Nawaz Kiyani Shaheed Sitara-e-Jurat Akram Shaheed Nishan-e-Haider Dastan-c-Ilm-o-Amal(2 volumes) Character Building And Public Speaking And Charactcr Building Pakistaniat

a style a is Sinceleadership essentially wayof life' d doing' of living, a mode of fletng, thinking and "a'' progl?mle so matter6f valuesand attitudes, anyproper laying has oi*ining in leadership, to be value-oriented values.ang greater stresson the developmentof right framework of attitudes, over and above t^heexternal leadershiP. It is in view of this conceptthat theseorbntation with the basic talks have been piepared' fhly deal the especially.in ;;il., and attitudet titat are called for' to lead' The i;il;i ,tug", of the process.of learning of leading and intention ls to give ariinsight into the art following. lectures in The points raisedand discussed these arenottheoretical-aetiuerationslistedfromtheclassical real problems [ottt on the subject,they are very much from years of and discerning oU."*uiiottt gleaned practicale*perlencein this field' obvious Although these orientation talks' for to havebeen addressed the young1:."9:t: "lll" reasons, mey institutrons, educational/training i"ua"rrt ip_oriented of all the people are in fact meaniiot tttt consideration Litntt in teachingor learningto lead' that are interested
SaeedRashid

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21. 22. 23. 24.
Preface PART I I

Habits Re-adjusting In Searchof HaPPiness Avoiding DePression Conquestof Success

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PARTtr
25. 26. 27. 28.
Factors SixteenPersonalitY Self-image Your R i v al s andYou ..... 69 74 81 82

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.' 8. 9. 10. 1,1. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 77. 18. 19. 20.

In Searchof Ideals 1 D i sci p l i n e i sF re e d o m .......3 Ki n d so f C h a ra cte r ....5 Image-building 8 Surplus Value l,l Functional Seniority 13 Two Ways of Learning to Follow . . . 1,6 Attitudes and Attributes of a lrader 18 Sincerity and l-oyalty . . 22 Dimensionsof Discipline . 24 Integrity - Moral and Psychological . . . . . . 27 Ma tu ri ty ......29 The Ability to Respond 33 P e rsp e cti ve Ga p ....".39 The Art of Gettingon . . 43 The Unpleasant Part 47 Me ti cu l o u sn e ss ......49 Enthusiasmand Energy 51 Investmentand Consumption. . 52 Senseof Priorities 54

PARTItr 29. T oth e GC s.... 30. A Sol{ier's lrtter to his Son 37. A Soldier'sPraYerfor his Son
PART IV 32. 33. 34. 35. ' 36. 37. 38, 39. 103 105 108 110 92 95 101

From a Father to his Son Courage Patience Impatience . .:. Climb the Hill Beware

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WhenYou Find

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IN SEARCH OF IDEALS
Now that after years of aspiring and struggling, you have won the first round of your careet,stop a while what and give a seriousthought to the crucial questions; are your ideals of life? What things do you passionately value more than the others,i.e; what are your personal values?A career or a professionis only a meanstb an end: what are the ends you considerworth pursuing? and queriesthat Theseare someof the questions looked into if you have worthwill have to be honestly while ambitions in your life. Each one of us can be a hero if he wantsto in his own way and in his own place. Greatness lies not in what one actually achieves factors (becausethat,dependson so many extraneous beyond one's control) but in what dreamshe honestly dreams and what heights he sincerelywants to scale; both internaland what heavyoddsand handicaps against to externalsucha fighter struggles inch ahead,only God knowsand only with Him lies his reward.So eachone of us, whatever be his position and whereverhe may be strugglingin the causeof great valuesand ideals,is a hero; and it's a privilege to live a hero'slife and when it comesto, die a hero's death. But that does not imply a life of deprivation. They haveeveryright to Officersare alsohumanbeings. life. Plato in his ideal state, Republic, good things in iuggestedthat the "Republic"shouldoffer the very best

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of^-the good things in life to its warrior_guardians (officers)on the logicalgroundthat they ur" prEpur"Jio give their best to the Republic. So aiming high and the pursuit of moral ideals . does not mean that you deny yourself legitimate comforts,pleasuresand privil.g", tt ut are due"; y"" from your''Republic",bufit doei meanthat you *iff jlu. your very best to the Republic. So you, as a youngleader,had better seebeyond the promisedprofession, beyondthe prospective career, beyond the eventful, youihful yeais, deep into the twilight of life. Doing that, fixing your eyes on the guidingstarsbeyondthe horizonwi]l set your pacenow. God hasgivenyou a grand opportunityto be the architectof your own destinyand thai of the nation; lei it not be said that you did not prove equal to the task.

DISCIPLINE IS FREEDOM 'Discipline' is from 'disciple. A disciple is a learner. Hence discipline means learning, learning to organise oneself to grow, to develop, to improve. Discipline means learning to be free, learning to be successful. Discipline is freedom.To be more disciplinedis to be more free. Discipline is power. To be more disciplined means to be more powerful, more effective and more efficient. Discipline is security too. To be more disciplinedis to be more secure,more confident and more courageous. Discipline is harmony and harmonyproduceshappiness. What is a song? Discipline of sounds.What is dance?Discipline of movements.What is a paining? Disciplineof lines and colours. FREEDOM: Freedom is of two types:Freedom from and freedornfor. Freedom from sornething different is from freedom for something. To be free meansto be free to choose, choosing implies thinking, for you can not make a choiceunless you think about the possible advantages and disadvantages a choice.So only he can choose of better who can think better. And only he can think better who

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is better educated and better disciplined. Freedom involvesresponsibility. be free.is to be responsible To and to be more responsible to be more free. Those is who are not responsible or do not want to be responsible, feel a fear of freedom.They wish to escape from freedomby one meansor the other:Irresponsibility or indisciplineis only a meansof escape from freedom.

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KINDS OF CHARACTER
is broadlyof two kinds: Psychologically, - character strong and weak. A strong will, courage and while a weak constitutestrongcharacter; deter-mination lack of confidencego will, lack of determination and into the making of weak character. There is another classification of character' Morally, charactercan be divided into two categories: good and bad. If a person'smoral valuesand attitudes ire good, he is saib to have good character'On the othei hand, the one whose moral valuesand attitudes are bad, is said to have bad character' Given these four classificationsof character amongstaverhgehuman beings,there are four possible combinations: (a) (b) (c) (d) Strong + Strong + Weak + Weak + Good Bad Good Bad

The heightsby great men reachedand kept Werenot attained by suddenflight, But they, while their companionsslept, Weretoiling upward in the night. We have not wings,we cannot soar, But we havefeet to scaleand climb, By slow degrees, more and more, by The cloudysummit of our time.

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The ideal combinationis just one; strong + good are Men of strongand good character the salt character. of the earth. They arJ the ones that make the world better, hapPierand richer. The people of the secondcategory'of strong + do bad charactLrtoo make their mark and sometimes

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attain a spectacular measureof success variousfields. in There is no dearth of suchmen aroundyou. In fact men of this type seemto dominatethe sceneat the moment. Although they lack moral scruples, theyhavethe will,the courage and the determination pursuetheir designs. to The third combination-weak + good character, is also quite common.A lot of good p.opt" fall into this category.They themselvesare good, do not do bad things.nor.!o1hey want to breakdiscipline. theyare But weakin will. They are only passively good.They do not activelyresistevil. In fact they accept-it;for eximple, if a personof strong + bad character decides take the to lead in any form of indisciplineor undesirable activitv. the chancesare that the docile, good + weak ones would sheepishly follow him. The fourth type-weak+ bad character, alsoforms a-distinct group.They are either lackeys strong+ bad of charactercategoryor a nuisance their own. iou ."r, on expectsomegood from a strong + bad man.At leasthe is not a coward and might have someself-regard but a rnan of weak + bad charactercan go to any extent to degrade himselfor others. These are four broad divisions of human character with hundreds of shades in between the combinations. two persons alike in the patternof No are their character. character is not something staiic either. .F{uman beingschange,imperceptiblysliding from one shade another.So you cannotpassa judgementwhich to

will hold good for ever. Furthermore,overt behaviour might be misleading. hundred and one subtlefactors A enter into the making of character. But the four broad classifications hold good for all practicalpurposes. We want you to developinto youngmen of strong and good character. Values are of two kinds: basic valuesand religiousvalues;traits like courage, integrity, determination, hard work, etc.,are basicvalueswithout which no nation or individual can ever make a headwav in any field. Without determination and hard work. without honesty (evenas a policy),and dedication a to purpose(howeverbad), one cannotachieveeven a bad end, much less a good one. All men, Muslims or nonMuslims,the morally good or the morally bad, have to follow the basic character values. But there is vet anotherset of valueswhich emphasizes only justice not but Ihsan and sacrifice for the good of others.These. valuesare essentially religiousvalues.Others mav be ironest because is a good policy.A Muslim is honest it g 1 matter of principle The eharacter<lf a good Fakistaniis cornposed hoth basicvaluesas *eil as cf religious values.

F'eastnot on the shore, frtr there lto.ltly breathes the tune of li!<: tirapple witk the waves and dare lwunortality is stife.

Iqbai

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IMAGI{ H{.-JILDING
of You rnaynot be curiscious the fact that the way you dress, look, walk, talk and behave, Ieavessome impressionon those around you, whetherjuniors or seniors. After sometime, a mental picture of your personalitystarts taking shape in their minds. This is and your imagethat is goingto determinetheir reactions processgoes on responses you. This image-making to imperceptiblyall the time and may be most activeat a of time when you are leastconscious it. but What you reallyare,is not unimportant, what mattersmore, is the sort of imageyou haveprojectedfor yourselfin the minds of your juniors and seniors.You are liked or disliked, honoured or dishonoured, appreciatedor ignored with referenceto your image, which may be and often is, differentfrom your own selfimage. So, in day to day life, your image mattersmost. may be able to get an insightinto your Your superiors re.al personality, but your juniors will be mostly when especially with your overt behaviour, ccncerned atreoff your guard,or under strain,or in high spirits i,ou they keenly '.lr in low spirits. Under such conditions, you and form an image of your inner personality vratch and iater on respondto you accordingly. Your juniors are always inquisitive about you. or They may keep mum, they may look unconcerned

to but inclifferent, in fact they are most stlsceptible what to what you say and you do and what you do not do, *hut you do not say.They make a mental note of the etc' yourmannerisms, of details yourbehaviour' minutest how yo-u.deaL with critical eyes, Theywatchfor insiance, They would at oncedetectand decry with the offenders. for if you are partial.toanyone one reasonor the other' or your juniors may havethe sameweaknesses vicesas you for indulgingin you have, but would never excuse them. There is a good reasonfor that watchfulattitude' Your superiorsunderstandthe difficulties of your age but and posiiion and may forgiveyou for petty lapses, in the eyesof the juniois, you are a big gun' Yol are their shocked hero; they ideilize you. They are genuinely. hero hasthe feet of clay.Then whenttreyfina that their they wouid swing'to the other extremeand rejectyou struightu*ay.They would hate you as intenselyas they onceadmiredYouPassionatelY. (and who doesnot So if you have any weakness have?) beca r eful nottobetr ay i t.Pay s pec i al attenti on rudeness' of to the externals your behaviour-sloppiness, or showof iemper,lackof moralcourage bad irrdecency, l'aith. If.you by is Thus leadership maintained prestige' havc high prestige, your orders will carry weight' lead by invoking nrit. No6ody can effectively 'tlrcrwis-e all l'carof authtlrity the time.

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To sum up, you should be all the time careful about the image you are building for yourself.But that doesnot mean that you put up a false show to impress others. This just can not happen.You cannot wear a make-upall the time. If you work hard and take interest in your job, you do not haveto worry about the imageat all. It will take care of itself.

