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and Recharging Flexibility

Pia Grahn, Student Member, IEEE, Karin Alvehag, Member, IEEE, and Lennart Sder, Senior Member, IEEE

AbstractElectric vehicles (EVs) may soon enter the vehicle In 2012 the Swedish demand reach a maximum of 26035 MW

market in large numbers and change the overall fuel usage within in the morning hours 9 A.M.10 A.M. of February 3rd [1]. If

the passenger transport sector. With increased variable consump- many electric vehicles (EVs) starts charging when arriving to

tion from EVs together with anticipated increased production

from variable sources, due to renewable wind and solar power, work and the timing for the charging coincides with the timing

also the balancing of the electric power system incur increased for the load peak, it would significantly increase the load peak.

attention. This emphasizes the importance of developing models This makes it important to investigate travel behaviors and fu-

to estimate and investigate the stochasticity of personal car travel ture charging patterns of EVs.

behavior and induced EV charging load. Several studies have The increased amount of EVs with variable charging con-

been made in order to model the stochasticity of passenger car

travel behavior but none have captured the charging behavior sumption is followed also by an increased opportunity for the

dependence of the type-of-trip conducted. This paper proposes a EVs to act as individual and flexible loads in the system. Flex-

new model for plug-in-hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) utilization ible EV batteries could prove themselves to become useful in a

and recharging price sensitivity, to determine charging load smart grid, and the exemplified additional EVC load could in-

profiles based on driving patterns due to the type-of-trip and stead help mitigate load variations and load peaks. The oppor-

corresponding charging need. This approach makes it possible

to relate the type-of-trip with the consumption level, the parking tunity of using EV batteries as grid ancillary services has for

location, and the charging opportunity. The proposed model is example been studied in [2][5]. The potential of using EV bat-

applied in a case study using Swedish car travel data. The results teries as flexible loads will depend on the randomness of parking

show the charging load impact and variation due to the stochastic events, charging opportunities, charging costs, and charging be-

PHEV type-of-trip mobility, allowing quantification of the PHEV havior and there will exist a potential only if some level of flex-

charging impact on the system.

ibility is assumed for the charging behavior of the EV drivers.

Index TermsCharging flexibility, electric vehicle charging Previous research has been carried out in the sense of opti-

(EVC) behavior, load profiles, Plug-in-hybrid electric vehicles

mizing the EVC with the purposes of minimizing the customer

(PHEVs), price sensitivity, type-of-trip.

charging cost [6], [7], maximizing the aggregator profit [8],

maximizing the use of the networks [9][11], and minimizing

I. INTRODUCTION system losses and improving voltage regulation [12]. However,

these optimization approaches are assuming external charging

tributes to a large part of all greenhouse gas emissions

around the globe. These emissions could be cut drastically if

control based on given information of the driving and EVC

behavior. If knowing the starting times and/or ending times

and the EVC demand, an external actor, often called an aggre-

all passenger cars instead were electricity-driven based on the gator, could optimize the charging duration and/or the charging

power production mix. With a change into an electricity-driven power. However, this requires that the external actor knows

passenger vehicle fleet, the electric power sector will find it- the charging demand and can impact the charging time and/or

self having a considerably increased amount of variable elec- charging power for several vehicles.

tricity consumers, consuming power from the grid due to travel Several studies have been made in order to capture the

and electric vehicle charging (EVC) behaviors. These travel and stochasticity of passenger car travel behavior, without having

EVC behaviors will thus, to some extent, create new quantities the driver sharing information concerning the next trip in the

in the overall load profiles and introduce new load variations plug-in moment. In order to estimate load profiles, the base

related to the stochastic individual car travel behaviors. If for cases in these mobility models are in broad terms based on

example all passenger vehicles in Sweden of around 4.5 mil- the assumptions that vehicle owners will travel and park in the

lion were electricity-driven and 50% happened to be charging same way as they do today and likely connect their vehicle for

at the same time, this would mean a load increase of 5100 MW. charging as soon as they are parked, an outlet is available and

there is a need for a refill. This is in literature referred to as un-

Manuscript received October 22, 2012; revised March 27, 2013 and July 30, controlled charging and was modeled with various approaches

2013; accepted August 13, 2013. Date of publication October 07, 2013; date of

in [13][17]. In both [13] and [14] predefined starting times for

current version December 24, 2013. Paper no. TSG-00741-2012.

