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Teaching Method And Material : Suggestopedia

國四乙 童啟美
工教四 黃宏文

Suggestopedia (STP)

Overview
The learning environment of Suggestopedia is relaxed, subdued, with low lighting
and soft music playing in the background. Students choose a name and character in
the target language and imagine being that person. Students relax and listen while
dialogues are presented accompanied by music. Students later practice dialogues
during an "activation" phase.

Suggestopedia frees the reserves of mind


(deprogramming, desuggesting) constantly
keeping the active LOVE to the human being.

Ⅰ. Key Words
Suggestion、desuggestion、relaxed attention
Ⅱ. Background
1.Suggestopedia is a teaching method which is based on a modern understanding
of how the human brain works and how we learn most effectively.
2.STP was developed by the Bulgarian doctor and psychotherapist
GeorgiLozanov.
3.The term “Suggestopedia”, derived from suggestion and pedagogy, is often
used loosely to refer to similar accelerated learning approaches.
4.Suggestopedia is based on the psychiatric report of the effect of
unconsciousness on people, yoga, and Soviet psychology.
5.Georgi Lozanov introduced the contention that students naturally set up
psychological barriers to learning - based on fears that they will be unable to
perform and are limited in terms of their ability to learn. Lazanov's method of
Suggestopedia seeks to help learners eliminate psychological barriers to learning.

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Teaching Method And Material : Suggestopedia
國四乙 童啟美
工教四 黃宏文

Ⅲ. Approach
1. Theory of language
(1) The emphasis on memorization of vocabulary pairs – a target language
item and its native language translation – suggests a view of language in
which lexis is central and in which lexical translation rather than
contextualization is stressed.
(2) Lozanov does occasionally refer to the importance of experiencing language
material in “whole meaningful texts” and notes that the suggestopedic
course directs “the student not to vocabulary memorization and acquiring
habits of speech, but to acts of communication.
(3) Lozanov recommends home study of recordings of “whole meaningful texts
(not of a fragmentary nature)” that are, “above all, interesting.” These are
listened to “for the sake of the music of the foreign speech”.
2. Theory of learning
(1) Suggestion is at the heart of Suggestopedia. Lozanov claims that what
distinguished his method from hypnosis and other forms of mind control is
that these other forms lack “a desuggestive-suggestive sense” and “fail to
create a constant set up to reserves through concentrative psycho-
relaxation”. ( We interpret reserves as being something like human
memory banks. De-suggestion seems to involve unloading the memory banks,
or reserves, of unwanted or blocking memories. Suggestion, then involves
loading the memory banks with desired and facilitating memories.)
(2) Suggestion V.S. Dessuggestion:
There are six principal theoretical components through which
desuggestion and Suggestion operate and that set up access to reserves.
(a) Authority
 Lozanov believe that scientific-sounding language, highly positive
experimental data, and true-believer teachers constitute a ritual placebo
system that is authoritatively appealing to most learners.
(b) Infantilization
 Authority is also used to suggest a teacher-student relation like that of
parent to child.
 In the child’s role the learner takes part in role playing, games, songs, and
gymnastic exercise that help “ the older student regain the self-
confidence, spontaneity and receptivity of the child”.

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Teaching Method And Material : Suggestopedia
國四乙 童啟美
工教四 黃宏文

(c) Double-planedness
 The learner learns not only from the effect of direct instruction but from the
environment in which the instruction take place.
 The bright décor of the classroom, the musical background, the shape of the
chairs, and the personality of the teacher are considered as important
in instruction as the from of the instructional material itself.
(d) Intonation, rhythm and concert pseudo-passiveness
 Varying the tone and rhythm of presented material helps both to avoid
boredom through monotony of repetition and to dramatize,
emotionalize, and give meaning to linguistic material.
 Both intonation and rhythm are coordinated with a musical background.
The musical background helps to induce a relaxed attitude, which
Lozanov refers to as concert pseudo-passiveness.
 Lozanov recommends a series of slow movements in 4/4 time for Baroque
concertos. He notes that in such concerts “the body relaxed, the mind
became alert”.
Ⅳ. Design
1.Objectives
(1) The prime objective of Suggestopedia is to tap into more of students' mental
potential to learn, in order to accelerate the process by which they learn to
understand and use the target language for communication.
(2) The main aim of teaching is not memorization, but the understanding and
creative solution of problems.
(3) Four factors considered essential in this process were the provision of a
relaxed and comfortable learning environment, the use of soft Baroque
music to help increase alpha brain waves and decrease blood pressure and
heart rate, “desuggestion” in terms of the psychological barriers learners
place on their own learning potential, and "suggestibility" through the
encouragement of learners assuming "child-like" and/or new roles and
names in the target language.
2.The syllabus
(1) The central focus of each unit is a dialogue consisting of 1,200 words or so,
with an accompanying vocabulary list and grammatical commentary. The
dialogues are graded by lexis and grammar.

