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A Future Outlook In India
This report “SOLAR ENERGY- A future outlook in India” covers integral information on electricity sector in INDIA, problems encountered and to be faced in future. It details how solar energy can be effectively used as an alternative source of energy. Firstly ,details about the electricity power sector in are described and then solar power in India has been detailed. India has a great potential to generate electricity from solar energy. Some main drivers for solar power plants in India are: 1) To meet India’s growing energy demand – the non-renewable sources of energy may not cope-up with that demand with its robust economic & population growth. Renewable sources are one of the solutions this constant issue, in the long term.
2) Increased focus on Green technology – with increased focus in the recent years the idea of solar plants will be encouraged ex: Solar water heating 3) Support from Government – Government is helping in the form of various subsidies, rebate on interest to solar energy based industries, technology-transfer agreement with countries, to name a few. This will attract more new players or established businesses to invest in solar plants. For ex: Wind energy power sector saw good growth in the past, when subsidies were introduced. 4) India is also in a good position because of the intense heat. “Arid regions receive plentiful solar radiation,” says Dr. M. N. Nahar, principal scientist of the Division of Agriculture and Energy at the Central Arid Zone Research Institute (CAZRI). In computed global solar radiation of arid stations in the Indian states of Rajasthan, Gujarat and Haryana, it was found that Jaisalmer, Rajasthan, receives the maximum radiation at 6.27 kWh/m2 per day; the average daily duration of bright sunshine in Jodhpur, Rajasthan is 8.9 hours.
Vaishali Garg (EEE 3rd year)
SOLAR ENERGY A Future Outlook In India The preparation of this report about solar power energy has been made possible with the help of many individuals.Firstly .C. VAISHALI GARG EEE (3rd year) Vaishali Garg (EEE 3rd year) Page 2 . My sincere thanks goes to my respective sir Mr.Y. Gupta under whose guidance this report has been prepared and to my parents for providing the basic amenties. i am thankful to the Uttar Pradesh Technical university for inculcating a presentation on any latest topic in our curriculum.
SOLAR ENERGY A Future Outlook In India • ELECTRICAL SECTOR IN INDIA • GENERATION • THERMAL POWER • HYDRO POWER • NUCLEAR POWER • RENEWABLE POWER • TRANSMISSION • DISTRIBUTION • POWER FOR ALL BY 2012 • SOLAR POWER IN INDIA • ANNUAL INSOLATION • PRESENT STATUS • P V MANUFACTURE IN INDIA • APPLICATIONS • CHALLENGES • CONCLUSION Vaishali Garg (EEE 3rd year) Page 3 .
000 MW of solar power by 2020. India has committed massive amount of funds for the construction of various nuclear reactors which would generate at least 30. National Hydroelectric Power Corporation (NHPC) and Nuclear Power Corporation of India (NPCI). such as Maharashtra State Electricity Board (MSEB). The country has also invested heavily in recent years on renewable sources of energy such as wind energy. The PowerGrid Corporation of India is responsible for the inter-state transmission of electricity and the development of national grid. As of 2008. 1992. 21% by hydroelectric power plants and 4% by nuclear power plants. In 2004-05. About 75% of the electricity consumed in India is generated by thermal power plants. The Indian government has set an ambitious target to add approximately 78. The country's annual power production increased from about 190 billion kWH in 1986 to more than 680 billion kWH in 2006. the installed power generation capacity of India stood at 147. India's installed wind power generation capacity stood at 9. are also involved in the generation and intra-state distribution of electricity. Major PSUs involved in the generation of electricity include National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC). several state-level corporations.000 MW. Due to shortage of Vaishali Garg (EEE 3rd year) Page 4 . India unveiled a $19 billion plan to produce 20. the demand for energy has grown at an average of 3. India is world's 6th largest energy consumer. In July 2009.6% per annum over the past 30 years. earlier. The Union Minister of Power at present is Sushilkumar Shinde of the Congress Party who took charge of the ministry on the 28th of May. More than 50% of India's commercial energy demand is met through the country's vast coal reserves. Due to India's economic rise. 2009. The Ministry of Power is the apex body responsible for the development of electrical energy in India. In March 2009. it was known as the Ministry of Energy.000 MW of installed generation capacity by 2012. accounting for 3.4% of global energy consumption. Besides PSUs. The total demand for electricity in India is expected to cross 950.000 MW by 2030. This ministry started functioning independently from 2 July. Additionally.655 MW.000 MW while the per capita power consumption stood at 612 kWH.SOLAR ENERGY A Future Outlook In India Electricity sector in India The electricity sector in India is predominantly controlled by the Government of India's public sector undertakings (PSUs). electricity demand outstripped supply by 7-11%.  Electricity losses in India during transmission and distribution are extremely high and vary between 30 to 45%.