The authors are with the KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School the charging were considered and in [16][17] it was assumed

of Electrical Engineering, Electric Power Systems, SE-100 44 Stockholm, that the vehicles were connected for charge only after the last

Sweden (e-mail: pia.grahn@ee.kth.se).

trip of the day, based on data of the last arrival time. In [18]

Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online

at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. the uncontrolled EVC behavior was described with a Markov

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TSG.2013.2279022 Chain model in order to find the network line loading due to

140 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 5, NO. 1, JANUARY 2014

during the day related to the driving behavior, parking events

and additional charging opportunities. However, that approach

thus does not capture the dependence between the time for

movement and the consumption during that movement, but

treats them separately, loosing the time-dependency of the

consumption during the movement. The publications [13][19]

all have the general purpose to find the load impact of antici-

pated future EVC behavior to the grid. However, none of them

have included the stochasticity of all parking events related

to the type-of-trip conducted in time and their relationship

to the EVC load and the eventual need to drive on a second

fuel and be a flexible recharger. In [19] a Markov model was

developed allowing simulations of plug-in-vehicle mobility and

charging flexibility that takes into account the dependency of

the trip duration and the consumption during that trip. However,

that paper did not take into account different parking states

with or without charging opportunities, the time-dependent

type-of-trip, the consumption during a type-of-trip or the usage

of a second fuel versus a fast charging option. It was also

not possible to evaluate the electricity and second fuel cost

for flexible rechargers compared to inflexible rechargers and Fig. 1. PHEV utilization model structure.

related emissions. This is all considered in the model

presented in this paper. II. PROPOSED PHEV UTILIZATION MODEL CONSIDERING

This paper introduces a Markov chain model with which it TYPE-OF-TRIP AND RECHARGING FLEXIBILITY

is possible to simulate detailed plug-in-hybrid electric vehicle

The model in this paper focuses on PHEVs with external bat-

(PHEV) mobility behavior considering the type-of-trip and re-

tery charging possibilities and a second engine that could be run

lated charging opportunities including flexible recharging due

by a non-electric fuel. In order to simulate the flexibility of bat-

to charging price sensitivity. The model takes into account the

tery charging in the electric power system, a Markov model is

dependency of the trip duration and the consumption during that

developed. The Markov model is chosen because of the ran-

trip. In the model the consumption from the battery or the second

domness in car traveling, and the car trips are seen as events

fuel takes place during the vehicle movement related to the

following a stochastic process. The Markov property is here as-

type-of-trip conducted. The new PHEV utilization model con-

sumed to apply to car travels, hence future states of a vehicle

sidering type-of-trip and recharging flexibility thus takes into

are assumed to be independent of earlier states up to the given

account detailed starting times and ending times for passenger

state. The probabilities in the Markov chain are parameterized

car trips dependent on type-of-trip and relates them to parking

to replicate observed driving patterns which are time-of-day and

events with different charging opportunities, also capturing a

day-of-week dependent. The proposed PHEV utilization model

second fuel usage. By using the utilization model it is pos-

is presented in Fig. 1.

sible to evaluate PHEV charging load profiles and standard de-

viations including PHEV recharging flexibility. It is also pos-

A. Electric Vehicle Utilization

sible to evaluate the cost of the electricity usage versus the cost

of a second fuel for flexible rechargers compared to inflexible In each time step , a stochastic variable describes an

rechargers and also related emissions. The modeling ap- event and the stochastic process is defined as where

proach requires that statistics or estimations of passenger car is the time interval for discrete time , [21].

travel behavior are available. The Markov chain includes a set of states that could oc-

The proposed model is implemented in a case study with cupy, and to model the PHEV mobility, the set of states that

data from a detailed Swedish National Travel Survey named a PHEV can occupy is based on the natural states of a ve-

RES0506 [20]. This type of National Travel Survey is made hicle in use: driving and parked. Here, the PHEV can occupy

in many countries in addition to Sweden, for example in U.S., one of the states; Parking state, or Driving

