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Structure of electric power system Current scenario Complex power Concepts of real

and

reactive power Per phase analysis Modeling of generator, transformer with off-nominal

tap

ratio, transmission line Per unit system One-line, Impedance and reactance diagrams

Change

of base Primitive network and network matrices Y-bus formulation by direct inspection

and

singular transformation methods.

System model The power flow equations (PFE) System variables PFE in real form

Basic

problems, modified specification Bus classification Solution technique Gauss-seidel

method

Newton-raphson method Fast-decoupled method Comparison of solution techniques.

Internal voltages of loaded machines under fault conditions Balanced three phase fault

Fault

calculations using bus impedance matrix Algorithm for formation of the impedance matrix

ANALYSIS

Symmetrical component analysis of unsymmetrical faults LG LL LLG faults Open

conductor faults Unbalanced fault analysis using bus impedance matrix.

Rotor dynamics and swing equation Stability classification Small signal stability Large

signal

stability Equal area criterion and solution of SMIB system problems Solution of swing

equation Point-by-point method, R-K method and modified euler method Techniques for

stability improvement.

L: 45 T: 15 Total: 60

TEXT BOOKS

1. Grainger, J.J. and William D. Stevenson Jr., Power System Analysis, Tata McGraw Hill,

2005.

2. Gupta, B.R., Power System Analysis and Design S.Chand and Co., Ltd, 2005.

REFERENCES

1. Gupta, J.B., A Course in Electrical Power, S.K.Kataria and Sons, 2002.

UNIT I

Concepts of real and

reactive power Per phase analysis Modeling of generator, transformer with

off-nominal tap

ratio, transmission line Per unit system One-line, Impedance and reactance

diagrams Change

of base Primitive network and network matrices Y-bus formulation by direct

inspection and

singular transformation methods.

Power system

The evaluation of power system is called as power system analysis

To monitor the voltage at various buses, real and reactive power flow

between buses.

To design the circuit breakers.

To plan future expansion of the existing system

To analyze the system under different fault conditions

To study the ability of the system for small and large disturbances

(Stability studies)

Components of power system

The components of power system are Generators, Power transformers,

Transmission lines, Distribution lines, Loads and compensating devices like shunt,

series, and static VAR compensator.

A modern power system can be subdivided into four major parts: Generation,

Transmission and Sub transmission, Distribution and Loads.

A balanced three phase system is always analyses on per phase basis by

considering one of the three phase lines and neutral.

A large system whose voltage and frequency remain constant, independent of

the power exchange between synchronous machine and bus, and independent of the

excitation of the synchronous machine.

which the components are represented by their symbols and interconnection between

them are shown by a straight line9eventhough the system is three phase system0.The

ratings and the impedances of the components are also marked on the single line

diagram.

The purpose of the single line diagram is to supply in concise form of the

significant information about the system.

The impedance diagram is the equivalent circuit of power system in which the

various components of power system are represented by their approximate or

simplified equivalent circuits. The impedance diagram is used for load flow studies.

Approximation:

(i) The neutral reactances are neglected.

(ii) The shunt branches in equivalent circuit of transformers are neglected.

The reactance diagram is the simplified equivalent circuit of power system in

which the various components of power system are represented by their reactances.

The reactance diagram can be obtained from impedance diagram if all the resistive

components are neglected. The reactance diagram is used for fault calculations.

Approximation:

(i) The neutral reactances are neglected.

(ii) The shunt branches in equivalent circuit of transformers are neglected.

(iii) The resistances are neglected.

(iv) All static loads are neglected.

(v) The capacitance of transmission lines are neglected.

The per unit value of any quantity is defined as the ratio of the actual value of

the any quantity to the base value of the same quantity as a decimal.

ii. Circuit analysis of systems containing transformers of various transformation

ratios is greatly simplified.

iii. The p.u systems are ideal for the computerized analysis and simulation of

complex power system problems.

iv. Manufacturers usually specify the impedance values of equivalent in per unit

of the equipments rating. If the any data is not available, it is easier to assume

its per unit value than its numerical value.

v. The ohmic values of impedances are refereed to secondary is different from

the value as referee to primary. However, if base values are selected properly,

the p.u impedance is the same on the two sides of the transformer.

vi. The circuit laws are valid in p.u systems, and the power and voltages

equations are simplified since the factors of 3 and 3 are eliminated.

vii.

