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en.wikipedia.org

In the mathematical discipline of order theory, a complemented lattice is a bounded lattice (with least element 0

and greatest element 1), in which every element a has a complement, i.e. an element b satisfying a b = 1 and a

b = 0. Complements need not be unique.

A relatively complemented lattice is a lattice such that every interval [c, d], viewed as a bounded lattice in its own

right, is a complemented lattice.

An orthocomplementation on a complemented lattice is an involution which is order-reversing and maps each el-

ement to a complement. An orthocomplemented lattice satisfying a weak form of the modular law is called an

orthomodular lattice.

In distributive lattices, complements are unique. Every complemented distributive lattice has a unique orthocomple-

mentation and is in fact a Boolean algebra.

A complemented lattice is a bounded lattice (with least element 0 and greatest element 1), in which every element

a has a complement, i.e. an element b such that

a b = 1 and a b = 0.

In general an element may have more than one complement. However, in a (bounded) distributive lattice every

element will have at most one complement.[1] A lattice in which every element has exactly one complement is called

a uniquely complemented lattice[2]

A lattice with the property that every interval (viewed as a sublattice) is complemented is called a relatively com-

plemented lattice. In other words, a relatively complemented lattice is characterized by the property that for every

element a in an interval [c, d] there is an element b such that

a b = d and a b = c.

A distributive lattice is complemented if and only if it is bounded and relatively complemented.[3][4] The lattice of

subspaces of a vector space provide an example of a complemented lattice that is not, in general, distributive.

2 Orthocomplementation

See also: De Morgan algebra

a in such a way that the following axioms are satised:[5]

Involution law a = a.

1

2 2 ORTHOCOMPLEMENTATION

A point and a line of the Fano plane are complements, when p

/l

Order-reversing if a b then b a .

tation. The lattice of subspaces of an inner product space, and the orthogonal complement operation, provides an

example of an orthocomplemented lattice that is not, in general, distributive.[6]

3

In the pentagon lattice N 5 , the node on the right-hand side has two complements.

The hexagon lattice admits a unique orthocomplementation, but it is not uniquely comple-

mented.

Boolean algebras are a special case of orthocomplemented lattices, which in turn are a special case of complemented

lattices (with extra structure). The ortholattices are most often used in quantum logic, where the closed subspaces of

a separable Hilbert space represent quantum propositions and behave as an orthocomplemented lattice.

Orthocomplemented lattices, like Boolean algebras, satisfy de Morgans laws:

(a b) = a b

(a b) = a b .

3 Orthomodular lattices

A lattice is called modular if for all elements a, b and c the implication

if a c, then a (b c) = (a b) c

holds. This is weaker than distributivity; e.g. the above-shown lattice M 3 is modular, but not distributive. A natural

further weakening of this condition for orthocomplemented lattices, necessary for applications in quantum logic, is

to require it only in the special case b = a . An orthomodular lattice is therefore dened as an orthocomplemented

lattice such that for any two elements the implication

4 7 EXTERNAL LINKS

if a c, then a (a c) = c

holds.

Lattices of this form are of crucial importance for the study of quantum logic, since they are part of the axiomisation

of the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics. Garrett Birkho and John von Neumann observed that

the propositional calculus in quantum logic is formally indistinguishable from the calculus of linear subspaces [of

a Hilbert space] with respect to set products, linear sums and orthogonal complements corresponding to the roles

of and, or and not in Boolean lattices. This remark has spurred interest in the closed subspaces of a Hilbert space,

which form an orthomodular lattice.[7]

4 See also

Pseudocomplemented lattice

5 Notes

[1] Grtzer (1971), Lemma I.6.1, p. 47. Rutherford (1965), Theorem 9.3 p. 25.

[2] Stern, Manfred (1999), Semimodular Lattices: Theory and Applications, Encyclopedia of Mathematics and its Applications,

Cambridge University Press, p. 29, ISBN 9780521461054.

[3] Grtzer (1971), Lemma I.6.2, p. 48. This result holds more generally for modular lattices, see Exercise 4, p. 50.

[6] The Unapologetic Mathematician: Orthogonal Complements and the Lattice of Subspaces.

[7] Ranganathan Padmanabhan; Sergiu Rudeanu (2008). Axioms for lattices and boolean algebras. World Scientic. p. 128.

ISBN 978-981-283-454-6.

6 References

Birkho, Garrett (1961). Lattice Theory. American Mathematical Society.

Grtzer, George (1971). Lattice Theory: First Concepts and Distributive Lattices. W. H. Freeman and Company.

ISBN 978-0-7167-0442-3.

Grtzer, George (1978). General Lattice Theory. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhuser. ISBN 978-0-12-295750-5.

Rutherford, Daniel Edwin (1965). Introduction to Lattice Theory. Oliver and Boyd.

7 External links

Complemented lattice. PlanetMath.

Relative complement. PlanetMath.

Orthocomplemented lattice. PlanetMath.

5

8.1 Text

Complemented lattice Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Complemented_lattice?oldid=745481682 Contributors: Michael Hardy,

Chinju, Giftlite, Lethe, Mindspillage, Paul August, Remuel, Oleg Alexandrov, Isnow, Trovatore, Jess Riedel, Maksim-e~enwiki, Rsim-

monds01, Friendlystar, Oerjan, David Eppstein, Jamelan, Ceroklis, Watchduck, Hans Adler, SchreiberBike, Addbot, AnomieBOT, Fres-

coBot, Citation bot 1, Jaspervdg, Tijfo098, MerlIwBot, Helpful Pixie Bot, Jochen Burghardt, JMP EAX, Bender the Bot and Anonymous:

6

8.2 Images

File:Diamond_lattice.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e8/Diamond_lattice.svg License: Public domain

Contributors: Own work Original artist: Hans Adler

File:Edit-clear.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/f/f2/Edit-clear.svg License: Public domain Contributors: The

Tango! Desktop Project. Original artist:

The people from the Tango! project. And according to the meta-data in the le, specically: Andreas Nilsson, and Jakub Steiner (although

minimally).

File:Fano_plane_Hasse_diagram.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a5/Fano_plane_Hasse_diagram.svg

License: CC BY 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: <a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Watchduck.svg' class='image'><img

alt='Watchduck.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d8/Watchduck.svg/40px-Watchduck.svg.png' width='40'

height='46' srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d8/Watchduck.svg/60px-Watchduck.svg.png 1.5x, https:

//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d8/Watchduck.svg/80px-Watchduck.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='703' data-le-

height='806' /></a> Watchduck (a.k.a. Tilman Piesk)

File:Hexagon_lattice.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/40/Hexagon_lattice.svg License: Public domain

Contributors: Own work Original artist: Hans Adler

File:Lattice_M4.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a8/Lattice_M4.svg License: Public domain Contribu-

tors: Own work Original artist: Hans Adler

File:Question_book-new.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/9/99/Question_book-new.svg License: Cc-by-sa-3.0

Contributors:

Created from scratch in Adobe Illustrator. Based on Image:Question book.png created by User:Equazcion Original artist:

Tkgd2007

File:Smallest_nonmodular_lattice_1.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/72/Smallest_nonmodular_lattice_

1.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Hans Adler

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