U.K., Germany, Denmark, The Netherlands, New Zealand, and state, , (box in Fig. 1). Hence, the set of states

South Africa. The simulation results provide information re- is . The transition probability for

garding PHEV mobility due to the type-of-trip, charging du- a vehicle to change state from to in one time step is denoted

rations and charging load and second fuel usage as a function as where . The transition matrix has the

of time, making it possible to visualize PHEV utilization and size of , where the elements of the

charging impact to the overall load. This allows actors on the matrix are the time-dependent transition probabilities with

electricity market, as for example distribution system operators , (box in Fig. 1). Several elements in are zero

(DSOs), to account for future PHEV charging load variations since changing from a driving state to another driving state re-

and quantify load impact on the system. quires that the PHEV first occupies a parking state. The same

GRAHN et al.: PHEV UTILIZATION MODEL CONSIDERING TYPE-OF-TRIP AND RECHARGING FLEXIBILITY 141

holds for changing state from a parking state to another parking where is the number of PHEVs that are starting a type-of-

state when the PHEV first needs to occupy a driving state. trip and is the number of PHEVs that

In box in Fig. 1 charging opportunities in parking states re- are ending a type-of-trip at time . The total

lated to the type-of-trip are defined. If the PHEV occupies any of number of driving PHEVs in driving state is:

the parking states the PHEV is parked. If the PHEV

occupy any of the driving states the PHEV is run- (5)

ning and thus consuming electricity from the battery given there

It is assumed that the probability to start a type-of-trip is inde-

is enough left, otherwise the second engine and its fuel is used.

pendent of current parking state. The elements of the time-de-

The driving states represent several type-of-trips performed by

pendent transition matrices is estimated as:

the PHEV between the different parking locations. After occu-

pying a parking state, the PHEV can either stay or end up in

any driving state. In the driving states, the PHEV can have dif- (6)

ferent electric power consumption or fuel consumption due to

the type-of-trip. The parking states offer different charging op- for changing from any parking state into driving state , and

portunities. After occupying a driving state the PHEV can end

up in a parking state with charging opportunity dependent on (7)

the type-of-trip conducted. The Markov chain starts in an initial

state at time step 0, by letting a PHEV occupy one of the states for changing from driving state into parking state . For re-

in the set . The initial state probabilities are: maining in parking state the element is estimated as:

(1) (8)

For remaining in driving state the element is:

pled. The probability for vehicle to occupy a state

in the next time step is .

is equal to the row in the matrix which corresponds (9)

to the state in time step . Time-dependent state sequences for

events at time steps for each PHEV may hence be

generated by comparing the probabilities in the corresponding C. Electricity Driving Mode

row with a random number sampled from a uniform distribution

The state of charge (SOC), , for PHEV increases

(box in Fig. 1). If the PHEV is parked in state

if the PHEV is charging with where is

at time , thus , then one takes the first row in

the charging load, the charging efficiency, and the time

and samples the next state , from the probabilities in this

step length. If the PHEV is consuming electricity the SOC de-

row.

creases with where is the electric power

B. Estimation of State Transition Probabilities consumption as a function of the velocity , and the electricity

consumption level , due to the type-of-trip, (box in Fig. 1).

The transition state probabilities for changing states are time- If the PHEV is parked and connected without charging the SOC

dependent, and a PHEV can only occupy one state at a certain remains the same as in previous time step. If the PHEV is parked

time step . In order to estimate the transition state probabilities, and disconnected the battery is assumed to be self-discharging

an initial number of parked vehicles is expressed as the sum with an estimated rate of . Hence, the following holds:

of the shares of the maximum numbers of PHEVs in

parking states, : if charging,

if consuming,

if disconnected,

(2) if connected.

(10)

For each PHEV , the battery has initially a level of and

The initial number of driving vehicles is expressed as the the SOC of the battery lies in between an individual minimum

sum of the initial numbers of PHEVs in driving states, SOC level , for battery life sustaining reasons, and a fully

: charged battery:

(11)

(3)

PHEV utilization parameters can further be found, (box in

The total number of parked PHEVs in the next time step is: Fig. 1). The cumulative distance driven with electricity is

calculated as:

(12)

else.