SURPLUS VALUE
Doing plain duty is not enough.If you want a specialreward, make a special contribution or create what is called surplusvalue. You are rewardedfor not just doingyour duty, but for what you havedoneon your The your obligation. own in addition to what wasanyway more you do this, the more you arp valued and appreciated. with carryingout whatyou So do not rest satisfied asked to do in so many words; try to have been the understand intention behind the instructionand also try to understandthe mind that has given the order. What is the explicit requirementand what is the implicit one? Ask yourself these two questionsand then get going with the problem. Use all your intelligence, and initiative and give your senior a resourcefulness pleasantsurpriseby doing the task better and quicker The quality of work mattersas'much than he expected. as promptness. Don't takepetty questions. Don't askunnecessary mentalreservations, problems the senior;that betrays to or unwillingness incompetencr. Put the surplusvalue in your work willingly and The enthusiastically. little bit which is your own,will in the first place, give you personal satisfactionand will earn you the gratitudeof your seniors seconclly, thoughthey may nnt alwayssay so in so many words.

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There is nothing greater in this world than your own conscienceand when appear beforeyour God you can say that you did your duty with the highest sense of integity and with loyalty and faithfulness.

Quaid-e-Azam

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Your image as good, honestand devotedworker will be graduallybuilt up and will earn you respectand high regard. This is the time when the foundations your of future careerare being laid. The question whetheryou are going to be a senior officer in about twenty-five years'time,is beingdecided now.A careeris marredor made bit by and that too in the early yearsof training. This may seema high aim, but you havegot to aim high. Aiming high calls for stern self-discipline, unflinching, intelligent hard work, and immense courage of conviction.Naturally you will have to pay a high price for a high target. The idea of surplusvalue is not limited to your positionas a leader.If you develop general a attitudeof doing more than the minimum required,contributing more than expected and givingmore than receiving, you would find your whole life better, richer and happier.

F'UNCTIONAL SENIORITY
You are going to ptuythe leader.As suchyou will a be exercising lot of power over your juniors as their senior.So you had better be quite clear in your mind as to the nature of this senioritY.

yourself, Yet the temptationis there to overreach to overdo and over-reactand fall a victim to the false gifted; feelingthat yoprare "hell of a guy",exceptionally born to rule, etc.,etc' intrinsieally.supeligr;

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controlledor guided bY values. if You cannotplay the leader effectively you are your own' by what not inspired by some great ideal of of The sense moral shaw called moral passion. Bernar'd on how you useJour will keep a check responsibility unO will restrain you from overreaching, h.uthority

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overdoing,or over-reacting. Your task as_ leader is going to be doubly a difficult. on the one hand,your autliorit! is limited.you are supposed lead,not to drive.you are not expected to to^ bullying or hard hitting; on the other hand, some be of your juniors, being immature, may strain vour patience.Teenagers, and large, are a strangetot. If by you are gentle and kind, they may take if as a sign of weakness and if you are strict and formal with tlem, they g.u-bl". Moreover, at times, they may -uy behavemost unreasonably, would expect thernselves but you to be meticulouslyreasonableand fair. Thev mav make a hundred and one mistakes,but if you ,uff.. u lapse,once in a blue moon, they would ai on." catch you and tear you to pieces.The immature onestend to exaggerate beyond all proportions.Sometimes, because ot unconscious fears,they find it difficult to distinguish betweenreality and fantasy.If A mishaphappens6n.", they would report as if it has been happeningforever. 'Once' is 'always' in their idiom. Some .id.t, are temperamentally cut out for the hard corporatelife, not they feel ill-adjustedto the increasingly deminding and exacting pattern of the life over here, so thev find everything wrong aroundthem and blamethe seniors for their real or imaginarysufferings. Moreover, youngpeopleare rirostly extremists in liking and disliking thingsand people.Oui of a largelot of youngsters; some are b<iundto be peevish,,toirchy, uncooperative,grumbling; fault-fincling,su.spicious,

while indifferent or hostile (for a variety of reasons)' cosome others will be pleasant, cheerful' willingly obedientand to imProve, a crosssectionof humanitY nge is to get on with all of them, to give them much into neededsecurity,and to help them grow and flower most demandingtask indeed' It is fine persons---a heavy rotn"itting like running a marathon race with scoresof Yet it is w"orthrunning' others' ;;J;p;. enough lfi"- U"f"re you, haverun it and haverun it fast to touch the taPe first. In the long run, learning to lead will turn out to be more rewarding than I learning here. While learn learning to tie confide understanding,fair and, i integrated.Tn-eseare the mostuseful and helPful as While learning to le Error is the stel mistakes. on learnto make decisions riskof goingwrongoccasio will never learn to PlaYthe eachtime you make a wrgng move;analyse nrakea nr-rte of it' it; find out what went wrong to avoid repbtition comesfrom intelligent experrrnenting' li)xperience
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TWO WAYS OF LEARNING TO FOLLOW

like him; in fact he imagines he is like him'so he deliberatelyand willingly tries to do what his hero does, In io to speaku. t speaks, dressas he dresses' short he " imitate him in all matters,big and small, eoei all out to ind doing so giveshim a lot,of satisfaction' Training in followership wholly dependent on conditioning is no eood. It is not effective and dependablein times 6f ,tt"tt. Followership based on identificationis more durable and dePendable.

is who is worthy of submission, in human nature'

used for agesfor making human beingslearn to behave this way or that. The other way of learning to follow is by idefrtification, tle iearner. i.e. identiiieshimselfwith his senior,elder,ituperior or hero. That is, he desires be to

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ATTITUDESAND ATTRIBUTES OF A LEADER

of courage the basicelements leadership. to and decision-making courage Leadinginvolves a risk and accept responsibility for the take It consequences. is very demanding,whereas the is not so. Obeying orders may be physically following So but uncomfortable, mentallyit is comfortable. it is for most people, even those placed in this reason that positionsof authority,do not like to make independent In hard decisions. fact some may rnortally fear making maywant to share moveson their own. Suchnon-leaders with others,which of the responsibility decision-making power too. Consultingothersis a resultsin sharingthe different matter, but the responsibilityof making a decisionmust always rest ,with the one who is in the when he fails,nor lead.A true leader makesno excuses he looks for scapegoats. link betweenthe TRUST: Trust is the essential leaderand the led. As the renownedhistorian,Toynbee has put it, "The leader must make his fellows his This canhappenonly if theytrust him enough followers". not to examineor attack each of his individual actions and are willing to go along with him for a while.

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Military Academies have been doing exactly this for centuriesand have done it fairly well. Given below is a resumeof what are generally takento be the desiredqualitiesof a leader:WLL to LEAD: Will to lead is the firsr requirement for leadership.However, will to leacl is

Secondly.leading is not the same thing as bullying, becausebullying springs tiom cowardice.A bully is essentiallv coward. is weakwith the strong a He and strongwith the we.ak. Bullying resultsfrom lack of confidence and courage. Builying in fact is a coverfor a feeling of inferiority. However,will to commandis the crudefor.mof will to lead. Both involveconficlence antl

This unwaveringtrust in the leader arisesonly if the followershave full faith in the leader'sintegrityand the in his abilityto lead.ion a much smallerscale, same must be there betweenthe,playersof o : type of trust The team captainor the leader' lcam ancltheir captain. up got Iras to truilcl this trust in his calibreand integrity

20 if he wishesto function effectively. PHYStrCAL STAMINA: Laders in all walks of life are,knowm their immensephysical for stamina. They have an inexhaustible store of energy,steelynervesand irnmensecapacityfor sustainedhard work, both physical and mental under most trying circumstances, and moreover' need less rest and sleep to recoup. From Alexander the, Great down the ages to the Quaid-eAzam, this is a constant pattern. This energJ and staminahas nothing to do the with physicalrobustness. It's in their bonesand nerves.UnflaggingenergJis the lite-blood of leadership. VISION: A leader is a personwith a vision.He far aheadand far deeperthan the peoplehe leads. sees He has an uncannysenseof destinyand direction;and he knowshow to guide and lead his people. FAITH: A leader is a man of immensefaith in his ideals and faith in his own ability to act:ualize the ideals he has set himself. His convictionis unshakable and inspiring. Disappointmentsdo not frustrate him. Each falure reinforceshis determinationto hold on to the last. COURAGE: Apart from physicalcourageand courage, which a true leaderpossesseslot, he of a lnoral is not deficient in intellectual couragOeithe.r,:. .the courdge to think dispassionately and:.fu.."'*re'.ieality ratiqnally .and.not to let his 'egd' 's.taird the.watri itr of;

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I will not live out of me, eYes I will not see,witlto,thers mY evil ill, My good is good, I woudn'tbefree, I can not be, pleaseio rate them' While I take'ihirgs osllers ^ out own road' to I dare attennpt lay 'ny

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23 The purposeor the persons themselves unworthy of respect and love,canneverinspireloyalty. Mereforce of authoritycan haveflatteryanclforcecl obeclience but not the loyaltyinspiredby the aclmirable character. In sum, you can get loyalty if you yourselfare sincere and loyal to the great cause and also to the persons placedaboveand belowyou.

SINCERITY AND LOYALTY
sincerity is not possibrewithout identification, without mentally extendlngyourselfto cover ttr" oit the externalthing, the objeci of your sincerity. "., Sj"cerity is not possible without a hard core of , love and respectfor thi purposeor for tt p"rrtn yo, are sincereto. " Sincerity goes beyond the literal meaning of . words.It goesstraightto the spirit of the words of"the order, or of the assigned duty. .. li"cerity givesbirth.to loyaltyand loyaltyaccepts the unpleasant from the objectbf toyattyai gfaOfy it aJ doesthe pleasant.

"The safety,honour and welfure of your country come time. The honour,welfare first, alwaysand every and comfort of the men you command come next. your own ease, cornfort,and safetycomelast,always and every time.,,
Gen Chetwood (While inaugurating the I.M.A in 1932)

Loyalty is a matter of passionate feelings; is a it mental attitude; it grows out of the ,Self u, i flo*", growsout of the stalk of a plant. Henceloyaltycannot be imposed from outside; iannot Lre it ordered dint of by authoritv.

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25 strongest people have fumbled and flatered in the prn..tt. Alexander,the Great, was able to conquerthe world but he was not able to conquerhis own spirit fully' He killeclhis dearestfriend Clitrus in a temper;he never himself for that nor have the historians' excused DISCPLINE IS PLEASURE: Discipline is a source of power to conquer, power to win fame ancl glory' And winning fame, status and prestige is a very satisfying It experience. is a pleasure.So disciplineis indirectlya pleasure too. source of DISCIPLINE IS PRIDE,: Conquering external oppositionpowers is a pleasurebut the most satisfying eiperience i, .onqu"ring one's own Self, one's own wild and pressing them into the service of great pa.ssions on Those who can do it are the happiestpersons ideals. die, they enjoy dying' God's earth. Even if they have to AII martyrs clo it. socratescliclit when he willingly drank a cup oi hemlock and slowly sank into eternal sleep' Jamuqa clid it when he asked ChangezKhan to kill him insteadof sparinghis life. (In The SecretHistory of the Mongols, tire inciclent has been described in vivid Jamuqa had been ChangezKhan's chum as a cletaiis). boy.Both greatlyliked each tlther.Later on, consequent upon tribal rivalry,he turned againstthe great Khan and 70 t<ittect of the Khan's most faithful men by boiling tlrem into oil. Later on, he was captured ancl was before him; ChangezKhan had a look at him proclucecl s<lnreho*he meltecl;in a flash of mercy, he wanted to sl)arehis life. He askedJamuqa:

DIMENSIONS OF DICIPLINE
There are three dimensionsof discipline:power, Let's look into pleasureand security,each has its secrets. them. DISCIPLINE IS POWER: Discipline literally means 'learning'. Learning to organize one's powers of head and heart. Without organization,men'spowersand

The story of civilizationis the story higher achievements. of how man has been gradually able to learn to organize The better he was able and utilize his natural capacities. he to do this, the more spectacularthe advances made. of organizing and organizingis So discipline is a means a means of producing power. Hence disciplineis power. Discipline or organizingimplies putting the pieces

touches great heights. However, to clisciplineone's internal urges, is such a task that sometimes even the

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"How do you want rne to treat you?" And the bold reply was:"Asan enemyis treated". "What! Do you want the fate of an enemy?" askedthe Khan . "l do. I want to be killed"wasthe answer. And the greatKhanreluctantly obliged him.That is the spirit of the man who khan conquered Self , his who knowsthe valueof honour.He is greatevenin this defeat. So self-discipline self-conquest the greatest is or source of power, the greatest source of pride and satisfaction. givesa strange It feelingof superiority. You becomebig in your own eyes. Nothing's like that. DISOPLINE IS SECURITY. Disciplinegives security If you havegainedpowerthroughdisciplining . your capacities and organizingthem into a pattern , security will be a by-product the process. hasbeen As of pointedout by the psychologists, bestsecurity that is the which you yourselfgive to yourself.Thus disciplineis security too.

