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Advances in Engineering Software 85 (2015) 1225

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Advances in Engineering Software


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/advengsoft

Multibody system dynamics simulator for process simulation of ships


and offshore plants in shipyards
Sol Ha a, Nam-Kug Ku b, Myung-Il Roh c,, Ho-Jin Hwang d
a
Engineering Research Institute, Seoul National University, Daehak-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744, Republic of Korea
b
Department of the Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Dong-eui University, Eomgwang-ro, Bisanjin-ku, Busan 614-714, Republic of Korea
c
Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Research Institute of Marine Systems Engineering, Seoul National University, Daehak-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul
151-744, Republic of Korea
d
Korea Research Institute of Ships and Ocean Engineering, Yuseong-daero, Youseong-ku, Daejeon 305-343, Republic of Korea

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Since various existing simulation tools based on multibody system dynamics focus on conventional
Received 28 November 2014 mechanical systems, such as machinery, cars, and spacecraft, there are some problems with the applica-
Received in revised form 19 January 2015 tion of such simulation tools to shipbuilding domains due to the absence of specic items in the eld of
Accepted 15 February 2015
naval architecture and ocean engineering, such as hydrostatics, hydrodynamics, and mooring forces.
Available online 6 March 2015
Thus, in this study, we developed a multibody system dynamics simulator for the process simulation
of ships and offshore structures. We based the simulator on six kernels: the multibody system dynamics
Keywords:
kernel, the force calculation kernel, the numerical analysis kernel, the hybrid simulation kernel, the
Multibody system dynamics
Modeling and simulation
scenario management kernel, and the collision detection kernel. Based on these kernels, we implemented
Ship a simulator that had the following Graphic User Interfaces (GUIs): the modeling, visualization, and report
Offshore plant GUIs. In addition, the geometric properties of blocks and facilities in shipyards are needed to congure
Scenario management the simulation for the production of ships and offshore plants, so these are managed in a database and
Lifting connected to a specic commercial CAD system in shipyards. We used the simulator we developed in
Transporting various cases of the process simulation of ships and offshore plants. The results show that the simulator
is useful for various simulations of operations in shipyards and offshore industries.
2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction various existing simulation tools based on multibody system


dynamics focus on conventional mechanical systems, such as
Requests for accurate dynamic analysis using a simulation tool machinery, cars, and spacecraft, there are some problems with
have been increasing in many engineering elds, including in the the application of these simulation tools to shipbuilding domains
shipbuilding industry. Unlike the conventional mechanical systems due to the absence of specic items in the eld of naval architec-
such as cars and machinery, all ships and offshore structures differ ture and ocean engineering, such as hydrostatic, hydrodynamic,
in purpose, shape, and size [1]. Thus, even though process planning wake, and mooring forces. Therefore, some recent studies focused
may be set up based on the experience of similar ships and offshore on developing a simulation tool for the shipbuilding process based
structures, many unexpected problems may occur during their on the multibody system dynamics theorem.
production. For example, an interference between a block and The remainder of this paper is as follows. Section 2 reviews pre-
the wire ropes, the desynchronization between the cranes, the vious works related to this study. In Section 3, the developed
excess of the maximum tension of the wire ropes, etc. can occur multibody system dynamics simulator for the shipbuilding process
during the production of ships and offshore plants. Fig. 1 shows is introduced. Its application to shipbuilding follows in Section 4.
such problem during production in shipyards. The last section summarizes this study and briey discusses the
Moreover, due to the recent increase in the demand for offshore next study.
plants and new-concept ships, new manufacturing methods in
shipyards are frequently reviewed with simulation, including with 2. Related works
dynamic analysis, to conrm their availability and safety [2]. Since
There are various open-source-based or commercial software
Corresponding author. programs that are based on the multibody system dynamics theo-
E-mail address: miroh@snu.ac.kr (M.-I. Roh). rem. However, there are few cases of their application to the

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advengsoft.2015.02.008
0965-9978/ 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
S. Ha et al. / Advances in Engineering Software 85 (2015) 1225 13

conducted. Cha et al. proposed and developed a simulation frame-


work for the dynamic analysis of the shipbuilding production pro-
cess [8,9,10]. Based on Cha et al.s studies, the formulation of
multibody system dynamics was changed in order to make automat-
ed dynamic analysis efcient, and the component-based scenario
management and GUIs were enhanced in this study. The aforemen-
tioned related works are summarized and compared with this study
in Table 1.