142 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 5, NO. 1, JANUARY 2014

if charging,

(13)

else.

tricity charging cost for vehicle is calculated as:

if charging,

(14)

else.

is running on a second fuel. The state of tank (SOT), , sufficiently high for the PHEV recharger to become flexible.

can be calculated in each time step by reducing the tank due to The flexible recharger then agrees on postponing the charging

the velocity and the second fuel consumption level , related moment if the SOC level for PHEV is not below a certain frac-

to the type-of-trip. If there is not enough fuel in the tank for tion . It is assumed that the charging reacts on price signals.

driving in the next time step, a refill may take place: It is also assumed that the total electricity charging cost/km,

if refueling event, for both slow and medium charging, is less than the second

if consuming, fuel cost/km, so that the electricity charging is preferred over

else. a second fuel refill. In the flexible case the following condition

(15) is added to (10):

The initial is assumed to be , with .

It is now possible to count the cumulative number of refill events

. (20)

To model the individual price-limit for which a flexible

(16) recharger decides to postpone the charging moment, the mean

daily charging price is used. A daily price-limit , is set

for each individual as:

where is a binary variable, adding up to the number of

refueling events. It is also possible to calculate the cumulative (21)

distance driven with the second fuel for vehicle .

where is a random variable that is sampled for each flexible

if running on second fuel, individual, but kept constant the whole day, from a uniform dis-

(17) tribution . The time periods , for when the

else.

flexible rechargers are postponing the charging moment are de-

If knowing the fuel cost per liter , and the number of total fined by:

refills needed , the cumulative second fuel cost , at time

may also be calculated: (22)

(18) limit are illustrated in Fig. 2. If the SOC is running low

when the flexible recharger is performing a trip, it is assumed

E. Flexible Recharging and Price Sensitivity that a flexible recharger stops at a fast charging station during

A charging price is here assumed to follow price signals and recharges the battery instead of running on the second

from the electricity spot price capturing the daily variations, fuel. It is assumed that in these cases a fast charging station exits

with forecasts performed one day before. This means that the in a reachable distance. The battery is charged with a charging

charging behavior could be set to react to the spot price varia- power of at a fixed fast charging cost of , while the

tions. A variable charging price at time is set by sampling a distance driven and consumption are kept constant. Both the fast

daily charging price and adding a charging price constant : charging and the tank refill are assumed to be made during a

time step when the vehicle is performing a trip, and the vehicle

(19) is assumed to stop in order to refill the battery or the tank. The

movement for the vehicle during a refill or fast charging event

H is added in order to model an extra cost added by for example at one time step is therefore neglected.

the retailer. It is assumed that each slow and medium charging It is assumed that the fixed cost is if one

event has a fixed cost which is added to the cumulative wants to charge with high power at a fast charging station. This

variable charging cost , cost is assumed to be constant for each fast charging event, and

To model charging price sensitivity, time periods , are is added as an extra cost for flexible rechargers which have this

defined for when the electricity charging price is assumed to be option when performing a trip and the SOC runs low. The total

GRAHN et al.: PHEV UTILIZATION MODEL CONSIDERING TYPE-OF-TRIP AND RECHARGING FLEXIBILITY 143

lated as: CASE STUDY

(23)

and medium charging events, and is a binary variable

adding up the number of fast charging events for vehicle at

time . TABLE II

STATES RELATED TO TYPE-OF-TRIP AND CHARGING OPPORTUNITY

F. Load Profiles

The charging load from the charging for PHEV at

time step is calculated as:

if charging in slow mode,

if charging in medium mode,

if charging in fast mode,

if self-discharging.

(24)

The expected mean load profile from one vehicle is further esti-

mated using Monte Carlo simulations for samples, (box

in Fig. 1). The expected standard deviation is estimated

and the expected total mean load profile is estimated by adding

the overall mean load , to the expected mean load from a

number of PHEVs, (box in Fig. 1).

(25)

electricity consumed from the grid , the total charging cost

, the distance driven with the second fuel and the total

second fuel cost , may all be obtained for each vehicle at

time allowing for estimations of expected values and standard

deviations using Monte Carlo simulations for samples.

