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1 Preliminaries 1

1.1 Continuum mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

1.2 Questions of notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

1.3 Coordinate and component transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

1.4 Tensor products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

1.5 Tensor analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

1.6 Time derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

2 Conservation laws and stress 12

2.1 Mass density and equation of continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

2.2 Forces and conservation of linear momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

2.3 Stress tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

2.4 Center of mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

2.5 Conservation of angular momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

2.6 Conservation of energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

2.7 Basic equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

2.8 Eigenvalue problem for symmetric tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

2.9 Normal and shear stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

3 Deformation 29

3.1 Finite deformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

3.2 Inﬁnitesimal deformation or small strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

3.3 Geometric interpretation of small strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

3.4 Rate of deformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

3.5 Principal strains and special deformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

3.6 Compatibility conditions for small strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

i

Table of contents ii

4 Constitutive relations 44

4.1 Young’s experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

4.2 Frame-indiﬀerence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

4.3 Isotropy and Reiner-Rivlin ﬂuids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

4.4 Linear isotropic media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

4.5 Viscoelastic media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

4.6 Kramers-Kronig’s relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

5 Ideal ﬂuids 63

5.1 Basic equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

5.2 Simplifying hypotheses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

5.3 Bernoulli’s law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

5.4 Solar wind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

5.5 Hydrostatic equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

5.6 Sound waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

5.7 Linear waves in magnetized plasmas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

5.8 Large amplitude ion-acoustic solitons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

5.9 Large amplitude circularly polarized waves in plasmas . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

5.10 Newtonian cosmology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

5.11 Complex potential theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

6 Viscous ﬂuids 120

6.1 Similarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

6.2 Dimensional analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

6.3 Turbulence : Reynolds equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

6.4 Turbulence : Kolmogorov’s law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

6.5 Matched asymptotic expansions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

6.6 Boundary layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

7 Linear elasticity 145

7.1 Basic equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

7.2 Elastostatics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

7.3 Elastic waves in general linear media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

7.4 Elastic waves in linear isotropic media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151

Table of contents iii

8 Epilogue: Kinetic theory 155

8.1 Kinetic equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

8.2 Macroscopic averages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

8.3 Macroscopic equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

List of ﬁgures

2.1 Sequence of domains enclosing P. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

2.2 Surface elements around P. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

3.1 Comparison of initial and ﬁnal states. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

3.2 Decomposition of neighbouring displacements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

3.3 Deformation of angles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

3.4 Velocities of neighbouring particles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

4.1 Young’s experiment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

4.2 Contour of integration in the complex ω-plane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

5.1 Pressure-density relations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

5.2 Streamlines and the velocity ﬁeld. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

5.3 Steady outﬂow of a tank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

5.4 Hydrostatic equilibrium of a star. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

5.5 Propagation of radio signals through the ionosphere. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

5.6 Proﬁle of a solitary wave joining constant states at η = ±∞ and localized in η. 93

5.7 Two observers O and O

′

and a distant galaxy P. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

5.8 Flow of a source or sink in the origin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

5.9 Flow around a point vortex in the origin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

5.10 Flow around a circle or cylinder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

5.11 Flow along an edge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

5.12 Flow in a corner. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

6.1 Reynolds experiment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

6.2 Velocity diagram in turbulent ﬂow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

6.3 Comparison between turbulent and Hagen-Poiseuille velocity proﬁles. . . . . 133

6.4 Energy spectrum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

6.5 Power law in the inertial range. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

iv

Table of contents v

6.6 Graphs of the exact solution and the inner and outer approximations . . . . 140

6.7 Velocity proﬁle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

7.1 P- and S-earthquake waves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

8.1 Description in phase space. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

Chapter 1

Preliminaries

In this chapter we

• give a short introduction to continuum mechanics

• recall concepts from coordinate transformations, vector and tensor algebra

and analysis

• ﬁnally address time derivatives of material quantities, both in punctual as

in integral form

1

Table of contents 2

1.1 Continuum mechanics

The basic idea behind continuum mechanics is to describe the kinematical and dynamical

properties of certain classes of material as if the material under consideration were ﬁlling

part of physical space in a continuous way and had characteristics which depend continuously

upon space and time. Of course, this is a model, an idealization if one thinks of the molecular

or (sub)atomic structure of all matter. On the microscopic scale much more discontinuity

than continuity is to be found. Nevertheless, experience has learned that many macroscopic

properties can be described with an amazing degree of precision by indeed pretending that

certain materials are continua, in the mathematical sense of the word. To quote just one

example at this stage, for the ﬂow of water through a pipe the knowledge of the molecular

structure of water will learn strictly nothing as far as the ﬂow speed is concerned, if only

because of the vast number of molecules to be accounted for.

Treating matter as a continuum can be done for matter in the solid state, where it comple-

ments the notion of rigid bodies and leads to the theory of elasticity, and also for matter

in the liquid or gas states, where one gets hydro- and aerodynamics which are sometimes

grouped together into ﬂuid dynamics. So it seems that matter under certain circumstances

permits us to use the mathematical concept of a continuum, and the whole question then

revolves around knowing the limits of accuracy and applicability of this continuum concept

in practical cases. This is a rather diﬃcult problem, because it stands almost totally di-

vorced from the mathematical modelling which can proceed once basic concepts and laws

are deﬁned and postulated, as will be done in the next chapter.

1.2 Questions of notation

As is the case with most branches of physics, continuum mechanics deals with certain phys-

ical quantities which exist and can be talked of independently of a particular coordinate

system. In mathematical terms this means that such physical quantities are represented by

tensors and that the physical laws are expressible as tensor equations. Of course, these same

physical quantities will be measured and attributed numbers or values with respect to an

appropriate coordinate system. As soon as a coordinate system is chosen, a tensor, although

a mathematical entity on its own, is completely speciﬁed through its components. These

components change when one passes from one coordinate system to another according to

speciﬁc rules.

