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15 bits/sec /Hz Digital modul ation 3G : 0. WCDMA. It solves the non-standardization problems associated with 3G. time information educational internet crisis technologies web. The present 3G networks need not to be discarded.30bi ts/sec/ Hz CDM A. EDGE. development. cost of and communication. GSM and TDMA. In India it can be used to network rural and urban activities. reduce flourish faster systems. which is 10 to 50 times than 3G and 10-20 times faster than ADSL. Operating frequency range will be 3 to 10 GHz and the IPv6 protocol will be used. areas. uses bandwidth much more efficiently. more cellular options.15 bits/sec/H z Adaptive modulati on MIMO Adaptive Modulati on OFDMA MCCDMA 2 . Introduction The take fourth-generation the wireless wireless (4G) technology implements designs that will telecommunication industry beyond 2010. 4G is a packet switched technology. Data transfer rate will be 20 to 100 Mbps. 1G : Anal og mod ulati on 2G : 0. allowing each user's packets to compete for available bandwidth. fundamentals of 4G and their various facilitate research connectivity. In this paper. GPRS etc.Abstract The wireless Third-Generation offer (3G) wireless proposed architectures are explained. There are various architectures proposed that can be used to deploy 4G. The infrastructure of the 4G will function on top of the current existing CDMA. SMS. Tele-medicines and many more. It extends the 3G capabilities These technical opportunities strengthen the user mobility and encourage the deployment of the mobile technologies for the development of various (mobile) applications providing information. and can be used in conjunction with 4G technology. real management. wider band width 2G : 0. Turbo coding . orientation (routing) and other helpful services. MMS. 4G Wireless Networks 1.
Internet-based multi-channel video and higher mobile Internet will become a reality.1 End-to-End Internet Protocol (IP):. 3. and more reliable wireless access even with the failure or loss of one or more networks. High-definition television programming through wireless broadband connections. combining multiple radio access interfaces (such as WLAN. Need of 4G: • 3G performances insufficient to meet needs. elimination of a single node does not disable the network.• Fig1. every device is both a transceiver and a router/repeater for other devices in the network. 4G can be 3 portability required. in addition to voice. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in the US originally conceived of 4G. INCREMENTAL PROGRESS OF WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY Need for hybrid networks for both WLAN and cellular network design. 3. Characteristics 3. The operating frequency ranges between 3 to 10 GHz and the IPV6 protocol used will be used. voice and data • • It will deliver superior quality video and data. Technology to utilize newly found modulation methods. The data transfer rate is 20 to 100 Mbps. It also solves the non-standardization problems associated with 3G networks for voice. Bluetooth and GPRS) into a single network that subscribers may use. • Multiple Global incompatible mobility and standards. Users will have access to different services. which will be 10 to 50 times those offered by 3G links and 10-20 times faster than standard ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) services. increased coverage. service high performance future • Wider bandwidth. using the best connection available for the intended use. and seamless the bestroaming/handover connected service. It will provide access through a collection of radio interfaces. . one bill with reduced total access cost. 2. video and data transmission. the convenience of a single device. Need for All IP network with converged capability.2 Peer-to-Peer networks: In this system. It allows any mobile device to seamlessly roam over different wireless technologies automatically.
additional routes are created. x-rays) could and provide establish a videoconference so that a remotely-based "on-scene" In dynamically accommodate changing user patterns. As number of users increases. 5. Another more radical access scheme for the downlink. coverage Network capacity shifted MIMO techniques : The benefit of array or multiple antennas for spatial diversity has long been realized. is a single queue packet based system 6. With 4G networks it can be set up in a matter of hours. Wireless access technologies: OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency – Division Multiple Access ) and MC-CDMA (Multiple Carrier CDMA) are the main contender for the future system. it may take days or even 4 . the service improves for all users. Features of 4G High speed: traveling. surgeon assistance. Next-generation multimedia support: fast speed and large volume data transmission at a lower cost than today. restoring communications quickly is essential. Significance of 4G In 4G networks." 4. Yet only recently were they combined with advanced coding techniques to from extremely efficient MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) systems. High network capacity: Should be at least 10 times that of 3G systems. Fast/seamless handover across multiple networks: 4G wireless networks should support global roaming across multiple wireless and mobile networks.. Users will automatically hop away from congested routes to less congested routes. This permits the network to dynamically and automatically balance capacity and increase network utilization.defined as "wireless ad hoc peer-to-peer networking. Future applications Sensors on public vehicles Cameras in traffic lights Tele-medicine: a paramedic assisting a victim of a traffic accident in a remote location could access medical records (e. 100 Mbps in stationary mode with an average of 20 Mbps when Crisis-management applications: case of any natural disasters where the entire communications infrastructure has collapsed. Wherever the concentration of people is more in one area. thus enabling additional access to network capacity. yet better in terms of throughput.g. In comparison. users joining the network add mobile is routers to the network and to infrastructure.