Need for base values

voltage and power levels. It will be convenient for analysis of power system if the

voltage, power, current and impedance rating of components of power system are

expressed with reference to a common value called base value.

A generator rated at 30MVA, 11KV has a reactance of 20%.Calculate its per unit

reactance for a base of 50 MVA and 10KV.

MVA new = 50 ; KV new = 10 ; MVA old = 30 ; KV old = 11

X p.u = 20% = 20/100 = 0.2 p.u

New p.u impedance if the new base MVA is twice the old base MVA

Draw the per unit reactance diagram for the power systems shown below. Neglect

resistance and use a base of 100MVA, 220KV in 50 ohms line. The ratings of the

generator, motor and transformers are

T1 T2

j 50

G1 M

M: 50MVA, 11KV, X = 30%

T1: 40MVA, 33 Y/ 220Y KV, X = 15%

T2: 30MVA, 11 / 220Y KV, X = 15%

Load: 11KV, 50MW+j68 MVAR

Solution:

Base MVA, MVAb, new = 100MVA

Base KV, KVb, new = 220KV

Reactance of the transmission line:

;

; =?

= 33 KV

;

; = 33

;

; =?

= 11 KV

;

; = 11

Reactance Diagram

j 0.287 j 0.6

Eg Em

1. Draw the reactance diagram using a base of 50MVA and 13.8KV on generatorG1

T1 T3

Line 1 Line 2

G1 G3

j80 j100

T2

G2

G1: 20MVA, 13.8KV, X=20% ; G2: 30MVA, 18.0KV, X=20%

G3: 30MVA, 20.0KV, X=20% ; T1: 25MVA, 220/13.8 KV, X =10%

T2:3Single phase unit each rated 10MVA, 127/18 KV, X =10%

T3: 35MVA, 220/22 KV, X =10%

Solution:

Base MVA, MVAb, new = 50MVA

Base KV, KVb, new = 13.8KV

Reactance of the Generator G1:

;

; = 13.8

;

; = 13.8

= 220 KV

= 220 KV

;

; =220?

;

; =?

= 18KV

;

; = 220

;

; =?

= 22KV

Reactance Diagram

j 0.2 j 0.0826 j 0.1033 j 0.1667

A simple power system is shown in fig. Redraw this system where the per unit impedance

of the components are represented on a common 5000 VA base and common system base

voltage of 250V.

1000VA T1 T2 2500VA

250V G1 400V

Z = j0.2 p.u

Z=40 + j 150

Load

G2

250V 250/800V 1000/500V

Z = j0.3 p.u Z = j0.2 p.u Z = j0.06 p.u

Solution:

Base MVA, MVAb, new = 5000 VA = 5MVA

Base KV, KVb, new = 250V = 0.25KV

Impedance of the Generator G1:

;

; = 0.25

;

; = 0.25

;

; = 0.25

= 800 V

;

; = 0.8

Reactance Diagram

j 1.0

j 0.25 0.3125 + j 1.17 j 0.0585 j0.5

Load

j 0.75

2. The single line diagram of a three phase power system is shown in fig. Select a

common base of 100MVA and 13.8KV on the generator side. Draw per unit

impedance diagram

T1 T2

j 50 2

G M

T3 T4

j70 4

Solution:

Base MVA, MVAb, new = 100MVA

Base KV, KVb, new = 13.8KV

Reactance of the Generator G1:

;

; = 13.8

;

; = 13.8

= 220 KV

;

; = 220

;

; = 13.8

= 132KV

;

; = 132

;

; =?

= 11KV

The load is at 0.8 p.f lagging is given by

Reactance Diagram

Part-A

2. What is power system analysis?

3. What are the functions of power system analysis?

4. What are the components of power system?

5. What is modern power system?

6. Define per phase analysis.

all components of power system? -

8. What is an infinite bus bar?.

9. What is single line diagram?

10. What is the purpose of using single line diagram?

impedance diagram?

12. What is reactance diagram? What are the approximations made in

reactance diagram?

Part-B

1. Explain the modeling of generator, load, transmission line and transformer for power

flow, short circuit and stability studies.