INTEGRITY -MORAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL
and psychological' Integrity is of two kinds--moral without moral No effective leadership is possible It and uprightness' not i"i.gri,v fntegrity.is just honesty an officer' your is th"ehard coie of character'If you are you are will, first of all, want to know whether i;i;.. 'h";;;; on.t'foit in your dealingsand whetheryou are all' sincerein what you sayand clo'Above ;;;;i;tand use or eyeshow you lfr"V *iff watch with the keenest Your slightest propertyandfacilities' government misuse casual'will fi',is,ega.cl,t'u*Lu"i unintentionalor ;ilfi on stands do immenseharm to your image'-Leadership efficiency' ;G;ily and falls over lack oflt' Brishtness' if one lacks knowledge,plent, will be all undlne integrity. other Integrity is the primary root from which makes.u .*3n moral quuiiti". shoot out' Integrity bold' trustworthy' .ourug"ous,dependable' responsiblr, frant<and straightforward' leaders Integrity in fact is the basicmoral trait; and the young ancl seniors juniors;the old andfollowers; integrity'you know uii-n""d integrity.If a peison has let you down' You that he is not goingto lie, cheat'or Inat he will not dishonourthe trust know beforehanO in placed him. of in matters Keepingfaith, beingaboveboard

7A money and material, being fair in personal dealings, honouring a promise and upholding the trust, are integral parts of leading, be it for a good end or for a bad one. Psychological integrity is a differilt matter. It meansthat the personalityfunctions as a compactwhole i.e., different trends, urges, emotions blencl together in a hormonious pattern within the framework of personal values and attitudes. Psychological integrity ensures personal happiness, physical ancl mental well being, freedom from anxieties and c<lmplexes ancl maximum growth of personality. It results in greater .efficiencyand creativity. It providesstability to conduct and strengthto character.[t is the source of moral courage.Absolute moral integrity is an ideal, attainable tough not easyto attain, especialllr in the context of current social conditions. However, a minimum level is must. Similarly perfect psychological integrity of personalityis also an ideal. You need not despairif you find yourself caught in the whirlpool of emotional conflicts,or falling short of your cherishedvalues and failing in sclmeof your commitments. To err is human. Fall we must, here and there, but we must be up on clur feet at once,inchingaheddin integrity. pursuit of ideal moral and psychological

29

MATURITY
is "Ripeness a11...." in (ShakesPeare King Lear)

informal. In fact the main aim of good education is to

or ripeness maturitY. So as a young leader, one of your prime objectivesshould be to acquire maturity' It is an it quality,thclugh has its levelsand degrees' att:rinahle

T-

T

30 What is maturity?It is difficult to givea precise definitionof maturity,but the functionof maturitycan be described. is the ability to give an appropriate It response a given situation,in other words,to react in intelligently, keepingin view the possible consequences of an action. Maturity involvesself-restraint, patience, ob1'ective thinking and the ability to foreseepossible repercussions a decisionor an action,and thereby of choosing one courseof actionout of several. Maturity implies patience and discretion,it demands that you shouldnot act impulsively, on the i.€., spur of the moment, that you shouldlook as far ahead into the future as possible and foresee end-product the of your actions.It also demandsthat you should be logicaland realisticin your approach. If a seniorcadetor G.C. wishes be respected to as a superiormemberof.thecadetcommunity, hasto he evolvea pattern of behaviourin keepingwith the level ' of his seniority. In fact seniorityand maturityor ability to respond properly should go together. Seniority devoid"of correspondinglevel of maturity or responsibilitywill inevitably be ineffective. Moreover, it may lead to and embarrassing situations. unpleasant task beforeyou as a .,Hence the most challenging to is seniof\cadet to developmaturity corresponding the but level of your seniority.This is a life-longprocess, you

3l

are somehints shouldpursueit right from now' Here that may helP: in involved a situation a" Do not get emotionally positions and and ou"nitftaking extreme alwaysleavea *ay out of the situation' get excited b. Do not loseyour temper'Do not over trifles' whatis conveyed or c. Do not believe disbelieve to the to you without verifyingit or listening other side of the storY' and be mentally d. Learn to forestall si'tuations beforeit arises' pr"put*O to meet a situation back and tn ottrer*ords look aheacl alsolook a bad und tutt" att precautions to avoid situation' beforekindness' comes e' Justice f. your of Be acutelyconscious the imagethat anglconductProjects' character

provoke too g. Do not get prov<lkecl soon nor Ptlsitions' othersinto extreme and incliscreet h. Avoid personal,out-bursts' selfthe as offensiveexpresslons' they'hurt mclst'ancl he respectof ttre other person

32 might retaliate in sheerdesperation. Similarly sarcastic remarks and tone must alwavs be avoided. I. In dealing with disciplinaryproblems,do not assume authority that is not yours by appointment. Make proper use of the chain of command: never by pass it.

33

THE ABILITY TO RESPOND
and chain of situations Life is an unencling

j.

k. Do not criticizeyourjuniorsin their absence. This would only harm you and nobody. I. Do not take airs before your juniors. This weakness might be exploited.

greatermagnitude.

m. Fairness and.firmness comefirst, always and every time. n. Use the right tone, right words, dressand placewhen you haveto exertyour authority.

I admire the courageof the way-farer, who disdainsto set hisfeet On the path that is not beset, With deserls and mountainsand streanns. Iqbai

more and nationaltragedies Personaltragedies from failure to respond often than not 1t". The situations' wholepurpose to appropriately changing your ability to here is to clevelop ui'y.,ut eclucation

34 respond to the situations appropriately, not to any specificsituation but to a complexvariety of situations that you are likely to face in your life especially an as officer in the Services. Cadets of the same entry can be different from each other in many respects---inphysical strength, in intelligence,in aptitude, in knowledge,and in courage. But none of these differences matters as much as the differencein their abitity'to respond. There is no limit to situationsand there is no count of the responsesthat you have to make all the time to meet them. But your suc€ess life and the in quality of this success clepencls cultivating the ability on to make the correct move on the chessboard life (that of you have to play on your own ). This condition of doing it on your own, deserves special attention. The best coach in the world may be available to you to help you learn a game; but once the referee blows the whistle, you will have to do all the playing yourself and for yourself. Si milarlyall typesof learningin t h e la s t a n a ly s is is a very personal affair. Moreover, there is no end to learning. The olcler:you grow, the more y<lu have to learn. The more imprlrtant post you hold, the higher your rank, the more complexare the situations that you have to responcl to. SO YOUR MIND, YOUR PERSONALITY, YOUR CHARACTER-----IN A WORD YOUR ABIITITY TO RESPOND St{OUt_D

3.5

More often AISO GROW CORRESPONDINGLY' n.nly than not, it so happens that people ,tut-u.1.: moral emotlonal' but physically, clonot attainthe social' with maturitycommensurate their-age' and intellectual of itli, it the basiccause mostof our positionor status. troubles. f91 t]tis It is difficult to clevisea set of rules at are effclrts aimecl achieving ntt purpose. "Ju.o,ional correct moves' that end, to enable you to make the However,here are some broad guidelines:a. LIFE STYLE: Broad

career' u choosea Particular is in fact the for devisecl You you cannot afford to reject wav of life of a career officer;

;? il;;il

education of undermine the superstructure your training.

to ;] life.lf vouattempt do so'vouwill and

haveto be OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDES: You b. priorities in lifevery clear in your mind about your goals;and be about immediategoals and.long-term both eat to prepared pay thJprice for both' You cannot look You rnis is impossible" must i""".ur." u"o tt* ii' and.plan possible far into the future, as fat aheadas unable to ln activitiesaccordingly' case'youare"pi"usure t; for the sake of rea-l the immeJiut" i;;g;

36 distant pleasure, you won't be able to make much heaclway life. Your attitudemattersa great deal. in Remember positive attitucleshave positive results. Therefore havea burning desire forgeaheacl. to Muster your energy realize goalyou havesetyourself. all trl the c. MENTAL MATURITy: The ability to iespond involves wholepersonality, it depenismostiy the yet on mental maturity. Mental maturity has vast knowledge and varied experience its warp anclwoof. So stuiy as widelyand learnro think.Not everyb<ldy thinks. Collect informzrtion a honey-bee, like clropby drop.Organize it into knowledge,rhen cligest it and ch-ange- into it understanding. on doingthese Go threethings a long for time, and you will sooner or later developthat rare mentalqualitycalledinsight. d. EMOTIONAL STABILITy: Temperis a matter of one'snature. Yet you should to it that as a leader see you do not suffer from lack of emotional stabilitv. Energyis the bed-rockof leadership; enthusiasm iis is life-blood. But hypersensitiveness, excitability,ancl irritabilitystandin the wayof makinga correct."iponse. At the root of these emotional handicapi lies nervousness,feelingof inferiorityor lack of emotional a stability. e. SENSEOF HUMOUR: Tensionand humourdo just as tensionand effective not go together, responses do not go together either. A tenseman hardly laughs and hardly makes the right move either. Cultivatea

3'7 of sense humour. Laugh awayminor problems'Geniality you keep your nerveslmooth. Indirectlyit will help will problem' to choosethe correct response a challenging DEI-AYED RESPONSE OR DELIBERATE f. of RESPONSE:All human beingsare creatures impulse y^ou'are in varying clegrees.But young people, like particularlvprnn" to reaciingirnpulsively'Tooffsetthat 'learn to make a delayed response. t"ndsrrc), .or deliberateresponseto complex problems"First think ' of any weigh, calculale, foresee possible consequences make to'7",'taking into account its pros and cons' Then respondt9-1h.' the final move and adjust your position to .onr"qu.n."t of thit move firmly and boldly'(This principle, however, will not be extended to situations '*h"r" you would be required to take quick -decisions' will be correct if you have Your spontaneousresponses in succeederl cultivating correct attitudes)' VOICE, WORDS, AND ACCENT: In the end invited to a seeminglyminor' but iour attention is to be you will have to ieally a significant point. As a le.acler' various do a lot of talking to the junior cadets on occasions. Sometimes you are their companlon' a guide, sometimes a friend' and at other ,o*"ti-.t task times a pure and simple commander----a stern your master andstrict disciplinarian'You have to acljust to the iJio.n, expression, uoi." and tone accorcling to nature of iituation. correct idiom ancltone according rnore effective' the situation would make your response dress In f:rct,you will be well advisedto choosethe right g.

