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31st May 2016

IGCSE HISTORY
DEVELOPMENT OF DICTATORSHIP : GERMANY, 1918-45

1. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE WEIMAR REPUBLIC AND ITS


EARLY PROBLEMS
A. The German Revolution of 1918
i. Causes of Revolution
Failure of the First World War and hardships that came with
it. In late 1917, Germans still held high hopes of achieving victory
in the war. A Spring Offensive in 1918 was launched by the
Germans. It was initially successful but eventually stalled due to
inadequate personnel and supplies. Germanys civilian population
suffered severe food shortages, caused by Allied blockade and
domestic policies. Food shortages led to cuts in navy rations which
led to a mutiny. In addition to the hardships suffered, there was a
Spanish influenza epidemic throughout Europe in 1918 which killed
many civilians and soldiers. With the invasion of Germany
imminent, its leaders began seeking armistice, triggering civilian
and politic unrest. By November 1918, the war had cost 2.4 million
German lives. The Kiel Mutiny of October 1918 instigated the
German Revolution which ended the both the war and the reign
of the Kaiser.
Influence of Russian Revolution. Russian Revolution of
November 1917 had increased pressure for change, particularly
within the Communist groups.

ii. Events of the Revolution


25 October 1918 Naval commanders at Kiel sent ships out to fight
British fleet. Sailors mutinied.
26 October 5 November 1918 Kaiser and government did
nothing to stop mutiny. Strikers and demonstrations against the war
and the Kaiser ensued. On the 4 November 1918, 40,000 soldiers
joined the sailors and a Soldiers and Workers Council was set
up.
6 November 1918 The Soldiers and Workers council took control in
cities. Their main aim was to end the war.
7 November 1918 Social Democrats sent an ultimatum to the
Kaiser that unless he abdicates, they would too join the revolution.
This was threatening as the Social Democrats were the most
popular party amongst the workers. Their addition to the revolution
would only increase the intensity of the revolution.
9 November 1918 There was a general strike in Berlin. Armed
workers and soldiers joined the streets. Social Democrats were
afraid that extremist parties would gain control of the revolution.
Social Democrats formed a temporary government led by
Friedrich Ebert, who became the new Chancellor. Ebert
announced the Kaisers abdication and setting up of the
German Republic which they would run in coalition with other
socialist parties.

iii. Effects of the Revolution


The abdication of the Kaiser and the formation of a new
German state and democratic system, Weimar Republic. The
government would continually suffer from criticism and protest for
forcing the Kaiser to abdicate and agreeing to end the war
prematurely.
The signing of the armistice with allies to end the war. New
government agreed to armistice on 11 November 1918. This meant
that Germany had to surrender all land won in war. Germany
had to surrender its munitions. Germany had to pull troops
back 48km from France. The armistice was unpopular and
economic suffering continued, mainly due to the Allied Naval
Blockade of Germany which continued into June 1919. This caused
political turmoil throughout 1918-1919.

B. The Strengths and Weaknesses of The New Constitution


The New Constitution, The Weimar Republic, was drawn up in 1919.
The Weimar Constitution attempted to set up a democratic system
where no individual could gain too much power. The temporary
government was not a long-term solution, so SDP organised elections
for a National Assembly on 19 Jan 1919. The constitution was signed
into law by Ebert on 11 August 1919.
i. Strengths of New Constitution
The Reichstag was set up. The Reichstag represented the whole
nation. They discussed issues such as tax, finance and foreign
policies. Members of the Reichstag was re-elected every four

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years. All Germans over 20 years old, male or female, had the right
to vote.
Proportional Representation was a key element of the
Reichstag. This meant that the number of Reichstag seats which
political parties are given depended on the percentage of votes
they gained. The purpose of this is to set up a democratic
system where no individual can gain too much power. The
Chancellor was the head of the government who chose ministers
and ran the country. He would need the majority of Reichstag votes
to pass a single law. The President was head of state and is re-
elected every 7 years, could dismiss the Reichstag, call for a new
election and had control of the army. Power was also shared
between the Chancellor and the President. No single group or
person had all the power. The President shared similar powers to
President of USA which meant that he could protect the Republic in
a crisis.
The Bill of Rights was set up. This guaranteed every German
citizen the right of freedom of speech, religion and equality under
the law. Cheques and balances introduced into government to make
system fairer. Anyone could form a political party which were all
new freedoms for Germany which was very modern at the time.

ii. Weaknesses of the New Constitution


Proportional Representation meant that even a party with a
small number of votes would gain seats in the Reichstag, increasing
political instability as there would be a congestion of parties in
the Reichstag. This meant that whatever government or party was
in power, the constitution was always weak. Chancellors needed
coalition of parties to gain the support of the majority to pass a law.
Parties normally could not come to an agreement as they shared
different aims and therefore, decision making would require a long
time and it becomes a tedious process. Thus, rendering the new
constitution a disorganised system.
The system of New Constitution is too fair. Balance of powers
in the constitution meant that government by the Chancellor was
very difficult in times of crisis. Article 48 was introduced when
parties could not come to a compromise. Chancellor will suspend
the constitution under Article 48 and rule by decree. This renders
the new democratic system of the Weimar Republic useless. This
meant that the Chancellor could virtually rule as dictator under
Article 48, which was what Hitler did with the Enabling Act. It is a

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weakness as Article 48 would later be used and abused by Hitler to
make himself a dictator legally.

C. Reactions to the Treaty of Versailles


i. Terms of Treaty of Versailles
The Allied victors met at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 to
decide the fate of Germany. The Treaty of Versailles was the result
of these negotiations and was mainly shaped by the Frenchs
desire to punish Germany.
War Guilt, Article 231 became known as the War Guilt Clause as
Germany was held entirely responsible for starting the war.
Reparations, Germany had to pay reparation fee of 6600 million.
Germany was also excluded from participating in the League of
Nations.
Colonies, Germany lost all 11 of its colonies in Africa and the Far
East. They were given as mandates for the Allies to look after.
Military, German army limited to 100,000 soldiers. Navy limited to
6 battleships, 6 cruisers, 12 destroyers and 12 torpedo boats. No

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submarines were allowed. No air forces were allowed. Troops in
Rhineland had to be demilitarised. Rhineland would house French
troops for the next 15 years.
Land,- Alsace Loraine were returned to France. Germany was
forbidden from uniting with Austria. Danzig was made a free city
under League of Nations. The Saar, land of coalfields was given to
France for 15 years. West Prussia, also known as the The Polish
Corridor was given to Poland. Germany lost 13% of land in total,
50% of iron reserves and 15% of coal reserves. 6 million people
were lost.

ii. Reaction to Treaty of Versailles (Consequences of ToV)


German Outrage, Germany was given 15 days to sign the Treaty
was allowed no say in final provisions. The Treaty is known as the
diktat as Germany had no choice but to sign. They felt it was
unfair as it was an imposed settlement and Germany herself had
not been allowed to partake in the discussions. This angered many
political groups in Germany. Germans felt pain and anger as
German land and people were being stolen. Some Germans now
lived in France or Poland.
Humiliation, Germany was no longer a strong country to be feared,
but a weak one at the mercy of allies. Germany had a strong
military tradition, so losing their military was very humiliating and
caused Germans to lose their pride. Millions of soldiers were now
out of work and ended up joining the Freikorps. Clause 231 that
spoke of War Guilt did not physically hurt Germany but it hurt
Germanys pride. This weakened the popularity of the Weimar
Republic. Many people believed the army had not been defeated
and could have fought on, thus, they blamed the Weimar politicians
for signing the Treaty which sealed the fate of Germany.
Economic Crisis, Germany was already near bankrupt from the
war. The Weimar Government believed that they had almost no
chance of being able to meet the payments. The loss of land from
the Treaty made it even more difficult. Reparation fee that Germany
was forced to pay was a harsher blow as it meant that Germany
was unlikely to recover and become an important country again.
The loss of resource rich lands and high reparation fee that was set
led to high inflation rates in Germany.

D. The Spartacist uprising and the Kapp Putsch


The Weimar Republic was unpopular from the start as political groups
tried to overthrow it. Political extremists wanted Germany to become a

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dictatorship again. Communists (extreme LEFT), believe that
everyone should be equal and no one should individually own
anything. Everything should be shared. They believe that all factories
should be own by the workers who should share profits equally.
Fascists (extreme RIGHT) believe in the survival of the fittest. The
best people would end up rich as they deserve what they have
because they are naturally better. Weak people should not be helped
because the country requires strong people.
i. Causes
Right-wing parties. They resented the November Criminals;

hated and feared the Communists, wanted to reverse the Treaty of


Versailles, reinstate the Kaiser, boost the army and return Germany
to its former glory. It had the support of the military, judiciary and
civil service.
Left-wing parties. Like the (KPD, Communists), wanted a socialist
revolution like in Russia. They thought that Weimar gave too little
power to the workers, they wanted a government by Soviet
councils, wanted to abolish the land-owning classes and the army.
Unpopularity of the Weimar Government, Between 1918-1923,
German people hated the Weimar leaders decision to admit defeat
in 1918. They hated the Treaty of Versailles for its guilt placed on
Germany and hated the hardships caused by unemployment and
inflation. Everyone blamed the government and looked to more
extreme methods to replace it.
Private armies, many political parties had their own private
armies which caused political activity to become violent. There were
376 political murders between 1919-1923, mostly of left-wing or
moderate politicians. Not a single right-wing murder was convicted,
angering the left wing.

ii. Events of Spartacist Uprising, Kapp Putsch


Spartacist Uprising, 6 January 1919. 100,000 Communists
demonstrated in Berlin and took over key buildings such as
newspaper offices. The Communists were inspired by the Spartacist
League led by Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemberg. Chancellor
Ebert and his defence minister persuaded the 250,000 strong

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Freikorps (demobilised soldiers who had refused to surrender their
weapons) to put down the Spartacist uprisings. Thousands of
communists were arrested and killed, mostly in Berlin. Rosa
Luxemberg and Karl Liebknecht were arrested on 15 January and
were murdered by the Freikorps. The threat from the left-wing was
over.
Kapp Putsch, March 1920. Elements of the Freikorps and military
supporters of Dr Wolfgang Kapp marched on Berlin to overthrow the
Weimar Republic and bring back the Kaiser. 12 th March, they took
over the government quarter of the city. President Ebert and the
government fled to Dresden on 13th March, urging German workers
to not cooperate and to go on strike. Up to 12 million workers
responded and refused to work. The gas, electricity, water and
transport all stopped in Berlin, leaving Berlin completely paralysed.
Kapp realised he could not govern and fled to Sweden.

iii. Consequences, Effects.


Government popularity and authority was weakened. The
government had not been able to govern on its own authority. It
relied on workers strikes and the Freikorps to defeat political
opponents. In the following elections on June 6, 1920. The SDP fell
by over half compared to the Jan 1919 elections.
Extremist Parties gathered strength. The Two uprisings proved that
the government was weak and those who have the most military
power could eventually win. This increased unrest throughout
Germany leading the Munich Putsch in 1923. The Kapp Putsch and
Spartacist uprising exposed the critical weakness of the Weimar
government and highlighted Freikorps as a considerable force of
political influence.

E. French Occupation of The Ruhr.


i. Causes
In January 1923, Germany couldnt keep up with reparation
payments to France and defaulted. German government was
bankrupt as its reserves of gold had all been spent in the war.
Treaty of Versailles made things worse by depriving Germany of
resource-rich areas like coalfields of the Saar and Alsace Loraine.
Reparation payments further harmed the German economy. By
1913, naturally, Germany was unable to afford reparation
payments.