3. Draw the per unit reactance diagram for the power systems shown below. Neglect

resistance and use a base of 100MVA, 220KV in 50 ohms line. The ratings of the

generator, motor and transformers are Draw the reactance diagram using a base of

50MVA and 13.8KV on generatorG1

T1 T3

Line 1 Line 2

G1 G3

j80 j100

T2

G2

G1: 20MVA, 13.8KV, X=20% ; G2: 30MVA, 18.0KV, X=20%

G3: 30MVA, 20.0KV, X=20% ; T1: 25MVA, 220/13.8 KV, X =10%

T2:3Single phase unit each rated 10MVA, 127/18 KV, X =10%

T3: 35MVA, 220/22 KV, X =10%

4. A simple power system is shown in fig. Redraw this system where the per unit

impedance of the components are represented on a common 5000 VA base and

common system base voltage of 250V.

1000VA T1 T2 2500VA

250V G1 400V

Z = j0.2 p.u

Z=40 + j 150

Load

G2

250V 250/800V 1000/500V

Z = j0.3 p.u Z = j0.2 p.u Z = j0.06 p.u

1. The single line diagram of a three phase power system is shown in fig. Select a

common base of 100MVA and 13.8KV on the generator side. Draw per unit

impedance diagram

T1 T2

j 50 2

G M

T3 T4

j70 4

LOAD : 57MVA, 0.8 p.f lagging at 10.45 KV ; Line 1 = j 50 ; Line 2 = j 70

UNIT-II

System model The power flow equations (PFE) System variables PFE in real form

Basic

problems, modified specification Bus classification Solution technique Gauss-seidel

method

Newton-raphson method Fast-decoupled method Comparison of solution techniques.

Bus

The meeting point of various components in a power system is called a bus.

The bus is a conductor made of copper or aluminium having negligible resistance .At

some of the buses power is being injected into the network, whereas at other buses it

is being tapped by the system loads.

The matrix consisting of the self and mutual admittance of the network of the

power system is called bus admittance matrix (Ybus).

Singular transformation method.(Primitive network)

to as load flow study. The solution provides the voltages at various buses, power

flowing in various lines and line losses.

The information obtained from a load flow study is magnitude and phase angle

of voltages, real and reactive power flowing in each line and the line losses. The load

flow solution also gives the initial conditions of the system when the transient

behavior of the system is to be studied.

Need for load flow study

The load flow study of a power system is essential to decide the best operation

of existing system and for planning the future expansion of the system. It is also

essential foe designing a new power system.

Each bus in a power system is associated with four quantities and they are real

power (P), reactive power (Q), magnitude of voltage (V), and phase angle of

voltage ().

Different types of buses in a power system, buses are classified and its types

specified quantities to be

quantities determined.

bus

PV bus

Load or PQ bus P, Q V,

The slack bus is needed to account for transmission line losses. In a power

system the total power generated will be equal to sum of power consumed by loads

and losses. In a power system only the generated power and load power are specified

for buses. The slack bus is assumed to generate the power required for losses. Since

the losses are unknown the real and reactive power are not specified for slack bus.

The load flow equations are non linear algebraic equations and so explicit

solution as not possible. The solution of non linear equations can be obtained only by

iterative numerical techniques.

The Gauss seidal method, Newton Raphson method and Fast decouple

methods.

In iterative method of load flow solution, the initial voltages of all buses

except slack bus assumed as 1+j0 p.u. This is refereed to as flat voltage start

increase the rate of convergence. Best value of A.F=1.6

Generator buses are treated as load bus

If the reactive power constraints of a generator bus violates the specified limits

then the generator is treated as load bus.

The memory requirement is less. Useful for small systems; Disadvantages:

Requires large no. of iterations to reach converge .Not suitable for large systems.

Convergence time increases with size of the system

Advantages: Faster, more reliable and results are accurate, require less

number of iterations; Disadvantages: Program is more complex, memory is more

complex.

Compare the Gauss seidel and Newton raphson methods of load flow study

iterations to reach of iterations to reach iterations than N.R method.

convergence. convergence.

2 Computation time per Computation time per Computation time per iteration

iteration is less iteration is more is less

characteristics convergence ------

characteristics

required for convergence iterations are does not dependent of the size

increases with size of the independent of the of the system

system size of the system

requirements. requirements. than N.R.method.

Y matrix of the sample power system as shown in fig. Data for this system is given in

table.