To show the value of the model developed in this paper, a

case study is carried out. The case study shows the importance

of having a more detailed model including the type-of-trip and Fig. 3. Transition states.

the recharging flexibility, (the model in Fig. 1), compared to a

simpler model. Case I is a case with inflexible rechargers con- the second fuel, and electricity and utility costs for inflexible

sidering the new model with various types-of-trips and related rechargers compared to flexible rechargers.

charging opportunities. Case II is a case with flexible rechargers

considering the new model with various types-of-trips and re- A. Travel Behavior Data

lated charging opportunities. Case III is a case with inflexible In the case study, the number of parking states are set

rechargers only considering one type-of-trip and one charging to 3, (A, B, and C), and the number of driving states are

opportunity based on a previous model in [19]. The cases are set to 10. In parking states it is assumed that the ve-

summarized in Table I. Compared to Case III based on model hicle is parked with charging opportunities and in the state

in [19], the new model takes into account different charging op- the PHEV is parked without charging opportunity. If the PHEV

portunities related to the type-of-trip and the velocity and con- occupy any of the driving states 110, the PHEV is performing

sumption level related to the type-of-trip, which were neglected a type-of-trip with errand 110. The PHEV is assumed to be

in earlier models. With the proposed model it is also possible parked initially in state . The driving and parking states with

to define type-of-trips that are related to parking opportunities their charging opportunities are set according to Table II, (box I,

without charging outlets. The flexibility is also developed fur- Fig. 1), and the transition state probabilities are illustrated in

ther allowing for the choice between fast charging and driving Fig. 3, (box II, Fig. 1). Cases I.a, I.c, II, and III all represents

on a second fuel due to price sensitivity. The new model al- a weekday while Case I.b represents a Saturday. For Case I.a,

lows for calculations of emissions, distance driven with Case I.b, and Case II it is assumed that parking states A offer

144 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 5, NO. 1, JANUARY 2014

Fig. 4. Share of starting vehicle trips a weekday used to model PHEVs driving

Fig. 5. Share of ending vehicle trips a weekday used to model PHEVs driving

pattern with type-of-trip defined in Table II, [20].

pattern with type-of-trip defined in Table II, [20].

medium charging power outlets, parking states B offer slow and 5. The travel behaviors for the car trips made in Sweden

charging power outlets and parking state C offers no outlets. during average weekdays and weekend days were divided into

For Case I.c it is assumed that parking state C offers medium groups according to type-of-trips performed in the RES0506

charging power outlets while parking states A and B offer no database. The result of this grouping is presented in Table II.

outles. For Case III slow charging is assumed to be offered at The number of car travel data-points were , and in

all parking events. order to estimate the transition probabilities the initial number of

This leads to a transition matrix, (box III, Fig. 1), on the form driving vehicles in type-of-trip , for weekdays were set to

shown in the equation at bottom of the page, where . Pas- , , ,

senger car travel data can for example be found in the Swedish , . The estimations result in a transition

National travel survey (RES0506) [20]. The RES0506 database probability matrix for each time step and

covers detailed travel information from the period of 1st Oc- weekday, Saturday, or Sunday.

tober 2005 to 30th September 2006 of respondents movements, The velocity is assumed to be type-of-trip dependent. Fur-

mode of transport, errand of the journey, starting and ending thermore, the electricity consumption , and the second fuel

times. In the database information can also be found concerning consumption , are assumed to be type-of-trip and velocity-

gender, age, employment, holding of driving licences, and the dependent. The type-of-trips are categorized in three groups,

households number of cars as well as housing form. Data for . The grouping is made based on the character-

the amount of a type-of-trip with car starting, or ending istic of the type-of-trip which is assumed to impact the velocity

, at time , were obtained from RES0506. The data were pri- and consumption due to external conditions such as for example

marily hourly, whilst for the simulations they were interpolated driving in a rural or urban area. The grouping is made consid-

into hourly steps. The share of these type-of-trips ering the errand, and commuting type-of-trips 1, 2, and gro-

starting and ending times for a weekday are illustrated in Figs. 4 ceries shopping type-of-trip 3 are set to belong to . These

(26)

GRAHN et al.: PHEV UTILIZATION MODEL CONSIDERING TYPE-OF-TRIP AND RECHARGING FLEXIBILITY 145

formed with a relatively low mean velocity and consumption.