398.5% of India's GDP.7% of total installed base with the southern state of Tamil Nadu contributing nearly a third of it (4379.3% of total installed base. seventeen nuclear power reactors produce 4. Main article: Nuclear power in India Renewable Power Current installed base of Renewable energy is 13. just 44 percent of rural households have access to electricity.00 MW (2.76. According to a sample of 97.734. Hydro Power India was one of the pioneering states in establishing hydro-electric power plants. While 80 percent of Indian villages have at least an electricity line. The state of Maharashtra is the largest producer of thermal power in the country.41 MW which is 7.242. Nuclear Power Currently.458.91 MW.SOLAR ENERGY A Future Outlook In India electricity.01 MW which is 10.882 households in 2002. Despite an ambitious rural electrification program.120.9% of total installed base. Theft of electricity. power cuts are common throughout India and this has adversely effected the country's economic growth.88 MW which comes to 53. The power plant at Darjeeling and Shimsha (Shivanasamudra) was established in 1898 and 1902 respectively and is one of the first in Asia.75 MW which is 0. Multi Commodity Exchange has sought permission to offer electricity future markets. The public sector has a predominant share of 97% in this sector. Vaishali Garg (EEE 3rd year) Page 5 . amounts to 1. Generation Grand Total Installed Capacity is 149. common in most parts of urban India.5% of total installed base.9% of total installed base). The installed capacity as of 2008 was approximately 36877.7% of total installed capacity.391.64 MW which is 64. some 400 million Indians lose electricity access during blackouts.64 MW) largely through wind power. electricity was the main source of lighting for 53% of rural households compared to 36% in 1993. Thermal Power Current installed capacity of Thermal Power (as of 12/2008) is 93. Current installed base of Oil Based Thermal Power is 1.199. Current installed base of Gas Based Thermal Power is 14. • • • Current installed base of Coal Based Thermal Power is 77.
In India bulk transmission has increased from 3. The transmission system planning in the country. While the predominant technology for electricity transmission and distribution has been Alternating Current (AC) technology. the liberal definition of a captive generating plant and provision for supply in rural areas are expected to introduce and encourage competition in the electricity sector. High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) technology has also been used for interconnection of all regional grids across the country and for bulk transmission of power over long distances. Eastern Region. recognition of power trading as a distinct activity. due to various reasons such as spatial development of load in the network. non-commissioning of load center generating units originally planned and deficit in reactive compensation. transmission and distribution front would result in formation of a robust electricity grid in the country. This had necessitated backing down of generation and operating at a lower load generation balance in the past. in the past. Northern Region. Transmission planning has therefore moved away from the earlier generation evacuation system planning to integrate system planning. generally of 132kV and above. Ability of the power system to safely withstand a contingency without generation rescheduling or load-shedding was the main criteria for planning the transmission system. North Eastern Region. had traditionally been linked to generation projects as part of the evacuation system. However. Vaishali Garg (EEE 3rd year) Page 6 . Southern Region and Western Region.708ckm in 1950 to more than 165. India. certain pockets in the power system could not safely operate even under normal conditions. Transmission of electricity is defined as bulk transfer of power over a long distance at high voltage.000ckm today(as stated by Power Grid Corporation of India). namely. Certain provisions in the Electricity Act 2003 such as open access to the transmission and distribution network. The Interconnected transmission system within each region is also called the regional grid.SOLAR ENERGY A Future Outlook In India Transmission A power transmission cable operated by BEST in Mumbai. The entire country has been divided into five regions for transmission systems. It is expected that all the above measures on the generation.