Find out the Y matrix of the sample power system network diagram as shown in fig.

Consider the system shown in fig. It shows a transmission network with impedance of

transmission lines all in p.u as shown. Compute Ybus matrix.

1 0.02+j0.04 2

0.01+j0.03 0.0125+j0.025

3

y12 = 10 - j 20

y13 = 10 - j 30

y32 = 16 - j 32

Ybus =

The following is the system data for a load flow solution. Determine the voltages at

the end of first iteration using Gauss-Seidel method. Take =1.6 .

The line admittances:

1-2 2-j8.0

1-3 1-j4.0

2-3 0.666-j2.664

2-4 1-j4.0

3-4 2-j8.0

1 - - 1.06 Slack

Solution

= 1.01187-j0.02888

Fig shows that the one line diagram of a simple three bus system with generation at

bus 1.The magnitude of voltage at a bus 1 is adjusted to 1.05 p.u. The scheduled loads

at buses2 and 3 are as marked on the diagram. Line impedances are marked in n p.u

on a 100MVA base and the line charging susceptances are neglected.

a. Using the Gauss-Seidel method, determine the phasor values of the

voltages at the load buses 2 and 3(P-Q buses) accurate to decimal places.

b. Find the slack bus real and reactive power.

c. Determine the line flows and line losses. Construct a power flow diagram

showing the direction of line flow.

1 0.02+j0.04 2

256.6MW

0.01+j0.03 0.0125+j0.025

Slack bus

110.2MVAR

V1=1.05/_0

3

138.6 45.2

MW MVAR

Newton raphson seidel load flow problem.

Fast decoupled load flow problem.

Part-A

1. What is a bus?

2. What is bus admittance matrix?

3. What are the methods available for forming bus admittance matrix?

4. What is power flow study or load flow study?

.

5. What are the informations that are obtained from a load flow study?

6. What is the need for load flow study?

.

7. What are the quantities associated with each bus in a system?

8. What are the different types of buses in a power system? Or how the buses are

classified and what are its types?

9. What is the need for slack bus?

10. Why do we go for iterative methods to solve load flow problems?

11. What are the methods mainly used for solution of load flow study?

12. What do you mean by a flat voltage start?

13. Discuss the effect of acceleration factor in load flow study.

14. When the generator buses are treated as load bus.

Part-B

1. Find out the Y matrix of the sample power system as shown in fig. Data for this

system is given in table.

1. 2. Find out the Y matrix of the sample power system network diagram as shown in

fig.

3. Consider the system shown in fig. It shows a transmission network with impedance

of transmission lines all in p.u as shown. Compute Ybus matrix.

1 0.02+j0.04 2

0.01+j0.03 0.0125+j0.025

3

UNIT-III

Internal voltages of loaded machines under fault conditions Balanced three phase fault

Fault

calculations using bus impedance matrix Algorithm for formation of the impedance matrix

Fault

A fault in a circuit is any failure which interferes with the normal flow of

current. The faults are associated with abnormal change in current, voltage and

frequency of the power system.

Insulation failure of equipment

Flashover of lines initiated by a lighting stroke

Due to permanent damage to conductors and towers or due to

accidental faulty operations.

One open conductor fault

Two open conductor fault

(ii) Shunt fault or short circuit fault.

Symmetrical fault or balanced fault

Three phase fault

Unsymmetrical fault or unbalanced fault

Line to ground (L-G) fault

Line to Line (L-L) fault

Double line to ground (L-L-G) fault

occurrence of faults

This type of fault is defined as the simultaneous short circuit across all the

three phases. It occurs infrequently, but it is the most severe type of fault encountered.

Because the network is balanced, it is solved by per phase basis using Thevenins

theorem or bus impedance matrix or KVL, KCL laws.

Short circuit studies are essential in order to design or develop the protective

schemes for various parts of the system .To estimate the magnitude of fault current for

the proper choice of circuit breaker and protective relays.

A Fault represents a structural network change equivalent with that caused by

the addition of impedance at the place of a fault. If the fault impedance is zero, the

fault is referred as bolted fault or solid fault.

The faults or short circuits are associated with sudden change in currents.

Most of the components of the power system have inductive property which opposes

any sudden change in currents, so the faults are associated with transients.