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ii. Events
In retaliation for the failure to repay reparations, the French and
Belgians sent 750,000 troops into the German industrial
heart, the Ruhr. They confiscated raw materials, manufactured
goods and industrial machinery. The Ruhr was Germanys most
important industrial area as it contained over 80% of Germanys
steel production. The French and Belgian invaded the area on
purpose to make up for Germanys missed reparation fees. German
government urged passive resistance and workers went on
strike. 80% of Germanys industrial production was based in the
Ruhr, French occupation in the Ruhr crippled Germanys industrial
output. The disruption increased Germanys debts, increased
unemployment rates and reduced overall industrial output.

iii. Effects
INFLATION. Reduction of workers working in industry meant that
there will be a drop in output. This meant that there will be
shortages of goods in the cities. This increased prices of
goods in cities. Government needed money to pay debts but
unemployment and failing factories meant that they received less
money from taxes. The government decided to print more money
in 1923. Printing more money increased inflation rates. More
money was printed which reduced value of money and prices
skyrocketed. A vicious cycle had been created and
hyperinflation ensued. For example, price of bread rose from 1
mark in 1919 to 100,000 marks in 1923. German marks became
worthless. Foreign suppliers refused to accept marks for goods,
therefore, imports froze and food shortages became
increasingly worse. It was difficult to obtain basic necessities.
Workers had to be paid twice a day so that they could rush out to
shops to buy goods before prices rose even further. Barter system
was introduced as people resorted to trading goods instead of
money which sends Germany in a backwards direction in terms of
modernisation. Savings were wiped out, those with insurance
policies, savings, and pensions were hit the worst as savings
became worthless.

F. Causes and Effects of Hyperinflation.


i. Causes
The French Occupation in the Ruhr meant that Germanys
economy would suffer. 80% of Germanys industrial production was
carried out in the Ruhr, Germanys industrial heart. French and
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Belgian troops confiscated and essentially took raw materials and
manufactured goods for their own. This drove the workers to urge
passive resistance and to go on strike. This meant that less people
were working in factories which crippled Germanys industrial
output even further. The combined effects of the French Occupation
which caused the passive resistance caused Germanys industrial
output to dramatically decrease. The decrease in industrial output
caused less goods to circulate in markets and shortages of food and
raw materials would ensue. Lack of food and materials in the
market led to a rapid increase of prices. This is what is known as
inflation.
Government printed more money to combat the fact that less
taxes were coming through as there were less workers working in
factories and less products being produced. Excess money
circulating in the market caused hyperinflation as value for money
turned worthless. Soon, people stopped using money altogether
and reverted into the barter system.

ii. Effects
Workers who had few savings were not badly affected. Jobs stayed
mostly secure. However, they lost faith in the government. Middle
class men were the most badly affected. Their savings were made
worthless by hyperinflation. Businessmen could no longer buy
goods from abroad as German money was worthless and people
would not accept them as form of money. They lose faith in the
government and started supporting extremists like the Nazis.
Pensioners were badly affected as well as their pensions and
savings were made worthless. They could no work as they are old,
which caused them to literally wait for death. Rich upper class
men were the least affected as they kept their money in property or
overseas. They see the Government as incompetent. Hatred on
Jews as Jews kept their money in foreign banks, and therefore they
are unaffected by the hyperinflation. This led to the hatred of Jews
that Hitler seized on. This helped built unrest for the Munich
Putsch. People blamed the Weimar government for these
problems. Hitler saw this as a chance to manipulate the political
unrest in Germany to launch the Munich Putsch in November 1923.

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2. THE RECOVERY OF GERMANY, 1924 1929
A. The Work of Stresemann
i. Gustav Stresemann was made Chancellor of Germany in 1923. He
was one of the ablest politicians in Weimar Republic. He faced
several problems as Germany was on the brink of collapsing, and
extremist groups like the Nazis seeing this as a chance to take
over. People were forced to reverse to old ways like the barter
system because money is worthless.

B. Rentenmark (October 1923), Dawes (1924) and Young Plan (1929), US


loans and the recovery of the German economy.
i. Rentenmark (October 1923)
The biggest problem Germany faced in 1923 was hyperinflation
caused by the French occupation in the Ruhr. The introduction of
new currency by Stresemann was an attempt to stabilise the
economy. Old currency was abolished and a new, temporary
currency was introduced. New notes were trusted because the
government promised to exchange them for shares in land or
industry if the currency failed. In August 1924, the Rentenmark
was replaced by permanent currency called the Reichsmark.
A new independent national bank, Reichsbank was created to
control the currency. Confidence in the currency and banking
system was restored. Deposits in German banks rose from 900
million marks in 1924 to 4,900 million marks in 1926.

ii. Dawes Plan (1924)


Reparation payments were set so high that Germany had been
unable to pay in 1923, leading to the French Occupation in the
Ruhr. The Allies needed to be persuaded to reduce payments to a
sensible level. French and Belgian troops who were occupying the
Ruhr were removed. Stresemann and Allies agreed to reduce
annual payments to an affordable level, USA promised to loan
$800 million to German Industry to promote economic growth,
French and Belgian troops were evacuated from the Ruhr as
soon as reparation payments begun. The German economy
recovered and received an increase of foreign investments and
loans. Coal ouput rose from 75 million tonnes in 1924 to 300 million
tonnes in 1929. Manufactured goods sales doubled in the years
1923-1929. Unemployment rates fell to its lowest in 1928. However,
the Dawes Plan made Germany reliant and dependent on US
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economy which would have its setbacks during the Great
Depression in 1929.

iii. Young Plan (1929)


Success in foreign policy eventually led to a success in economic
policy. The Young Plan cut reparation payments from 6.6 billion
to 2 billion and an extension of 59 more years to pay. The Young
Plan strengthened the Weimar Republic by easing the burden
of reparation payments. However, Hitler criticized Stresemann for
passing penalty to the unborn children.

C. Successes abroad League of Nations (1926), Locarno Treaties (1925)


and Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928)
i. League of Nations (1926)
Germany was excluded from joining the League of Nations when it
was created by the Treaty of Versailles in 1919. The Locarno Pact
paved the way for Germanys remittance. Stresemann persuaded
the League to accept Germany as a member in 1926 and
Germany even gained a place on the Leagues council. Hitler would
eventually leave the League in 1933. Germany was trusted
again and treated as an equal in world affairs, helping Germanys
ability to gain financial and diplomatic help from Allied powers.

ii. Locarno Treaty (1925)


Germany was treated unfairly by the Allies and Stresemann needed
some success in international diplomacy to appease German
demands. Germany signed the Locarno agreement with Britain,
France, Italy and Belgium. Germany agreed to keep to its new
1919 border with France and Belgium. In return, the Allies
agreed to remove their troops from the Ruhr and discuss German
entry to the League of Nations. Germany was now treated as an
equal in international standards. The spirit of Locarno improved
relations in Europe in the years of 1925-1930, encouraging foreign
investments in Germany.

iii. Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928)


Stresemann was keen to prove Germanys commitment to
international peace or to persuade the Allies to drop the terms of
the Treaty of Versailles as some would speculate. Germany was one
of the 65 countries to sign the Kellogg-Briand Pact, an international
agreement by which states promised not to use war to achieve
their foreign policy aims. This also showed that Germany had

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become a respectable member of the international
community which led to the international communitys willingness
to cut reparation fees in the Young Plan, 1929.

3. THE RISE OF HITLER AND THE NAZIS


A. Hitler and the German Workers Party.
i. The German Workers Party (DAP) is a Right-Wing group found by
Drexler in 1919. DAP members were angry about : Communists and
Socialists who brought down the Kaiser as they wanted a dictator
regime, Weimar politicians who agreed to the Treaty of Versailles,
the weakness of democracy as a means of government, the Jews
who were blamed for weakening the country (anti-Semitism). Hitler
attended his first meeting in 1919, where there were only 29
members. Hitler found out the entire party was only funded by 7
marks. Hitler had been sent to the DAP to spy for the army but later
realised that he agreed with the party. September 1919, Hitler
formally joined the DAP.

B. Changes to the party 1920-1922


i. 25 Point Programme
The main points of the 25 Point Programme is to : scrap the
Treaty of Versailles, expand Germanys borders to give people
Lebensraum (living space), deprive Jews of rights and citizenship,
destroying communism, to make Germany great again. DAP
used force and violence to achieve this. Hitlers public speaking
skills and confidence attracted large numbers of people to DAP
meetings. Many people were dissatisfied with the Weimar Republic
in 1923. Hitlers excellent and convincing oratory skills attracted
support from the army, police and small businesses. As a result,
membership skills grew rapidly to 1,100 people in 1920 compared
to 23 people in 1919.

ii. The Growth of Hitlers role in DAP during the 1920s


In 1920, Hitler changed the name of the party from DAP to NSDAP.
Members of NSDAP was known as Nazis. The party adopted the
swastika as its emblem. Members began to use the arm salute
as a Nazi characteristic. Members of the NSDAP increased to 3,000.
Increased membership boosted party funds which enabled party to
buy newspaper Beobatcher for 180,000 marks. This meant that the
party was able to spread propaganda and Nazi views more

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efficiently. In 1921, Hitler pushed Drexler aside and became party
leader. He gathered influential and powerful party members such
as ; Ernst Rohm (founder of SA), Goering (leader of SS, hero of
Luftwaffe), Rudolf Hess (Hitlers deputy) and Julius Streicher
(founder of Nazi newspaper, Der Strumer). He was also close
friends with General Ludendorf (leader of German army in WW1,
very respectable).

iii. The Sturmabteilung, (SA)


They were also known as Stormtroopers or Brown shirts. They
were created in 1921. They were composed of demobilised soldiers
from 1919 due to the Treaty of Versailles. They were also the Nazis
private army. They provided security at Nazi meetings, acted
as bodyguards for Nazi leaders, broke up meetings of
oppositional groups, spread Nazi propaganda, gave Nazis
appearance of strength and order.

C. Causes, Events and Results of Munich Putsch, 1923.


i. Causes
Hitler believed that the Weimar Government was crumbling and
that people would support a party like his, taking over. There was
heavy political unrest in 1923 as it was the height of the
hyperinflation crisis affecting the Germans. The French occupation
in the Ruhr that caused it was a source of great anger and shame
amongst the Germans. Hitler exploited this discontent to his own
use. By November 1923, Hitler felt like the NSDAP was strong
enough to make a challenge nationally as membership had
grown to 55,000. Hitler sensed that the new Chancellor,
Stresemann would solve the economic problems soon. This
meant that time was running out before unrest died down. If unrest
died down, there would be nothing for Hitler to exploit to gain
power. NSDAP meetings were banned from taking place in 1923.
Hitler felt like he was being controlled and was under pressure to
act and assert his leadership. Hitler believed that he had
support of local council in Bavaria. Gustav Kahr, had been heard
plotting against the Government himself. Hitler believed that he
had the support of the army. An important ex-General,
Ludendorff, supported Hitlers plans. It was thought that the army
would support the Putsch if Ludendorff was involved as he was very
well respected amongst the barracks.