This dual way of thinking of a tensor, i.e as a mathematical entity on its own and through

its coordinate representation, will reveal itself also in the notation. We write T for a certain

tensor, or else we will use its components T

ij...

when referred to a coordinate system. The

indices i, j, . . . run from 1 to 3, in physical space that is, for one could as easily deﬁne

tensors in n-dimensional space and the range of the indices would then be from 1 to n.

Some of the mathematical properties recalled in the following paragraphs are indeed valid

for general tensors in n-dimensional space. The coordinate systems used henceforth will

always be orthogonal Cartesian coordinate systems. This restriction avoids the complication

of having to distinguish between covariant and contravariant tensors, but still allows enough

Table of contents 3

interesting properties and applications for a ﬁrst course in continuum mechanics. The word

“tensor” will then mean “Cartesian tensor”.

A scalar is a tensor of order zero and has one, invariant component in each coordinate

system. A vector is a tensor of order one and will be written in boldface (e.g. a, v ...). Its

three components will be denoted by the same letter subscripted once (e.g. a

i

, v

i

...).

Finally, a tensor of order two will be called a tensor, in short, and is denoted e.g. by T. It

has nine components which are written T

ij

for i, j = 1, 2, 3. The unit tensor will be written

as 1, with components δ

ij

, the familiar Kronecker deltas.

When a certain expression is written in index notation, use will be made of the Einstein

summation convention in order to save the writing of summation signs with the appropriate

summation ranges. The summation convention implies that, whenever an index appears

twice in a product, the index or subscript takes the values 1,2,3 consecutively and the three

terms thus formed are summed. In the few cases where the summation convention cannot

be followed, this will be mentioned explicitly.

1.3 Coordinate and component transformations

Physical space is seen as a three dimensional aﬃne Euclidean space, modelled on IR

3

. A

reference frame in space is given by the choice of an origin and of a positive (i.e. right-handed)

orthonormal basis e

(i)

(i = 1, 2, 3). The position of a point P is given through its position

vector x = OP or, equivalently, through its Cartesian coordinates, which will be denoted

x

i

for i = 1, 2, 3 (rather than through x, y, z). The triplet (e

(1)

, e

(2)

, e

(3)

) determines the

orientation of the physical space. Once a base of a coordinate system is known, the relation

between the position vector and the coordinates of a point P is simply

x = x

i

e

(i)

.

By a coordinate system we will always mean a Cartesian coordinate system and we will

denote it by Ox

1

x

2

x

3

.

The next step is the transformation of one coordinate system Ox

1

x

2

x

3

, with unit vectors e

(i)

,

to another one Ox

′

1

x

′

2

x

′

3

, with unit vectors e

′

(j)

. Both coordinate systems have for simplicity

the same origin. The unit vectors then transform according to

e

′

(i)

= A

ij

e

(j)

,

where A

ij

are the direction cosines of the new axes referred to the old ones,

A

ij

= e

′

(i)

e

(j)

= cos

e

′

(i)

, e

(j)

.

Since we are dealing with orthogonal coordinate systems, this yields two sets of orthonor-

mality relations:

A

ij

A

ik

= δ

jk

, A

ij

A

kj

= δ

ik

,

Table of contents 4

i.e. the matrix [A

ij

] is an orthogonal matrix. In addition, the transformation is orientation

preserving, i.e.: det[A

ij

] = 1. Thus the required coordinate transformations between the old

coordinates x

i

and the new ones x

′

j

of a point P is

x

′

i

= A

ij

x

j

.

The inverse transformation is

x

i

= A

ji

x

′

j

,

as can easily be checked,

A

ji

x

′

j

= A

ji

A

jk

x

k

= δ

ik

x

k

= x

i

.

Deﬁning an arbitrary vector v in space as the diﬀerence between the position vectors of its

two endpoints P and Q, allows us to deduce the transformation laws of the components of

v, which are denoted by v

i

in Ox

1

x

2

x

3

and by v

′

j

in Ox

′

1

x

′

2

x

′

3

,

v

′

i

= A

ij

v

j

We could also turn the argument around and postulate that a vector is deﬁned in such a

way that its components obey this transformation law. It is easy to check and left to the

reader to verify that vectors thus deﬁned are the elements of a vector space.

Next come the transformation laws for the components of a tensor of order two or higher.

For a tensor of order two these are

T

′

ij

= A

ip

A

jq

T

pq

and for more general tensors

T

′

ijk...

= A

ip

A

jq

A

kr

T

pqr...

.

We will say that a tensor is isotropic if it is invariant under any orthogonal coordinate

transformation, i.e. T

ijk...

= A

ip

A

jq

A

kr

T

pqr...

, for every orthogonal matrix A.

Each component of a tensor of order n has n indices, and there are just n factors A

ip

in the

transformation equation. If one thinks of a tensor of rank two T as a linear transformation

which maps a vector u into a vector v,

v = T u,

or in index notation

v

i

= T

ij

u

j

,

then the transformation laws for a tensor of order two can be deduced from those for a

vector.

Tensors of the same order can again be proved elements of a vector space. More precisely,

if S and T are tensors of order two, say, and λ is an arbitrary real number, then λS and

S +T are again tensors of order two, and all the traditional properties of a vector space are

Table of contents 5

satisﬁed. Let us denote the space of second order tensors by 1. For each element S of 1

there exists an ‘inverse’ in 1, denoted −S, and the following distributive properties hold:

λ(S + T) = λS + λT, (λ + µ)T = λT + µT,

where λ and µ are scalars.

Finally, let’s go back to the transformation rule for the components of a general tensor

T

′

ijk...

= A

ip

A

jq

A

kr

T

pqr...