3. Multibody system dynamics simulator for ships and offshore


plants

3.1. Conguration of the multibody system dynamics simulator

Fig. 2 shows the conguration of the multibody system dynam-


ics simulator developed in this study. The developed simulator has
three layers: the Database, Kernels, and Graphic User Interface
(GUI). The core function of the kernels layer is to simulate the
operations in shipyards and offshore industries. It has six compo-
nents: the multibody system dynamics kernel, force calculation
kernel, numerical analysis kernel, hybrid discrete event system
specication (DEVS)/discrete time system specication (DTSS)
kernel, scenario management kernel, and collision detection
kernel. The GUI layer is based on these kernels and supports the
users simple simulations from various cases in shipyards or
Fig. 1. Some problems during the production of ships and offshore plants.
offshore industries. In addition, the geometric properties of the
block and facilities in shipyards are needed to congure the
simulation of the shipbuilding production process, because it is dif-
simulation for the production of ships and offshore plants, so these
cult for these systems to support shipbuilding-friendly external
are managed in the database layer. In the following sections, the
forces such as hydrostatic and hydrodynamic forces.
kernels and GUI layers are described in detail.
ADAMS (Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems) is
a software system with a number of integrated programs that help
engineers perform three-dimensional kinematic and dynamic ana- 3.2. Kernels
lyses of mechanical systems [3,4]. ADAMS generates equations of
motion for multibody systems using augmented formulation. The As mentioned in the previous section, the developed system has
user can dene any multibody system composed of several rigid six core kernels. The function and role of each kernel are as follows.
and exible bodies that are interconnected by joints. ADAMS sup-
plies various types of joints, such as xed, revolute, and spherical 3.2.1. Multibody system dynamics kernel
joints. Various external forces can also be applied to multibody sys- The crane systems in shipyards are all multibody systems in
tems, but hydrostatic and hydrodynamic forces, which are the which multiple rigid bodies are joined together. Thus, we devel-
dominant forces exerted on the oating platform and are often oped the dynamic analysis kernel for the multibody system. The
used in shipyards, cannot be handled by ADAMS. ODE (Open computer methods used in the automated dynamic analysis of
Dynamics Engine) is an open-source library for simulating multi- multibody systems that consist of rigid bodies are generally classi-
body dynamics [5]. Similar to ADAMS, ODE derives equations of ed into two main approaches [11]. In the rst approach, the con-
motion for multibody systems using augmented formulation. guration of the system is identied using a set of Cartesian
However, ODE can treat only rigid bodies, not exible bodies. coordinates that describe the locations and orientations of the bod-
Moreover, it cannot handle hydrostatic and hydrodynamic forces. ies. This approach is called augmented formulation. In the second
RecurDyn [6] is a three-dimensional simulation program that com- approach, relative joint variables are used to formulate a minimum
bines dynamic response analysis tools and nite element analysis set of differential equations of motion, and two types of formula-
tools for multibody systems. It is two to 20 times faster than other tion use relative joint variables: embedding formulation and recur-
dynamic solutions because of its advanced fully recursive formula- sive formulation. However, embedding formulation has difculty
tion. Various joints and external forces can also be applied to with automatically modeling multibody systems, so a multibody
multibody systems, but RecurDyn cannot handle hydrostatic and system dynamics kernel was developed based on recursive formu-
hydrodynamic forces. lation [12] in a previous study [13]. To validate the developed ker-
Unlike these programs that are based on multibody system nel, the analysis results were compared with the data measured
dynamics, MOSES (Multi-Operational Structural Engineering from a shipyard. This comparison conrmed that the simulation
Simulator) is a simulation program that can analyze the motion of and measured data differed by only 10%. This 10% difference might
a single body in a uid by applying hydrostatic and hydrodynamic have been caused mainly by the uncertainty of each multibody sys-
forces to it [7]. With this program, a restrictively connected multi- tem and environmental factors, so we are planning to consider this
body system cannot be simulated because the program does not uncertainty a factor of each term.
support a connective relation between the bodies, but a simulation The dynamics of a rigid body system are described according to
that considers hydrostatic and hydrodynamic forces as external the systems equations of motion, which specify the relationship
forces is possible. Thus, MOSES is often used for ocean simulation between the forces that act on the system and the accelerations
for a oating single body in shipyards. they produce. The developed kernel contains the algorithms for
In other areas of study that do not use the aforementioned pro- the following two calculations: the calculation of the forward
grams, some researches related to shipbuilding domains have been dynamics, or of the acceleration response of a given rigid body
14 S. Ha et al. / Advances in Engineering Software 85 (2015) 1225

Table 1
Summary of related works and comparison with this study.