V

38 and right placefor a paiticularoccasion. toughtalking If hasto be done,cloit whenyou are formallyclressed, and do it from the official seat. Ability to respondcorrectlyis a very complex ability.It is rrot acquiredin a matter of clays. a life It,s long process. start learningyour first formal lessons So, in ability to respondearnestly.
,.*r .r *r f.*{ .t(

39

GAP PERSPECTIVE
develop youngleaderyou should As a responsible and uncalledA of a sense perspective. lot of grumbling placed aboveyou results of for unj.ust'criticism those from lack of PersPectivg. For exampleyou receivean order which makes ttl to no sense you.You makea request your higher-ups' 'and it is rejectedout-right.You are puzzled why as.to. turned9ryn' has sucha g"nuin" request beencallously Youfre-tanclfulminate,getfrustratedanc|disgusted.The or reasonis that the perspective mentalvisionof your superioris different.The order that looksodd to you as an isolated piece may be an integral . part. of an administrative frame-work, which is there in your senior's mind. He has in his mind a host of long range and short range'which are considerations, you between and not knownto you.dn" gt"ut difference for your superioi is that when you.make a request 3ny You think it is personal. is iting your approach entirely whereas you as an indiviclual, gooJ anrl n"i"ttury for the point problemfrom ioul ,up.rior hast6 look at your as cadetcommunity a whole. Lf ui.*'of the goocl the 'f oneun fai r ac ti or r m ay s eti nm oti onaw htl l ec hai nof What is gotid for you now may not he il t!" reactiotts. interestof communityas a whole; moreover'if the superior allows the iequest in one case(yours)and thii wouldamountto favouritism, in cliiallows another, He deep resentment' cannot which is sure to .arouse less in exceptional affortl ttl be kind to you alone,

Life k a wlnle Luck is a whole Churchill

F

40

circumstances. Justicecomesfirst and kinclness later. so your superior has to look at things from a different angle.He knows that an exceptioneventuallybecomes a precedent.He has to klok ahead into the future, into your future, and that of the community,and so some timesperforcetakesunp'pular and unpleasant decisions. An individual, in self-interestmay be partial, selfish and short-sighted.The senior has gor to be impartial, just, and far-sighted;so your task is io cJevelop a senseof perspective and learn to look at thines from an impersonal point of view. Thus you can und"erstand real spirit behind an orcler and get an insight into the inner working of the senior'smind, reflectingthe point of view of the administration. A lot of unhappinessand ill-will in this worldsprings from this unfortunate fact that people clo not appreciate each other's point of view. 'Ihey presume things and, without verifuing,believe in them. On the other side,your juniors too have a poinf of view. They see the privileges you enjoy from a differentangle;-so you must also unclerstancl point of the vi ew of your juniors. Remember t h a t a ll a u t h o rit y arousesresentmentof some sort in thoseplacedbelclw, and the authority of Course-mates jealousyand arouses anxiety, for it ntakes one conscious of on's own inadequacy inferiority. Human nature is apt to take or the easyway out. Insteacl recognizing of anclappreciating superiority, most people woulcllike either not to accept

4T

it or challenge So in understanding juniors,try to it. your get an insightintclthe workingof their mind; how they look at things, how they tencl to react to work and discipline. to accommodate Try them as far as possible. Neverprovokethem into takingextreme you positions. shouldhave a feelingfor their thoughtsanclemotions, and do not rub them the wrong way. Everybody has his tenderspots. not touchthem all the time.Nagging Do is the last thing to be resortedto. However, the most seriouschallengeto your authority will come from your own rank group. Ilyou are senior to them by virtue of appointment, not do forget that you also belong to the same group. They know_you fully well. Even if you are really sup-erior to the wholelot, it will not be psychologically easy-for them to acceptyour superiority.Do not assertyourselftoo much, but do not acquiesce either. Dealingwith your own group calls for a greatdeal of maturity. But the fact remains that the leaderand the led can never have the same perspective. you as junior cannotfully appreciate point of vicw of your senior the who canneverfully accommodate juniors,evenif he his understands their point of view. So eachseniorhasto play the role of an eclucator to change heart of his juniors so that theysharehis the missionand, if possible, vision.The perspective his gap hasto be bridgedas far as possible.

'\r

42

43

There is anothermeansof closingthe perspective gap, i.e., through faith, confidence and respect.For instance , the Quaid was a genius, a towering personality.Barring a few, the teeming millions could hardlyunderstand appreciate politicalperspective. or his But they all had immense confidencein him, in his competency, his integrity and in his leadership. in And it worked. You can emulate his examplein your own way.

THE ART OF'GETTING OI'J
An important part of leadership concerns

Let it be plain to you that seniorityis relative,not You are senior to so many and in turn junior absolute.

*:l*X*

Scienceis an instrumentfor the presentationof Lift. Scienceis a means of establishingthe Self. Science and art (ue seryanrc Lift. of lqbal

No and asFakistanis. one is superiorto the other,except (Taqwa).So rememberthat on one count,i.e., goodness that matter, any other ran\, an appointment or for howeverhigh, does not make you superiorby itself. It a only confersupon you heavier responsibility, gteater peopleplaced opportunityto do good or harm to the underyour charge.

'$

attitude.For a Avoid at all coststhe overbearing a is to become blustering temptation the leader, greatest you bully;resistit. If you evergivein to this temptation, will neverlearn to tle a leader. Do is Asscrtion tlne thing,bullyinganother. not c r r r ixup th c tttr cw i th the ttther .D ue as s er ti onom es T l t rIr ( 's l r l ) l ) osc onfi dc nc e.he onc w ho l' r or rstr e :r 'r gtl . r cs

45 considerate' problem but you should also try to be
M

is confidentand brave will never stoop to the level of terrorizing those who are weak. A bully is really a cowardand mentallydeficient, whereas real leaderis a courageous and mentally sharp. So one thing that you shouldneverdo is bullying and indulgingin violence.And anotherthing that you shouldneverdo is losingyour temper;suchresponses do harm and neversolveany problem.Self-restraint the is rule to be observed always and everytime. But self-restraint alone is not enough.It won't take you far. Silenceis not enough,it can be frightful. We need music, flowers. A world without flowers and sweetmusic will not be worth living in. Similarlywe needkindness and sympathy. Human beings can put up with pain,but theycannotput up with cold indifference. Human beings all agesneedlove and understanding, of first and foremost. As a leader, be gentle in your speech and manners. tacklingdisciplinary In problems, tolerant. be Give a patienthearingevento minor complaints. may lt look like a minor problemto you,but it maybe a source of great anxietyto a junior. Gentlespeech too not enough. actively is Be kind to the juniors,especially when they are in distress or sufferingfrom real or imaginarytroubles.Y<lungsters separated from their loving parentsunconsciously look for parent substitutes. The staff would taclclethat

of favouring Do not ever make the fatal mistake It is true that we one cadet at the cost of the other' We have our of human beingsare creatures impulse' Somejunieirtroys are good workers' likes and elislikes. are not only obedient unO .o"p.rative wtrile o^thers tli"ttpegiful and casual'with naughty,Uut "u"r,'no'ty, *uy of talking; there.might,be offensivemannersunA" of colleciors grudg":,ond grumbleis, ,orr.run, may De there ryi:9T: oi .n*pLintt, touchy,-over-sensitive; or that' But be tolerant'Learn to ilniili;;iittir'tino Get on with all and get the best understand "u"ryon"' is exactlv vour task' one. That ;;t;i;".h piece of advice:Good Finally, a very precious^ Justgive tun Uoy,u,taLiight hrny.t toott aft'erthemselves' and do and do not bother them them broaCguiOairce do not givetoo not bother yourr"lf about them' Likewise Keep them either. much attention io proutem boys staff.d:il-itlh within limits; thatls all' Let the senior attentron the way they deem fit' Your greatest ;il to thosewho are especiallv ttt".iO go to ihe rnediocres' are withdrawing'shy diffident,who lack '*u'tn"'"' who Help them to comeup by givingthem ;;i;dre-tied. on them to stand. unO confidence .Help your fullest ""to'ragement' deserves their own r."t. rtlr-ril"n', majority attention. to learn-to Being a leader is a great opportunity hands' It is a great be human"l S"i," it with both

T

46 adventuretoo. Take it in that spirit.

47

THE UNPLEASANT PART
and be too. fnow them beforehand to adjust to them' There will be dema

unplea,sani seemingly T:t: Yourjob hassome mentallyprepareo

**Ii**

The quality of merq is not strain,d. It droppuh as the gentlerain from lrcavenupon tlrc place beneaii; It is Wice blessed. It blessethhim that givesand him that takes; 'Tis mightiest in the mightiest. Shakespeare

You would also t well-Placedor.t occasional

occaslon' Youon a Particular r ever or that You have lost serioushas coursesomething taken Place' and emotional Yet anothersort of unpleasantness firm with you have to be stresswill be your tot' when

48 your own classfellows.In the process, you may losetheir goodwill and friendship, and il they choose uncooperative, situationmay strain'y*.".*..r, ro be the tu, hold on to the principle # iurti"".Justice before friendshipand eventuallyyou *o'ufA *ln;-ot'i"oil;, conscience would be satisfied. Theseand.many other situations, now and later on jn other positions or ,rrponriblity, ur; ;;;";';" confront you in varying intensitf. Hence the need to cultivatethe courage to-fa." th;;;the undersl"G;" tacklethem. lnt anddemanding situations ty required for successful ther-n apart of the game, as

49

METICULOUSNESS
'Meticulous'isan adjective whichliterallymeans, 'too careful about small things or details'. Meticulousness means the state of being meticulous; being very careful about minor details. Meticulousness vital to success. you havegot is If to do a job, do it meticulously. You cannotbe simplytoo meticulous aboutyour tasks. The more carefulyou are, the more you attend to details, the tletter it is. Meticulousness leadsto correctness whichcoupled with minute details ensuressuccess. So form a habit, a mental attitude of meticulousness carrying out even minor, seemingly in unimportanttasks. tasksassigned you are intended All to to train you to undertake more complex and difficult tasksin futune.The simple leads to the complex,the easyto the difficult , but exactness meticulousness and are a must. As an appointment-holder, are a sort of staff you officer on a small scale.If now you pick up the mental habit of going into small details, it witt help you immenselyin the days ahead as a real staff officer, as well as in other walks of life. By being meticulousand exact,you would also gain confidencein your position and it would also irnpress your seniors.Seeingyour example, your juniors

smooth goingon beatentru.lr. However thu,n in the end,3 there the honour satisfaction is and of achievement. Your positionas a_ leade,i, ;;;io u. a toughbout. But "box on". Come
what way.

rvrosi ti,i" ni,r,"- i;ff#JTj[,","::"ln iffi:] ?l:"

exception. runs 'lt

pro s shave er.rn n, $i3li'Ll?l;, ces e th i u ro.l, f,f il; -"

50 will be careful in their own work, and by finding you so you tasksthat call for careful,your seniorswould assign greater responsibility and integrity. The circle is complete.It all started from being very careful about small detailsof tasks. Minding Somepeopledo not like meticulousness. the minute detailsdoes not appealto them. They sayit is irksome,awfully boring. Well, it will be boring if it is is Meticulousness a not viewed in the right perspective. meansto an end; the end is to be able to do greatthings later on, yearsafter your assignment an appointmentas holder is over.It is the groundworkfor producingcareer officers.

i1

ENTHUSIASM AND ENERGY
A personwho is lazy can never becomea good good is not enougheither. You officer. Being passively about must be up and doing. You must be enthusiastic A what you undertaketo do and do it earnestly. leader can only be effective if he goes about his job and puts his heart and soul into his work. energetically If you do not take your task seriously,nobody would take you seriously. to deadlysinsaccording Slothis one of the seven you can never inspire the Bible. Being slothful, A in confidence your leadership. bad man who is more will have more followers and energeticand confident will prove a better leader for a bad purposethan a good man who is listless.diffident and indifferent leader of evena good cause. You is So erithusiasm the marrow of leadership. have a passion,a moral passionwith a passionate must faith in your ideal. You must perform your dutiesin relationto a greatideal,that of cornmonplace sen*riceto Pakistan, to humanity and to Islam. go and conviction together' that courage Remember

*,Fi.*13

Life's battles don't always go To the stronger or faster man; But soon or late the man who wins Is the man who thinl<s he can.