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ii. Events
During the crisis of 1923, Hitler plotted with Lossow and Kahr to
take over Munich in revolution. Hitler told the SA to be prepared for
a rebellion. 4 October, Kahr and Lossow called off the revolution
which made it difficult for Hitler as he already mobilised 3,000
troops who were ready for battle.
8 November, Hitler and 600 SA burst into a meeting of 3,000
officials of the Bavarian Government held by Kahr and Lossow in the
Beer Hall. Hitler released a gun shot to the ceiling and announced
that he would be taking control of the Government. He claimed that
he would be taking control of Munich and would march to the
German government. He was supported by famous General
Ludendorff. Kahr, Seisser and Lossow were taken off into a side
room where they relunctantly agreed to support the uprising. Hitler
left the hall and Ludendorff allowed Kahr and his associates to leave
which proved ot be a huge mistake as they changed their minds
and now opposed Hitler. The 2,000 strong SA members were now
outnumbered by Bavarian police and army.
9 November, Hitler sent 3000 supporters and the SA to capture key
government buildings in Munich such as newspaper offices and
army headquarters. Hitler marched into Munich on what they
thought was a triumphant march to take power. However, they were
met with 100 state police soldiers who opened fire on them despite
the fact that Ludendorff was on the Nazis side, killing 16 Nazis and
injured Hitler and Goering. Hitlers insurance plan backfired which
eventually led to Ludendorffs arrest on the spot and Hitlers arrest
2 days later.

iii. Effects
Bad -
Hitler and three other leaders (Rohm, Ludendorff and Dr Wilhelm)
stood trial. Hitler was found guilty of treason and was sentenced
to 5 years in prison. Ludendorff was acquitted and others were
released. Nazi Party was banned until 1925.
Good -
Hitler used the trial to get national publicity. The failure of the
Munich Putsch brought recognition to Hitler. He was able to further
develop Nazi propaganda. Every word he spoke was reported in
national papers the next day. He turned his trial into a platform of
propaganda. Hitler manipulated the publicity he was receiving to
promote Nazi ideology. As a result of the publicity, the NSDAP won

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its first seats in the Reichstag, 32 seats in 1924 elections. This was
propaganda victory for the NSDAP.
Hitler used his time in jail to write Mein Kampf. He formed his
political ideas which became a guide for the party. It focused on the
need for one all-powerful leader to guide the party the Fuhrer
Principle. By doing so, Hitler realised that direct action would not
work and decided to win power through the ballot box the
Reichstag principle.

iv. Why did the Munich Putsch fail?


Too much trust on General Ludendorff
Hitler placed too much trust on Ludendorff. He believed that the
army and police would not retaliate against Ludendorff due to
respect and social ranking. However, Ludendorff himself was a
disorganised individual. He was always late to meetings and was
never punctual. Hitlers insurance plan of using Ludendorff to
protect himself and the NSDAP backfired as state police opened fire
despite the fact Ludendorff was present. In addition to that, the only
reason why the SA was outnumbered by Bavarian police was
because Ludendorff allowed Kahr, Seisser and Lossow to leave the
Beerhall.

Timing
The Munich Putsch took place in November 1923. By 1923,
Germany has recovered slightly from the hyperinflation due to
Stresemanns efforts as Chancellor. Stresemann introduced a new
temporary system of currency called the Rentenmark in October
1923. The rentenmark became so successful that it was replaced
with a permanent currency called the Reichsmark. Reichsbanks
were created to control the new currency of Reichsmark. Hitler
carried out the Munich Putsch too late as German discontent died
down. By the time of Munich Putsch in November 1923, political
unrest had died down and there would therefore, be less hatred
towards the Weimar Government for Hitler to exploit.

D. Reorganisation of the Party 1924-1928


i. Administration and Funding
Hitler left prison in 1924 and re-launched the Nazi Party in February
1925. Hitler re-launched the Nazi Party with a focus of winning
power through elections, not violence. This meant that he needed
better organisation and funding of the Nazi Party. Hitler

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appointed two efficient administrators to run Nazi HQ. Hitler
also divided party into regions, appointing gauleiters who ran
the party in each region. To fund this, Hitler befriended wealthy
businessmen who shared his hatred of communism. They hoped
Hitler could limit the power of trade unions. By the early 1930s, the
party was receiving big donations from Thyssen, Krupp and Bosch.

ii. SS and SA
Extra funding was used to strengthen the SA which expanded
to 400,000 members by 1930. They were used to provide security
at Nazi meetings, as bodyguards for important Nazi members,
break up meetings of opposition groups, spread Nazi
propaganda and to intimidate opponents. They gave the
appearance of strength, order and unity to the party.
Hitler also set up the SS (Schutzstaffel) protection squad in 1925
as his own private bodyguard. He was worried about the SA who
were difficult to control and who swore loyalty to Ernst Rohm, the
commander. The SS was run at first by Schreck but was replaced by
Himmler. They were known for their ruthlessness and black
uniform.

iii. Propaganda
The use of propaganda became important as the party hoped to
increase its share of the vote. Goebbels was the Nazi Party
gauleiter for Berlin and was a brilliant propagandist. He worked with
Hitler to improve the party message. They created scapegoats
for Germanys problems. The Jews, Communists and leaders of
the Weimar Republic were made scapegoats for Germanys
problems. The SDPs were hit especially hard as they were the ones
who signed the Treaty of Versailles. Hitler was promoted in
propaganda as the voice of the Nazi Party. By the 1930s, there
were 120 Nazi daily or weekly newspapers, reporting Hitlers
speeches across the whole country. The Nazi Party also
pioneered the use of radio, films and gramophone records to
keep Hitler in the public eye. Hitler was famous, he essentially
went on tour speaking up to five times a day in some cases, he
uses aeroplanes to travel from city to city. Propaganda created
the image of strength for the party. It focused on Hitlers
passion, the spectacle of mass Nazi rallies and the impressive
power of the SA and SS.

iv. Progress by 1928

16
By 1928, the Nazi Party was well organised and had over 100,000
members. Hitler became the national figure. However, there are
some problems. Since 1923, the economy had recovered,
employment hand increased and inflation had eased. People were
better off and did not want to vote for extremist parties. There were
less political unrest for the Nazi Party to exploit as Germany was
going through its Golden Age. Hitler failed to win over
working class as they voted for Communist or left wing parties.
People were put off by Nazis extreme views such as hatred of
Jews and re-arming Germany became embarrassing to people in
Germany who were doing well. Stresemann seemed to be regaining
status of Germany in the international community. In 1925, Paul
Von Hindenburg, had become president. His reputation was a
boost to the Weimar Republic as he was an ex-field Marshal of the
German Army. This increased votes for moderate parties such as
the SPD. In the elections of May 1928, the Nazis only won 12
seats and were the 9th biggest party.

E. Impact of Wall Street Crash (October 1929)


i. Causes
In October, share prices began to fall rapidly on the Wall Street
stock exchange. Falling shares meant peoples investments fell in
value. Worried about losing money, people rushed to sell shares
before they fell further. On 24th October 1929, 13 million shares
were sold. Panic selling sent prices even lower. $20,000 in the
morning were worth $1000 by the end of the day. Within a week,
investors lost $4000 million. American banks were headed for
bankruptcy so they began to recall all foreign loans.

ii. Consequences in Germany


Poverty
Germany recalled heavily on American loans. When America
recalled its loans, Germany became poor overnight as she only had
90 days to repay the Dawes Plan and Young Plan. Farmers quickly
slipped into debt. Farmers were taxed heavily due to increase of
global agricultural rates. 18,000 farmers went bankrupt in the years
1930-1932. Farmers had to produce more products for less money.
Farmers were left stumped as more money was required to produce
more products. Workers wages reduced by 40%.

17
Drop in production levels
Banks ran out of cash quickly as people withdrew all their savings.
To make the money back, German banks recalled all their loans
to German businesses. However, German businesses needed the
money to operate. As a result, many German businesses closed
which reduced industrial output. Worldwide depression meant
that there was no market for German exports. Americans
stopped buying European goods in order to encourage domestic
goods.

Mass unemployment rates


High unemployment rates meant that there was no domestic
demand for goods within Germany as productivity decreases, less
goods were produced. The Ruhr declared bankruptcy which
meant the laying off of many workers. In 1928, 650,000 were
unemployed. By 1933, 6 million were unemployed. Unemployed
workers further increased welfare bill for the German
governments as they have to afford unemployment benefits.

18
Social and Political effects
Closing businesses creates a drop in productivity level which
then creates more unemployment and decreases trade which
then results in government loosing tax revenue. Government
appeared powerless and incompetent. This feeds on the
unpopularity of the Weimar Government especially after the
hyperinflation in 1921 that lasted 3 years. Germans are
unsatisfied and blamed the Weimar Government. This
weakened the Weimar Government gravely. Chancellor Bruning
responded by raising taxes and reduced unemployment
benefits to make payments more affordable. This meant that
people received less money but are taxed heavily and expected to
pay more. This pleased no one, as right-wing parties opposed
higher taxes and left-wing parties opposed lower benefits.
Brunings coalition government collapses and loses his grip
which forced him to rule by Presidential decree (Article 48) to
govern. There were 44 decrees in 1931 but 66 in 1932. Decrees
undermined confidence in Weimar Republic. Confidence placed
on the Weimar government was lost.

Weakness in German Economy

Wall Street Crash

America Recalled Loans

Decline in world trade

Fall in German businesses and consumer confidence

Less production = less consumption

Businesses close and reduced

Higher unemployment rates, less money flowing in economy

19 Fall in demand
F. Nazis Methods to Win Support
i. May 1928 Nazis won 12 seats, Communists won 54 seats
September 1930 Nazis won 107 seats, Communists won 77 seats
July 1932 Nazis won 230 seats, Communists won 89 seats
November 1932 Nazis won 196 seats, Communists won 121 seats.

ii. Working Class


Many working people were attracted by Nazi support for
traditional German values and a strong Germany. Nazis
promised Work and Bread on posters which appealed
economically to the working class. The Nazis used posters which
gave the impression that many workers already supported them
however they never really dominated the working class vote. When
times were hard, most workers supported the communists.

iii. Middle-class support


Many lost their companies, savings and pensions. Hitler was
immediately seen as a strong leader and were hopeful that Hitler
could revive their businesses. The middle class were afraid of
growing KPD which wanted to abolish private ownership of land
and businesses. The middle class saw the Nazis as a strong party
which could protect them from this. Moral decline after the war
under Weimar Republic that included drinking and sexual openness.
The Nazis represented a return to traditional German values.
This went down well with the middle class.

iv. Farmers
The Farmers supported the Nazis as they were perceived as
protection from the KPD which would have confiscated all land and
abolish private ownership. The Nazi policy of confiscating all private
land in the original 25 point programme was changed in 1928 to a
new policy that said that all private land would only be
confiscated to protect farmers from KPD.

v. Big businesses
Big businesses saw Hitler as their protection from KPD. Their
support was a boost to Nazi funds and networking. The Nazi party
was able to get help from powerful newspaper owners like Alfred
Hugenberg to bring them electoral success.

vi. Youth and Women

20
The youth were attracted by Hitlers passionate speeches,
ambitions for the future and atmosphere of Nazi rallies.
Women did not support Hitler at first as his policies limited their role
to the home. However, Nazi propaganda focused on women, saying
NSDAP was best for the country and their families. The youth and
women were a captive audience of the Nazi Party.

G. Goebbels and propaganda and the work of the SA


i. Nazi Propaganda
Propaganda is the brainwash of the public, convincing them of an
ideological viewpoint. Most of the propaganda by the Nazis were
directed towards the Jews. Jews were portrayed as Untermenschen
and scapegoats for Germanys defeat in WW1. Continual of
propaganda encouraged German people to hate Jews. This
encourages anti-Semitism within the Germans.

ii. Methods of Propaganda


The Press
Anti-Nazi newspapers were shut down. Jews were banned from
owning or working for newspapers. Goebbels ministry of
propaganda sent out daily instructions telling them what to print
and what sort of pictures to include to be published for general
viewing. Display boards were set up in public places so everyone
could read the newspapers. The Nazi Party themselves purchased a
newspaper business in the 1920s which allowed them to publish
whatever pro-Nazi view they liked. In addition to that, the Nazis had
influential people like Alfred Hugenberg who owned newspaper
businesses which helped spread more Nazi propaganda.

Rallies
Goebbels stage managed these events to give an overwhelming
sense of unity amongst the Germans. Germans would automatically
join these rallies as it gives them a sense of belonging. Germans
commitment to the rallies increased as they wanted to be a part of
something big and impressive.

Radio
Goebbels took over radio broadcasting. Regular programs on the
radios were Hitlers speeches. Foreign programmes cannot be
picked up by the radios. This helped intensify the Nazi ideology as
Germans would not be swayed by outsider opinions. All factory
owners, departmental stores, offices, shops, pubs and flats were

21
made compulsory to have speakers installed an hour before the
broadcast so that the whole population can participate fully in the
broadcast.

Films
Anti-Semitic and pro-Nazi films were produced and showed in
cinemas.