. These hold not only for transformations from one right-handed

basis to another right-handed basis, but for any transformation of the basis. Quantities for

which the transformation rule only holds for an orthogonal transformation with det[A

ij

] = 1

are called pseudo-tensors. Stated otherwise, if the transformation equations for vector or

tensor components only hold when det[A

ij

] = +1, then we are dealing with pseudo-tensors

rather than with tensors in the proper sense. An often-used pseudo-tensor of order three is

the alternating pseudo-tensor of Levi-Civit`a ε

ijk

with components

ε

ijk

**= +1 if i, j, k are an even permutation of 1,2,3,
**

= −1 if i, j, k are an odd permutation of 1,2,3,

= 0 otherwise, when two or three indices are equal.

Some useful identities involving the components of the pseudo-tensor of Levi-Civit`a and of

the unit tensor of Kronecker are

ε

ijk

ε

iℓm

= δ

jℓ

δ

km

−δ

jm

δ

kℓ

,

ε

ijk

ε

ijℓ

= 2δ

kℓ

,

ε

ijk

ε

ijk

= 6,

δ

ii

= 3.

For a given tensor T, with components T

ij

, one can always construct the transposed tensor,

denoted by T

t

or

¯

T, such that

(T

t

)

ij

= T

ji

.

A coordinate independent deﬁnition would be through

u T

t

= T u

for all u. A tensor is called symmetric iﬀ

T

ij

= T

ji

or T

t

= T.

Any tensor T of order two can be split in a unique way into a symmetric and an antisymmetric

part,

T =

1

2

(T + T

t

) +

1

2

(T −T

t

),

or in index notation

T

ij

=

1

2

(T

ij

+ T

ji

) +

1

2

(T

ij

−T

ji

).

It is possible to generalize the concept of the transposed of a tensor to tensors of higher order,

where such a transposed tensor is called an isomer, but extreme care has to be exercised as

to which pair of indices is involved in such a permutation. The pseudo-tensor of Levi-Civit`a

is totally antisymmetric, because any permutation of two indices changes the sign of the

components.

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1.4 Tensor products

Starting with scalars λ and µ we have only one kind of product, the usual one, λµ, in the

sense of number theory.

For vectors u and v in Euclidean space, one is supposed to be familiar with the scalar or

inner product

u v = u

i

v

i

,

which yields a scalar, and (if the dimension of the space is three) with the vector or cross

product u v

(u v)

i

= ε

ijk

u

j

v

k

,

which is really a pseudo-vector.

Next, we can deﬁne a product on vectors which yield a (second-order) tensor: the so-called

tensor or outer product

(uv)

ij

= u

i

v

j

.

One can indeed verify that the object deﬁned by the right-hand side is a second-order tensor

by checking the transformation property.

The ideas of inner and outer products can be extended to tensors of order two by putting

(S T)

ij

= S

ik

T

kj

for the inner product and

(S T)

ijkℓ

= S

ij

T

kℓ

for the outer product. In more general terms even, the inner product of a tensor of order m

with a tensor of order n yields a tensor of order m + n −2,

(o T )

i···jk···ℓ

= o

i···jp

T

pk···ℓ

,

whereas the outer (or tensor) product gives a tensor of order m + n,

(o T )

i···jk···ℓ

= o

i···j

T

k···ℓ

.

If m + n − 2 is 2 or more, the inner product or contraction can be repeated to yield the

double inner product or the double contraction of two tensors,

(o : T )

i···jk···ℓ

= o

i···jpq

T

qpk···ℓ

.

In particular, the double inner product of two tensors of order two is a scalar,

S : T = S

ij

T

ji

One sometimes ﬁnds the double inner product deﬁned in another way,

S T = S

ij

T

ij

,

Table of contents 7

which usually gives a diﬀerent result. It is to be noted that both deﬁnitions coincide if at

least one of the two tensors is symmetric.

Remark. In mathematical textbooks one will usually adopt the notation ⊗ for tensor

product (e.g. u ⊗v, S ⊗T, . . .).

One could also try to extend the idea of the cross product of two vectors, but it seems only

useful to do so for the cross product of a vector with a tensor of order two, in that order, in

view of the introduction of the curl of a tensor in the next paragraph,

(v T)

ij

= ε

ipq

v

p

T

qj

.

This cross product is a pseudo-tensor, as was already the case with the cross product of two

vectors.

To round oﬀ this paragraph, some forms of

(T v)

i

= T

ij

v

j

and (v T)

i

= v

j

T

ji

are given in the special case when the tensor itself is the tensor product of two other vectors,

(uv) w = u(v w) = uv w,

u (vw) = (u v)w = u vw.

This shows that a notation such as uv w is unambiguous, and there is no need to write any

brackets.

If one introduces the trace of a tensor of order two,

tr T = T

ii

,

which is invariant under orthogonal coordinate transformations (i.e. tr T = T

′

ii

), one ﬁnds

the following relations as special cases:

tr (uv) = u

i

v

i

= u v,

tr (S T) = (S T)

ii

= S

ij

T

ji

= S : T.

1.5 Tensor analysis

In this paragraph the notions of gradient, divergence and curl, which are known from vector

analysis, are recalled and extended to general tensors.

The usual gradient of a scalar function φ of x (and possibly t) is a vector with components

(grad φ)

i

= (∇φ)

i

=

∂φ

∂x

i

= ∂

i

φ.

Table of contents 8

The partial derivative operator with respect to the coordinate x

i

will henceforth be denoted

∂

i

. The symbolic vector nabla, ∇, has components ∂

i

and could formally be regarded

as a vector obeying the transformation laws, although it retains its derivative operator

characteristics. Hence the (generalized) gradient of a tensor T of order n is a tensor of order

n + 1, constructed as the tensor product of the ‘nabla’ vector with the said tensor,

(grad T )

ij...

= (∇T )

ij...

= ∂

i

T

j...

.

Special cases of this equation are the gradient of a vector,

(grad v)

ij

= (∇v)

ij

=

∂v

j

∂x

i

= ∂

i

v

j

which is a tensor of order two, and the gradient of a tensor T of order two,

(grad T)

ijk

= (∇T)

ijk

= ∂

i

T

jk

,

which is a tensor of order three.