The loss as percentage of turnover was reduced from 33% in 2000-01 to 16. 400kV. 132kV and 66kV which has developed to transmit the power from generating station to the grid substations.vdggv Power for ALL by 2012 The Government of India has an ambitious mission of POWER FOR ALL BY 2012.97 MW. and lack of adequate reactive power support. theft & pilferages.86% in 2001-02 to 34.86% in the year 2000-01. The programme. As the T&D loss was not able to capture all the losses in the net work.000MW and the total number of consumers is over 144 million. overloading of the system elements like transformers and conductors. Power requirement will double by 2020 to 400. due to lack of adequate investment on T&D works. concept of Aggregate Technical and Commercial (AT&C) loss was introduced. This mission would require that the installed generation capacity should be at least 200.000MW.SOLAR ENERGY A Future Outlook In India Distribution The total installed generating capacity in the country is over 147. has led to reduction in the overall AT&C loss from 38. Vaishali Garg (EEE 3rd year) Page 7 . which has resulted in unplanned extensions of the distribution lines. This may be eliminated by improving metering efficiency. Fixing of accountability of the personnel / feeder managers may help considerably in reduction of AT&C loss. However. for the strengthening of Sub – Transmission and Distribution network and reduction in AT&C losses.000 MW by 2012 from the present level of 144. 29331 Crore to Rs.60% in 2005-06. proper energy accounting & auditing and improved billing & collection efficiency.54% in 2005-06. a vast network of sub transmission in distribution system has also come up for utilisation of the power by the ultimate consumers. so that the desired level of 15% AT&C loss could be achieved by the end of 11th plan. The commercial losses are mainly due to low metering efficiency.The reduction of these losses was essential to bring economic viability to the State Utilities.564. 19546 Crore. the T&D losses have been consistently on higher side. With the initiative of the Government of India and of the States. The main objective of the programme was to bring Aggregate Technical & Commercial (AT&C) losses below 15% in five years in urban and in high-density areas. The commercial loss of the State Power Utilities reduced significantly during this period from Rs. along with other initiatives of the Government of India and of the States. the Accelerated Power Development & Reform Programme (APDRP) was launched in 2001. Apart from an extensive transmission system network at 500kV HVDC. High technical losses in the system are primarily due to inadequate investments over the years for system improvement works. and reached to the level of 32. AT&C loss captures technical as well as commercial losses in the network and is a true indicator of total losses in the system. 220kV. The APDRP programme is being restructured by the Government of India.
Financing Strategy to generate resources for required growth of the power sector. Decentralized distributed generation and supply for rural areas. Bihar. Madhya Pradesh etc are some of the states where significant number (more than 10%) of villages are yet to be electrified.593. Technology upgradation & optimization of transmission cost.82.173 Village level Electrification % .488. Orissa. Uttranchal. Uttar Pradesh. loss reduction. Communication Strategy for political consensus with media support to enhance the genera. • • • Number of Villages (1991 Census) . • • • • • • Rural electrification Jharkhand.732 Villages Electrified (30 May 2006) . consumer service orientation. theft control. Conservation Strategy to optimise the utilization of electricity with focus on Demand Side management. Regulation Strategy aimed at protecting Consumer interests and making the sector commercially viable.SOLAR ENERGY A Future Outlook In India Objectives • • • • • • Sufficient power to achieve GDP growth rate of 8% Reliable power Quality power Optimum power cost Commercial viability of power industry Power for all Strategies • Power Generation Strategy with focus on low cost generation. Load management and Technology upgradation to provide energy efficient equipment / gadgets. controlling the input cost.2% Vaishali Garg (EEE 3rd year) Page 8 . quality power supply commercialization. optimization of capacity utilization. public awareness. Distribution strategy to achieve Distribution Reforms with focus on System upgradation. Technology upgradation and utilization of Non Conventional energy sources Transmission Strategy with focus on development of National Grid including Interstate connections. optimisation of fuel mix.