The type-of-trips 5, 6, 8, and 9 are trips related to bank, post,

medical care, restaurant or entertainment errands, and these are

here set to belong to . These type-of-trips are assumed to

be similar to each other and performed in an urban environment

with a slightly higher mean velocity and consumption than for

. The type-of-trips 4, 7, and 10 are trips related to other

shopping, visiting family and friends or other errands, and these

are here set to belong to . These type-of-trips are assumed

to include more highway driving implying a higher mean ve-

Fig. 6. Sample of one day Case I PHEV utilization. (a) Transition states. (b)

locity and consumption. Second fuel state of tank, . (c) Battery state of charge, . (d)

It is thus assumed that the consumption level while driving Charging load profile, .

holds for type-of-trips 1, 2, 3, is for type-of-trips 5, 6, 8, 9,

and is for type-of-trips 4, 7, 10. The electricity consumption found to be around 2.382 millions [25]. To illustrate a maximum

or second fuel consumption , while driving is assumed impact of EVC in this area the number of PHEVs is set to

to be related to three different velocities sampled from 2.382 millions. The time step length is set to hours,

normal distributions with 20% standard deviation from mean: and the time period simulated is one week, .

, and The time period is simulated for samples.

. These velocities are used to find the distance driven

and the electricity or second fuel used in each . C. Charging Price Data

Depending on the driving cycle, the electricity consumption The charging price is sampled from days of spot

of an EV is in [22] estimated to lie in between 0.12 kWh/km and price data from Nordpool in JanuaryMars 2012 [24]. A daily

0.20 kWh/km. Electricity consumption levels are sampled spot price is here sampled from where is the

from normal distributions with 10% standard deviation from standard deviation. The variable charging price is set by

mean: , and adding to the spot price and also a fixed

. This results in three elec- charging cost for each slow and medium charging event,

tricity consumptions levels kWh/h when driving. of 1 euro, and for each fast charging event a fixed cost

The second fuel consumption levels are sampled from of 2 euro. The individual variation in the price-limit is allowed

sampled from normal distributions with 10% standard deviation to vary with 17% less than the mean price , during weekdays

from mean: , , and 1% during weekend days, set by

, respectively. This results in .

three consumptions liters/h when driving using To be able to compare energy demand and emissions,

the second fuel. For Case III values for , and are used. the second fuel is assumed to be diesel with an energy content

of 9.7 kWh/liter and an emission rate of 2.67 kg , and

B. Charging Behavior Data the emission due to the electricity use is assumed to be 0.1 kg

The minimum SOC in order to sustain battery life-time re- based on a Nordic production mix.

quirements is assumed to be in the interval .

The self-discharging rate when parked and disconnected is IV. RESULTS

assumed to be [23]. The self-discharging This section presents results of simulations made with the

beyond the first 24 hours of around 1 to 2 percent per month model in Fig. 1 compared with the model in [19]. The simula-

is neglected in this case study. The battery size , tions were performed with MATLAB 7.10.0 on a computer with

and the individual tank size are assumed to be Processor: Intel(R) Core(TM) i5 CPU M 540 @ 2.53 GHz. In-

uniformly distributed in the intervals [9,11] kWh and [45,55] stalled memory (RAM): 4 GB. System type: 32-bit Operating

liter, respectively. For the individual flexible rechargers, (Case System.

II), the minimum fraction of the battery levels are set to An example of the transition between states for an inflexible

. The slow charging , is set to 2.3 kW, Case I PHEV during a week is presented in Fig. 6, showing the

for one-phase charging at (230 V, 10 A), the medium charging states; Parked, P represented by 13 and Driving, D by 413

to 3.7 kW for (230 V, 16 A) and the fast charging to 50 (box IV, Fig. 1). The SOC in the PHEV battery, the SOT due

kW. The charging efficiency , is set to 90%. The added load to driving and refueling, and the charging load induced by the

is the overall electricity use in Swedish area SE3 based on data PHEV are shown (box V, VI, Fig. 1). Fig. 7 shows how the sim-

for 21 weekdays in February, 12 Saturdays in JanuaryMarch, ulation of converges at 6 P.M. for samples.

and 12 Sundays in JanuaryMarch 2012 in Sweden [24]. The The simulation time for 1000 samples with the method is ap-

total Swedish area SE3 includes counties such as Gotland, proximately 1 h.