Doubling effect

If a symmetrical fault occurs when the voltage wave is going through zero

then the maximum momentary short circuit current will be double the value of

maximum symmetrical short circuit current. This effect is called doubling effect.

set current.

The synchronous reactance is the ratio of induced emf and the steady state rms

current. It is the sum of leakage reactance (Xl) and the armature reactance (Xa).

Fault

The synchronous reactance is the ratio of induced emf on no load and the sub

transient symmetrical rms current.

Fault

Transient reactance

The synchronous reactance is the ratio of induced emf on no load and the transient

symmetrical rms current.

Fault

Short circuit capacity (SCC) or Short circuit MVA or fault level at a bus is defined

as the product of the magnitude of the prefault bus voltage and the post fault current.

SCC or Short circuit MVA =

Or

SCC =

fault current in fig., if the prefault voltage at the fault point is 0.97 p.u.

j0.2 F

j0.15 j0.15

j0.2 and j 0.15 are in series. j0.2+ j 0.15 = j 0.35

J0.35 is in parallel with j 0.15

The matrix consisting of driving point impedance and transfer impedances of

the network is called as bus impedance matrix. Bus impedance matrix is symmetrical.

Form bus admittance matrix and take the inverse to get bus impedance matrix.

Using bus building algorithm.

Using L-U factorization of Y-bus matrix.

having 15% reactance are connected through transformers and a line as shown in fig.

the transformers are rated 20MVA,12.66/66KV and 66/12.66KV with leakage

reactance of 10% each. The line has a reactance of 8% on base of 20MVA, 66 KV.

The motor is drawing 10MW at 0.8 leading power factors and a terminal voltage

11KV when symmetrical three phase fault occurs at the motors terminals. Determine

the generator and motor currents. Also determine the fault current.

Solution

Reactance diagram

Three 11.2 KV generators are interconnected as shown in figure by a tie -bar through current

limiting reactors. A three phase feeder is supplied from the bus bar of generator A at line

voltage 11.2 KV. Impedance of the feeder is (0.12+j0.24) ohm per phase. Compute the

maximum MVA that can be fed into a symmetrical short circuit at the far end of the feeder.

Assume a zero pre-fault current (no load pre-fault condition).Circuit model for the

fault calculation is given

A 4 bus sample power system is shown in fig. Perform the short circuit analysis for a three

phase solid fault on bus 4.data are given below

G1: 11.2KV, 100MVA, X=0.08 p.u

T1: 11/110KV, 100MVA, X=0.06 p.u

T2: 11/110KV, 100MVA, X=0.06 p.u

Assume prefault voltages 1.0 p.u and prefault currents to be zero.

Two generators G1 and G2 are rated 15MVA, 11KV and 10MVA, 11KV

respectively. The generators are connected to a transformer as shown in fig. Calculate

the subtaransient current in each generator when a three phase fault occurs on the high

voltage side of the transformer.

A radial power system network is shown in fig. a three phase balanced fault occurs at

F. Determine the fault current and the line voltage at 11.8 KV bus under fault

condition.

A 100MVA,11KV generator with X=0.20 p.u is connected through a transformer

and line to a bus bar that supplies three identical motor as shown in fig. and each

motor has X=0.20 p.u and X=0.25 p.u on a base of 20MVA,33KV.the bus voltage

at the motors is 33KV when a three phase balanced fault occurs at the point F.

Calculate

(a) subtransient current in the fault

(b) subtransient current in the circuit breaker B

(c) Momentary current in the circuit breaker B

(d) The current to be interrupted by CB B in (i) 2 cycles (ii) 3 cycles (iii) 5

cycles (iv) 8 cycles

1.

Obtain impedance matrix ZBUS for shown in figure.

Part-A

9.Write equation for subtransient internal voltage and transient internal voltage of motor and

generator.

10.Find the momentary current through the circuit breaker if the initial symmetrical short

circuit current through it is 5270.9A.