Much of the country does not have an electrical grid. it was reported that India is ready to launch its Solar Mission under the National Action Plan on Climate Change Annual insolation With about 300 clear sunny days in a year.300–3. In July 2009. the price per unit of electricity in India is about Rs. even assuming 10% conversion efficiency for PV modules. India's theoretical solar power reception. to begin replacing India's four to five million diesel powered water pumps. solar-powered equipment and applications would be mandatory in all government buildings including hospitals and hotels 18 November 2009. and Rs. Such measures have resulted in many of the state electricity boards becoming financially weak. 9 for the commercial supply Solar power in India India is both densely populated and has high solar insolation. and off-grid lighting. India unveiled a $19 billion plan to produce 20 GW of solar power by 2020 under the plan. The subsidies are mainly as cross-subsidisation. and a 35. This is far more than current total energy consumption. The daily average solar energy incident over India varies from 4 to 7 kWh/m2 with about 2. This includes for use in agriculture and for consumption by backward classes. 4 (8 US cents) for domestic consumers. sufficient to generate 700 to 2.e. so one of the first applications of solar power has been for water pumping.SOLAR ENERGY A Future Outlook In India Subsidies Several state governments in India provide electricity at subsidised rates or even free to some sections. For example. with the other users such as industries and private consumers paying the deficit caused by the subsidised charges collected. just on its land area.5 kilowatts. is about 5 PWh/year (i. it will still be thousand times greater than the likely electricity demand in India by the year 2015. depending upon location.100 giga watts. At present (2009). = 5000 trillion kWh/yr ~ 600 TW). Present status Installed capacity Vaishali Garg (EEE 3rd year) Page 9 .000 km² area of the Thar Desert has been set aside for solar power projects.200 sunshine hours per year. Some large projects have been proposed. providing an ideal combination for solar power in India. each consuming about 3.
Chennai Applications Rural electrification Vaishali Garg (EEE 3rd year) Page 10 . Banglore plant Waaree Energies Ltd.. PV manufacture in India Current PV manufacturing in India includes: • • • • • • • • • • • • Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd.. attaining cost parity with fossil or nuclear energy. Solar heaters available in China for under $200 costs $400 in India.SOLAR ENERGY A Future Outlook In India The amount of solar energy produced in India is merely 0. Gujarat. BP-Tata joint venture. Surat. Government-funded solar energy in India only accounted for approximately 6.e. • • • • • • • Number of solar street lighting systems: 55. The cost of production ranges from Rs 15 to Rs 30 per unit compared to around Rs 2 to Rs 6 per unit for conventional thermal energy.4 megawatt-years of power as of 2005. AP. India is heavily dependent on coal and foreign oil — a phenomenon likely to continue until non-fossil / renewable energy technology become economically viable in the country. To spawn a thriving solar market.607 Solar lanterns: 560. The Grid-interactive solar power as of June 2007 was merely 2. Moser-Baer signed up for a thin film Si plant provided by Applied Materials.795 Number of home lighting systems: 342.295 Solar photovoltaic power plants: 1566 kW Solar water heating systems: 140 km2 of collector area Box-type solar cookers: 575. Maharashtra NanoPV Solar India Private Limited. Solar Semiconductor Pvt in Hyderabad. the technology needs to be competitively cheaper — i.12 MW.4% compared to other energy resources. GreenBrilliance Pvt. are still imported from other countries and adds to the bill of materials.818 Still unaffordable Solar power is currently prohibitive due to high initial costs of deployment.However. like evacuated glass tubes. Jalgaon. Hyderabad SHARP (JAPAN). India Titan Energy Systems Ltd. ICOMM TELE Limited KCK Energy Systems Jain Irrigation Systems Ltd. Ltd. as of October 2009. The parts of solar water heaters. India is currently ranked number one along with the United States in terms of installed Solar Power generation capacity.000 Solar photovoltaic pumps: 6.