Items This study Cha et al. ADAMS ODE RecurDyn MOSES


Multibody formulation Recursive Embedding Augmented Augmented Recursive General NewtonEuler
formulation technique formulation formulation formulation equation
Various joints O O O O O X
Flexible body X X O X O X
Hydrostatic force O O X X X O
Linearized hydrodynamic O O X X X O
force
Scenario management O O O X O 4

Modeling GUI Visualization GUI Report GUI


Multibody System Scenario 3D Table Chart
Modeling Modeling Rendering Generator Generator

Kernels
Scenario Management Force Calculation Kernel
Kernel
Combination of Actors External Forces
Hybrid DEVS/DTSS Wind, Current, Control, etc.
Kernel
Discrete Event & Time Simulation
Collision Detection Interactive Forces
Wire Rope, Contact, Mooring, etc.
Kernel
Broad & Narrow Phase
Numerical Analysis Forces Acting On Floater
Kernel Hydrostatic, Hydrodynamic
Euler, Runge-Kutta, Adams-Bashforth, etc.
Multibody System Dynamics
Kernel
Recursive Newton-Euler Formulation

Database

Block Facility
Geometry & Geometry &
Property Property

Fig. 2. Conguration of the multibody system dynamics simulator for the process simulation of ships and offshore plants.

system to a given applied force, and the calculation of the inverse forces, interactive forces, and forces that act on a oater such as
dynamics, or of the force that must be applied to a given rigid body a ship or an offshore plant. External forces act on a body or joint.
system to produce a given acceleration response. The equations of Some forces such as wind and current forces are caused by the
motion for each body of a multibody system based on recursive environment, and other forces, such as the controlling force, are
formulation can be summarized as follows. planned by an engineer. Interactive forces act on two or more bod-
ies by interconnecting them with a certain mechanical system (for
v^ i i Xi1  v^ i1 Si  q_ i ; a^i i Xi1  a^i1 Si  qi S_ i  q_ i v^ i  Si  q_ i
example, a wire rope or a spring) or by colliding them. A tension
^f B ^I  a ^ i ; ^f i ^f Bi i Xi1  ^f i1  ^f ext
^ i ^Ii  v
i i ^i v i force caused by a wire rope, a contact force caused by colliding
si STi  ^f i two rigid bodies, and a mooring force are examples of interactive
forces. Moreover, a load-balancing system, called an equalizer
1 in shipyards, is also considered a type of this kernel. To apply
equivalent tensions to all wires, the length of each wire is con-
3.2.2. Force calculation kernel trolled in proportion to the tension that acts on it after classifying
The force calculation kernel calculates the forces that act on the it as an equalizer.
multibody system. Some forces act on a rigid body of the system, The forces that act on a oater are only existing forces on the
and other forces act on a joint of the system. As shown in Fig. 2, domain in ships and offshore plants (actually, these are kinds of
the force calculation kernel has three kinds of forces: external external forces). There are two kinds of these forces: hydrostatic
S. Ha et al. / Advances in Engineering Software 85 (2015) 1225 15

Scenario for moving block Generation of a scenario using actors


1. Set position and orientation of Crane Target: J1 Target: J2
2. Hoist up Block Joint Joint
Action: rotate Action: rotate
3. Change position and orientation of Crane Actor Actor
4. Hoist down Block
Wire Target: W1
Action: hoist (up)
Actor

Joint Target: J1 Joint Target: J2


Action: rotate Action: rotate
Actor Actor

Wire Target: W1
Action: hoist (down)
Actor

Fig. 3. Generation of a scenario using actors: Scenario for moving a block.