Part-B

1). A synchronous generator and motor are rated for 30,000KVA,13.2KV and both have

subtransient reactance of 20%.The line connecting them has a reactance of 10% on the base

of machine ratings. The motor is drawing 20,000KW at 0.8 pf leading.The terminal voltage

of the motor is 12.8KV.When a symmetrical three-phase fault occurs at motor terminals,find

the subtransient current in generator,motor and at the fault point. (16)

2. Explain in detail about transients due to a short circuit in 3-Phase alternator and in

transmission line.

series impedance of ).12+j0.48ohms/phase per km.The transformer is rated at

3MVA,6.6KV/33KV and has a reactance of 5%.Determine the fault current supplied by the

generator operating under no-load with a voltage of 6.9 kv, when a 3-phase symmetrical fault

occurs at a point 15km along the feeder. (16)

4) Explain about the symmetrical fault current estimation using kirchoffs laws and using a

Thevenins theorem.

(7)

5. ) The bus impedance matrix of four bus system with values in p.u. is given by

the fault and voltages at all buses.Also find the subtrasient current supplied by the generator

connected to bus-2 by taking the subtransient reactance of generator as j0.2 p.u.

UNIT- IV

ANALYSIS

Symmetrical component analysis of unsymmetrical faults LG LL LLG faults Open

conductor faults Unbalanced fault analysis using bus impedance matrix.

resolved into three balanced system of vectors.

They are Positive sequence components

Negative sequence components

Zero sequence components

Unsymmetrical fault analysis can be done by using symmetrical components.

120 in phase and having the phase sequence abc .

Ic1

120

120 Ia1

120

Ib1

120 in phase and having the phase sequence acb .

Ib2

120

120 Ia2

120

Ic2

displacement from each other.

Ia0

Ib0

Ic0 Ia0 = Ib0 = Ic0

Sequence operator

phase currents, we use sequence operator a.

a = 1120 = = - 0.5+j0.866

Let, Ia0, Ia1, Ia2 be the symmetrical components of phase a

Determination of symmetrical currents from unbalanced currents.

Let, Ia0, Ia1, Ia2 be the symmetrical components of phase a

The sequence impedances are the impedances offered by the power system

components or elements to +ve, -ve and zero sequence current.

The single phase equivalent circuit of power system consisting of impedances

to current of any one sequence only is called sequence network.

Compute positive, negative and zero sequence component of voltage

Solution:

A balanced delta connected load is connected to a three phase system and supplied to

it is a current of 15 amps. If the fuse is one of the lines melts, compute the

symmetrical components of line currents.

Draw zero sequence network of the power system as shown in fig.

Draw zero sequence network of the power system as shown in fig. Data are given below.

A 50MVA, 11KV, synchronous generator has a sub transient reactance of 20%.The

generator supplies two motors over a transmission line with transformers at both ends

as shown in fig. The motors have rated inputs of 30 and 15 MVA, both 10KV, with

25% sub transient reactance. The three phase transformers are both rated 60MVA,

10.8/121KV, with leakage reactance of 10% each. Assume zero sequence reactance

for the generator and motors of 6% each. Current limiting reactors of 2.5 ohms each

are connected in the neutral of the generator and motor number 2. The zero sequence

reactance of the transmission line is 300 ohms. The series reactance of the line is 100

ohms. Draw the positive, negative and zero sequence networks.

A 30 MVA, 13.2KV synchronous generator has a solidly grounded neutral. Its

positive, negative and zero sequence impedances are 0.30, 0.40 and 0.05 p.u

respectively. Determine the following:

a) What value of reactance must be placed in the generator neutral so that

the fault current for a line to ground fault of zero fault impedance shall

not exceed the rated line current?

b) What value of resistance in the neutral will serve the same purpose?

c) What value of reactance must be placed in the neutral of the generator

to restrict the fault current to ground to rated line current for a double

line to ground fault?

d) What will be the magnitudes of the line currents when the ground

current is restricted as above?

e) As the reactance in the neutral is indefinitely increased, what are the

limiting values of the line currents?

2. Two alternators are operating in parallel and supplying a synchronous motor which

is receiving 60MW power at 0.8 power factor lagging at 6.0 KV. Single line

diagram for this system is given in fig. Data are given below. Compute the fault

current when a single line to ground fault occurs at the middle of the line through a

fault resistance of 4.033 ohm.

Part-A

2.What are the positive sequence components?

5.Write down the equations to convert symmetrical components into

unbalanced phase currents. (Or) Determination of unbalanced currents from

symmetrical currents.

symmetrical components. (Or) Determination of symmetrical currents from

unbalanced currents.

.8.Draw the positive, negative and zero sequence network of all power system

components.