On the other hand, the usual divergence of a vector is a scalar,

div v = ∇ v = ∂

i

v

i

.

Hence we deﬁne the divergence of a general tensor T of order n as a tensor of order n −1,

constructed as the inner product of the nabla vector with T :

(div T )

ij...

= (∇ T )

ij...

= ∂

p

T

pij...

This includes as a special case the divergence of a tensor (of order two),

(div T)

i

= (∇ T)

i

= ∂

j

T

ji

Finally, in vector analysis, the curl of a vector is a pseudo-vector,

(curl v)

i

= (∇v)

i

= ε

ijk

∂

j

v

k

,

and, generalizing this concept, the curl of a tensor T (of order two) is a pseudo-tensor of the

same order,

(curl T)

ij

= (∇T)

ij

= ε

ipq

∂

p

T

qj

.

The gradient, divergence and curl operations can be repeated several times, if the resulting

expressions permit, as in the following example of the double gradient of a scalar function,

which is a tensor of order two,

(∇∇φ)

ij

=

∂

2

φ

∂x

i

∂x

j

= ∂

i

∂

j

φ.

Table of contents 9

Once these operations are established, it becomes straightforward to write a Taylor expansion

of a tensor around a point with position vector x

o

, or with coordinates x

o

i

, either in index

notation,

T

ij...

(x) = T

ij...

(x

o

) + (x

ℓ

−x

o

ℓ

)∂

ℓ

T

ij...

(x

o

k

) + . . .

or in vector notation,

T (x) = T (x

o

) + (x −x

o

) ∇T (x

o

) +

1

2

(x −x

o

)(x −x

o

) : ∇∇T (x

o

) + . . . .

Some useful identities involving the nabla operator are:

∇(u v) = u ∇v +v ∇u +u (∇v) +v (∇u),

∇ (uv) = (∇ u)v +u ∇v,

∇ (T v) = v ∇: T + T

t

: ∇v,

∇ (λv) = λ∇ v +v ∇λ.

1.6 Time derivatives

In continuum mechanics we are interested, among others, in the time evolution of certain

objects. The partial time derivative of a tensor depending explicitly on t will be denoted by

∂

t

T =

∂T

∂t

,

with

(∂

t

T)

ij...

=

∂T

ij...

∂t

If the continuum moves in space, such that position vector of a material point becomes a

diﬀerentiable function of time, the change of a tensor along a ‘ﬂow line’ is given by the total

or material time derivative (i.e. the change of the tensor when following the material in its

motion, hence the name of material derivative):

˙

T =

d T

dt

=

d

dt

T(x(t), t)

=

∂T

∂t

+

d x

dt

∇T = ∂

t

T +v ∇T.

The operator

d

dt

= ∂

t

+v ∇= ∂

t

+ v

i

∂

i

is called the material time derivative. The material derivative, as calculated above, is for

functions which are deﬁned in each point of the material. Note, in particular, that the

material derivative of the position vector x at a point P is the velocity of the material in

that point (or the velocity of P for short).

Table of contents 10

Further on, the problem will also arise of ﬁnding the total time derivative of quantities which

are expressed as a time-dependent volume integral, when the volume under consideration

coincides at all times with a well-deﬁned part of the material in motion. Something analogous

arises when in a one-dimensional integral both the integrand and the integration limits

depend on a parameter,

I(α) =

ξ

1

(α)

ξ

0

(α)

f(ξ, α) dξ,

and the derivative of the integral is sought with respect to this parameter,

dI

dα

=

ξ

1

(α)

ξ

0

(α)

∂f

∂α

dξ + f(ξ, α)

ξ=ξ

1

(α)

dξ

1

dα

−f(ξ, α)

ξ=ξ

0

(α)

dξ

0

dα

.

The ﬁrst term on the right-hand side of this equation comes from the dependence of the

integrand on the parameter, the two remaining terms occur because the limits vary with the

same parameter.

Let ψ(x, t) be a continuous function of coordinates and time and φ(t) the integral of ψ over

a certain material volume V , which evolves in time in such a way that the same material

points remain contained in V ,

φ(t) =

V

ψ(x, t) dV.

To compute the material derivative

˙

φ(t) =

d

dt

V

ψ(x, t) dV

we choose some time-independent reference conﬁguration, in such a way that a particle which

was at position a at a given (original and ﬁxed) instant of time is at x at time t. In this way

we can express

x = x(a, t).

For this transformation the volume-elements dV = d

3

x and dV

0

= d

3

a are related through

dV = J dV

0

,

where dV

0

refers to the initial state, and J is the Jacobian of the transformation,

J = det

∂x

i

∂a

j

.

Hence

d

dt

V

ψ(x, t) dV =

d

dt

V

0

ψ[x(a, t), t]J dV

0

=

V

0

d

dt

¦ψ[x(a, t), t]J¦ dV

0

=

V

0

˙

ψJ + ψ

˙

J

dV

0

,

Table of contents 11

using the deﬁnition of the material time derivative of ψ. To work out what

˙

J is, we also

need

d

dt

∂x

i

∂a

j

=

∂ ˙ x

i

∂a

j

=

∂v

i

∂a

j

=

∂v

i

∂x

k

∂x

k

∂a

j

.

The time derivative of J thus gives rise to

˙

J =

d

dt

∂x

1

∂a

1

d

dt

∂x

1

∂a

2

d

dt

∂x

1

∂a

3

∂x

2

∂a

1

∂x

2

∂a

2

∂x

2

∂a

3

∂x

3

∂a

1

∂x

3

∂a

2

∂x

3

∂a

3

+ . . . =

∂v

1

∂x

k

∂x

k

∂a

1

∂x

k

∂a

2

∂x

k

∂a

3

∂x

2

∂a

1

∂x

2

∂a

2

∂x

2

∂a

3

∂x

3

∂a

1

∂x

3

∂a

2

∂x

3

∂a

3

+ . . .