and hydrodynamic forces. The hydrostatic force applied to a oat- Kutta method is used. Because of this problem, this system supports
ing body is calculated while considering the bodys instantaneous other numerical integration methods for the achievement of
position, and is expressed as follows. numerical stability, and the user can choose one method depending
" Z Z Z #T on his or her case. Using the kernel, the integrator integrates the
^f ext q;t q g 0; 0; dV; y dV;  xBuoy dV; 0 equations of motion and calculates the position and velocity of each
Hydrostatic sw Buoy
Vq;t Vq;t Vq;t body in the given systems at each time unit.
2
3.2.4. Hybrid DEVS/DTSS kernel
In the preceding equation, qsw is the density of sea water, g is There are two kinds of simulation. A simulation in which the
the gravitational acceleration, V(q, t) is the submerged volume of state of a model changes by means of any event is called discrete
the oating body, and xBuoy and yBuoy are the coordinates of the cen- event simulation. The discrete event simulation processes events,
ter of buoyancy. The shape of a rigid body is modeled as a trigonal- which change the state variables of a model, in the order in which
ized mesh. To calculate the physical properties of the submerged they occur. A simulation that calculates the state of a model at each
volume of the oating platform, its mesh is rst intersected with unit time is called discrete time simulation. It is mostly used to
the waterplane, after which the mesh under the waterplane is cho- analyze dynamic or mechanical systems because it calculates the
sen. Then this mesh is divided into a number of tetrahedrons using state of a model at each time unit.
the triangles on the mesh surface, and the submerged volume of Zeigler et al. [16] proposed formal structures, DEVS, and dis-
the oating platform can be calculated by summarizing the vol- crete time system specications (DTSS) for handling simulation
umes of the tetrahedrons. Other physical properties, including models of discrete events and times. They are widely used as stan-
the center of buoyancy and the second moment of the submerged dard modeling and simulation formalisms. The DEVS formalism is
volume, are also similarly calculated [14]. The hydrodynamic force a hierarchical and modular modeling approach centered on the
is calculated in the time domain using the 3D Rankine panel state concept. In its basic form, it does not consider the system
method. The hydrodynamic force exerted on a oating body can structure evolution. Instead, only the states can evolve or move.
be determined by integrating the pressure over the wet surface, Each system is described functionally (behaviorally) and struc-
as shown in the following equation. turally. Likewise, the DEVS formalism is composed of two types
2 3T of models: atomic models and coupled models. The atomic model
ZZ ZZ
^f ext 4 @/ @/ represents the basic behavior of the system, and the computed
hydrodynamic  ndS13 ;  r  ndS13 5 3
@t @t model denotes its internal structure. On the other hand, the cou-
S S
pled model assembles several atomic and/or coupled models to
In the preceding equation, S is the submerged surface, and r is build a complex system hierarchy.
each panels position vector located on the bodys surface dened The DTSS formalism is a model structure that continuously cal-
in body-xed coordination. The algorithms for the calculation of culates the state of a model at each time unit. An atomic model
these forces were studied in previous works [15,13] and modular- based on DTSS formalism has a structure similar to that of the
ized in this study. DEVS formalism. In addition, it is connected to the atomic model
of DEVS formalism. Its overall system is composed of a set of com-
3.2.3. Numerical analysis kernel ponent models, either atomic or coupled, and thus, has a hierarchi-
To simulate and analyze the dynamic phenomena in the ship- cal structure. Each DEVS or DTSS model, also either atomic or
building process for each time unit, a numerical analysis kernel coupled, corresponds to an object in the real system to be modeled.
was developed in this study. Because of some strict cases of simula- Bang developed a simulation framework based on the hybrid
tion for the production of ships and offshore plants, the numerical DEVS and DTSS formalism [17]. To evaluate the efciency and
analysis kernel provides various numerical integration methods applicability of this simulation framework, it was applied to the
such as the Euler method, RungeKutta method, Adams block erection process in shipbuilding [8], the dive of a submarine
Bashforth method, and HilberHughesTaylor method. The [18], and an analysis of the evacuation of a passenger ship [19].
RungeKutta method is one of the best solutions for numerical inte- Most analyses based on multibody system dynamics are
gration, but the target block in shipyards is much heavier than the time-based. However, as mentioned in the previous section, the
spring coefcient of wire ropes. Thus, the numerical integration of shipbuilding process is a kind of event-based analysis. Thus, in this
the operation in shipyards is often unstable when the Runge study, the hybrid DEVS and DTSS formalism is used to cover both
16 S. Ha et al. / Advances in Engineering Software 85 (2015) 1225

(a) Ribbon style menu

(f) Timeline
(c) 3D simulation view,
Scenario editor,
Report view

(b) Model
Tree

(e) Log window

(d) Property editor

Fig. 4. Components of the GUI of the multibody dynamics simulator developed in this study: (a) ribbon-style menu, (b) model tree of the target multibody systems, (c) 3D
simulation view, scenario editor, and report view, (d) property editor, (e) log window, and (f) timeline.

Edit Edit Edit Edit Import and export


multibody rigid body joint wire rope multibody

Editable
in model tree

Fig. 5. Graphic user interface: Multibody system modeling GUI.

time-based and event-based analyses. The simulation kernel devel- multibody system, the scenario can be specied by the combina-
oped by Bang was also used in this study. tion of unit actions. A unit action is a user-dened input that acts
on subcomponents of a multibody system. Each action should be
3.2.5. Scenario management kernel performed at the proper time with the desired functions, so a mod-
In this study, the scenario management kernel was developed el for performing this action, named Actor, was dened. An actor
to help congure a scenario of heavy load operations in shipyards is a user-dened input that acts on a multibody system. All bodies,
or offshore industries. By analyzing a sequence of motions in a joints, and wire ropes in a multibody system can be connected
S. Ha et al. / Advances in Engineering Software 85 (2015) 1225 17

Fig. 6. Graphic user interface: Scenario modeling GUI.