Books
Nazis frequently organised book burnings. They took place in public
places such as town squares or city squares to attract attention of
the
masses. They would burn books written by Jews, Communists or
Socialists. They burn any book that contained any ideas that the
Nazi
ideology would disprove. This further intensified Nazi ideology on
the Germans as it was the only thing they are surrounded by. Other
opinions or ideologies were annihilated.

22
H. Events of 1932 to January 1933 including the role of von Papen, von
Schleicher and von Hindenburg.
i. Events
1932
Date Causes Chanc Elections & Government Significance
ellor
March Hindenburgs seven year Brunin Hitler stood for Hilter became a
- April term as President was g President and lost to major political
up. Elections took place Hindenburg. In the figure during
against a backdrop of March elections, the elections.
turmoil caused by the Hindenburg polled 18 People were
Wall Street Crash. Voters million votes, Hitler 11 willing to
were willing to consider million and Communist consider him as
more extreme candidates leader 5 million. As no President. He
in order to end candidate achieved 50% was second
unemployment and (not more than majority) only to
unrest. Schleicher of the vote, elections Hindenburg in
persuades Hindenburg to were held again in April. the publics
replace Bruning because This time, Hindenburg eye.
of proposed land reforms. won 19 million, Hitler 13
million and Communist
leader, 4 million.
May The socialist Chancellor von Nazis asked to join For the first
Bruning used a Papen government coalition. time, the Nazi
Presidential decree to Schleicher invited the Party was now
ban the SA & SS in April NSDAP to join the new part of the
to calm unrest. This right-wing coalition he government of
angered right-wing had formed in removing Germany. This
parties. Schleicher Bruning. Schleicher led many to
decided to remove needed NSDAP support view the Nazis
Bruning. He organised a as they were a big party. as a credible
coalition of right-wing He believed that he party who could
parties and persuaded could control the Nazis, govern sensibly
Hindenburg that they seeing them as merely and work with
had a majority in the children who had to be others for the
Reichstag. Bruning was led by hand. good of
sacked and replaced with Germany.
von Papen who
Schleicher hoped to
control. Von Papen
becomes Chancellor with
no Reichstag support at

23
all, just because he was
close with Hindeburg.
July The publicity from the von Reichstag Elections : Becoming the
Presidential campaign Papen Nazis now biggest largest party in
combined with a party with 230 seats. the Reichstag
successful election Communists won 89 brought
campaign to give the seats. This makes the tremendous
Nazis, 230 seats in the Nazis the largest party power to Hitler
Reichstag, up from 107 in but they still did not as it meant that
the September 1930 have majority of the the Nazis could
election. Any government votes due to bring
coalition now needed proportional government to
Nazi support as they representation. Hitler a halt by
were the biggest party. demanded that refusing to
This made Hitler Hindenburg replaced von cooperate.
confident enough to Papen and announced
demand the him as Chancellor,
Chancellorship from seeing as the Nazis were
Hindenberg. now the biggest party.
Hindenburg rebuffed his
offer, viewing Hitler as a
jumped up corporal.
Novem The Nazis responded to von Reichstag Elections : Von Papen had
ber Hindenburgs refusal by Papen Nazis still the biggest lost his last
refusing to cooperate party with 190 seats. gamble Nazis
with von Papens Communists won 121 were still the
government and walking seats. Von Papen hoped biggest party in
out of Parliament during that if he called fresh the Reichstag
meetings. This left von elections, Nazi support and would
Papens coalition in would decline and they continue with
shambles, its biggest would gain less seats in no cooperation.
party was refusing to the Reichstag. He was Von Papen
cooperate so government wrong, whilst their seats became
had no choice but to did drop to 190, they powerless to
grind to a halt, were still the biggest control events
paralysed. party. and Hindenburg
could not
indefinitely
refuse
Chancellorship
to Hitler.

24
Decem 39 business leaders tried von New Chancellor, von Schleichers
ber to break the political Schleic Schleicher as Chancellor failure to
deadlock by writing a her was confident that the command the
letter to Hindenburg, Nazi vote would drop. majority in the
asking him to appoint However, his main Reichstag
Hitler as Chancellor. They pronlem was that he without Nazi
believed that they could consistently failed to get support (190
control Hitler as the Nazis a majority coalition to seats) meant
relied on them for work in the Reichstag. In that he was
donations. Hindenburg desperation, Schleicher always doomed
still opposed the idea pleaded Hindenburg to to be a
and appointed Schleicher suspend the constitution powerless
as Chancellor and Hitler and declare Schleicher leader. With his
as vice-Chancellor. as head of military downfall, the
dictatorship. Hindenburg only remaining
refused. News of this popular and
leaked out ad Schleicher credible leader
lost remaining support in was Hitler.
the Reichstag. Hindenburg
could no longer
hold out.
1932
Januar Von Papen had actually Hitler New Chancellor. 30th Appointing
y been plotting with January 1933, Hitler was Hitler as
Hindeburg against legally and Chancellor just
Schleicher for a while. democratically proved how
With his downfall, von appointed Chancellor of nave the
Papen believed his Germany. German right-
moment had returned. wing was. They
He persuaded underestimated
Hindenburg to appoint Hitler due to his
Hitler as Chancellor and ex-corporal
himself as vice- past and lack of
Chancellor, still thinking government
that Hitler could be expertise.
controlled. Hindenburg Hitlers power
relunctantly agreed. was still limited
as Chancellor
but he was now
in a position to
manipulate
events to his
own advantage.

25
ii. Roles of von Papen, Schleicher and Hindeburg
Bruning
Chancellor 1930-1932, He failed to deal with unemployment and
made Weimar Government look incompetent. This in turn helped
Hitlers popularity as political unrest increased while Hitler was
offering protection from the KPD and promises like Work and
Bread to appeal to Germans. He was replaced by von Papen
because Schleicher persuaded Hindenburg. He increased taxes to
and reduced unemployment benefits to make payments more
affordable. Right wing parties are angered by the increase in taxes
while the left wing are angered by the reduction in unemployment
benefits. This collapses the coalition government in Weimar and
Bruning was forced to rule by decree, Article 48 as a sign of
weakness. Ruling by decree undermines the confidence people
have for the government. There was 44 decrees in 1931 but 66
decrees in 1932.

Von Papen
Chancellor July 1932-November 1932. He failed to deal with
unemployment but also failed to control the Nazis. Von Papen was
initially installed as Chancellor so that Schleicher could control him
like a puppet from behind the scenes. Von Papen became
Chancellor with no Reichstag support at all. He only became
Chancellor because of his relation to Hindenburg.

Schleicher
Power crazy and failed to solve unemployment or control the Nazis.
Pissed off von Papen who plotted to get rid of him. He could not get
the coalition government to cooperate which complicated matters.
He then persuaded Hindenburg to suspend the constitution and
declared military dictatorship. News of this leaked out and
Schleicher immediately lost all Reichstag support.
Hindenburg
Wanted anyone but Hitler to be Chancellor. When these
governments failed as well, Hindenburg finally listens to von
Papens advise to appoint Hitler as Chancellor and von Papen as
vice-Chancellor to control Nazi activity. The Nazi Party was the
largest party but did not have the majority due to proportional
representation. Von Papen thinks that, therefore, the majority of the
government were non-Nazi since the NSDAP did not have majority
of the votes, that Nazi actions could be limited and/or prevented.

26
Since the NSDAP were popular amongst the Germans, the Weimar
constitution assumed that they could manipulate the NSDAPs
popularity to reinstate confidence and support for the Weimar
Government.

LIFE IN NAZI GERMANY


I. Setting up the Nazi dictatorship through the Reichstag Fire, Enabling
Act, Night of the Long Knives, the police state, censorship and
propaganda.
i. Reichstag Fire (27th Feb 1933)
Whilst Hitler was Chancellor, he was still operating in a democratic
system. He needed a way to persuade Hindenburg to give him
more power. On the 27th February 1933, the Reichstag building
was suddenly destroyed with a fire. A young Dutch communist, van
der Lubbe was caught on sight, red handed with explosives and
matches. He confessed, was put on trial and found guilty which he
was beheaded for. Hitler used the confusion and unease generated
by the fire to consolidate power. Hitler manipulated the Reichstag
Fire to eliminate his opponents by instructing the SA to round up
communists. 4,000 communists were caught that night. Hitler
persuaded Hindenburg to declare a state of emergency and to
pass the Law for the Protection of People and State which ended
freedom of speech, association and press. Hitler could now
legally use decrees to govern Germany and supress opposition
groups which helped him eliminate the communists as he could put
the Communists in indefinite custody.

ii. March Elections (5th March 1933)


Hitler hoped to gain more seats in the Reichstag and his strong
handling of the communist conspiracy boosted his popularity. Now
it was the time to capitalise on that support. The general election
was the Germans giving Hitler the clear instruction to rule. Hitler
used his new powers of able to govern by decrees legally and
the law for protection to supress opposition. This prevented
publication of opposition newspapers and opposition groups from
spreading propaganda. However, only 44% of people voted for the
Nazis, securing 288 seats whilst the Communists secured 81 seats.
This meant that the NSDAP was the largest party but did not have
the support of the majority. Hitler used the SA to round up and
arrest communist deputies which then gave Hitler the majority.

27
Goering quotes the elections to be a masterpiece of propaganda.

iii. The Enabling Act (24th March 1933)


Hitler has consolidated and centralised enough power to
change the constitution. He required 75% of the Reichstag to
vote in favour of the Act. The Act changed the constitution of the
Weimar Republic as it enabled Hitler to avoid and bypass the
Reichstag in passing laws. Hitler required the majority of Reichstag
support to pass a law that allows him to bypass the Reichstag in
passing future laws. The Enabling Act was passed on 24th March
1933 by 444 votes to 94 votes. Communist members were banned
and not allowed to attend the session. Hitler posted members of the
SA and SS threaten and intimidated into voting for the Act. This
marked the end of Democracy and the end of Weimar Republic.
Effectively, the Enabling Act gave him dictatorial powers as he is
able to pass any law at any time making Germany a totalitarian
state.

iv. Capture of Local Government (26th April 1933), Banning of Trade


Unions (2nd May 1933) and Banning of Political Parties (14 th July
1933) ^ Effects of the Enabling Act ^
As a result of the Enabling Act, 26th April 1933, Nazis took over
local government and the police. Nazis replaced anti-Nazi teachers
and University professors to indoctrinate youths in schools to be
loyal Nazis. Hitler set up the gestapo to report opponents and
grumblers. Tens of thousands of Jews, Communists, Protestants,
Jehovahs Witnesses, Gypsies, Homosexuals, Alcoholics and
Prostitutes were arrested and sent to concentration camps for trivial
crimes like saying business was bad or making anti-Nazi jokes.
Everything was brought under tighter control.

As a result of the Enabling Act, Hitler immediately used his powers


to pass lows which turned Germany into a totalitarian state. To stop
the threat of a nationwide strike, on 2nd May 1933, Hitler banned
trade unions and made strikes illegal. Money was confiscated and
leaders were put into prison. The trade unions were replaced with
the German Labour Front which reduced workers pay and
revoked the right to strike which renders the working class harmless
as they are unable to retaliate. The abolishment of the Trade
Unions helped the Nazis eliminate opponents as the working class
supported the Communists.