--

9.Write the equation to determine fault current for L-G, L-L and L-L-G fault

with impedance.

10.Draw the equivalent sequence network diagram for L-G, L-L and L-L-G

fault .

Part-B

1.A balanced delta connected load is connected to a three phase system and supplied to it is a

current of 15 amps. If the fuse is one of the lines melts, compute the symmetrical components

of line currents

3.A 50MVA, 11KV, synchronous generator has a sub transient reactance of 20%.The

generator supplies two motors over a transmission line with transformers at both ends as

shown in fig. The motors have rated inputs of 30 and 15 MVA, both 10KV, with 25%

sub transient reactance. The three phase transformers are both rated 60MVA,

10.8/121KV, with leakage reactance of 10% each. Assume zero sequence reactance for

the generator and motors of 6% each. Current limiting reactors of 2.5 ohms each are

connected in the neutral of the generator and motor number 2. The zero sequence

reactance of the transmission line is 300 ohms. The series reactance of the line is 100

ohms. Draw the positive, negative and zero sequence networks.

4.A 30 MVA, 13.2KV synchronous generator has a solidly grounded neutral. Its

positive, negative and zero sequence impedances are 0.30, 0.40 and 0.05 p.u

respectively. Determine the following:

f) What value of reactance must be placed in the generator neutral so that

the fault current for a line to ground fault of zero fault impedance shall

not exceed the rated line current?

g) What value of resistance in the neutral will serve the same purpose?

h) What value of reactance must be placed in the neutral of the generator

to restrict the fault current to ground to rated line current for a double

line to ground fault?

i) What will be the magnitudes of the line currents when the ground

current is restricted as above?

j) As the reactance in the neutral is indefinitely increased, what are the

limiting values of the line currents?

UNIT- V

POWER SYSTEM STABILITY

Rotor dynamics and swing equation Stability classification Small signal stability Large

signal

stability Equal area criterion and solution of SMIB system problems Solution of swing

equation Point-by-point method, R-K method and modified euler method Techniques for

stability improvement.

power system is to return or regain to normal or stable operating condition after

having been subjected to some form of disturbance.

a power system to remain in synchronism.

steady state stability

Steady state stability is defined as the ability of the power system to bring it to

a stable condition or remain in synchronism after a small disturbance.

The steady sate stability limit is the maximum power that can be transferred

by a machine to receiving system without loss of synchronism

Transient stability

stable condition or remain in synchronism after a large disturbance.

The transient stability limit is the maximum power that can be transferred by a

machine to a fault or a receiving system during a transient state without loss of

synchronism.

Transient stability limit is always less than steady state stability limit

Dynamic stability

swing (transient stability period) until the system has settled down to the new steady

state equilibrium condition

Voltage stability

buses in the system under normal operating conditions and after being subjected to a

disturbance.

Causes of voltage instability

load demand, or change in system condition causes a progressive and uncontrollable

drop in voltage

The main factor causing instability is the inability of the power system to meet

the demand for reactive power.

Vs Sending end voltage; Vr- Receiving end voltage

XT - Total reactance between sending end receiving end

- Rotor angle.

Swing equation for a SMIB (Single machine connected to an infinite bus bar)

system.

M

Where H = inertia constant in MW/MVA

f = frequency in Hz

M = inertia constant in p.u

Swing curve

The swing curve is the plot or graph between the power angle and time t.

From the nature of variations of the stability of a system for any disturbance can be

determined.

3 machine system having ratings G1, G2 and G3 and inertia constants M1, M2 and

M3.What is the inertia constants M and H of the equivalent system.

Gb = Base MVA or system MVA

Machines represents by classical model

The losses in the system are neglected (all resistance are neglected)

The voltage behind transient reactance is assumed to remain constant.

Controllers are not considered ( Shunt and series capacitor )

Effect of damper winding is neglected.

The equal area criterion for stability states that the system is stable if the area

under P curve reduces to zero at some value of .

This is possible if the positive (accelerating) area under P curve is equal to

the negative (decelerating) area under P curve for a finite change in . hence

stability criterion is called equal area criterion.

The critical clearing angle , is the maximum allowable change in the power

angle before clearing the fault, without loss of synchronism.

The time corresponding to this angle is called critical clearing time, .It can

be defined as the maximum time delay that can be allowed to clear a fault without loss

of synchronism.