Fig. 7. Graphic user interface: Report GUI.


18 S. Ha et al. / Advances in Engineering Software 85 (2015) 1225

(a) (b) to the rst group of actors, and the crane may move to the desired
position and orientation.
Body 0
Joint 0
Joint Actor 1 Joint Actor 3
Body 1 Target: Joint 0 Target: Joint 0 3.2.6. Collision detection kernel
(Link 1) Degree: 45 Degree: 90 To minimize the risk during the production of ships and off-
shore plants, the interferences among the bodies and wire ropes
Joint 1 Joint Actor 2 must be checked. One of the functions of the collision detection
Target: Joint 1 kernel is to detect their collision with other bodies and wire ropes
Body 2 Degree: 30
during the simulation, which is particularly important as there can
(Link 2)
be more than 10,000 subcomponents and pieces. The collision
detection modules available to the public are OPCODE, RAPID,
Fig. 8. Double compound pendulum: (a) system conguration and (b) scenario I-COLLIDE, V-COLLIDE, SWIFT++, etc. The collision detection kernel
conguration. was based on some of these modules and it modularized them.

3.3. Graphic user interfaces


with multiple actors. According to the type of interaction, the actor
is specialized in the body, joint, or wire rope. As shown in Fig. 2, the GUI layer has three parts: the modeling
Using the actors, the user may be able to implement an action in GUI, the visualization GUI, and the report GUI.
an existing multibody system. However, to dene the procedure of Fig. 4 shows the GUI overview of the multibody system dynam-
the action, it should be dened when the actor starts working and ics simulator developed in this study. As shown in Fig. 4(a)(f), the
when it stops. The combination of the actors is a set of details of GUI of the developed simulator has six components: a ribbon style
each action in a simulation procedure, and lists how to run an menu, a model tree, a property editor, a 3D simulation view, a sce-
existing multibody system according to a given objective. Fig. 3 nario editor, a report view, a log window, and a timeline.
shows a sequence for generating a scenario for moving a block. The modeling GUI has two subcomponents: the multibody sys-
The scenario for moving a block is as follows: (1) change the posi- tem modeling GUI and the scenario modeling GUI. Fig. 5 shows the
tion and orientation of the Crane, (2) hoist up the Block, (3) modeling GUI of the developed simulator. It can be used to edit
change the position and orientation of the Crane (meaning as multibodies, rigid bodies, joints, and wire ropes, and to import or
the Crane moves to the desired position and orientation), and export multibodies. The multibody system can be editable in a
(4) hoist down the Block. For example, in Step (1), to change model tree. Fig. 5 also shows an example of the modeling of a jib
the posture of the crane, two joint actors are allocated and con- crane by combining four rigid bodies and three joints.
nected with the two joints J1 and J2. These two actors should Fig. 6 shows the scenario modeling GUI developed in this study.
be started after the simulation starts, so the trigger for starting It edits a basic actor, converts it to another actor type, and provides
the action is given by the starting time, which is normally zero, tools for convenience. The scenario can be created by connecting

(a) System Configuration (b) Scenario

Fig. 9. Conguration of the double compound pendulum system and scenario conguration using the developed simulator.
S. Ha et al. / Advances in Engineering Software 85 (2015) 1225 19

Actor 1 and 2 Actor 2 was deactivated. Actor 3 was activated. All actors were
were activated. Actor 1 is still activated. deactivated.

Fig. 10. Simulation result: Change in the Euler angles Body 1 of the double compound pendulum.

Actor 1 and 2 Actor 2 was deactivated. Actor 3 was activated. All actors were
were activated. Actor 1 is still activated. deactivated.

Fig. 11. Simulation result: Change in the Euler angles Body 2 of the double compound pendulum.

the actors, and the priority of each actor can be set by connecting it process. In this paper, two such examples are presented: the dou-
with the other actors. ble compound pendulum, and the block-lifting, transportation, and
The developed simulator also has the visualization GUI. The turnover simulation using two goliath cranes.
visualization GUI is used to manipulate multibodies in the 3D
simulation view, as shown in Fig. 4. Finally, Fig. 7 shows an exam-
ple of the report GUI developed in this study. To generate simula- 4.1. Double compound pendulum
tion reports, the target items should be chosen before the
simulation is started. After the start of the simulation, the report 4.1.1. Overview
GUI supports a real-time view of the simulation results, as shown To verify the functions of the simulator, it was rst applied to a
in Fig. 7. simple example, the double compound pendulum, with a simple
scenario. Fig. 8(a) shows the conguration of the double compound
pendulum. Any swinging rigid body free to rotate around a xed
4. Applications of the multibody system dynamics simulator horizontal axis is called a compound pendulum. As shown in
Fig. 8(a), Bodies 0, 1, and 2 are rigid bodies, and Body 1 is intercon-
To conrm the exibility and usefulness of the developed nected to Bodies 0 and 2 with rotational joints. Body 0 is xed to
simulator, it was applied to various examples in the shipbuilding the inertial space and does not move.
20 S. Ha et al. / Advances in Engineering Software 85 (2015) 1225