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Teaching Method And Material : Suggestopedia
國四乙 童啟美
工教四 黃宏文

(2) Unit study is organized around three days:


Day 1: (half a day) The teacher discusses the general content (not structure)
of the unit dialogue.
Day 2: (full day) Day 2 are spent in primary elaboration of the text. Primary
elaboration consists of imitation, question and answer, reading, and
so on.
Day 3: (half a day) Day 3 are spent in secondary elaboration of the text. The
secondary elaboration involves encouraging students to make new
combinations and productions based on the dialogues.
(3) Students are given a new name in the second language and a new biography
in the second culture with which they are to operate for the duration of the
course.
(4) In the middle of the course students are encouraged to practice the target
language in a setting where it might be used, such as hotels or restaurants.
(5) The last day of the course is devoted to a performance in which every
student participates. The students construct a play built on the material of
the course. Students are expected to speak ex tempore from memorized
lines.
(6) Written tests are also given throughout the course, and these and the
performance are reviewed on the final day of the course.
3. Types of learning and teaching activities
(1) The type of activities that are more original to Suggestopedia are the
listening activities, which concern the text and text vocabulary of each unit.
(2) These activities are typically part of the “pre-session phase,” which takes
place on the first day of a new unit. The students first look at and discuss a
new text with the teacher. In the second reading, students relax comfortably
in reclining chairs and listen to the teacher read the text in a certain way.
During the third reading the material is acted out by the instructor in a
dramatic manner over a background of the special musical form described
preciously.
(3) During this phase students lean back in their chairs and breathe deeply and
regularly as instructed by the teacher.
4. Learner roles
(1) Students volunteer for a suggestopedic course. They are expected to be
committed to the class and its activities.
(2) Smoking and drinking are prohibited or discouraged in class and around the
school during the course.

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Teaching Method And Material : Suggestopedia
國四乙 童啟美
工教四 黃宏文

(3) Learners must not try to figure out, manipulate, or study the material
presented but must maintain a pseudo-passive state, in which the material
rolls over and through them.
(4) To assist them in the role plays and to help them detach themselves from
their past learning experiences, students are given a new name and personal
history within the target culture.
(5) Group of learners are ideally socially homogeneous, twelve in number, and
divided equally between men and women. Learners sit in a circle, which
encourages face-to-face exchange and activity participation.
5. Teacher roles
(1) The primary role of the teacher is to create situations in which the learner is
most suggestible and then to present linguistic material in a way most likely
to encourage positive reception and retention by the learner.
(2) Lozanov lists several expected teacher behaviors that contribute to these
presentations.
(a) Show absolute confidence in the method
(b) Display fastidious conduct in manners and dress.
(c) Organize properly and strictly observe the initial stages of the teaching
process - this includes choice and play of music, as well as punctuality.
(d) Maintain a solemn attitude towards the session.
(e) Give tests and respond tactfully to poor papers (if any).
(f) Stress global rather than analytical attitudes towards material.
(g) Maintain a modest enthusiasm.
(3) Teachers are expected to be skilled in acting, singing, and psychotherapeutic
techniques.
6. The role of instructional materials
(1) Materials consist of direct support materials, primarily text and tape, and
indirect support materials, including classroom fixtures and music.
(2) The textbook should have emotional force, literary quality, and interesting
characters.
(3) The environment comprises the appearance of the classroom (bright and
cherry), the furniture (reclining chairs arranged in a circle), and the music
(Baroque largo).