28
As a result of the Enabling Act, on 14th July 1933, Hitler issued the
Law against the Establishment of Parties which single-
handedly removed all opposition and declared that NSDAP as the
only legal party. All other parties were banned and their leaders
were put in prison. It was this day that Germany became a one
party state.

v. The Night of Long Knives (30th June 1934)


The SA were people Hitler turned to and used to help him
consolidate and centralise power. Hitler feared Rohm as he
opposed Hitlers policies particularly his links to big businesses as
he was more left-wing (a socialist). Hitler was afraid of a Socialist
revolution. On 30th June 1934, Hitler arranged for Rohm and other
seniors of the SA, to be arrested, imprisoned and shot. Rohm was
taken jail. 1st July, Rohm and 6 other SA leaders were shot to death.
Over 4 days, 400 people including 150 senior members of the SA
were shot. The Night of the Long Knives proved Hitler was now
acting illegally by murdering his rivals for power. He claimed to be
doing this in the interest of Germany. Germans objected to violence
but were grateful that the SA, hated for their brutality, had been
restrained. SA continued after 1934, but was limited to giving
muscle to the Nazi Party and was now firmly under Hitlers control.

vi. Death of Hindenburg (2nd August 1934)


The only opposition left in Hitler lied in the President Hindenburg.
On the 2nd August 1934, President Hindenburg died, aged 87. Hitler
moved in to take over supreme power. He declared himself
Germanys Fuhrer, took all of the presidents power and forced on
oath of loyalty to him from every soldier in the Army. A plebiscite
was organised to confirm and add legitimacy to his role of Fuhrer.
Bombarded by pro-Nazi propaganda, 90% of votes decided in his
favour. Hitler now had supreme power. The Third Reich had begun.

29
vii. Nazi Police State 1933-1945
The SS, military group set up in 1925 as personal bodyguards
for Hitler. From 1929, it was run by Himmler. Main role was as the
Nazis private police force. They were totally loyal to Hitler. Hitler
used the SS officers to murder SA officers in the Night of The Long
Knives. During 1930s, the SS expanded to over 50,000 men and
were in charge of all other state security services. Another of
the SS was to carry out Nazi policy of racial purification. The
SS ran concentration camps, SS members had to be racially
pure and could only marry racially pure wives. The SS was a
significant organisation as it helped Nazi control the SA and
served regular army. SS officers were often the most ideologically
fanatical Nazis and would carry out Hitlers orders without
hesitation. It was the loyalty of the SS that enabled Hitler to
efficiently carry out the Final Solution.

The Gestapo was Hitlers non-uniformed secret police. Set up in


1933, by Goering, and placed under the control of the SS in
1936. Gestapo was led by Heydrich. They arrested people who
acted againt or spoke out against the Nazi ideology. Offenders were
imprisoned without trial. By 1939, 150,000 people were under
protective arrest in prison and few would ever see release. The
Gestapo used various methods to monitor the population such as
phone tapping, spying and the use of informers. The Gestapo
was a significant element of the Nazi Police State as the Gestapo
could act outside the law and was only responsible to its
commanders and Hitler. The Gestapo consolidated control of
German society through fear and worked to eliminate any
opposition to Hitler.

Prison camps or concentration camps was first opened in


Dachau, 1933. Camps were located in isolated areas outside the
city, outskirts, away from public. They were controlled by SS. At
first, most inmates were political prisoners and undesirables like
prostitutes and minority groups, such as Jews and Gypsies. From
1938, the SS used camp inmates as slave labour for business
enterprises. By 1939, there were 6 camps holding 20,000 people.
After 1939, their size grew in numbers and were used for the mass
murder of minority groups. The use of concentration camps was
significant as it boosted German economy during the war. It
was efficient, but morally reprehensible, way for Hitler to deal with

30
opposition and his control on society undesirables were simply
sent to camps and never seen again, often murdered or worked to
death.

The Law Courts, the National Socialist League for the


Maintenance of the Law were set up by Hitler to take control
of judiciary. All judges had to be members. It enabled the Nazis to
monitor the decisions of judges, to ensure they followed Nazi Party
priorities. Hitler also gave judges the freedom to punish people
even if they had not broken the law. Secondly, Hitler set up a new
Peoples Court, to hear all treason cases offenses against the
state. Judges were hand-picked for loyalty and Hitler would
intervene in cases. The Law Courts were significant because it
meant that Hitler has control of all elements in the judiciary
system. The Judiciary system now had to follow Nazi party
priorities and judgements. It also strengthened their control
of society by punishing people for their non-Nazi political views.

viii. Censorship and Propaganda (1933-1945)


Censorship was used to restrict and ban information whilst
propaganda was used to publicise information. Joseph Goebbels
was in charge of Nazi propaganda and was appointed Reich
Minister of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda on 13 th March
1933. His role was to centralise Nazi control over all aspects
of German culture and intellectual life. This was called the
Gleischaltung.

Campaigning
Censorship
Before 1933, the Nazi Party used the SA to disrupt opposition
meetings, tear down their propaganda posters and violently
intimidate their speakers. This attempt at censoring their message
was never 100% successful. The July 1933, Law Against the
Establishment of Parties enabled Hitler to ban all other political
parties- in effect this made campaigning by other political
parties illegal.

Propaganda
After 1933, Goebbels was in charge of government propaganda. He
could use government resources to publicise Hitler and his views.
Propaganda methods included : German posters advertising
Nazi views and policies, expanding the use of rallies and parades

31
to intimidate the public such as torchlight parades, brass bands
and choirs were all used to great effect. The Nuremberg Rallies
were held annually to create a sense of spectacle, Nazi strength
and German unity. They targeted women because they are
considered the minority. They brought colour and excitement into
peoples lives. Gave people a sense of belonging to a great
movement.

Radio
Censorship
Goebbels placed all radio stations under Nazi control. He made
it a treasonable offense to listen to foreign radio broadcasts
like the BBC. In 1939, over 1500 Germans were arrested for
listening to London-based broadcasts.

Propaganda
Hitler made frequent broadcasts on radio. Cheap mass-produced
radios were sold or placed in cafes, factories and schools. Speakers
were placed in streets to spread the Nazi message. The Nazi
introduced two cheap radios called peoples receivers costing
32 marks. By 1930, there were more radios per person in Germany
than anywhere else in Europe. Regular broadcasts included Hitlers
speeches, German music and history.

Cinema
Censorship
In 1934, film makers had to sent the plot of every new film to
Goebbels for approval before publishing. Goebbels had strict
control of the scripts in movies.

Propaganda
In 1933, German cinema had audiences of over 250 million per
year. Films were shown alongside a 45-minute official government
newsreel, publishing Nazi achievements. Propaganda feature
films were made like The Eternal Jew that tried to spread message
of Nazi Party through mass entertainment. Anti-Semitism was
also promoted. Over 1000 films made by Nazis. Goebbels wanted
people to be entertained this was how propaganda worked best.

32
The Press
Censorship
Newspaper had to print views which the Ministry agreed with or
face the consequences. If they didnt, newspapers could be banned,
forcing owners into bankruptcy. Reich Press Law of 4th October
1933 banned all Jewish or liberal editors from working. Anti-Nazi
newspapers were banned.

Propaganda
Journalists were given briefings with information the government
wanted to publicise. Volkischer Beobachter (Racial Observer) was
the primary newspaper of the Nazi Party as they purchased this in
Munich back in the 1920s. Der Angriff (The Assault) was founded
by Goebbels in 1927 that operates in Berlin. Der Strumer (The
Attacker) was owned by anti-Semite Julius Streicher to spread anti-
Semitic views. People encouraged to buy Nazi newspapers- could be
threatened if you cancel a subscription.

Universities
Censorship
University academics had to support Nazi views or face dismissal.
Between 1933-1938, 3000 academics were dismissed. Anyone
appointed to a university had to be approved by government
and had to complete a 6-week training course at National
Socialist Lectures Alliance Camp.

Propaganda
Nazis realised the powerful role university staff have in shaping
young minds. They were also fearful of allowing too much
independence for academics. Therefore, senior professors and
lecturers were therefore handpicked by Nazis to ensure loyalty.
German history was re-written completely to favour the Nazis
success and future.

The Arts
Censorship
Goebbels controlled the arts through the Reich Chamber of
Culture. All writers, musicians, artists and actors had to be
members or they are barred from working. However, most
artists practised self-censorship.

Nazis decided what books would be available. Millions of

33
books were banned and burnt on huge public bonfires as a method
of Goebbels propaganda, book burnings (mentioned earlier).
Authors could only write about 4 topics, frontline experience,
world view, regional novels and racial doctrine. By 1939, 2500
authors left Germany.

Music was censored. Jazz music was banned as it was seen as


black music and inferior. Composers like Mendelssohn was
banned because he was Jewish.

Degenerate Art was banned. Modern art was entirely banned.


Expressionism, Cubism and Impressionism were all banned. All
artists had to join Reich Chamber of Visual Arts. 42,000 artists
were given approval.

Propaganda
Art was used as a form propaganda by the Nazis. Nazi art was
based on Classical Realism. It emphasised strength, unity and
German folk tales. Hitler wanted art to display the true German
spirit. The Nazis put on degenerate art displays in 1936.
People were encouraged to criticise it and appreciate its
foreignness. Lots of simple, stark words and images put on
propaganda posters, so that even the uneducated could understand
them.

Sport
Censorship
Minority groups were not allowed to compete for the German
national teams during the Olympics. All athletes had to be Aryan.
Hitler used it to show the superiority of the Aryan race.

Propaganda
Hitler and Goebbels used the 1936 Berlin Olympics to show Nazi
Germany in good light. The film maker Leni Riefenstahl was
employed to produce a feature film of the event. The Nazis built
an Olympic Stadium seating 110,000 people to reflect
Germanys power. All events were organised faultlessly, showing
German efficiency and Germany won the most medals, 33 golds.

Key feature of Hitler as Fuhrer was his image being used to


personify the Nazi Party and unify the nation. He was shown
as strong and decisive.

34
J. Policies to towards women, the young, the Churches and the Jews.
i. Women
Women in the 1920s
In Weimar Government, women over 20 years were given the vote
and there were about 20 female members in the Reichstag. Women
became more likely to go out to work and more likely to work
in the professions, often being paid equal to men. There were
over 100,000 teachers in Germany by 1933. Women also started
to enjoy more freedom in social activities outside the family,
such as drinking and going to nightclubs. Women also dressed
differently, being influenced by the American flapper style.

Nazi views on Women


The Nazi Party believed that women should fit into society in a
traditional way and the best way women could do this was to be
mothers. Women should stay healthy, learn housecraft like
cookery and needlework, marry and make their husbands
happy so that they became good workers, bear children and
bring them up to be good Germans, stay at home and
concentrate on domestic matters, not work or politics,
prohibited from wearing makeup or trousers, or to dye/perm
hair.

Nazi Policies towards women


German Womens Enterprise was formed to arrange classes
and radio broadcasts teaching good motherhood. Women were
encouraged to leave work and concentrate on the 3Ks,
Kinder, Kuche, Kirche (Children, Kitchen and Church). Some
professional women were forced to leave their jobs as doctors,
lawyers or teachers in order to free up jobs for men and reduce
unemployment.

Law for the Encouragement for Marriage in 1933 was


introduced to increase birth rate. It provided loans of 1000 marks
(9 months worth of wages) to young couples to marry as long as the
wife left work. For each of their first four children, the couple could
keep a quarter of their loan.

The Mothers Cross was awarded to women based on the


number of children they had to encourage them to have more
children. Bronze for 4-5 children. Silver for 6-7 children. Gold for

35
8 or more. Each year on Hitlers mothers birthday (12th April),
medals were distributed.
The Lebensborn Programme (fountain of life), was another
policy to encourage childbirth. Started in 1935 by SS Leader,
Himmler, with the attempt to encourage the creation of
ideologically pure children for adoption. It made single women
available for fertilisation by SS men. It one home alone, 540
mothers gave birth. Moral decline was evident as single women
were having babies out of wedlock to increase birth rate.

Women with hereditary illnesses were forced to be sterilised.


Women were encouraged to abort or euthanise handicapped
babies. This is to ensure that the idea of a ideologically pure
generation to be maintained.

By the end of the 1930s, German industry was expanding so quickly


that women were needed to work so some of the early policies were
scaled back or reversed. With men going to war, women were
suddenly needed in the workplace again. Women manned the
arm factories, industry and farms. This was heavy, physical work
that women were not used to. Having to work meant women could
not stay at home with their children and teach them Nazi values.