1. Block lifting 2. Move to dock


Upper Trolley

Lower Trolley

3. Turn-over
Block Loader

Goliath Crane 2
Block
(P0025-S03S) Goliath Crane 1

(a) (b)
Fig. 12. Two goliath cranes and a block for the block-lifting, transportation, and turnover procedure: (a) the conceptual modeling result of the simulation and (b) the
operation sequence.

Multibody Scenario
Multibody
Block Goliath Crane GOC201
Body
Actor
Wire Upper Trolley Action List
Multibody
Wire 1)
Block Loader Actor Joint GOC201s Upper Trolley:
Actor Actor
Hoist: 0.083m/s, -3.9m
GOC201s Lower Trolley:
Joint Body Hoist: 0.083m/s, -3.9m
Multibody Body GOC202s Upper Trolley:
Dock Hoist: 0.083m/s, -3.9m
Actor Joint GOC202s Lower Trolley:
Hoist: 0.083m/s, -3.9m

Wire Actor Actor Joint


2)
Multibody Body GOC201s Body:
Block Loader Wire Lower Trolley Slide: 0.677m/s, 100m
GOC201s Body:
Slide: 0.677m/s, 100m
Actor
3)
Multibody GOC201s Upper Trolley:
Goliath Crane GOC202 Hoist: 0.083m/s, -9m

Fig. 13. Dynamics models, simulation models, and scenario for the block-lifting and transportation simulation.

4.1.2. Scenario conguration on the left will be activated simultaneously just after the simula-
In the rest of the double compound pendulum, its subcompo- tion starts, and the actor on the right will be activated after the
nents, i.e., rigid bodies, do not move. Thus, it attempts to act via two actors on the left nish their jobs.
external forces to its joints step by step. At rst, we simultaneously
changed the angle of Joint 0 to 45 and the angle of Joint 1 to 30.
Then we rotated Joint 0 by an additional 90. These two actions can 4.1.3. Simulation results
be represented in a scenario using the joint actor. Fig. 8(b) shows Figs. 10 and 11 show the simulation results of the double com-
this scenario represented by multiple joint actors. When the pound pendulum with the given scenario mentioned in the previ-
simulation starts, Joint Actors 1 and 2 in Fig. 8(b) will be activated, ous section. As shown in Figs. 10 and 11, the change in the Euler
so the external forces will act on the target joints Joints 0 and 1. angles of each body is divided in four steps. The simulation started,
These actors will be deactivated when Joint 0 reaches 45 and and Actors 1 and 2 were activated simultaneously. Actor 1 tried to
when Joint 1 reaches 30. When each joint nishes its job, it will change the degree of Joint 0 to 45, and Actor 2 tried to change the
send a trigger to the connected joint, Joint Actor 3 in this example. degree of Joint 1 to 30. Since we set those angular velocities to be
Since Joint Actor 3 gets two triggers one each from Joint Actors 1 the same, Actor 2 obviously did its job faster than Actor 1 did. Thus,
and 2 it will nally be activated and will act on an external force about 516 s after the simulation started, Actor 1 was still activat-
to the connected joint (Joint 0) to rotate it by an additional 90. ed, but Actor 2 was deactivated after 5 s. After about 16 s, Actor 1
Fig. 9 shows the conguration of the double compound pendu- was also deactivated, and then Actor 3 was activated. Actor 3 tried
lum and the scenario conguration using the developed scenario to change the angle of Joint 0, so the angles of Joints 0 and 1 were
manager. Fig. 9(a) shows that three rigid bodies are modeled and changed. After Joint 0 was rotated by an additional 90, Actor 3 was
interconnected using two rotating joints. In Fig. 9(b), three joint deactivated, and the execution of the scenario was nished after
actors are used to represent the given scenario. The two actors about 25 s.
S. Ha et al. / Advances in Engineering Software 85 (2015) 1225 21

(c) Move lower trolley


(a) Hoist up

(b) Move two


goliath cranes

(d) Hoist up and down


for turn-over

Fig. 14. Block-lifting, transportation, and turnover simulation using two goliath cranes: Scenario conguration using the developed simulator.