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Teaching Method And Material : Suggestopedia
國四乙 童啟美
工教四 黃宏文

Ⅴ. Procedure
The suggestopedic lesson is divided into four parts. Each part requires different
skills on the part of the teacher, but, throughout the course, you as a
suggestopedic teacher appear to be the director of a group of actors rather than a
lecturer.
1. Review section
Previously learned material is used as the basis for discussion by the teacher and
students in the class.
2. The class new material is presented and discussed
This consists of looking over a new dialogue and its native language translation.
This section is typically conducted in the target language.
3. Concert session
The background is divided into two “concert.” The first one is “active concert.”
Teachers do a slow, dramatic reading of the dialogue synchronized in
intonation with classical music. The second part is “passive concert.” Students
listen to the dialogue again and close their eyes. Teachers read it with general
intonation and speed, which is accompanied by Baroque music. This two parts
can let students learn the new material unconsciously.
4. Activation phase
Students engage in various activities designed to help them learn the material and
use it more spontaneously. If they need the explanation, teachers will provide it
with native language.
Ⅵ. The characteristics of Suggestopedia
Stimulates the whole person
Undoes blocks
Goes rapidly forward
Gives creative solutions
Encourages relaxation
Strengthens self-image
Talks to all the senses
Optimizes learing
Propagates talent
Enhances learning
Dramatizes material
Includes pictures, music and movement
Addresses the whole person
Ⅶ. Content
Goal Desuggest the psychological barriers to learn everyday

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Teaching Method And Material : Suggestopedia
國四乙 童啟美
工教四 黃宏文
communication.
Role of Teacher Authority
Role of Student Trust and respect teachers → feel more secure →
spontaneous and less inhibited
Characteristic Present dialogue with music melody.
Comfortable
Select target language’s name (new identity)
Colorful posters on the wall(including grammar posters)
Interaction Teacher initiated
Language skill Vocabulary
Grammar (deductively)
Role of Translation of dialogue
native language
Culture view Everyday dialogue
Evaluation None
Errors Corrected gently

Ⅷ. Comprehension Check
 Truth / False

T / F 1. The role of music is central in suggestopedic learning.


T / F 2. The students assume roles of complete authority and control in the
classroom.
T / F 3. The teachers need not only to know the techniques and theoretical
information but also to understand the theory and to acquire the practical
methodology completely.
T / F 4. The students spontaneously speak and interact in the target language
without interruption or correction.

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Teaching Method And Material : Suggestopedia
國四乙 童啟美
工教四 黃宏文

T / F 5. The teacher should love his/her students (of course, not sentimentally but
as human beings) and teach them with personal participation through
games, songs, a classical type of arts and pleasure.
T / F 6. Homework is limited to students re-reading the dialog they are studying –
once before they go to sleep at night and once in the morning before they
get up.
T / F 7. Suggestopedia is a teaching method which is based on a modern
understanding of how the human brain works and how we learn most
effectively.

 Cloze test
1. Infantalization which is designed to help students to recapture the kind of learning
capacities they had as children.
2. The term “Suggestopedia”, derived from suggestion and pedagogy..
3. The type of activities that are more original to Suggestopedia are the listening
activities, which concern the text and text vocabulary of each unit.

Ⅸ. References
1.廖曉菁 (民 96)。英語教學法。臺北市:心理。
2. Jack C. Richards and Theodore S. Rodgers (2000). Approaches and methods
in Language teaching. Beijing: Foreign Language and Research Press.
3. http://en.tp.edu.tw/teachmethod/suggestopedia.htm
4. http://ivc.uidaho.edu/flbrain/learning.htm
5. http://stmail.fju.edu.tw/~b8720164/stp.htm
6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suggestopedia
7. http://www.englishraven.com/method_suggest.html#anchor_2932
8. http://www.jwelford.demon.co.uk/brainwaremap/suggest.html
9. http://www.etprofessional.com/content/view/528/5/

Learning is a matter of attitude, not aptitude.


- by Georgi Lozanov

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