52 INVESTMENT AND CONSUMPTION
There are two basic concepts of Economics. When you spendsome money to producemore money, it is investment,and when you spend some money to satisfu need or desirewhich doesnot producemore a money,it is called consumption. nation is rich and A strong if it produces more than what it consumes. Similarlyan individualis rich if he produces more than he consumes. Investment precedes production. At this stageof your career,you have two most importantfactorsof productionat your disposal----time and energy and these are perishablegoods. lt is imperativethat you make the most appropriateuse of your time and energy.A large number of studentsare living with you. Even if their energies vary,the amount of time is the same.Which of theseboysare goingto live fuller, happier and richer lives in future, say,in about twentyyears'time? The answeris simple:those who are investing more todaywill be able to consume more tomoirow. Hence you ought to be very careful about how you useyour units of time and energy.Being youngyou are at the peak of your energy. it not flow Let into unproductive channels. And now is the opportunity of making the maximum investment of your time and energy in education. everystep,ask this question:" At What is the bestuseof this unit of time and energy" 'Am I usingit ? on consumption on investment" For instance, you or ? if

53
and energy have worked for about ten hours, the time for two hoursis' of course' *", on healthyrecreation of your It g'oodinvestment. will recoupyou' The cells activity brain that had been fatiguedby intensemental you will be *iii U" replaced o. ,"p-oit"d by rest and hard work' brrr", fitted for anotherrounclof sustained to the time The sameapplies This is also investment. duration;boys soentin an afternoonnap of reasonable relutarty take rest after lunchfor sometime' ;h" il;;; tneir chancesof working harder and *"V -i.imizJ longer for the rest of the daY' is a So even well-earnedrest and relaxation away not shy productive u.seoj time and energy' Do But the main thing tt from recreatlon, too is important' What ir-,ttu, it shoulclbe induiged in moderately' not mattersis investment, consumption'

lft

*:kti

We are herenot to play, to dream to drift lift' Wu ltoru hard work to c)oand loads to Slun not the strugle, it's God'sgifi'

54

55 The The secret lies in their senseof priorities' A. of priorities that havebetter and strongersense students and other do better at all t",,t, """-s, andlnterviews the top in iiit theywho mostlyreach ,n"rttgt-["r"g "qrrut, theii chosencareer or profession' O. A. Wkat do you 'nean of by a sense piorities?

SENSEOF PRIORITIES
(From a question-answer session a StudyCircle at . meeting) Principal: There is a thought-provoking piece of verses: Lrfe's battles don't always go, To the stronger or faster man; But soon' or late the rnan who wins Is the man who thinks he can.

passiens' l' p"riJ in different direitionsbv lil and presiures, educational pryitorogical .outigi1tl11 -1' of
resewoir that stage,he is a live wire, an over-flowing candraw mind' if he ln energy. this stateof his body and and consequent the line between his wants and needs his long term needs up;;AJ h*ur"n"tt, is ableto place beforehis in order of their reGtiuevalue or importance and desires;this immediate arrd moie pressingwants right' Mlnd you' in process called,"1if"g the pr-iorities in

in late teens' A studentin his teens,particularly

#ff*

O.

Then which ones do better?

Wtat are the characteristics of this categoty (i. O. r student? Wat is the secret of thcir doing bettcr?

are set right' meansis a vital fu.tot' b"t" the priorities of purposeand a new life style emerges;a new-sense habitsand study direction takes .Lnttoi oi on"', living piobleT'^ltt {act' in to habits; discipline ceases be any or G'C'' there is the life of a purpot"-oti"nt"d stubent irregularity' no room left foi uny fntt of ind.iscipline'. and social n, casualness l.tOiiie'"nt" to educational OoYt:^'1lO obligations. Hard work automatically tenslons' no on comes its own asthereare conJentration all this' efficiency or conflict, intiJ"'-As a result of and of ,,n.t nu,lpr.rl work, both quantatively' incrcast:s I'Ienceit is no wonderthat his inrprrivcs' r.i,,.fi,i,,it*ly

of ih" pii*i1i"t t"'gttt, u*ut"ness endsand

l*

57
56 academicanelsocial performance is exceptionallygood. Da you wte-6nta s(ty that only tlrc mecliocre can develop 9

READJUSTING HABITS
Any modification in one's life style involves replacementor readjustment habits.Habits are said of nature.Lord Wellingtonwould say,"Habits to be second are ten times nature."Flabitsare formidablethings,not easyto displaceor replace.Rejectingthem does not help. Wishing to dislodgethem would not do. One becomesa helplesstoy in the hands of one's own habits.Personality entrenched splits,conflictresultsand overtakes personcaughtin the clutches unhappiness a of bad habits.Self-confidence undermined is and academic, social and moral problems accumulateon account of one'sinability to get rid of undesirable habits.Ftrowever, habitscan be harnessed. There is no causefor despairif you only use the correct technique. NATURE OF T{ABMS A habit is not a matter of knowledge. Knowing goodfrom bad would not do. (a) Ilabits have a physical-basrs: Habits are due to pathways runningthroughnervecenters. Eachrepetition Each subsequent repetitionmakes deepens pathway. the it further easier until it becomesautomatic.There is neryouscompulsionto repeat it without your thinking about it or wanting it. (b) Somehabitshave a psychological basis:You may not like them in your sober moments;you may even condemn them in day light, but it is possiblethat

lioiirliz " A. Not at all. I clid,not that.The say mentallybright and talentedsrudents that a.e aureto ;;";l;;;J""r"t", priorities,{o far batter than their mediocrecounter_ partsbecause theyhavethe addedadvantage intellect'when tarentis carerurty nurtured, "trrp".i",is the resurt simplysuperb.Tho-se who cro.iio"ptionurry field of human endeavour, A.finitely weril;;"y ur.;he are both highly talentedand possess """r'ri", an equally of priorities.When I said the mediocres high :gn-r" with a high sense purpose, very *"11, of do I _.un, ioiuy'ilu, the mediocre students who ur" in majority, n."O nit i.Ll constrained handicapped being or by medjocres. What

a senseof trtriority?'lsbeingirigttt

iilffi,]t

thesense priorities of whlch off_r", .un uny

I 1

Does temperatnent play any part in tlte attainment 9. oJ" academic excellencc or social responsibility? A Yes, it does to some extent.lt has been observed that the students of balanceo Jisposition and statlre temperament concentrate better on stuclies,.un *unk hand.erand longer. Consequently fhev proclucc hetter results- and prove to be responsible and dependable.Of course, geniuses -'n." an exception. are Tn sunl up, one could say: awareness is all which,.r,,t" priorities ught"

-*l

58 unconsciously they may be linked with your mental conflicts, anxieties, obsessions, fears or perversions. Srnoking, stealing,drinking, day-dreaming,uugruiq, vandalism, wilful defianceof disciplin., .ruy-i,uroEn inio habits for psychological ,eajons. ln that case psychological approach is needed to tackle the undesirable pattern of habits. (c). H-abits may havea chemicatbasis: one getsused if to introducinginto one's body througheating,irinking, p-uffing injectingsubstances uiing auoii chemical or that changes one'sblood stream, in this sori of habit will be the hardestto counteract. once this stageis reached, nothing short of clinical treatmentwill di All forms of tobacco, codeine, nicotine, preparations all so_called and sedativedrugs have a strong habit-formingtendency. They get assimilated straightinto the blood ind directiy affect the nervous system.Their excessive ur. por", grave dangersto health, characterand efficien*. Th" period below twentyis the proper time to makerequired adjustment one'shabit patterns. in How best to effect changes habitsis the crucial in question. William Jarnes, the father of rnodern psychology, his monumental work, ,psychology, in has suggested folowing approach: the "ln_ acquisitionof a new habit, or the leaving the off an old one, we must take care to launchourselvef with as strongand decidedan initiativeas possible. Accumulate all possible circumstanceswhich shall
59

and every day during which a breakdown is,postponed adds to the chances of its not occurring at all. The second maxim is: Never suffer an exception to occur, till the new habit is securelyrooted in your life' Each lapse is like letting fall a ball of string which one is carefully winding uP; a single slip undoes more than a great many turns will wind again. So do not let a lapse happen. Continuity of training is the great means of making the nervous act infallibly rightA third maxim is: Seize the very first possible

Eventually readjustingof habits turns out to be a problem of will, will-power. If you have a strongwill, you can effect the changebetter. But unfortunatelymost bad you are hahitstcrtclttl wcitkcn this very power-thenerves

60

6l

IN SEARCH OF HAPPINESS
on depends a frame To a large degreehappiness who cultivatea of mind, on a habit of thinking. Persons positiveoutlook can be happy in spite of circumstances ihat would cause others to be totally unhappy.Every person wants to be happy. But merely wanting to be huppy does not make one so. Happiness is - no.t 1 commodityto be bqught or sold. lt is not an inherited trait either. lt does not dependon riches,status,power or knowledge, though good health and provision of comesas Happiness of necessities life are prerequisites. life. lt comesas the a by-productof other activitiesof rewaid of creativeliving. lt doesnot result from making the happiness primary reasonfor living, but from living amicablyand actively. unselfishly, Sometimesa person becomesunhappy simply Be he begause indulgesin discontent. resignedto your life's fortunes,good or bad, and be determinedto live happily, even so. Cultivate the habit of successfully, happiness anci your life will be full of priceless regardlesscf what comes and goes. You experiences as shouldnot, however,use an attitude of resignation a for or for accomplishment as an excuse doing substitute lessthan your best. But each person'slife includes certain features lt that no amount of effort or desirecan change. is most unfortunatewhen a person allows theseunchangeable Nothing can conditionsto interfere with his happiness. you have to remove the possibilityof disappointment;

Will-power is partly a matter of nerves also.Have a look at your health, nutrition, sleep,rest, exercise schedule. that you do not worry too muchor do not See yourselfto constantstrainand stress. subject Take a selfdirected course in strengtheningthe will-power. One useful tip is: Fveryday deliberatelydo or avoid doing small acts which are normal, which you are used to doing or not doing.By repeating this exercise, will you be strengthening your will-powerandgainingconfidence. Lastly it may be noted that habitsare channels of . nervousenergy,so while attemptingtr-r readjust, provide alternativechannels also.Replacethe unwantedhabit with the wanted one. If you want to stop doing something,start doing somethingelse in its place. Vacuumis not possible" New habits require new surroundings, new programmes,new activities,new interestsand new friendsalso.You will have strengthened old habits the for not taking proper care.
***r ( r i*t( *t *

Sow an act, reap a habit; Sow a habit, reap a character.

ilt

develop habitorro.urril2g the yourthoughrs life,siovs on andpriceless moments rathertt u., onTir;pd;#;ir.

63 AVOIDING DEPRESSION
sometimeresultsfrom faulty Lack of happiness negative values and.narrowly materialistic &ttitudes, springsfrom outlook on life. Sometimesunhappiness mental conflicts,complexes, deep-rootedunconscious. phobiasand anxieties. fears, or But more often than not, occasional periodic fall and fits of depression boredom that collegestudents prey to, are usually caused by factors physical in a Thev are as fallow: InsufficientSleep:lt is easierto be at one'sbest an one possesses abundanceof energy.During one recharges one's neryous battery and nishesone's store of energJ.When one getsplenty a and enthusiastical.With of sleep,one feelg courageous rleep deficit, one tends to be downcastand depressed cven though things may be moving smoothly. Fatigue:fatigue is more often than not an attitude 2. of mind. lt results from a depletion of body's resources both physical and mental. When a person is fatigued, even cherished incentives lose lustre and life appears drab.

,r* * * *

Individtal acisl's reluion to the community, in he is nothing; lone, The wwe uists inThe river Outsidetlre river, it is nuhing.

IQBAL

of fatigueis retievedby physicalactivity and wearinpss

64 muscles may be alleviatedby the use of brain. Generally fatigue results from overwork _ and sleeptessness (uiually ;;u, ;;;;;ing' tr," ;;il;";;).