VQP

Time
$NQEM $NQEM $NQEM $NQEM
.KHVKPI .KHVKPI 6WTPQXGT 6WTPQXGT
UVCTVU GPFU UVCTVU GPFU
)QNKCVJETCPG )QNKCVJETCPG
UVCTVUVQOQXGVQVJGFQEM GPFUVQOQXGVQVJGFQEM

Fig. 15. Tension of Block Loader 1 calculated in the block-lifting, transportation, and turnover simulation using the developed simulator.

4.2. Block-lifting, transportation, and turnover simulation using two turnover process using two goliath cranes on a dry dock. The block
goliath cranes with a weight of about 920 tons is connected to two goliath cranes
via wire ropes. Some parts of these wire ropes are grouped by a
4.2.1. Overview block loader. Fig. 12(b) shows a sequence of the operation for the
The block-lifting, transportation, and turnover procedure is the block-lifting, transportation, and turnover process. At rst, two
most frequently implemented production process in shipyards. goliath cranes lift the block by shortening the connected wire
Fig. 12 shows an example of a block-lifting, transportation, and ropes. Then the two goliath cranes move to a certain location to
22 S. Ha et al. / Advances in Engineering Software 85 (2015) 1225

(a) Target block (c)


Weight: 3,500 tons 600Ton GC x 2

3500Ton Block
Block
3000Ton FC Dock
gate Ground

Sea Dry dock

(d)

(b) Two 600 tonnes capacity goliath cranes

(e)

Fig. 16. Lifting and transportation of a mega-block using two goliath cranes and a oating crane: (a) the target mega-block with a weight of 3500 tons, (b) the two goliath
cranes, and (c)(e) the operation sequence.

Two goliath cranes


(based on multibody dynamics)

Floating crane
(based on multibody dynamics)

Target block

Hydrostatic and hydrodynamic forces


acting on a floating crane

Fig. 17. Result of the conceptual modeling of the lifting and transportation operation simulation.

move the block into the dock. Finally, the goliath cranes continue shown in Fig. 12(a). The goliath crane is composed of the main body,
the turnover process by alternately shortening and lengthening the upper trolley, and the lower trolley. The upper trolley and the
each wire rope. lower trolley are interconnected with the main body by sliding
To simulate this operation sequence, dynamic models; simula- joints. The block loader consists of two bodies interconnected by
tion models, including actors; and the scenario should be dened. a revolute joint. To simulate the block-lifting and transportation,
The detailed descriptions of the conguration of the simulation dynamic models should be made using the developed multibody
will be explained in the following sections. dynamics kernel.

4.2.2. Model conguration of the multibody dynamics system


To analyze the dynamic responses through the simulation, we 4.2.3. Scenario conguration
assumed that the block-lifting and transportation were carried Fig. 13 shows the entire conguration, including the dynamic
out using two goliath cranes, six block loaders, and one block, as models, simulation models, and scenario, for the block-lifting,
S. Ha et al. / Advances in Engineering Software 85 (2015) 1225 23

Wave force
for floating crane
(a) Hoist up (c) Hoist down
(b) Move to dock

Wind force
for block

Fig. 18. Lifting and transportation of a mega-block using two goliath cranes and a oating crane: Scenario conguration using the developed simulator.

Plan view x6 x7 x10

x3 x4

Points
connected to wire

x1 x2

x5 x8 x9

Fig. 19. Plan view of the simulation and points connected to the wires.

transportation, and turnover simulation. The actor atomic models wire actor tried to change the length of the target wire rope, so
are allocated to some dynamic models that need to act according the graph shows that the tension that acted on the wire rope
to the action list in the scenario. For example, a joint connects increased. After the block-lifting ended, the goliath crane started
the body Upper Trolley and the body Body, and the joint actor to move to the dock by activating the joint actors on it. Then the
atomic model is allocated to this actor. goliath carne stopped moving and the block turnover started.
In the right box in Fig. 13, the block-lifting, transportation, and This procedure can be conrmed with the change in the tension
turnover sequence scenario is specied using an action list. Various that acted on the wire rope in Fig. 15.
actions are dened in the action list, including an action for moving
the crane and an action for lifting the block up and down. 4.3. Simulation of the lifting and transporting of a mega-block using
Fig. 14 shows the scenario conguration of the target simula- two goliath cranes and a oating crane
tion using the developed simulator. Since the target scenario has
many operations for hoisting the wire up and down, there are 4.3.1. Overview
many wire actors in the scenario, as shown in Fig. 14. At rst, eight A shipyard often requires handling of a mega-block that is about
wire actors were activated and tried to hoist the block up after the more than 500 tons heavy. In this case, multiple cranes should
simulation started [Fig. 14(a)]. Then two joint actors tried to move co-operate to handle the block. Fig. 16 shows an example of the
two goliath cranes to the given position for their turnover and lifting and transportation of a mega-block using two goliath cranes
erection [Fig. 14(b)]. Later, two joint actors for the lower trolley and a oating crane. The block with a weight of about 3500 tons
[Fig. 14(c)] and eight wire actors [Fig. 14(d)] tried to turn the block [Fig. 16(a)] is connected to two goliath cranes [Fig. 16(b)] and a
over. oating crane via wire ropes. Some parts of the wire ropes are
grouped by a block loader. Fig. 16(c)(e) shows a sequence of the
4.2.4. Simulation results block-lifting and transportation operation. At rst, three cranes lift
Fig. 15 shows the simulation results. The graph shows the the block by shortening the connected wire ropes. Then the cranes
change in the tension that acted on Block Loader 1 of the rst crane move along to the right by about 100 meters to move the block into
(GOC201). The results show that the scenario was successfully the dock. Finally, the cranes continue the lift-down process by
progressed by activating and deactivating the actors. At rst, the alternately lengthening each wire rope.
24 S. Ha et al. / Advances in Engineering Software 85 (2015) 1225