=

∂v

1

∂x

1

J +

∂v

2

∂x

2

J +

∂v

3

∂x

3

J = J∂

i

v

i

= J ∇ v,

where the dots refer to similar determinants with the second or the third row diﬀerentiated

instead of the ﬁrst one. The transition from the second to the third expression for

˙

J in the

previous derivation comes about because only the value k = 1 gives a nontrivial result for

the ﬁrst determinant, and similarly for the other two determinants. Once

˙

J is known, we

obtain

d

dt

V

ψ(x, t) dV =

V

0

˙

ψ + ψ ∇ v

JdV

0

=

V

˙

ψ + ψ ∇ v

dV,

or

˙

φ(t) =

V

(

˙

ψ + ψ ∇ v)dV

This expression will be used several times later on. It is instructive, however, to expand the

deﬁnition of the material time derivative

˙

ψ and get

˙

φ =

V

(∂

t

ψ +v ∇ψ + ψ ∇ v)dV

=

V

∂

t

ψ dV +

V

∇ (ψ v)dV.

The second volume integral can be changed into a surface integral by using the Gauss-

Ostrogradski theorem

˙

φ =

V

∂

t

ψ dV +

∂V

n (ψ v)dS,

where ∂V is the boundary of V and n is an outer unit normal to ∂V . The expression for

˙

φ

thus consists of two parts: one related to the time change of ψ inside V , the other one giving

the total ﬂux of ψ v through the boundary ∂V .

Chapter 2

Conservation laws and stress

Conservation laws lead to basic equations:

• Conservation of mass gives the equation of continuity

∂

t

ρ +∇ (ρv) = 0 = ˙ ρ + ρ∇ v

• Conservation of momentum gives the equation of motion, for which we need

the concept of stress to describe internal forces in a continuous medium

ρ ˙ v = f +∇ T

• Conservation of angular momentum leads to the symmetry of the stress

tensor

For the (symmetric) stress tensor the eigenvalue problem yields the notions

of principal normal and shear stresses

12

Table of contents 13

2.1 Mass density and equation of continuity

Let us start by choosing a reference frame (coordinate system) Ox

1

x

2

x

3

for the physical

space. Next, we can think of a lump of matter, or a portion of a liquid or gas, which in

the continuum concept ﬁlls a domain D

0

in space having a volume V

0

and with boundary

∂D

0

. In an interior point P the description of the continuum and its behaviour requires the

deﬁnition and knowledge of certain physical properties. How do we proceed?

First, we introduce the notion of mass density. This is done in a way which might also serve

to get other required properties in P. The continuum enclosed in D

0

has a total mass M

0

.

The notions of mass and volume should be familiar from theoretical mechanics and give no

diﬃculties at this level of the description. The average mass density in each interior point

of D

0

is simply

ρ

average

=

M

0

V

0

.

The mass density in P would then be somehow the limit of this expression, if the volume

around P were tending to zero. To see what this implies, consider a sequence of domains D

i

enclosed in each other, as shown in Figure 2.1. The matter enclosed in a domain D

i

with

volume V

i

has a mass M

i

. The domains D

i

can be ﬁctitious and need not at all have physical

boundaries, they are just a theoretical construction used to deﬁne the concept of mass density.

This is a stratagem we will often resort to in the development of continuum mechanics:

mentally isolating part of the continuum under consideration. Each of the domains D

i

should contain P, of course. With the sequence of domains we get a corresponding sequence

of average mass densities. The mass density ρ in P is then deﬁned as the limit of this

sequence,

ρ

i

=

M

i

V

i

i→∞

−→ ρ(P) (M

i

→0, V

i

→0).

This limit should exist and be unique, regardless of the sequence of domains D

i

used to

construct the limit. Nevertheless, if we go back for a moment to the physical side of the

P

D

i

D

0

Figure 2.1. Sequence of domains enclosing P.

Table of contents 14

argument, it is clear that even an elementary volume around P should still contain a large

enough number of molecules in order not to violate the whole idea of a continuum. Indeed,

if volumes of molecular or intra-molecular scale are considered, chopping oﬀ part of such

a volume will result in a discontinuous change in the mass density whenever a molecule

is discarded. Here comes a natural limitation of the kind of phenomena one can hope to

describe adequately with a continuum theory: phenomena that are on a scale which is large

compared to the atomic interparticle distance and a fortiori to the size of an atom or a

molecule.

This process of deﬁning a mass density can be repeated for each interior point P. The

result is a mass density ρ(x, t) deﬁned everywhere in D

0

and by virtue of the ever present

continuum hypothesis, this mass density is a continuous function of x in D

0

at all times.

In a similar vein other densities can be deﬁned, such as an energy density or a momentum

density. Instead of the preceding, more intuitive way of deﬁning the mass density, one can

also use measure theory to deﬁne a mass density in a unique way, from the moment one

deals with a continuum such that one can associate with every volume V in D

0

a number

giving the mass in V . What are needed are properties of a measure µ deﬁned in D

0

such

that in particular

µ(U ∪ U

′

) = µ(U) + µ(U

′

) (U ∩ U

′

= ∅; U, U

′

⊂ D

0

),

µ(U) ≥ 0,

µ(∅) = 0.

Clearly, both volume and mass are two such measures deﬁned in D

0

, mass only in the con-

tinuum limit which precludes masses concentrated in one point. Then the Radon-Nikodym

theorem states the existence of a unique (mass) density ρ such that mass and volume are

related according to

M(D) =

D

dM =

D

ρ dV.

This enables us at once to get the total mass contained in a domain D ⊂ D

0

with volume

V . Henceforth, such integrals will be written as volume integrals over V rather than over D:

M =

V

ρ dV.

If the volume V of a continuum is followed in its motion, it is assumed that V will always

consist of the same material particles, since it is precisely their motion which is constituting

the motion of V . Hence the mass in V is invariant when V is followed in its motion and the

material time derivative of M vanishes,

˙

M = 0.