Better Off Worse off


- Marriage loans - Educated or career women
- Women who wanted to stay much worse off
at home benefitted. - Sterilisation for women with
- Motherly women were inherited weakness, such as
given high status colour blindness or mental
- Medals for lots of children illnesses.
- Higher rate of marriage - Encouraged abortion if baby
was not ideologically pure
- Looked after by state if
married - Fashion and individuality
broken down and taken
away.
- Seen as baby factories

36
ii. Youth
All children attended school until they were 14. Boys and girls went
to separate schools. Nazis controlled all elements of the school
curriculum. Mein Kampf became a compulsory school text.
Swastika were placed in classes as a constant reminder of Nazism.
Hiring only pro-Nazi staff to ensure the youth were taught
correctly and only Nazi ideology would be passed down. Jewish
teachers were sacked. Obedience and discipline achieved by the
indoctrination of youth breaks down individuality and originality
in order for unity to play through from the youth to prepare them as
loyal soldiers for WW2.

Youth organisations were promoted in a way that schools who


surpassed 90% membership obtained a special banner. This
serves as an incentive for schools to look prestigious. Over 1
million in membership in 1932, 2 million in membership in 1933, 6
million in membership in 1934. Was made compulsory in 1937, 76%
of all youths joined.

Nazi youth organisations :

Age Boys Girls


6-10 Young Fellows -
10-14 Young Germans Young Maidens
14-18 Hitler Youth Leaaue of German
Maidens

37
Boys Girls

- Basic military training, - Taught domestic sciences


close combat competitions including needlework and
- Bravery tests jumping out cookery.
of buildings - Advanced cooking and child
- Extreme fitness and cross development training on
country running how to raise a child
- Incentives were given when - Learnt domestic
they pass their tests, mathematics, helped girls
rewarded with Nazi badges measure ingredients.
and knives - Did cooking, setting up camps
- Mainly did marching drills, and motherhood activities.
map readings and rifle
shooting.

- Race studies and Racial Science (Eugenics) taught children that


Aryans were superior and they should not marry Jews in order to keep
the lineage of being ideologically pure alive.
- History was rewritten in favour of the Nazis and criticised
communism and the Treaty of Versailles
- Geography centred on areas Hitler wishes to invade.
- Given political training oaths of loyalty, singing Nazi anthems and
learning Nazi ideologies.
- PE took up 1/6 of school time, to emphasise good health.
- Activities encouraged good health, good citizenship and support for
the Nazis.
- Sports, camping and hiking were popular activities. Group activities
often encouraged co-operation and comradeship.
- After 1939, Hitler Youth was used to help with war effort on the home
front, helping air raid wardens and fire brigades during bombing.

38
Group Why the opposed the How they How the Nazis
Nazis opposed the dealt with
Nazis them
Edelweiss Young people who do Defiance. The Pirates had
Pirates not want their lives Drinking, no intention of
mapped out by Nazis smoking, overthrowing
and wanted to rebel. dancing in Hitler. They
Many opposed the groups to Jazz, were teenagers
Nazis racial policies as drugs, telling who wanted to
friends were singled out anti-Nazi stories rebel against a
as superior or and jokes, controlling
inferior. beating up government.
Hitler Youth They survived
members, until 1944,
having sex. when the Nazis
They were not clamped down
an organised and arrested
movement, many of them.
therefore it was In December
difficult for the 1942, the
Nazis to hunt Gestapo broke
them down up 28 groups
individually to containing 739
punish them. adolescents.
The White Sophie Scholl, her They distributed All three
Rose brother Hans and their a set of leaflets members were
Group friend formed the White at the university tried and
Rose. It is a group and printed executed for
dedicated to showing more to be sent printing the
people the truth about by post. Under leaflets.
what the Nazis were interrogation,
doing in the war to Sophie refused
minority groups. They to pledge
were appalled by the allegiance to
Nazis method of lying the Nazis.
and propaganda .

iii. Churches
Churches were a problem because :
Strong movement as they are the only movement capable of
evoke a revolution.

39
90% of Germans are Christians.
The Church had the control over hearts and minds that Hitler
needed.
Religious beliefs were powerful. People believed in God and are
therefore less likely to worship Hitler completely as he wishes.
They take priority of the Church over Nazi oath.
Church are very likely to spread anti-Nazi messages as they
oppose Nazi policies.

Catholic Church
Catholic Churches swear loyalty to God and follow the
instructions of the Pope in Rome. Hitler disliked this as his
totalitarian state, he believed all Germans should look to him as
their Fuhrer for instructions and devotion. Christianity was also
treated with suspicion as it preached forgiveness, tolerance and
peace completely different to the Nazi message of strength,
violence and survival of the fittest. 1/3 of all German Christians
were Catholic and they also had their own schools which would
teach children Christian instead of Nazi ethics.

At first, Hitler tried to reach an agreement with the Catholic Church.


In July 1933, signed the Concordat with the Pope. Hitler agreed
to respect freedom of worship for Catholics and to not
interfere with Catholic schools in Germany. The Roman Catholic
Church agreed to instruct its priests to not interfere with
politics and ordered German bishops to swear loyalty to the
Nationalist Socialist regime. By the end of 1930s, Hitler
changed his mind and began to persecute the Catholic Church,
Catholic priests were harassed and arrested with many
ending up in concentration camps, Catholic schools were
closed or brought in line with state schools and curriculums,
Catholic youth groups were banned. In 1937, Pope realised that
Concordat was worthless and he issued a criticism of the Nazi
Regime.

The signing of the Concordat actually worked to reduce


opposition to Hitlers policies from Catholic Christians. It
seemed as if the Nazi regime was one that respected Christian
traditions and ethics. It explains why there was little opposition to
Hitlers policies at first. The breaking of the Concordat in 1937
did encourage Catholics to oppose Nazi policies. However,
state control of society was too strong by this point. The repression

40
of the Catholic Church by Hitler weakened opposition and served to
strengthen his control of society.

Protestant Church
The relationship between Nazis and Protestant Churches
were good at first. Many protestant churches supported the Nazis
as they feared the anti-Christian Communists. Hitler was seen as
the protector of German social and religious traditions. This respect
broke down over time as Nazi social policies and control of society
instead.

41
Some Protestants formed the German Christian Revolution led
by Muller. Hitler made Muller the Reich bishop of Germany in
September 1933. This movement tried to fuse Nazi ethics and ideas
into traditional Christianity. For instance, Nazi flags were displayed
inside Churches and Hitler was portrayed as the protector of the
Church from Judaism. Other Protestant churches did oppose Hitlers
policies and spoke out against him. Pastor Niemoller set up the
Pastors Emergency League (PEL) in 1933 to campaign against
Nazi actions. In 1937, Niemoller was sent to a concentration camp
and the PEL was banned.

Although the Nazi Party could not completely control the German
Christians, Hitler successfully managed to weaken the
potential opposition to his policies. The Concordat with the
Catholic Church and German Christian Movement in 1933 gave
legitimacy to Hitlers regime. By 1930s it was too late for any
sizable Christian opposition to form, Hitler had complete
control of judiciary, legislature and executive.

Reich Church
Integration of all Protestant Churches into one Reich Church.
Spearheaded by pro-Nazi Bishop, Muller as Hitler made him Reich
Bishop in 1933. Priests and Bishops wore Nazi uniforms. Hitler used
biblical languages to convey Nazi ideas by referring himself to
Jesus. The Swastika replaced the cross. Most Germans still felt that
their allegiance lie with their original churches rather than the state-
approved Churches. Hitler wanted Nazism to be worshipped and
followed like a religion, making it difficult for people to support the
Church. Disobedience carrying out baptisms and marriages
against Nazi law, encouraging people to ignore Nazism and follow
the bible made Hitlers want of controlling the churches into a
need as it is proving to be an opposition to his policies. Hitler
cannot compete with the promise of god and heaven after death-
especially in war time. Hitler has to turn into a blind eye and
compromise with the Church in a Concordat which he later
disobeyed.

42
iv. Jews

Anti-Semitism in Germany before Hitler


Anti Jewish views (anti-Semitism) had been common in Europe for
hundreds of years. This was because their religion, customs and
looks made them stand out as different in European society; some
Christians hated Jews, blaming them for the execution of Christ
(blood libel). People often looked for scapegoats when times were
hard and Jews were often singled out. Some Germans wrongly
blamed defeat in WW1 on the Jews. Jews were criticised for
being Communist rebels because Eisner, leader of the
communist rising in Munich in 1918 was Jewish. Many Jews were
wealthy business people and criticised for being selfish
capitalists.

Hitlers views and Mein Kampf, 1925


In 1925, Hitler published Mein Kampf which contained his racial and
political views. He claimed there was a hierarchy of races amongst
other things. The Aryan (German) race was the superior race. They
were seen as blonde, blue-eyed and athletic. Other races such as
the Slavs of Eastern Europe were the lesser races. The
Untermenschen, or sub-humans included Africans, Gypsies and
Jews. Hitler later than called them Lebensunwertes unworthy of
life.

First Nazi Persecutions, 1933


The Nazis boycotted Jewish businesses. Jews were banned from
government jobs. Jews were banned from inheriting land. In
1935, Jews were banned from the army and restaurants. Jewish
teachers were sacked. Jews with certain hereditary illness such
as mental disabilities or physical disabilities that could be passed
onto children were sterilised. 350,000 men were forced to be
sterilised. 1934, concentration camps were used at first to house
political opponents. Hitler then used them to house criminals and
drug offenders. Finally, Hitler used the camps to house
undesirables or Untermenschen, subhumans which Hitler deemed
unworthy of life.

43
The Nuremberg Laws 1935
On 15th September 1935, the Nuremberg Laws were passed which
said Jews were no longer German citizens. They lost the right
to vote, hold government office jobs or have passports. They
could not marry German citizens. From 1938, Jewish doctors,
lawyers, and dentists could not work for Aryan Germans. Jewish
identity cards had to carry a large letter J that stands for Jew.
Jews had to register all possessions.

Kristallnacht, 1938 (Night of the Broken Glass)


On 7th November 1938, a young Polish Jews went into German
embassy in Paris and shot another German. He hated Germans for
their persecution of Jews. A wave of anger swept Germany as the
young German died on the 9th November 1938. Goebbels
announced in the Nazi newspaper, Der Strumer, that the Fuhrer said
that the government would not prevent Germans from taking
revenge on the Jews. On the 9th and 10th of November, a storm of
attacks on Jews and their property took place across Germany. The
SA and SS condoned the Germans to take part in the boycotting and
arrest of Jews. 814 shops, 171 homes and 191 synagogues were
destroyed. At least 100 Jews were killed.

After Kristallnacht, 1939


The Nazi Party blamed the Jews for Kristallnacht. Goebbels
announced that the Jews would be fined 1 billion marks for
reparation fees. However, the Jews were also banned from running
shops, businesses, banned from attending schools and universities.
The rounding up of Jews by the SS and SA begins. By 12 th November
1938, 20,000 Jews had been sent to concentration camps. By 1939,
persecution increased as In January, the Reich Office for Jewish
Emigration were set up to remove the Jews from Germany by
enforce emigration. In April 1939, orders were sent that all Jews
were evicted from their homes and forced into areas in cities
called the ghettos.

44
K. Policies to reduce unemployment
L. The Labour Service, The Labour Front and Strength Through Joy

i. Economic policies to target Unemployment


The RAD and DAF created job opportunities as they required many
people to build infrastructure. Once infrastructures are built, they
would then require people to work in these places, thus, reducing
unemployment.