65

CONQUEST OF SUCCESS

3.

one neurotic,hypersensitive moody. and

energy far Y:lZ:: toofastandcauses depressio" unoiirii";il;;;ii#;

*.:ety: ltconsumes nervous

****t

*{ .l i r .*

ln KINDS OF SUCCESS:It is hard to define success. is successful the truest senseof the word that person who lives fully and creatively--whois happy, who finds with those in satisfactioq life and who sharesblessings around.Not all can achievethe samedegreeof success.

but level of person'sapcomplishments, by the difference his starting point in life and his ultimate between attainments. IQBAL Good heredity and a favourable environment,

67 important to decideas early in life as possibleon.one's can goals.The boy who plansto be a scientist long-range to improve his tak6 adiantage of att opportunities knowledgeof the subject. The one who doesnot keep one'sgoal clear,is in danger of getting distracted by passing interests or to tem-pted Jpendbne'stime and energyin waysthat do contributeto one'sultimate success' not

rt* * x x * *

The race is not to the swift nor the battle to the strong' Old Testament

YOUR GOAL MUST BE CLEAR: In addition t0. having deep insight into one's qualifications,it is

-\

69

SIXTEEN PERSONALITY FACTORS

tests. of modernpersonalitY Factor High Score DescriPtion
Factor Low Score Description

A- Reserved 1. A+ Out-going B- LessIntelligent 2. B+ More Intelligent C- Emotional 3. C+ Stable E- Submissive 4. E+ Assertive 5. F+ Happy-go-luckY F- Sober G- ExPedient 6. G+ Conscientious bold H- Shy,fearful 7. H+ Venture-some, l- Tough-minded 8. l+ Tender-minded l- Trusting 9. L+ Suspicious M- Practical 10.M+ Imaginative

70 N- Forthright O- Placid 1?91+Experimenting Q1-Conservative 74.Q2 Self-sufficient + Q2-group-tied 15.Q3 Controlled + Q3-Casual 16.Q++Tense Q4-Relaxed A detailed descriptionof ten out of sixteen personality factorsor source traitsin orderor po*.. unJ importanceis as uncler: 1. Adaptable: Vs Rigid: F l e xi b l e ; a cce p ts Insists that things be changes of plan done the way he has easily; satisfiedwith always donethem;does compromises; not is not adapthis habitsand u p s et, su rp ri se d , ways of thinking to baffled,or irritatedif those. of the group; things are different nonplussed if his from what he routineis upset. expected. 2. Emotional: Vs Calm: Excitable, criesa lot, Stable,showsfew signs s ho ws a ffe c t i o n , of emotional excitemlnt anger, all emotions, of any kind; remains to excess. calm even underacts in disputes, dangers, social hilarityetc. 11.N+ Shrewd l2.O+ Apprehensive

7L Vs 3. Conscientious: Honest; knows what is right and generallY does it. even if no one is watchinghim; does not tell lies or attemPt to deceive other s ; r es Pec ts others'ProPertY. Unconscientious: Somewhat unscrupulous;not too c ar eful about the standard of right and wrong where Personal .are concerned; desires tells lies and is givento little deceits;does not others'ProPertY. respect IJnconventional, acts eccentric, differently from others' Not concerned about w ear i ng the , s am e clothes or doing the same thing as others; eccentric has somewhat interests,attitudes,and goes ways of behaving; his own rather Peculiar way. Not jealous: fikeJ peoPle even if they do better than he when does;is not uPset but getattention, others joins in praise.

Vs 4. Conventional: to Conforms accePted standards, wa y s of ac ti ng, thinking, dressing, etc; does the ProPer thing; seems if distressed he finds he is being different.

Vs 5, Prone to jealotrsY: the begr udges of ac hi ev em ent others; uPset when others get attention' and demands more for himself; resentful when attention is givento others.

72
6. Considerate, polite: Vs Inconsiderate, rude: deferentialto needs insolent, defiant. and of others; considers o t h e r s ' fe e l i n g s; allows them before in line, gives !i* them the biggest share.etc. rude. 7. Quitting: gives up before he h a s t h o ro u g h l y finished a lob; slipshod;works fits in no body) if things go wrong; reluctant to take cr edi t for achievements; does not seem to think of him self as v er y or impor ta nt worthwhile.

73 there is conflict or things go wrong; often brags; quick to take credit when things go right; has a very good ofinion of himself.

Vs

externaldifficulties.

Determined, persevering: sees a job through in spite of difficulties or te mptations; str ong willed; painstakingand thorough; sticks at a n ything until he achieves goal. his

Vs fatigued, 10.Languid, lacks vigour; slow: vagUe and slow in spEech; dawdles, is slow in getting things done.

8. Tender: Vs Tough, hard; governed governed bv by fact and necessitv sentiment; intuitive; rather than senti*"rf: sympathetic; unsympathetic; not does sensitive to the mind upsetting othersif feelings of others; that is what has to be cannot do things if done. t h e y offe n d h i s feelings. 9. Self-effacing: blames himself (or

the your own case."Know thYself i s the oldest and I wisestmaxim.
!kt l.**r*tt*X:8

r.s first andtickNow takea pencils 1vh.at true -"jftlli

Vs

Egotistical: blames others whenever

74 Self-image
(A dialoguewith a Psychologist)
Question. Sir, what is the importance of Self-image? Answer.

75

image. Self-imageis the base,the foundation, the moving force of personality.

Question.Isn't the I.Q., the inherent mental ability that
counts?

Answer. f.Q does count but it's not the cleciding
factor. In fact: Life's battles don't alwaysgo To the stronger or faster man But soon or late the man who wins ls the nrrn. who t h in k s h e c a n . It's t.lre'sthinlqint about one's Self,theSelfimzrge, that m.rl es all the diffcrence, not the LQ nor any u'her one singlefactor. What is exlctly ;he conceptof Self-image? Question.

types? is Question.Self-images of how many of Answer. Broadlyspeaking two types: a. Positiveor high Self-image' b. Negativeor low Self-image' Question.Which is more effective?

Answer. 'Image' lit,.'ri ly means 'mental picture' or

77
76 Answer. Self-irnage, it good or bad, high or low, be positiveor negative, by its very nlture very is active and effective.ltgoes on building or destroying the personality all the time. Therefore every care is to be taken by the parents,by the teachers, the executives by and by the Commanders that a positive, not negative Self-image built-up, the quality is for of performance more or lesswhollydepends quality of Self-image. studentwith on the A high Self-image is bound to excel at academics, G. C., an officer with positive & Seh-image would definitelydo better at all Coursesand also on the battle field with cannonon right and cannon left of him. A on person with honourable Self-imagewould always behave honourably. the root of At characteris Self-image, higher the Selfthe image, betterthe charircter, betterthe the the performance peaceand war. in made? Question.I{ow is the Self-imase Answer. One thing is certain that like the I. Q or
temperament, Self-image is not something that a child is born wit h . Question. Then how does one get it? Answer. Mostly from three sources: a. From his own experiences especially those in earlv childhood at home and in the

school. from the treatment From his environment, from .what others meted out to him; to aroundhim, go on suggesting hirn about worth, or capabilities as a person' his of Social suggestion- this kind or that countsa lot. On the basisof what he hasbeenhimself rat othershave been , he himself .starts ielf---whether he is erwise.Thisthinking this about one's Self (auto-suggestion), belief about one's inner limits and limitations, this idea of his 'Self,' is his Sel f- i m age. A v er Y s i gni fi c ant characteriitic of Self-imageis that it is urgedby one'sSelf-image Self-motivating, acts a parson,so to say,compulsively. out thusbecomes by it- Self-image th'erole set forcebehindwhata person the motivating not' A high selfdoes and whit he <loes image urges him to go ahead, to undErtake great tasks, to meet hughly demanding- but equallY rewarding makes challengeslThe high Self-imag-e him sai to himself: I can, I will' and he does. in case of low Self image, the responseis other way round, i'e', in the fac! of a task, a challenge'an opportunity ot a rewarding option, the Self-doubt

78
makes him think: I can't and he doesn't.

79 sets voltageof energy.Debility in' Depression follows. Question.CanSelf-i*u!" be reconstructed? Answer. Yes, it can be reconstructed' Question.How?

Does the Self-image acr unconsciously? Answer. Mostly unconsciously.

or

Question.Why is it so that a positiveSelf-image makes a man so dynamic, creative, energetic, so so so go-getting, short,so successful? in Answer. There is a psychological reasonbehind it. Nothingon earthis greater than humanbrain (mind) in its potential.Even a geniususes only 10 to 15 percent of his brain power. Each one of us is capableof much greater achievements what he actually than achieves. Question.What is the role of Self-image makinga in man make use of his brain-power? Answer. The Research says: highself-image a releases the brain power in successive waves of energy; consequently all his faculties, including imagination function better at a higherpitch, so much so that evenhis bodily resistance increases. Hence a personwith a positiveSelf-image generally activeand is so so effective, whereas the low Self-image conversely retards the mental powers,the brain-cells get dried up, therefore, the faculties function at the lowest ebb. The whole body-mind complex suffersfrom low

he canchange of Answer. The miracle manis that old u"ti"i, i""a for worse too)' If the selfemotional scars are removed' if. the can a .onii.t"n." is restored, new Self-image Extendthe image and it doesemerge' A "r"tt. extendthe area of success' new ;;;;;" new realiitic Self-image gives a person the failure new capabilities, tilentl, and turns tvpe into success personalitv' ;d;;;;nality
affectone'sattitudes? Question. Does Self-image Answer.

for

about the Self-image^of Question.Sir, you have talked of about the Self-image a iniiiiOuurs,what of a nation? ;;;pl;, of a communitY,

80 Answer. Yes, the peoples, the communities,the nationstoo have their respective Self-image. It's pride in their culture,in their historyand in their beliefs, that constitutes their Selfimage.
Question. Sir, could you sum-upthe whole discussion Answer.

81 TRUST
fear' Trust Trrrsi begetstrust; fear escalates all catalyzes other fto."ts"s, is contagipu:1':ft:.lt 3l: less oerceptions,breeds trust in others, makes us and distrustover iunl!"o"t, and is self-fulfilling'-F^ear itt" danger, trigger-defensive behaviour in ;#"i"" that is, it JtensioiJand are self-fulfilling ffi;;;: "r.urut" fear createsthe danger' persons Trust and fear are keysto understanding and catalytic and social systems.They are primary factorsin all humanliving' When the trust is high, relativeto fear' people functionwell"When fear is high' relativeto and systems trust,theYbreak down' Ti'ust enhances the flow of mind-body-spirit ed and mobilized' All the are Person or the sYstemand focussed ,tiing are more lre dlrect and effectiveway's' . When trust is high enough' transcendapparent.limits personsand social systems new and'awesomeabilitiesof which they discovering unaware' were PreviouslY From'Trust' Bv Dr.Jack Gibb'

for us, the youngpeople? Shakespeare said: Ripenessis ail. I would add: 'Self-image all.' is

If you think you are beaten, you are If you think, you dare not, you don't If you like to win but you think you can't It is almost certain,you won't; If you think you'll lose,you are lost For out of the world, wefind Success beginswith a fellow's will It's all in the state of mind.

--!

82 YOUR RTVALS AND YOU

83 (b) Some who compete hard againstyou, but desistfrom hitting you belowthe belt. jealousof your (c) A large number of persons or mayconsciously unconsciously attainments try to let you down and might be secretly pleased seeharm comingto you.But they to while openly would do so most insidiously professingto be your friends and wellwishers. (d) A fourth group, small in number, but a to one would be activelyhostile" dangerous grudge,ill-will and malice you. Driven by you, would stop at nothingand do against you, if their utmost to unfrrve you, harass you do not toe their line. They would malign you, blackmailyou and cdnsistently vicesandmalpractices' you accuse of fantastic in a bright student the college So whetheras positionin of or an occupant any prestigious the services, problem the civil or the defence jealousies, rivalries,ill-will, of facing petty malice, etc will be there, as it has always been there in someform or the other. evil is as much a reality as good; you Because of must take accountof it. You must be conscious its are scoresof good There presenceand its designs. good' but by and large they are only passively people who is passively iTo*.utt you woulcl not find a crook

There is a verseby Ghalib;
,7 '. Y.ft r . t o e,Lc l. L/!O.t I 4 1t rl,t

/

All of us tend to think that way.This seems be to human nature. A nice person unwittinglythinks that everybody is nice and honestlike himselfand behaves accordingly, whereas crook takesthe rest of the world a as gang of shrewd crooks as he himself is and consequently dealswith peopleon that assumption. Both are in the wrong. However a fair-mindedand kindhearted nice person suffers more and loses more in inter-personal relations than a dishonest but shrewd person does. Why?The reason obvious. goocl is The man is generally more off the mark in his estimatJthan the other. The hard fact is that evil is evil. There is no denyingthe existence ill-will, malice,jealousyand of even active hostility in this world of imperfect human beings. If you are good, honest, talented and hard workingor holdingsomeimportantpositionnow or are likelyto rise higherin the future,you are boundto come across four groupsof peopleas follows: (a) A few who respect and admireyou.