This expresses the ﬁrst conservation law, the conservation of mass, in extensive form for a

speciﬁc volume V ,

˙

M =

V

(∂

t

ρ +∇ (ρv))dV =

V

( ˙ ρ + ρ∇ v)dV = 0.

Table of contents 15

If the conservation of mass is to hold throughout the continuum for arbitrary volumes, even

imagined ones, then the integrands in the previous integrals have to vanish everywhere,

which yields the point or diﬀerential form of mass conservation,

∂

t

ρ +∇ (ρv) = 0 = ˙ ρ + ρ∇ v

This equation is known as the equation of continuity.

2.2 Forces and conservation of linear momentum

From point mechanics one knows Newton’s (second) law in the form: the time derivative

of the total linear momentum of all particles equals the sum of all forces acting upon these

particles. Going then to the notion of rigid bodies with a ﬁnite extent, one had Euler’s laws

as the appropriate generalizations of Newton’s law of motion.

Continuum mechanics can be viewed as a limit of point mechanics with an ever increasing

number of particles of ever decreasing mass, hence it would seem natural to postulate a

rephrasing of Euler’s ﬁrst law for rigid bodies: the material (i.e. total) time derivative of the

total linear momentum of the mass contained in a volume V is equal to the sum of all forces

acting upon V . The translation of this principle into mathematical form requires a suitable

deﬁnition of the total linear momentum of the mass in V , which we take as

P =

V

ρv dV,

as well as a suitable deﬁnition of all forces acting upon V . Instead of Euler’s ﬁrst law for a

rigid body, we get for a continuum something formally very similar,

˙

P =

d

dt

V

ρ v dV = F.

Two things remain to be done, the computation of

˙

P and a proper deﬁnition of F. It is

straightforward to ﬁnd that

˙

P =

d

dt

V

ρ v dV

=

V

( ˙ ρv + ρ ˙ v + ρ v ∇ v) dV =

V

ρ ˙ v dV.

The simpliﬁcation in the integrand comes from invoking the continuity equation and is a

result which is valid for more general integrands besides v. As we will need this property

several times afterwards, we check that for a tensor T of any order

d

dt

V

ρT dV

=

V

˙ ρT + ρ

˙

T + ρT ∇ v

dV =

V

ρ

˙

T dV,

as soon as the equation of continuity is valid. Hence Newton’s law now stands in the form

V

ρ ˙ v dV = F.

Table of contents 16

As far as the forces are concerned, one usually distinguishes two kinds of forces: the body or

volume forces and the surface forces.

Body forces arise as a consequence of action at a distance and are intuitively thought of

as the generalization of external forces in point mechanics. Typical examples are gravity,

electromagnetic forces and the like. Such forces act in each point of the continuum and

we will characterize them through a force density per unit volume f (x, t), or else through a

normalized force density b(x, t) with the dimensions of an acceleration. The relation between

both densities is

f (x, t) = ρ(x, t) b(x, t).

The sum of the body forces acting upon a volume V of the continuum is thus

F

body

=

V

f dV =

V

ρ bdV.

In the case of gravity one ﬁnds that

F

grav

= M g =

V

ρ dV

g =

V

ρ g dV

and hence

f (x, t) = ρ(x, t) g,

b(x, t) = g.

Surface forces, on the other hand, act on the surface of a continuum, and could in some

rare cases belong to the external forces, such as when the atmospheric pressure has to be

considered at the surface of a body. Usually, however, surface forces have to be introduced

to translate the action of one part of the continuum upon another, if part of the continuum

is considered separately but yet in the same state of motion and deformation. In this sense

the surface forces could be thought of as generalizing the idea of internal forces in a set

of particles, and they represent something as the cohesion of the material. These forces

cancel each other in each interior point as the result of the law of action and reaction, and

only survive with a non-null resultant at the boundary of the continuum, whether the real

physical boundary of a lump of matter or a ﬁctitious boundary which is thought of isolating

part of the continuum from the rest.

Think of a point P, interior in the volume V

0

, and imagine an internal volume V in such a

way that P lies on the boundary ∂V of V , which we assume to be continuous. Deﬁne n as

a unit vector in the external direction, normal to ∂V , and passing through P. As part of V

0

this volume V is in a certain state of motion and deformation. If we now want to describe

only V and forget about the remainder of V

0

without changing the motion or deformation

of V , the action which the mass in V

0

`V exerts on V has to be taken into account explicitly.

Consider now an elementary surface element ∆S (⊂ ∂V ) at P, as shown in Figure 2.2, and

call ∆F

(n)

the total force exerted by V

0

`V upon V , acting through ∆S, and ∆N

(n)

O

the

Table of contents 17

P

∆S V V

0

n

Figure 2.2. Surface elements around P.

resulting moment (with respect to O). Let ∆S shrink to zero and we get, according to the

stress postulate of Euler-Cauchy, a unique and well deﬁned limit:

lim

∆S→0

∆F

(n)

∆S

= t

(n)

lim

∆S→0

∆N

(n)

O

∆S

= 0

(∆S →0 | n ⊥ ∆S, P ∈ ∆S ⊂ ∂V ).

The vector t

(n)

is called stress vector, associated with the choice of the normal n in P, and it

has the dimension of force per area. Note that this postulate tells us that there is no stress

moment density.

Several remarks are in order here. First of all, the Euler-Cauchy postulate is a postulate (i.e.

can not be proven), even though introduced on fairly obvious physical grounds. Furthermore,

the stress vector t

(n)

is uniquely deﬁned under this hypothesis regardless of the choice of V

or its boundary, as long as n is the external unit vector in P normal to ∂V . The argument

to have no net stress moment is based intuitively on the shrinking of the dimensions of the

surface around P to zero. We will follow this argument for the sake of simplicity, although

it is by no means required to construct a consistent theory. Suﬃce it here to mention that

for so-called Cosserat continua the stress moment density is taken into account in a fully

coherent development of the continuum theory. The principle of action and reaction in an

interior point P means that

t

(−n)

= −t

(n)

.