Increase of system voltage and use AVR

Use of high speed excitation systems

Use of high speed reclosing breakers

i. Point by point method or step by step method

ii. Euler method

iii. Modified Euler method

iv. Runge-Kutta method(R-K method)

swing equation for a single machine connected to infinite bus system.

A 400 MVA synchronous machine has H1=4.6 MJ/MVA and a 1200 MVA machines

H2=3.0 MJ/MVA. Two machines operate in parallel in a power plant. Find out Heq

relative to a 100MVA base.

A 100 MVA, two pole, 50Hz generator has moment of inertia 40 x 103 kg-m2.what is

the energy stored in the rotor at the rated speed? What is the corresponding angular

momentum? Determine the inertia constant h.

The sending end and receiving end voltages of a three phase transmission line at a

200MW load are equal at 230KV.The per phase line impedance is j14 ohm. Calculate

the maximum steady state power that can be transmitted over the line.

Equal area criterion in transient stability.

A single line diagram of a system is shown in fig. All the values are in per unit on a common

base. The power delivered into bus 2 is 1.0 p.u at 0.80 power factor lagging. Obtain the

power angle equation and the swing equation for the system. Neglect all losses.

Explain critical clearing angle and critical clearing time in transient stability.

A 50Hz synchronous generator capable of supplying 400MW of power is connected to a

larger power system and is delivering 80MW when a three phase fault occurs at its terminals,

determine (a) the time in which the fault must be cleared if the maximum power angle is to be

-85 assume H=7MJ/MVA on a 100MVA base (b) the critical clearing angle.

A 2220 MVA, 24KV and 60 Hz synchronous machine is connected to an infinite bus

through transformer and double circuit transmission line, as shown in fig. The infinite

bus voltage V=1.0 p.u .The direct axis transient reactance of the machine is 0.30 p.u,

the transformer reactance is 0.20 p.u, and the reactance of each the transmission line

is 0.3 p.u,all to a base of the rating of the synchronous machine. Initially, the machine

is delivering 0.8 p.u real power and reactive power is 0.074 p.u with a terminal

voltage of 1.0 p.u. The inertia constant H=5MJ/MVA. All resistances are neglected. A

three phase fault occurs at the sending end of one of the lines, the fault is cleared, and

the faulted line is isolated. Determine the critical clearing angle and the critical fault

clearing time.

The transfer reactance between internal voltage and the infinite bus before

fault is

X = Xg +XT +Xtr.line

X = 0.3 + 0.2 +0.3/2 = 0.65

The transient internal voltage is

E = V +j X I = 1.0+ (j0.65) (0.8- j0.074)

= 1.17

Since both lines are intact when the fault is cleared, the power angle equation

before and after the fault is

0 = 26.388 = 0.46055 rad

max =180 - 0 = 153.612 =2.681rad

c =

MW of its maximum power capacity. A three phase fault occurs and the effective

terminal voltage of the generator becomes 25% of its value before the fault. When the

fault is cleared, generator is delivering 70% of the original maximum value.

Determine the critical clearing angle.

Find the critical clearing angle of the power system shown in fig. for a three phase

fault at the point F. Generator is supplying 1.0 p.u MW power under pre-fault

condition.

Factors influencing transient stability

Numerical integration methods of power system stability? Explain any one methods.

v. Point by point method or step by step method

vi. Euler method

vii. Modified Euler method

viii. Runge-Kutta method(R-K method)

Step by step method

Part-A

.

11.Write the power angle equation and draw the power angle curve.

Part-B

1.Derive swing equation for a single machine connected to infinite bus system

1. A 400 MVA synchronous machine has H1=4.6 MJ/MVA and a 1200 MVA

machines H2=3.0 MJ/MVA. Two machines operate in parallel in a power plant.

Find out Heq relative to a 100MVA base.

2.

A 100 MVA, two pole, 50Hz generator has moment of inertia 40 x 103 kg-

m2.what is the energy stored in the rotor at the rated speed? What is the

corresponding angular momentum? Determine the inertia constant h

3. The sending end and receiving end voltages of a three phase transmission line at

a 200MW load are equal at 230KV.The per phase line impedance is j14 ohm.

Calculate the maximum steady state power that can be transmitted over the

line.

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