RAD (Reich Labour Service)- Targets the unemployed


Hitler believed that unemployment sapped the strength of a nation
and unemployed workers were more likely to support the
communists. 18-25 year old men had to do 6 months of work
service. It was voluntary at first and then made compulsory in 1935.
They were used to build autobahns (motorways), hospitals, and
schools. By 1937, Germany had built 7000 miles of autobahns. The
construction of autobahns created work for 80,000 men. It is
unpopular because it is hard labour and provides low wages.
Indoctrinates young adults into the Nazi ideology and at the same
time, boost economy as the industrial workforce increases.
The number of unemployed people decreased after 1933. In 1933,
there were 6 million unemployed people, by 1934 it was 3.8
million, finally by 1939, there were 0.3 million. This was great
for Nazi propaganda as it made it look like unemployment took a
nosedive after Hitler became Chancellor.

DAF (German Labour Front) Targets the workers


This is the replacement of trade unions to establish an
authoritarian dictatorship. Spearheaded by Dr Robert Ley. DAF is
a massive organisation to control the workers. DAF creates a
mirage of a trade union. Its role was to ensure that workers
served the best interests to the Nazi regime. Bosses could no
longer sack workers on the spot. Workers could not leave a job
without governments permission. This controls the power of the
employers and employees to ensure economy worked smoothly.
Workers could no longer bargain for higher wages. Strikes
were made illegal. Limitations on the working hours were
abolished. By 1939, Germans were working 60-72 hours per week
which is almost 10 hours a day.

45
Beauty of Labour
Persuades employers to improve working conditions in factories.
Good ventilation in the workplace. This acts as propaganda to make
Germans believe that work is good and that everyone should work if
they could. This is to ensure the level of happiness of the workers.
The higher the satisfaction of the workers, the less likely the will
plan a strike despite the fact it is illegal. The industrial workforce at
this point is large enough to cause a spectacle in the Nazi regime.
The Nazi regime would have a hard time in controlling and
persecuting them as they are required to boost German economy.

Strength Through Joy (KDF)


To organise leisure time for workers. The Nazis did not want people
spending their leisure time outside of Nazi control. KDF arranged
holidays, day trips, concerts, sports groups, clubs and etc so
workers could enjoy Nazi approved leisure time. This acts as an
optical illusion for the workers thinking that the Nazis were looking
out for their best interests but rather it is one of the Nazis scheme
of manipulation. This was highly successful.

Hitler stopped paying reparation fees and invested the money in


German companies. He began a huge programme of public works
that the RAD and DAF would built. He built an Olympic Stadium for
the Berlin Olympics in 1936 to house 110,000 people.

Germany so far
Nazis devised a scheme to allow workers to buy a Volkswagen
Beetle as a car for small weekly payments. The autobahns
improved transport and travel. People appreciated the public works
(new schools & hospitals). The streets were safe and there was no
crime. Germany was strong and successful in world affairs. Nazi
rallies provided colour and fun. Nazi youth groups provided
activities and holidays for young people. Nazi ideology gave people
hope and confidence.

46
ii. Economic policies

3 Major problems faced by German economy :


- International Debt
- Agricultural stagnation
- Industrial unemployment

Four Year Plan


Increased production of the raw materials needed for rearmament
such as coal, explosives, metal and iron. Persuaded big businesses
to produce key synthetic raw materials such as rubber, fuel and
textiles. Reduced imports. Tightened controls on prices and wages.
Used forced labour if needed. Built new industrial plans such as the
Goering Works, huge mining and metal works.

Was it successful?
The Government invested billions of Reichmarks into this plan. By
1939, Germany still depended on foreign marks. Arms had taken
precedence over developing agriculture, arms not butter
Goerings slogan. 1939, Butter was still rationed in Germany. Only
way for Germany to achieve autarky fully, it had to trade with
countries which could help provide raw materials and food. (THE
NEW PLAN)

47
Rearmament
Nazi economic policy designed to make Germany strong and it
needed a strong military to achieve this. In 1936, Hitler issued a
secret memo, declaring that the economy must be recognised to
make Germany able to wage war within four years. Hitlers four
year plan had several effects on Germany.

o Government spending on rearmament increased


- In 1933, spending on arms was 3.5 billion marks.
- In 1939, it was 26 billion marks
o Armys requirement for iron and steel increased
- German production trebled from 1933-39
o Germany wanted autarky in products like plastic, oil and
rubber
- Production of plastic increased by 460% in the 1930s
o The growth of German army
- 100,000 in 1933
- 500,000 in 1936
- 900,000 in 1939.
o As the army grew in size, so did the demand for uniforms and
equipment. Rearmament was thus a huge boost for the
German economy. Unemployment decreased and profits
increased as economy boosted.

Agriculture and Industry


Problems
World food prices had been low. Germany had been importing
cheap food from abroad. Because of this, farmers could not
sell their food at a price which would enable them to make a
good living. Germany would then be importing more than
exporting which results in an unhealthy balance and
national debt. Dependence on imports was preventing
Germany from achieving economic self-sufficiency (autarky).

Solutions
Trade agreements were made with individual counties to
supply raw materials to Germany in exchange for German
goods. For example, with Hungary, they exchanged butter,
vegetable oil to supply Germany with raw materials in exchange
for German goods. In 1934, The New Plan stopped imports and
subsidised industry to establish autarky. Because, of arms
not guns, agriculture was neglected in the rearmament process.
48
As a result, the New Plan was put into action to solve this
problem. This would solve the budget deficit. Production of
oil, cars, coals and explosives rose rapidly. Businesses were
strictly controlled, they were told to produce specific products
and were not allowed to raise wages. Foreign firms reduced
imported goods in Germany as an effort to limit imports.
Domestic firms encouraged to produce more materials.
They were given incentives and subsidies to encourage them to
work harder.

Agriculture in Germany
Successes Failures
Farmers Income increased by Farmers resented
40% between 1928- the interference of
1938 as imports the Reich Food
were limited. Estate.
Food Production Food production Still not at
increased by 20%, production level that
leaving Germany is sufficient to feed
self-sufficient in German population
bread, grains, without the need for
meats, vegetables imports. It is
and eggs. important to
remember that
imports are limited
not stopped
completely.

Limits of success

Unemployment
1933, women were no longer included in the unemployment
figures as they were all forced to stay home, give birth and be a
domestic figure. Jews were sacked from their jobs and no longer
hold German citizenship and were removed from the
unemployment register. The unemployed were obliged to take
any job offered or be classed work-shy and imprisoned.
Conscription removed over a million young men from the
employment market. Therefore, the authenticity of the
unemployment figures of 6 million in 1933, reducing to 3.8
million in 1934 and finally to a 0.8 million in 1939 is
questionable.

49
Did Germany become self-sufficient?
The policy of Autarky was a failure. In 1937, Goering was made
Economics Minister, with the job of making Germany self-
sufficient in 4 years. However the measures he introduced were
unsuccessful. Control were put on imports but if anything,
imports of luxuries increased. Scientists tried to make oil from
coal and to find substitutes for rubber, petrol, cotton and coffee.
Farmers were
subsidised to produce more food, and food imports were
reduced.

Economy
Successes Failures

- Imports were lower than - The Nazis failed to achieve


exports by 1935. autarky, they still needed
- Germany successfully more materials from abroad.
rearmed and was strong - Decrease in unemployment
enough to conquer in 1939. rates was mostly because of
- Unemployment was reduced conscription, removal of Jews
to almost 0. and forced labour groups.
- Industrial production almost - Investment in industry was
doubled. centred on rearmament,
- Government investment in neglecting more vital things
industry was higher than like industry which required
during the Golden Era of the Four Year Plan.
Weimar. - Wages were only as good as
- Wages started to rise which during Weimar Republic, while
signifies a stable economy. people actually had less food.

50
GERMANY GURING THE SECOND WORLD WAR
M. Nazi Policies Towards the Jews Including Ghettos, Death Squads and
the Final Solution
i. Nazi Policies towards the Jews

Ghettos
Nazis did this because they wanted a Jewish free population,
segregate the Jews from the rest of the population, control of
Jewish movement, and to make use of Jewish property for Nazi
use.

The first ghetto was built in Warsaw, Poland when the Nazis invaded
Poland in 1939. They are walled-off guarded parts of cities where
Jews are forced to live. Jews from Germany and other occupied
countries are sent to live there. In Warsaw, Nazis crushed 380,000
Jews which was 30% of the population into a ghetto 3% the size of
the city. By 1942, 50,000 Jews died of hunger, cold and diseases in
Warsaw, Poland

Forcing Jews into ghettos marked a change in Nazi policy. The Nazis
were now using force to remove Jews. This led to high death
rates due to facilities that are poor in hygiene, overcrowding and
famines. This reinforced Nazi propaganda of Jews being dirty.
This led to people perceiving them as sub-humans,
Untermensch and thus ignored the way they were being treated.

SS Death Squads
By invading Poland and the USSR, Nazis came into contact with
many people they considered as undesirable. The SS Death
Squad was a way to rid themselves of these people.

Between 1939 and 1941, they followed the German Army into
Poland and the USSR, systematically murdering any civilians
regarded as undesirable.

The SS Death Squad was deliberately created to murder


undesirables. In the village of Lithuania, over 50,000 Jews were
shot. By 1945, they had killed 1.5 million Jews, gypsies and
communist leaders.

51
Final Solution
The Final Solution was a plan to exterminate every Jewish
person. The Nazis decided that all Jews under German control
would be exterminated. After the invasion of USSR in 1941, 4
million Jews came under Nazi control. The Nazi leadership argued
over what to do with them. Goering argued they could be used for
slave labour. Himmler argued they were to expensive to keep and
should all be exterminated.

It started in 1942, 6 major camps were set up. They were all run by
SS leaders and in the outskirts of Germany, away from general
public. Jews were to be transported to areas of Eastern Europe
under Nazi control in carts. The sick, the weak, and the
handicapped would be sent to gas chambers to be gassed to death
whatever they owned would be Nazi possession. The fit people
would be housed in labour camps and worked to death.

They were sent to gas chambers to slowly let poisonous gas infect
their organs and die a painful death. 2000 people were packed into
the chambers. Within 30 minutes, everyone would be dead, and
their bodies would be burnt in the ovens. On average, 4000 people
were killed a day for 3 years. 400,000 Jews were exterminated in 3
months. 90% of Jews in Poland, Germany and Austria were dead.
Other prisoners would be experimented as Nazis science
programme. Most prisoners were tested without anaesthetic in
order to experiment with dried skin. This was turned into gloves,
lamp shades, or even hand bags.

The decision called the Final Solution marked the final step of
the Holocaust. Before the extermination of Jewish people was
uncoordinated and haphazard. Now the entirety of Nazi
government organised the extermination of the Jews as
ethnic cleansing.

Concentration camps
The war economy needed extra workers so concentration
camps provided an endless supply of slave labour. They also
allowed the Nazi to control the Jews more closely, and away from
general public.

The Nazi built camps as early as 1933 but at first they were camps
for political prisoners. Then, it was used to house undesirables

52
or in Hitlers words, people unworthy of life such as the
homosexuals, gypsies and disabled people. After 1939, the size and
number of the camps grew. In 1937, the Buchenwald Camp in
Germany was set up for 1,000 prisoners. By 1939, it held 10,000
and by at the end of the war, over 80,000 people. 56,000 Jews
died at Buchenwald between 1937 and 1945.

In the ghettos, Jews faced tough living conditions but were often
left alone. In camps, they were used as slave labour and many
died from overworking, starvation and mistreatment. During
the war, a deliberate policy to exterminate workers through
overworking was introduced.

Death Camps
Some existing labour camps were converted into Death Camps, but
many death camps were built from scratch. They were a way for
Nazis to implement the Final Solution.

The first death camp was built in 1942 in Poland. Camps were run
by SS officials. Prisoners arrived by train. Their belongings are
taken, then herded into gas chambers. By 1944, 90% of Jews in
Germany, Poland and Austria had been killed.

Death camps were designed purely for the extermination of


undesirables. By 1945, 6 million Jews had been exterminated
by the Nazis. The mass slaughter became known as the
Holocaust.