To know the stress ﬁeld fully at this stage is equivalent to knowing a triple inﬁnity of stress

vectors at each interior point P. Obviously, something simpler will be necessary for a more

workable description.

The sum of the surface forces acting upon a continuum with volume V and boundary ∂V is

F

surface

=

∂V

t

(n)

dS.

Table of contents 18

If we return to the law of motion, which was left in the form

V

ρ ˙ v dV = F,

we ﬁnd

V

ρ ˙ v dV =

V

f dV +

∂V

t

(n)

dS.

For the present, no point or diﬀerential form of this conservation law is possible. This will

have to wait until after the introduction of the stress tensor.

2.3 Stress tensor

In an interior point P the body force density f or ρb is a given quantity. On the other hand,

with each choice of the normal n in P there corresponds a stress vector t

(n)

. It is generally

admitted that there exists a linear relation between both, expressed in terms of a tensor T

of order two, such that

t

(n)

= n T

This tensor T is called the stress tensor and the knowledge of the stress tensor determines

the stress ﬁeld in P completely. We are now in a position to further transcribe the equations

expressing the conservation of linear momentum.

The surface integral appearing in the momentum equation can be transformed into a volume

integral with the help of the Gauss-Ostrogradski theorem,

∂V

t

(n)

dS =

∂V

n TdS =

V

∇ TdV

or componentwise,

∂V

t

(n)

j

dS =

∂V

n

i

T

ij

dS =

V

∂

i

T

ij

dV.

The momentum equation itself thus becomes

V

ρ ˙ v dV =

V

f dV +

V

∇ TdV,

and it is now possible to go to the diﬀerential or pointwise form of the equation expressing

the conservation of momentum:

ρ ˙ v = f +∇ T

or equivalently in index notation,

ρ˙ v

j

= f

j

+ ∂

i

T

ij

.

These are known under the name of equations of motion.

Table of contents 19

2.4 Center of mass

We deﬁne, with respect to the given reference frame and again in analogy to what is known

from point mechanics and rigid body mechanics, the center of mass of a continuum contained

in V as

x

C

=

V

ρ xdV

V

ρ dV

=

1

M

V

ρ xdV ,

with M the total mass of V . When the material time derivative of this expression is taken,

we use the fact that M remains constant and get

˙ x

C

=

1

M

d

dt

V

ρ xdV =

1

M

V

ρ v dV,

with the help of the equation of continuity. Hence

P = M ˙ x

C

,

just as for a rigid body. Taking once again the material derivative, we ﬁnd with the help of

V

ρ ˙ v dV =

V

f dV +

∂V

t

(n)

dS

that

¨ x

C

=

1

M

d

dt

V

ρ v dV =

1

M

V

ρ ˙ v dV

=

1

M

V

f dV +

1

M

∂V

t

(n)

dS =

1

M

F.

This states that the acceleration of the center of mass times the total mass is equal to the

sum of the forces acting upon V . The details of the distribution of matter in V seem to

be forgotten, and the actual shape of the volume only plays a role when computing the

sum of the forces. This allows a coarser description of deformable media in terms of the

total mass, center of mass and total forces. Precisely this property has ensured the success

of the classical point mechanics and the mechanics of rigid bodies, where the deformation is

negligible compared to other characteristics, or when all the mass of a body can be thought

of as being concentrated in one point, its center of mass.

2.5 Conservation of angular momentum

In point or rigid body mechanics the conservation of angular momentum is formulated as

follows: the time derivative of the total angular momentum equals the resulting momentum

of all forces acting upon the system, all momenta being computed with respect to a given

ﬁxed point. A similar principle will be invoked in continuum mechanics. The total angular

momentum (with respect to chosen the origin) of a continuum in a volume V is

L

O

=

V

x ρ v dV.

Table of contents 20

The total momentum results only from the momenta of the forces acting upon V and is

N

O

=

V

x f dV +

∂V

x t

(n)

dS.

The conservation of angular momentum for continua is hence

˙

L

O

= N

O

,

formally reminiscent of classical mechanics, or in more explicit form,

V

ρ x ˙ v dV =

V

x f dV +

∂V

x t

(n)

dS,

since

d

dt

V

x ρ v dV

=

V

ρ

d

dt

(x v) dV =

V

ρ x ˙ v dV.

One has to change the surface integral into a volume integral according to the theorem of

Gauss-Ostrogradski,

∂V

x t

(n)

i

dS =

∂V

(x (n T))

i

dS

=

∂V

ε

ijk

x

j

n

ℓ

T

ℓk

dS =

V

∂

ℓ

(ε

ijk

x

j

T

ℓk

) dV

=

V

ε

ijk

(δ

ℓj

T

ℓk

+ x

j

∂

ℓ

T

ℓk

) dV =

V

(ε T +x (∇ T))

i

dV.

The computation was done in index notation because in vector notation it is well-nigh

impossible and would be at any rate confusing. There remains in the angular momentum

equation that

V

x ρ ˙ v dV =

V

x f dV +

V

(x ∇ T + ε T) dV

or with the help of the equation of motion,

V

ε TdV = 0.

If stress momenta would have been included in the description, this result would no longer

be valid. Again one ﬁnds the diﬀerential or point form of the equation expressing the

conservation of angular momentum,

ε T = 0 or ε

ijk

T

jk

= 0.

There follows that

ε

ipq

ε

ijk

T

jk

= δ

pj

δ

qk

T

jk

−δ

pk

δ

qj

T

jk

= T

pq

−T

qp

= 0,

and conversely, so that

ε T = 0 ⇐⇒ T

t

= T.

What remains of the conservation of angular momentum is that the stress tensor has to be

a symmetric tensor. Such a result would not exist for Cosserat continua where a stress

momentum distribution is present.