most without The of device the itself wireless can incorporates complexity working additional requiring Each network modification or employing interdevices. and user preferences.1 Multimode devices (Fig2): A single physical terminal with multiple interfaces to access services on different wireless networks. architecture may improve call completion and expand effective coverage area. device capabilities. The handling issues question. link. network conditions. The multimode device should also provide reliable wireless coverage in case of network. 7. Possible Architectures on 4G One of the most challenging problems facing deployment of 4G technology is how to access several different mobile and wireless networks. It 7. an overlay network.weeks to re-establish communications capabilities when a wire line network fails. or switch failure. or a common access protocol. of quality-of-service an open (QoS) research remains DB DB INTERNET Satellite network Wireless LAN Fixed Wireless LAN DB Cellular networks DB 5 . Three possible architectures: using a multi-mode device. network deploy a database that keeps track of user location.
performs handoffs as the user moves from one UAP to another. Satellite network Fixed wireless network.Fig 2. capabilities. or network initiate handoff between networks without the need for network modification or interworking devices. a user accesses an overlay network consisting of several universal access points. 6 . These UAPs in turn select a wireless network based on availability. The overlay network. this architecture supports single billing and subscription. rather than the user or device. and device information—performs a handoff as the user moves from one UAP to another.2 Overlay mode (Fig 3) : In this architecture. Because UAPs can keep track of the various resources a caller uses. and user-defined choices. A UAP performs and frequency translation. network. An overlay network—consisting of several universal access points (UAPs) that store user. and preferences. and device information. negotiation-renegotiation on behalf of Satellite network Wireless LAN Fixed Wireless LAN INTERNE T Cellular networks Fig 3. users. 7. and QoS adaptation. network. protocol content QoS specifications. A UAP stores user. device. A multimode device lets the user.
which will require interworking between different networks. every network must allow transmission of ATM cells with additional headers or wireless ATM cells requiring changes in the wireless networks. Wireless LAN Cellular network DB DB INTERNET Satellite network Wireless LAN Tunable adapter DB Fixed Wireless LAN Cellular networks DB Fig 4. One or more types of satellite-based networks might use one protocol while one or more terrestrial wireless networks use another protocol.wireless 7. One possible solution. A device capable of automatically switching between networks is possible if wireless networks can support a common protocol to access a satellite-based network and another protocol for terrestrial networks.3 Common access protocol (Fig4): This protocol becomes viable if wireless networks can support one or two standard access protocols. To implement wireless ATM. 7 . uses wireless asynchronous transfer mode.
7.4 The proposed Architecture for 4G: Television satellite Telescopic/ educational satellite INTERNET 4G DB RAILWAYS 4 G C O N N E C T I V I T Y GOVERNMENT DB UNIVERSITIES AIRWAYS DB O P T I C FI B R E SHARE MARKET DB DB BANKING DB 4G subscriber Mobile Users 4G User s Cellular network Fixed wireless LAN wireless LAN 8 .
browse through to the internet at a very high speed connectivity. stay connected with their professors and many more things at a very reduced cost. Several networks can be converged with the 4G networks providing all kinds of services to the users. Security will be a major issue when several networks will be connected together. it seems that technological advances are being made on a daily basis. A legal subscriber can view various television networks in his/her handset. it is important for industry to develop a strong 3G 9 . optical cables can also contribute to the data 8. In the meantime. At times. reality. It holds a lot of promises in solving today’s problems and tomorrows needs. Different organizations can stay connected with each other and their customers. 4G will also make worldwide roaming using a single handheld device. Repeaters will give mobile Internet at a speed of 20mbps. reserve train or air tickets from any part of the country. These advances will make high-speed data/voice-overnetworks a Internet-protocol (VoIP) transmissions. Fig 5 shows the real scenario of how 4G can really mingle with the present technology and scale upward to give more bandwidth and lower the cost.Legends used in the diagram: Bi-directional block arrow Antenna Cylinder Rectangle Wireless Link Repeater Local Database Organization Fig 5. 4G networks may eventually deliver on all the promises. Conclusion 4G is the next upcoming wireless technology. send e-mails remotely.
Email: valaee@comm. rather than later that 9. By : Lucant technologies. If all goes according to what the industry envisions. Canada. Toronto. Equally as important. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering . it may be sooner.offering that is palatable for the general public. This evolution will give the general public as well as the public safety community amazing functionality from the convenience of a single handheld device. References: • • • we will see wireless communications evolve. industry must ensure that expectations are realistic and that services meet and exceed those expectations. [bayarou| rohr]@sit. bell labs innovations Fraunhofer Institute for Secure Telecooperation (SIT) August 02.University of Toronto.fraunhofer.utoronto.ca 10 .de Information Raining for Mobile Hotspots in 4G Wireless Networks : Shahrokh Valaee . International forums on 4G mobile. Ontario.
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