Bangalore is also the first city in the country to put in place an incentive mechanism by providing a rebate. long-distance centralised power delivery systems and yet bring cheap electricity to the masses. Developments on cheap solar technology is considered as a potential alternative that allows an electricity infrastructure comprising of a network of local-grid clusters with distributed electricity generation. A target for electrifying 5.068 solar PV water pumping systems have been installed. India's grid system is considerably under-developed. which has just been increased to Rs 50. more than 2. on monthly electricity bills for residents using roof-top thermal systems which are now mandatory for all new structures. is the cost of energy expended on temperature control — a factor squarely influencing regional energy intensity. Of these villages. or at least relieving the need of installing expensive. By 30 September. has also recently made installation of solar water heaters in new buildings mandatory. Challenges and constraints Land scarcity Vaishali Garg (EEE 3rd year) Page 11 .700 villages and hamlets had been electrified mainly using SPV systems.g. That could allow bypassing.000 liters of water/day from a total head of 10 meters.000 could not be electrified through extension of the conventional grid. As of 2004 there are about 80. another city in the western part of India. a total of 7.800 Wp PV array which can deliver about 140. Cooling Another e. The majority of the pumps are fitted with a 200–3.000 watt motor that are powered with 1. As on 2004. Agricultural support Water pumping Solar PV water pumping systems are used for irrigation and drinking water. with major sections of its populace still surviving offgrid. 2006. Solar water heaters Bangalore has the largest deployment of rooftop solar water heaters in India that will generate energy equivalent to 200 MW everyday and will be the country's first grid connected utility scale project soon.SOLAR ENERGY A Future Outlook In India Lack of electricity infrastructure is one of the main hurdles in the development of rural India.000 such villages was fixed for the Tenth National Five Year Plan (2002–2007). Harvest processing Solar driers are used to dry harvests before storage. cooling from intense solar radiation could be an attractive energy-economic option in the subcontinent. Pune. 18. With cooling load demands being roughly in phase with the sun's intensity. and lossy.000 unelectrified villages in the country.
individual rooftop power generation systems. Globally. However. Latent potential Think-tanks have recommended that India should adopt a policy of developing solar power as a dominant component of the renewable energy mix. but do so without compromising on its economic growth potential. That might be possible in the future. as seen during the past few years. erecting such an infrastructure — which doesn't enjoy the economies of scale possible in mass utility-scale solar panel deployment — needs the market price of solar technology deployment to substantially decline so that it attracts the individual and average family size household consumer. and the US currently ranked far ahead. since PV is projected to continue its current cost reductions for the next decades and be able to compete with fossil fuel. India could not only rein its long-term carbon emissions. since being a densely populated region in the sunny tropical belt . Slow progress While the world has progressed substantially in production of basic silicon mono-crystalline photovoltaic cells. the subcontinent has the ideal combination of both high solar insolation and a big potential consumer base density . The amount of land required for utility-scale solar power plants — currently approximately 1 km² for every 20– 60 megawatts (MW) generated — could pose a strain on India's available land resource. with renewable resources like solar becoming the backbone of India's economy by 2050  Vaishali Garg (EEE 3rd year) Page 12 . India has fallen short to achieve the worldwide momentum. solar is the fastest growing source of energy (though from a very small base) with an annual average growth of 35%.China. India is now in 7th place worldwide in Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Cell production and 9th place in Solar Thermal Systems with nations like Japan.SOLAR ENERGY A Future Outlook In India Per capita land availability is a scarce resource in India. all connected via a local grid. Dedication of land area for exclusive installation of solar cells might have to compete with other necessities that require land. The architecture more suitable for most of India would be a highly distributed. In one of the scenarios.
At night. traditional methods can be used to generate the electricity. Vaishali Garg (EEE 3rd year) Page 13 . 75% of our electrical power is generated by coal-burning and nuclear power plants.SOLAR ENERGY A Future Outlook In India Argument that sun provides power only during the day is countered by the fact that 70% of energy demand is during daytime hours. Goal is to decrease our dependence on fossil fuels. Currently.
SOLAR ENERGY A Future Outlook In India Mitigates the effects of acid rain. indefinitely sustainable Vaishali Garg (EEE 3rd year) Page 14 . pollution free. carbon dioxide. and other impacts of burning coal and counters risks associated with nuclear energy.
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