84 bad. He will alwaysbe up and doing, active,assertive, pushing, designing, scheming wholetime. Bewareof the him. Being good does not mean to be ineffective and stupid.The Holy Prophet has said: "A believeris not stungtwice from the samehole."Why shouldan honest personbe so weak, apologetic, docile or spineless that someunscrupulous fellow cangivehim worried daysand sleepless justification that. nights? Thereis no earthly for But in actual life it has been often observedthat an honest person, more often than not, is either taken unawares when confrontedwith evil or fails to copewith it, which in fact means failure of personality.Some people do very well in comparatively lessresponsible positions. their hardwork, devotion duty,integrity, By to knowledge, and professional competence, they immensely impresstheir superiors. But when they are givena positionof prestige and power,and the storms of opposition start threatening them, they are not able to hold their own. They cannot weather the storm. On discovering that somepeoplebear ill-will towards them and are intent on harmingthem, theyfeel frustratedand depressedand endure intense mental strain and emotionaldistress. This inevitablyaffectstheir efficiencv too. Irt us analysethe situation step by step. Why doesan honestfellow feel dismayed and frustrated? The reasonmay be his simplicity or naivete.He feels that sincehe does not indulge in spying and maligningand does not wilfully try to harm anyone, why should anybodyelse be inimical to him. This is very simple 85

difficult to alien to others'nature also! It is admittedly differentfrom peoplewho are qualitatively understand you, in valuis and in waysof thinkingand feeling'

t

evil when it comestheir waY. Ncxt is the problem of evil itself' Why clo so

86 many people behave so badly, dishonestly and maliciously theyd<l?It is a complex as question. Th.r. are socio-economic reasonsf'r lt. [n a capitalistic society, there is a premiumon personal profit_motive of Iife. Ruthless competition the infer-personal at levelis only an offshoot of a philosophy life which is fast of eroding traditional stabirizing sociar varues and fundamental goalsof life as emb-oclied the ideology in of Islam. Let us approachthis problem from a scientific angle. The great law of biorogy serf-centrecrness is in the strugglefor self-preservation. Somehow, very early in the process of evolution, the most primitlve living organism, the warring selfishentities,iailed the cells Iearnedthat if they combinedto form a more comprex organism,they would be better off. Somehowihev worked out mutually cooperative rures.Each ceil was serving.its own purpose, which was to keep on existing; but eachwasalsoserving purpose the other.Thris the of cooperativeness ensured continued the existence each of organism. The principle of altruisticselfishness came into being. Great lawswork at all levels. There seems be to a naturalself-centredness humanbeings in too. Eachof us,asan organisnr, impelledto preserve identityat is its all costs.However if in human society,this buiit_in selfishness not moclifiedor controllect, leads to is it dangerous social consequences is detrimental and to progressas a whole. Selfishness eventuallvself_ is

87

cooperateand learn to cultivategood-willfor all and malicefor none, the problem of evil will be there and has to be tackled as best as we can. The following may suggestions be helPful:

learn to be modestand humblei'e', adopta

to His less-giftedcreatures' lf you are kincland helpful and self-denying' genuinely would clingto you most of your companions clingto a stem' as grapes

f

89 88 the behaviorof activity.Try to understand thosewho intensely dislikeyou. Why do they do so? What is their motive behind hating you,behindtryingto harmyou?Analyse their behaviour as well as your own, objectively. Are you quite sure that so and so really proof of dislikesyou? Have you any tangible his hostilitycould it not be a caseof sheer in Is misunderstanding? there anything your him own behaviour attitudewhichannoys and level?If after or othersat the interpersonal you to exploringthe answers thesequestions, are sure that it is a caseof ill-will, pure and and do simple,then stick to your principles A not compromise. policy of appeasement would not help. [t wouldbe takenasa signof weakness and would encourage further face the situation intransigence. Steadfastly but do not provoke your ill-wishersnor aggr avatethe situation. is Fierceopposition not without a silverlining. aspects. According Iqbal evenhostilityhasits positive to In the first place,it is a clear proof that you are tloing from vested Hencestrongopposition your taskhonestly. quartersis but natural. of poem-'secrets Self'-Iqbal In his long Persian form of a story.Once upon this point in the hastouched on a youngman from the city of Maro callecl the great that his of cruelties saint,Ali Hajveri,and complained "I am enemies had inflicted upon him' He said: that of a My enemies' life is like by surroonded ruthless me the way,O saint'to live lfart urni,lstitones.Teach "Hazrat H enemies. amongst You are the fear of enemies. When the stonethinks itsell getsbroken".Your enemyi in your life' The one ir"r"n." is a sourceof excitement who knows the secretsof self takes one's powerful for asa boonfrom God' An enemyis asessential for a "n"-y you t; bring out the best in you as the rain is "fur-"r', haiest. He spursyou into action' urgesyou to make further advancement' Iqbal believes in the philosophyof struggle' of Hence he has highlighted itre beneficial role by engineered an enemy' opposition Similarly in one of his essaysin- .'Tahzibul Ahmad Khan, too' hashighlighted Akhlaque',Sir Syecl that our He Itr" ur"fut role playedby our enemies' states our failures in enemies faciclou, u iuut"t' Theycriticize our friends and which outspokenly and shortcomings do' O^urenemy is wilfully out.to tfrnputttirersha-rdly but he J-p"t" our weak pointt. Of course, exaggerates' us on He what he saysmay be true in substance' keeps and careful'He doesnot He our toes" makesus cautious historian' let us relax. Sir Syed also quotesthe Greek of on Plutarch, the advantages enmity'
is that So the essence of this long discussion

90 jealousoppositionand hostilityare inseparable from the life's game.Evil is very much there in ihe world. Hard workinghogesfplople like ail incumbents positions in of authority, had better take a serious note of this

I

i ; * {

s

92 TO THE GCs
REMEMBER: You soldieryouths,who are thus in all waysthe hope of your country;or must be, if she have any hope: rememberthat your fitnessfor all future trust depends upon what you are.Nogood soldierin his old age,was ever careless indolentin his youth.Many a or giddyand thoughtless boy hasbecomea good bishopor a good lawyer, or a good merchant;but no such one ever became a good General. I challengeyou, in all history,to find a record of a good soldierwho was not grave and earnestin his youth. And, in general,I have no patience with people who talk about "the thoughtlessness youth" indulgently. had infinitely of I rather hear of thoughtless age,and the indulgence old due to that.When a man hasdonehiswork,and nothing can any way be materially altered in his fate, let him forget his toil, and jest with his fate, if he will; but what excuse you find for wilfulnessof thought,at the very can time, when every crisisof future fortunehangson you decisions. youththoughtless! A whenall the happiness of his home for ever dependson the challenges, the or passions, an hour! A youth thoughtless! of when the careerof all his clays depends the opportunity a on of moment!A youth thoughtless! when his everyact is a foundation stone nf future conduct. and everv imagination fountainof life or death!Be thoughtless a in anyafteryears, ratherthannow,though, indeed, there is onlyoneplacewhcrea manmaybe noblythoughtless, his death-bed. thinkineshouldever be left to be No done there.

93
use but recklessly, earnestly, theseT:l{ doy.t{ l:t: that all the dutiesof her childrento tjnglano remember and ds-----industry, honour' n this that soldierYouthare thereis no reason' :t, surelY, be iblYor ProbablY shorter wastemore aouldtherefore you; neither the recklessly portion of it that is granted which requireyou.to Oo ,tt" duties bf yout profession, the keeping t""p yout bodiesstrong,in anyway.involve experi"n::' of Vout minds weak. S-ofar fiom that' the life renderhis ilr.'t utatnip, and the activityof a soldier's than those of other o"*"i, of ihought more accurate *rtileifor others all knowledgeis often little il". there is no form of than more""J a meansof amusement, which a soldiermay not at sometime or other science A young find bearing on businessof life and death. for may be excused languor in studying mathematician but nor those ,u*", to be descritedonly with a pencil' with a rocket'Your knowledge *t i.tt areto be described of an army oi u-*nof"someherb may involvethe feeding with an obscurepoint 9f .gtgi*y' and acquaintance tlme' Neverwastean instant's ih. tu...t, of a campaign' greatet iii"."rot"; the sin oi idln"tt is a thousind-fold thosewho will i; t; than in other youth; for fates of hang upon your o"6 day be under your command livesthen' and tort knowledge; *o*ents now will be lost take for play' vou buv ;;;; i;ri"nt which you carelesslv with blood.....'.
not waste Having, then, resolved that you will

94 First,then,by industry you mustfulfil yourvowto your country;but all industryand earnestness be will useless unless theyare consecrated y.ur resolution by to be in alt things men of honour; not honour in the common sense only,but in the highest. Reston theforce ,,integer of the two main wordsin the gr.;t verse, vitae, you have vowecl vnui life to scelerisquepurue," England; give it to her wholty;a bright,stainless, perfect life-a knightlylife. From John Rukin'sConvocation Acldress
at lhc Roval Naval AcaclemyWoolwich

95 A SOLDIER'S LETTER TO HIS SON Brig M. Rafique
Chairman Governor's lnspectionTeam 34 Minto Road Dacca 2 Mar. 1971'.

i

x*****x*

Dangertestsone'sstrengtltand capacity And is the touch-stone the powersof the of mind and the bodv. IQBAL

My dear sonny, on congratulations acceptmyveryheartiest Please tlasgrantedyou as a resultof your hard God the success labour. I am the happiestfather to see you settledin your major phase of life. I am all the more happyyou -have got your first choice for 19 Punjab Regiment'At from my this stageI want to give you some guide-lines but since it is not possibleto do so in a experience ln letier, we shall wait until I return to West Pakistan' pointsyou may the meantime,here are someimportant the tike to think over. You havechosen mosthonourable that profession a man canhave andthe mostresponsible can this because profession at any in his life, honourable causeof your time ask you to sacrificeyour life in the God, youi country or your duty. No other profession you because as an lt callsfor this sacrifice. is responsible officer will have the lives of your men entrustedto you efficiencY, Yourcharacter in battle. On your professional will dependwhetherthese and your personalexample, and laurels for you, or lose wonderful men win battles battlesand get killed. ln other wordsin this pro.fession you are not dealingwith material thingsbut with human is iife. Rs a coy comd,which an officer'sfirst command,

,l

96 you will have over one hundrecl liveswhich will be at your mercy. How well you learnto hancile themin peace time, and also how much respectthey havefor 1Lu ln peacetime, will dependwhat success achieve *u, you in with them.You do not haveto wait for a war to seethe they becomevisible quite r are a goodleader yourmen me alsoand this respect can pride reflectedin their turn out, saluting, ma.cting,anO in their inter-coy competitions; fact in"everytnin!'trrey in do both in and out-side unit rines; the moreso the ratter when they are on their own without any supervision. If you have achieved standard trg whereyour men the of will work equally smartly and well *hen they are not being supervised then you can rest assured ihut yuu, leadershipis effective and your men really trust you, havefaith in you and your piofessional abiliiy, unOt ou. the affectionfor you to do what is right and not r"r you {own at any cost- such men will folow you and flce death cheerfully, your orders,when the time comes. on You are fortunateto havegot a good bn. r havetested it in operations, besidei trg, games ancl other competitions during my period of commandand I can assure that 19 Punjabwassecond none.However, you to let me warn you that good bnstakea longtime to mate through the efforts of the officers,JCOsind NCOs but they, quicklylosetheir form if the leadership can fairsor weakens. You will find goocl andbad officers everybn in but as long as,generallyspeaking, they are all wori<ing