Tensions acting on the wires of floating crane


Tension
8.00E+03

7.00E+03

6.00E+03

5.00E+03

4.00E+03 x1
x2
3.00E+03

2.00E+03

1.00E+03

0.00E+00
Time
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450

9.00E+03
Hoisting up Transportation Hoisting down
8.00E+03
7.00E+03
6.00E+03
5.00E+03
x3
4.00E+03
x4
3.00E+03
2.00E+03
1.00E+03
0.00E+00 Time
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450

Fig. 20. Tensions that acted on the wires of the oating crane during the simulation of the lifting and transportation of a mega-block.

Tensions acting on the wires of goliath cranes


Tension
1.60E+03

1.40E+03

1.20E+03

1.00E+03
x5
8.00E+02
x8
6.00E+02 x9
4.00E+02

2.00E+02

0.00E+00 Time
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450

2.00E+03 Hoisting up Transportation Hoisting down


1.80E+03
1.60E+03
1.40E+03
1.20E+03
x6
1.00E+03
x7
8.00E+02
x10
6.00E+02
4.00E+02
2.00E+02
0.00E+00 Time
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450

Fig. 21. Tensions acting on the wires of two goliath cranes during the simulation of the lifting and transportation of a mega-block.
S. Ha et al. / Advances in Engineering Software 85 (2015) 1225 25

The operator wanted to check the following three potential such as to a simulation of the dynamic analysis of the offshore
risks: (a) the interference among the three cranes, (b) the structure and the block assembly process, including the design
load-unbalancing phenomenon due to the wave and wind, and process of ships and offshore plants, such as to the lug arrange-
(c) the dynamic effect according to the change in the tension acting ment of blocks, and will improve the efciency of the developed
on each wire. simulator and its applicability. In addition, we will improve the
developed simulator to make it suitable for treating multibody sys-
4.3.2. Model conguration of the multibody dynamics system tem dynamics for exible bodies.
To analyze the dynamic responses through the simulation, we
assumed that the block-lifting and transportation were carried out Acknowledgements
using two goliath cranes and a oating crane, as shown in Fig. 17.
The goliath crane is composed of the main body, the upper trolley, This work was partially supported by,
and the lower trolley. The upper trolley and the lower trolley are
interconnected with the main body by sliding joints. To simulate (a) Industrial Strategic Technology Development Program
the block-lifting and transportation, dynamics models should be (10035331, Simulation-based Manufacturing Technology
made using the developed multibody dynamics kernel. To consider for Ships and Offshore Plants) funded by the Ministry of
the environmental factors, we also applied hydrostatic and hydro- Trade, Industry & Energy, Republic of Korea,
dynamic forces and wind force. (b) Brain Korea 21 Plus Program (Education and Research Center
for Creative Offshore Plant Engineers of Seoul National
4.3.3. Scenario conguration University) funded by the Ministry of Education, Republic
Fig. 18 shows the scenario for the simulation of the lifting and of Korea,
transportation of a mega-block using two goliath cranes and a (c) Engineering Research Institute of Seoul National University,
oating crane. In Fig. 18, the two body actors on the left are used Republic of Korea,
to consider the environmental factors: the upper actor for the wave (d) Research Institute of Marine Systems Engineering of Seoul
force acting on the oating crane and the lower actor for the wind National University, Republic of Korea, and
force acting on the target block. The rest of the actors describe the (e) Dong-Eui University Grant (2014AA443), Republic of Korea.
procedure of the operation. At rst, three cranes lift the block by
shortening the 10 connected wire ropes. This operation is per-
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