Stockholm, Sdermanlands, Uppsala, Vrmland, Vstmanland,

rebro, stergtland, and parts of Jnkping, Halland, Kalmar, A. Resulting Load Profiles and PHEV Utilization

Vstra Gtaland, Gvleborg, and Dalarna. The total number of After the simulations, (box VII, Fig. 1), the overall load is

people with a car and a drivers licence in these counties are added to the charging load (box VIII, Fig. 1) and resulting ex-

146 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 5, NO. 1, JANUARY 2014

Fig. 9. Case I.a. Expected mean load a weekday with 100% inflexible PHEVs

TABLE III charging at parking state A, , and , .

AVERAGE WEEKLY PHEV UTILIZATION AND COST

Fig. 10. Case II. Expected mean load a weekday with 100% flexible PHEVs

charging at parking state A, , and , .

Fig. 8. Inflexible Case I, compared to flexible Case II, weekly PHEV utiliza-

tion, emissions and costs. (a) Electricity charging cost. (b) emissions.

tained, (box IX, Fig. 1). In Table III results regarding costs and

fuel usage are listed. The flexible recharger drives more in elec-

tric driving mode than the inflexible recharger which instead

uses the second fuel more, due to the fast charging option. Fur-

thermore, the cost/km is less for the flexible rechargers, which

also needs less energy in total. Samples of one weeks average

fuel usage, utility costs and emissions for inflexible and

flexible rechargers are visualized in Fig. 8. Fig. 8(a) shows how

the weekly electricity charging cost/km is more for inflexible

rechargers than for flexible rechargers and Fig. 8(b) shows larger

emissions and kilometer cost for inflexible rechargers. In

Fig. 11. Case III. One type-of-trip with one slow charging at all parking events,

Case II for flexible rechargers, the total distance driven each expected mean load a weekday with 100% inflexible PHEVs, , and

week is less than in Case I for the inflexible recharger and this , .

needs to be considered when comparing the results. The dis-

tance deviation is due to the assumption that the PHEV stops less than during weekdays which is related to less driving during

and recharges at a fast charging station instead of driving with weekend days. In Fig. 13 the load profile is shifted towards the

the second fuel when the electricity in the battery is insufficient middle of the day and the end of the day. This is because only

during a trip. It can be seen in Fig. 9 for Case I.a and Fig. 11 parking state C offers charging outlets in this case.

for Case III that the travel behavior and charging opportunities Comparing Fig. 9 for Case I.a and Fig. 11 for Case III of the

result in charging patterns with load peaks in the morning hours total expected load profile, a difference in the valley between

and evening hours which can be related to charging when ar- the load peaks can be seen. Firstly, this is due to the depen-

riving to work and charging when arriving home after work. dence between the type-of-trip and the velocity and the con-

The timing for these load peaks coincides with the timing for sumption level during that trip inducing a related charging need

overall high demand and high power prices. This should be con- that the new model captures. Secondly, this is due to the de-

sidered if wanting to design incentives in order to impact EVC pendence between the different charging opportunities related

patterns. In Fig. 12 for Case I.b the load profile during a Saturday to the performed type-of-trip. Case I.a in Fig. 9 and Case II

is shown, and it can be seen that the load increase with PHEVs is 10 show a greater load variation with flexible rechargers than

GRAHN et al.: PHEV UTILIZATION MODEL CONSIDERING TYPE-OF-TRIP AND RECHARGING FLEXIBILITY 147

this model could be used to estimate the emission related to

time-dependent EVC. This enables for a future extension of

the flexibility model, when a signal for high versus low

emissions could be implemented in addition to the charging

prices, allowing for flexible rechargers to act upon either a wish

to reduce emissions or charging cost according to their choice.

In future work the model can be extended to include models of

the physical power grid and of vehicle-to-grid (V2G).

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at the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, 1988, respectively. He is currently a Professor in

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concerning deregulated electricity markets and

integration of wind power.

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