97 as a team with good of the bn at heart you will havea goodbn. What do the men like in their officer?Honesty Do ind truthfulness. not eversaywhatyou do not mean

tasks you thar assisn ,n"-']tif'1"".;"*:i'ilT'5: ff#

98 to command respect the and confidence his men if he of doesnot know hisjob and cannot givequickand sound decisions problemsthat face him. The profession on of arms is a continuously changingprofession not in fundamentals basics in cletails or but whichaffecttactics, etc.A good officer hasto keep abreast all the latest of developments havingfirst had a firm foundation the in basics. Your trg at the PMA was just an elementary introduction the Army. Your real trg startsnow.you to will haveto educate yourself everydaythrough your own efforts.Handling and leadingmen is a fasiiniting job and hobby,if you are keen anclwatchfulyou witt-be learning each day - from the goocl inclividuals what shouldbe and canbe and from the baclindividuals what should not and cannot be done. Make a rule to keep your eyesopen and your mind opento absorb that is all good and shun all that is unbecoming a gentleman. of Dishonourable like lying,cheeting haveno place acts etc in the life of an officer and are the quickestway to his losingrespectwith his men. One must remain simple, honestand straight-forward solidlystandby what is and right in the eyesof God and in your own heartand mind - your own heart and mind are the bestguides you have in life, learn to consultthem and act on their advice, keepingfaith in God and Cod alone.Temptations will comeyour way all the time. If you shunthem with the contempttheydeserve, are on the right path,if you you fall a prey to them,you are lost and are no betterthan mostof thosewe find aroundus these days" The decision and the choicecan only be yoursand no one else's to as which path you follow. The greatestand the most

99 lt in valuablepossession life is self-respect. must be to lose it;-one it jealouslyguarderlbecause is so easy act and it is gone; never to come back dishonorable

othersbut at yourselfand your God. If you do so,I can that you haveall the basictraitsthat tell you confidently and and for are needed goodleadership I havemy hopes

at implicitlyby everyone everylevel.You canhaveyour saywhen you are given an opportunityto do so but if thL decision given finatly is againstwhat you have you must acceptit without further comment proposed, Then there is no ind act as directedby your superior. or suggestion a long face' or further room for argument thereis a good career, of For this earlystage an officer's but 'A youngofficer is seenold sayingand a true one: and seeand learn from heainot heartl'in other worcls:

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100 your superiors clonot startteaching but them.The time for sp.eaking more and more will comeas you gain up experience ancl rank in yearsto come when vnu *ill haveotherjunior officers uncler yourcommand guide io andteach. knowthat all those I who served underme in 19 Punajb Regimentwill expecta very high standard from you because always I expecte<lhighstandard a from them.I alsoknow that Goclwilling,you will neverbelie their expectations failing them, your standardwill by lnshallah, due course higherthan the one set by in be me. God be with you and may He grant ever increasing succgss your careerand in life. More when*e meet in and continuethis cliscussion.

101 A SOLDIER'S PRAYER FOR HIS SON BY GEN. MACARTHUR

With lots of love from Dad Brig Mohammad Rafique, a war veteran,and former Principal of Military College Jhelum and Lawrence CollegeGhoragali,wrote this letter to his son,2 /Lt Riazul Haque (now a Lt Col) soon after his obtainingthe commission the Army. in

the foundationstoneof knowledge. Gad him, I pray, not in the path of easeand comfort, 'stress -spur of difficulties and and But under the' challenges. Let trim learn to standup in the storm, for l,et him learn compassioh thosewho fail' Build me a son whoseheart will be clear, Whosegoal will be high, to beforehe seeks master himself A sonwio will master other men, One who will reach into the future, yet neverforget the past. And after all thesethings are his, of ) Add, I pray, enoughof a sense humour So ifruffr"'may alfraysbe seriousyet nevertake himself too seriously. Give him humility, The simplicityof true greatness, The open minclof true wisdom, of And the meekness trtte strength. Then l, his father.will dare tu whtsper, "l havenot lived in vain"

103

IF
Ifyou can keepyour head whenall aboutyou Are losing theirs and blaming it on you; If you can trustyourself when all men doubtyou, But make allowance their doubtingtoo. for If you can wait and not be tired by waiting Or beinglied about, don't deal in lies, Or beinghated don't give way to hating, And yet don't look too good, nor talk too wise. your master, If you can dream and not make dreams your aim; If you can think and not make thoughts If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster, just the same. And treat thesetwo imposters If you can bear to hear the tru.thyou'vespoken Twistedby knavesto make a trfip Jor fools, Or watch the thingsyou gaveyour lijb tc broken, And stoop und build 'em up with wom-owttool,s" wirutings If you can make one lrcap of all you.r' And risk it on one turn of pitch-and-toss; And lose,and staft again at your beginnings And neverhreathea word about your loss.

t

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105
104 If you can .forceyour heart and nerye and sinew To sertteyour turn long after they are *one, And so hold on when there is nothing in you, Except the will which saysto them: "Hold on"! If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue, Or walk with kings, nor lose the cornmon touch, If neither foes nor loving fiends can hurt you, If all men count with you, but none too much.

FROM A FATHER TO HIS SON My dear Alwaysremember For Everyenemy There 1s A fiend. In school It Is Far more honourable To fail Than To cheat. I wantyou To realize early That The bullies Are the easiest To lick. I wantyou To learn To be Gentle With the gentle And tough
With the tough. I want you To learn How to laugh Wen i'ou are Sad. I want to tell you Tlrcre 1s No slrume In Tears. Rememher Mc dertr! A dollar Earned Is oJ'fur more value Tlrun five Jbund. I want you To leam ITotu to scoff At cynics And Beware

If you can fill the unforgivingminute, With sixtyseconds'distance run. Yoursis the Earth and everytlting that's in it, And, which is rnore,you'll be a MAN, my son!

RudyardKipling

V
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106

r07
To ponder over The etemal mystery
Never Put a pice tag On your Heaft and soul.
t,

Of too much Sweetness As well I wantyou To havefaith In your Own ideas Even if Everyone tells You That They are wrong. I wantyou To steer Yourself Away from envy If you can. I wantyou To leam To lose And Also enjoy Winning. I wantyou To have Strength Not to follow

The uowd. My advice To you .Is Leam

of

{

I a

Toftlter All you hear
On a screen of truth And Take only The good That comes thrctugh. I want you To always have The sublime faitlt In yourself Because It is only then You will have Faith In mankind. By all ,neans Read books As many as you can But Do have Some Quiet time

Birds in the slgt Bees in the sun And Flowers on green hill-side. I want you To realize

Onty The test of fire Makes Fine steel. I wantyou To have courage To be impatient Wen It is called far But Have Patience To be brave. I want to tell you By all means Sell Your hrain and brawn Wcn it comcsto But

Adaptcd lrom a letter of Abralram Lincoln writtcn Lo his son's tcachcr

108 A PRAYER
O, God! Give me courage To tace the truth However unpleasant. O, God! Give me courage To own My mistkes And Face the consequences Like a MAN. It's far better To suffer Once And Live therefter, With honour and dignity In one's own eyes And In the eyes of the world at Large Than To behave Dishonourably Like a cowarcl To save one's skin For the time being And thereby Live In the shadowof shame For the rest of life And Moreover In the long run [.ose the career As well. O, God! Give me courage Not to lose head Nor Heart When Suddenly The horizon gets dark The cherishedplans collapse Unexpectedproblems appear from no where And All seemsto have been lost in one stroke.

109 O, God! Give me courage Not to losepatience When pile Pressures up From right and left. O, God! Give me courage And light Not to losefaith Nor In Myself Nor My dearGod! In YOU Never!Never!

110

111 That sustains All human relations. O, God! Give me patience More and more of it So that I could meet that Challenge And live Thereby Happily Effectively And lrcaltltilytoo. Patience and understandin! Go togetlrcr O, God! Give me undcrstanding More und more oJ'it So that I could live With My own Failuresand failings Limits and limitations And With thoseof others PatientlY.
Patience and faith Go together O, God! Give me faitlt In

PATIENCE
Shakespeare In King Lear sqt 'Ripeness all, is So it is And The hard core
I have To win battles (All types of ttrcm) That lie Ahead of me In years to come. Of all the challenges That The most demanding 0ne Is That

My 'Self'
And Aboveall In Yctu My dear Cod! In You And In Your Providence And In Your All-peruading Graciousness.

of

Ripeness .ls Patieni.ce That pavesthe way For A promising career. Thereis A Chinese proverb: 'Patience wins,. It does For Patience Is The strongestweapon. O, God! Give me patience More and more of it As

Man facesin histift

of
I nter-personal relations That is How to get on With thepeople Be they The near and dear ones At home Or The othersin the world At large Tlrc answerlies In Patience It is Patience

I

112

113 O God! Give me strengtlt And ligltt Not to give in To Impatience That Like a bull in a Chinashop Destroys Lrft-long relations Mostfondly nurtured, Verypromisingcareers built over Pains-takingly the years , And Rare oppomtnities In One Go That No amount of regrets genuine However No amount of tears Shedwith deeprepentance And No amount of apologies sincere However Can Ever l.Jndo.

IMPATIENCE
Impatience. More often than not Leads To H^ty decisions. O, God! Saveme From The damage From The embanassrnent That Hoty Impulsivedecisions Do Invaiably Cause. Impatience More often than not Provokes I Out-bursts temper of And Outburstsof temper Never Resolveany issue On the contrary, Withoutfail
Leave The situation Worse Much worse Than before Impatience Like a hull in a Chinashop De.rtroys Life-long relations M ost fonclly nurtured., Verypromising careers Pains-takingly built over the years And Rare opportunities In One Go That No amount of tears S he d wit h . , ' d e e p repenatance And No amount of apologies However sincere Can Ever Undo,

t

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114

115 Exeft harder To stay at tlrc top Retnetnber My dear Future protector of Pakistan! Remember! Progressand problc,ns ure the twins Bom trriether Tlrcy ulways go togctlrcr The bigger thc. challenge The heavier the odds The greater the rewards Yes, rny dear Greater the rewards too! Go on plodding My dear Future hopc of Pakistan! Go on plodding Inch ahead Every day Finnly and steadily However Weary thc way

Ctimb the Hill
Climlt the hill My dear Future builder oJ'Pakistan! Climb tlrc hill With a will To reach the top And Onto the top of tlrc hill You'll reaclt If you only so will Climb the hill My dear Futurepillur oJ'Pakistan! Climb thc hill Though Oft you may stumble Neverbe downcast Be up On your.feet With courageand hope To reach the top And

tr

117
116 Climb the hill My dear Futurc pricle of Pctkistan Climh the hill With a will To reach tlrc top Never stop For a whilc Never look hack For a tnoment AIwqts Look forward And look Beyond the hill As well. Go on toiling My dear Future Jinnah of Pakistan! Go on toiling Day in and day out With a will To reach the top Antl One gets what one stives for One gets what one strivesfor'

relentlesslY Struggle To staYat tlrc toP

c;--'LJld L:,Sl"-d

6c-Lilcurlr+

v
I 1ti 1,1'9 To face the odds And thus Getsyou Beaten Before the battle hegins. Beware My dear! Beware Of that arch enemyof yours The Self-doubt!

BEWARE
Beware Of that Arch enemyof man The Self-doubt That Attacksyou from inside Pullingyour front-line ddencesto pieces And Snatchingaway Your main weapon The self-confidence From you, Leaves you Exposed To the weakest your enernies of From outside. Beware Of that arch enemyof man Called Self-douht That Take Takes away from you Your our Will to fight Your Will to win And The courage

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120 WHEN YOU FIND
Wen Youfind Thingsdfficult And Timeshard Wen Youfind Your besthopes Failing you And the Bestplans . Falling apart When You find Sel-doubt Like a grey-hound you Chasing Around Don't loseheart Nor hope My dear! Havefaith In Almighty Allah Have faith In Your own Self And with I can, I will Plunge Headlong!

121,

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