N. The Changing Role of Women, total war, rationing and the effects of
Allied Bombing.

i. The Changing Role of Women

There were changes in the role of women because they were


expected to be domestic figures at home then they were expected
to replace mens jobs as they went for war.

Women were not expected to work in Nazi Germany. Professional


women were sacked and forced out of work to increase job
opportunities for men. Roles of women changed as Nazi ideologies
believe that women should be domestic figures to stay at home and
look after children. Hitler wanted to prepare Germany for war in

53
1939. As a result, he needed a large amount of people as troops for
the war. The Nazis implemented policies like the Lebensborn
programme and Mothers Cross to encourage the birth rate.
Mothers were awarded medals when they had more than 8 children.
The Lebensborn programme led to a change in Germany as there
was a moral decline when women were having babies of out of
wedlock. The Nazi regime broke down the individuality of these
women and they were now perceived as baby makers.

As economy was recovering, the armed forces was growing. By


1938, there was a shortage of workers in the economy as many of
the men were conscripted into the army. As a result, Nazis realised
they had to reverse their policies on women. This changed the role
of women as a traditional housewife to a working woman. All the
women had to take the jobs left by men. By 1939, there were 1.5
million more working women than there have been in 1933. Women
were unused to this type of work as it was physically demanding. In
1943, women aged 17-45 were registered to work to gear towards
war efforts for total war. Women were unable to stay home and
teach their children Nazi ideologies and were expected to work.

In conclusion, women were encouraged to take on the traditional


role as a homemaker and then expected to work again as men
left their jobs to be conscripted into the army.

ii. Total War

Hitler ordered invasion of the USSR as he was hoping for victory. His
army became bogged down in a four-year battle for survival which
decreased troop morale. By the end of 1942, Germanys war was
going badly. 94,000 German soldiers fighting in the USSR
surrendered to the Soviet army. Terrible defeat forced Goebbels to
call for total war. Harsh reality of war was puncturing Nazi
confidence. Goebbels made the longest radio speech calling on all
Germans to show Allies that they were not defeated, they could
carry on fighting and make sacrifices for Germany. The purpose of
this was to boost morale within the Germans.

Government began preparations for total war with every part of


German society geared to the war effort such as producing arms,
growing food caring for the sick or fighting. Anything that did not
contribute to the war effort was eliminated. In March 1943,
professional sport was ended. Non essential businesses were closed

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such as sweet shops. In August 1943, manufacture of civilian
clothing was suspended. Exchange centres were opened where
people could swap furniture and clothes. June 1943, Goebbels
commissioned the film Kolberg, which told of heroic German
resistance in Napoleon in 1807 to increase morale. Working hours
increased. Women aged 17-50 were registered to work. Age limit for
compulsory labour for women was raised to 50. All non German
servants to go into armaments factories. All theatres, opera houses,
music halls and places of entertainment were closed.

iii. Rationing

In 1939-1941, rationing for difficult foods began. As a result, 2/5


Germans ate better than before the war. Extra rationing was
introduced for pregnant women, industrial workers, and the ill as
they required more nutrition. Soap and hot water was rationed as
well. November 1939, clothes were rationed and manufacture of
civilian clothing was suspended. Soap was replaced with stew pine
needles when soap was insufficient. People used tobacco as
substitute for money. From December 1941 to January 1942,
Germans produced 1.5 million tonnes of fur and 67 million woollen
garments to clothe the German army in Russia. To save fuel, railway
and postal services were reduced, and all letter boxes were closed.

Effects of Allied Bombing

Number of doctors available to treat victims were going down. In


Berlin, number of doctors available to civilian population fell from
15 doctors per 10,000 people in 1930s to 1 doctor per 15,000
people in 1941.

As air raids worsened, many Germans left the cities and were
evacuated into smaller rural villages like Northeim. As a result,
population in Northeim doubled.

In cities, air raids/allied bombing became increasingly furious.


Hamburg attack in 1943 caused a fire storm which wiped out large
areas of the city. 30,000 people died. The emergency services tried
to supply food and shelter but after three days the services
collapsed under the pressure of supplying food and water. The
government had to step in and build emergency accommodation for
air-raid victims.

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In early 1945, some of the most extreme air raids begun. In 2
nights of bombing, up to 150,000 people were killed in Dresden as
Allied bombers destroyed 70% of the properties in the city. Many of
them were refuges from the East newly arrived in the city. A raid on
the railway yard killed more than thirty thousand women and
children. By the end of the war, as many German civilians had been
killed by allied bombing as Germans soldiers died in combat.

O. The Growth of Opposition to Hitler including the Edelweiss Pirates, the


White Rose Group and the Stauffenberg Plot.
i. Edelweiss Pirates
The Edelweiss Pirates was a youth group formed by rebellious
youths who resented to join the Nazi youth groups. They found
simple ways to rebel such as girls mixing with boys, listening to
modern swing music and growing long hair. They often
daubed anti-Nazi slogans on walls and beat up members of
Hitler Youth. There were over 2,000 members of the Pirates by
1939. After the war broke out, groups like the Pirates became
more political. Some supported the Allies; helping army
deserters or distributing Allied propaganda leaflets dropped
by aeroplanes. After 1942, conditions worsened. Youngsters
became more daring and smashed factories involved in war
production and stealing guns. In 1944, Himmler ordered a
crackdown. In December 1942, the Gestapo broke up 28 groups
containing 739 adolescents. In Cologne, 13 young activists were
arrested and publicly hanged.

ii. White Rose Group


Started at University of Munich in 1941 by students Hans and
Sophie Scholl, and a teacher Kurt Huber. Their was politicised by
the atrocities they saw carried out by the German army while
serving. They believed in opposing the Nazi regime by peaceful
means. They begun by mailing leaflets, anonymously to people
all over Germany, concentrating on lecturers and owners of bars
and restaurants. The leaflets called for democracy and social
justice. In 1943, they became confident and left leaflets in
public places. On 18th February, Hans and Sophie were reported to
the Gestapo. Within two days, they were tried and executed. 80
others were soon arrested.

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iii. Military Opposition

Cause
To seize political control of Germany and its armed forces from the
Nazi Party in order to obtain peace with Western allies as soon as
possible. Underlying desire of high ranking military generals and
colonels to show to the world that not all Germans were like the
NSDAP and Hitler.

The officer class in German society had never been natural


supporters of the Nazis and disliked the paramilitary SS and SA.
While the war was successful at first, opposition subdued. As soon
as the war raged into disaster, opposition and unrests ensued. The
July Bomb Plot of 1944 was a planned assassination on Hitler
and to remove Nazi Party from power. Colonel Claus von
Stauffenberg was one of many senior officers at the War Office in
Berlin. He was a key figure of the event as he had actual contact
with Hitler on a regular basis. By 1944, he believed that Hitler was
leading Germany to an inevitable defeat. On 20th July, he took
a bomb inside a briefcase into a meeting with Hitler and placed it
under the map-table Hitler was using and blew up 12 minutes after.
Unfortunately, it did not kill the Nazi leader who was protected from
the blast from the table.

Significance
Over 5,000 generals were arrested in their suspected part of the
plot, 19 generals and 27 colonels including Stauffenberg were
executed.

P. Defeat and the Death of Hitler


i. 1944-1945, Failure and Defeat
Main reasons why the Nazis lost

Germany failed to defeat Britain in air and sea war.


The failure to defeat Britain early in the war meant that Hitler
was forced to fight a two-front war. The Battle of Britain in
July September 1940 was Hitlers attempt to invade Britain.
Georings Luftwaffe (German aircrafts) targeted British cities and
airfield in an attempt to force Britain to surrender. He failed
which meant that Britain could be used as a launch pad for the
Allies to build up their military strength against Hitler.

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Hitler decided to invade the Soviet Union
The decision to invade the Soviet Union was a massive mistake
which drew the Germans into a long, 4 year drawn-out struggle.
From June 1941, Hitler invaded the Soviet Union with a force of 3
million and by winder, had reached Moscow. However, the war
turned against Hitler after the Battle of Stalingrad ended in
February 1943. Over 90,000 German soldiers surrendered. From
this point, there was less than 65% of German army fighting
the Russians. By April 1945, the Russians had pushed the
Germans all the way back into Berlin.

Decision to declare war on the USA


The decision to declare war on USA after Pearl Harbour in
December 1941 was clearly disastrous. Once the United States
joined the Allies, the men, machines and munitions available to
the Allies far outweighed Germanys. It became a war of
attrition; Germany was worn down by a stronger enemy. By
1944, Germany was losing the war of production. The Allies
were producing ; twice as much steel, four times as much planes
and tanks, seven times many rifles and machine guns. When the
Allies invaded France on 6th June 1944, they had air
superiority of 70:1.

Hitler made poor decisions


It was Hitlers decision to invade the USSR while
Germanys economy was still weak but Russia was a huge
country with a population of over 200 million and a harsh
fighting climate. To make matters worse, Hitler interfered with
military decisions, refusing to allow the army to withdraw from
Stalingrad and not seeing the importance of war in North Africa.
He also backed the wrong scientific projects. Whilst the
Allies invested in radar, cipher machines and the atomic bomb,
Hitler invested in V1 and V2 rockets which played an
insignificant role in the war. He only considered and
concentrated political support in Berlin and placed less
priority on smaller places like Northeim which led to the people
in Northeim surrendering the town without a fight to the allies as
they opposed the Nazi regime.

Nazi philosophy
Nazi philosophies slowed down the war effort. Hitler allowed
the SS and the German Army too much control of the economy.
He started using women in the labour force a tad late.

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By July 1944, allied armies were pushing the Germans back into
the west. Refugees were pouring into Germany from the areas
being reconquered by the allies. Goebbels called for Total War
and prepared to mobilise Germany for one final effort to win the
war. He ordered the following :

In March 1943, professional sport was ended.


Non essential businesses were closed such as sweet shops.
In August 1943, manufacture of civilian clothing was suspended.
Exchange centres were opened where people could swap
furniture and clothes
June 1943, Goebbels commissioned the film Kolberg, which told
of heroic German resistance in Napoleon in 1807 to increase
morale.
Working hours increased
Women aged 17-50 were registered to work.
Age limit for compulsory labour for women was raised to 50.
All non German servants to go into armaments factories.
All theatres, opera houses, music halls and places of
entertainment were closed.

In early 1945, some of the most extreme air raids begun. In 2 nights
of bombing, up to 150,000 people were killed in Dresden as Allied
bombers destroyed 70% of the properties in the city. Many of them
were refuges from the East newly arrived in the city. A raid on the
railway yard killed more than thirty thousand women and children.
By the end of the war, as many German civilians had been killed by
allied bombing as Germans soldiers died in combat.

The Nazi administration could not cope with destruction on this


scale. By early 1945, government plans were in chaos. Ration cards
were no longer honoured. Instead people relied on the black
market or scavenge for food. Almost anything can be bought on
the black market. For example, a complete set of new identity cards
could be bought on the market for 80,000 marks.

Northeim 1945
As allied and Russian troops advanced into Germany, town after
town, they met little resistance from the local people who were
drained from the war. As the tanks approached Northeim, Mayor

59
ordered the SA militia to defend the town to death but drove
himself away to the hills to get drunk. The SA ignored is instructions
and handed over the town without a fight. Leader of socialist, Carl
Querfurt was brought in to head a new emergency council for the
town. Nazi flags were burnt. 853 Nazi books were removed from the
library and pulped. Northeim breathed a sigh of relief and its
population busily returned to the mayor and tried to prove that they
had opposed the Nazi occupation all along.

Berlin 1945
Amid the ruins of their capital city, Hitler, Goebbels and other Nazi
leaders committed suicide. The war and the Nazi regime was over,
but at an appalling cost in human lives and after years of
unimaginable suffering.

Death
Hitler committed suicide shortly before the Germans surrendered to
the allies. He committed suicide shooting himself in the head with a
gun. Germany was then surrendered to the Allies on May 7 th, 1945.
This marked the end of the famous Nazi regime.

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