Table of contents 21

2.6 Conservation of energy

Many things could be said about energy, but most of them straightaway involve thermody-

namical considerations. As we restrict ourselves in the next chapters to problems which can

be studied from an almost purely mechanical point of view (and there are enough interesting

problems falling in this category) we will give the balance of energy in this paragraph in

very simple terms. We recall that the forces acting upon the part of the continuum under

consideration were the body forces f and the stress forces t

(n)

. The total mechanical power

then is

{ =

V

f v dV +

∂V

t

(n)

v dS,

which can be computed to be

{ =

V

f v dV +

∂V

n T v dS

=

V

f v dV +

V

∇ (T v) dV

=

V

f v dV +

V

(∇ T) v + T

t

: ∇v

dV

=

V

(f +∇ T) v dV +

V

T : ∇v dV.

We deﬁne the rate of deformation tensor D, which will be treated in more detail in the next

chapter, as

D =

1

2

∇v + (∇v)

t

,

i.e. it is the symmetric part of ∇v. In view of the symmetry of T it is easy to prove that

T : ∇v = T :

1

2

∇v + (∇v)

t

+ T :

1

2

∇v −(∇v)

t

= T : D.

This will be used, together with the equation of motion, to rewrite

{ =

V

(f +∇ T) v dV +

V

T : ∇v dV

as

{ =

V

1

2

ρ

dv

2

dt

dV +

V

T : DdV =

d

dt

V

1

2

ρv

2

dV +

V

T : DdV.

With the deﬁnition of the kinetic energy as

T =

V

1

2

ρv

2

dV,

we ﬁnd that

{ =

˙

T +

V

T : DdV,

Table of contents 22

stating that the total mechanical power equals the change in kinetic energy per unit time plus

something which will be related to the behaviour of the medium as a deformable continuum

(and is sometimes called the stress power).

The kinetic energy is not the only form of energy for a continuum. There is the internal

energy, c, characterized by a density ε of internal energy:

c =

V

ρε dV.

The remainder in the energy balance, the non-mechanical power, will be lumped together

and called the heat O, in such a way that the total mechanical power plus the heat is given

by the time variation of the kinetic plus the internal energy:

{ +O =

˙

T +

˙

c

This is the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics. Comparing both expressions for {, one ﬁnds that

O+

V

T : DdV =

d

dt

V

ρε dV

.

To get a point form of this balance of energy requires some additional hypotheses about how

the heat changes. We will split the heat contained in a volume V in two parts, one connected

with the internal heat sources or sinks, with density ν (possibly from a radiation ﬁeld), and

one connected with the heat ﬂux through the boundary, with heat ﬂux vector q, such that

O =

V

ρν dV −

∂V

n qdS .

As a result, we ﬁnally obtain that

ρ ˙ ε = ρν −∇ q + T : D

The time rate of change in the internal energy is given by the heat source density, the

divergence of the heat ﬂux and the stress power T : D. For adiabatic processes, where

there are no heat sources/sinks nor heat ﬂuxes, the stress power changes the internal energy

density in a unique way,

ρ ˙ ε = T : D.

This will be as far as we need to push the reasoning about energy for the purpose of this

and subsequent chapters.

Table of contents 23

2.7 Basic equations

We are now in a position to collect the basic equations obtained sofar: the equation of

continuity, the equation of motion and the symmetry of the stress tensor:

˙ ρ + ρ ∇ v = ∂

t

ρ +∇ (ρv) = 0

ρ ˙ v = f +∇ T = ρb +∇ T

T

t

= T

To this one could add the energy balance, but we leave it out of the discussion, as it simply

determines the internal energy once T and v (and hence ∇v and D) are known. If in the

preceding set of equations one counts in scalar components, the equation of continuity is one

equation in four unknowns, the mass density and the three components of the velocity. The

equation of motion corresponds to three scalar equations in nine additional unknowns, the

components of the stress tensor, because the volume force density f has to be considered a

given quantity, as the example of gravity shows. Finally, the symmetry of the stress tensor

adds three further equations.

To sum up, we have at our disposal seven scalar equations containing thirteen unknown scalar

quantities. The theoretical description is thus not closed at all. This should not be surprising,

because we only expressed very general principles which are supposed to hold for all kinds

of continua, be they elastic material or ﬂuids, all of which can be encountered in various

guises. The closure of the theoretical description will only be obtained by the introduction of

constitutive equations, where something more speciﬁc is said about given classes of continua.

Constitutive equations will have to wait, however, until chapter 4, because ﬁrst deformation

has to be treated and this will occupy chapter 3. The remainder of the present chapter will

be devoted to some properties of the stress tensor as a symmetric tensor.

2.8 Eigenvalue problem for symmetric tensors

We recall the interpretation of a tensor of order two as a linear operator mapping a vector

u into another one. One can then ask the question if and when u and T u can be parallel,

i.e. if and when there exists a scalar λ such that

T u = λu.

If this is possible, λ is called an eigenvalue and u is the corresponding eigenvector of T. The

terminology has been carried over from what is used in matrix algebra. In index notation

we have that

T

ij

u

j

= λu

i

,

which form in three-dimensional space a set of three homogeneous equations in the three

components of u. If an eigenvector u is to be found at all, the determinant of the coeﬃcients

must vanish,

det(T

ij

−λδ

ij

) = det(T −λ1) = 0.

Table of contents 24

This is the characteristic equation of T which yields in general three, possibly coinciding,

values for λ. There are three eigenvalues thus, and with each one corresponds an eigenvector.

We know that a symmetric tensor T has three real eigenvalues. If they are diﬀerent from

each other, the corresponding eigenvectors form an orthogonal system. If the eigenvalues

are not all diﬀerent, then it is still possible to construct three eigenvectors which form an

orthogonal system. In this orthogonal system the representation of T is diagonal, with the

three eigenvalues as diagonal elements,

T =

λ

1

0 0

0 λ

2

0

0 0 λ

3

¸

¸

.

Expansion of the characteristic equation leads to

λ

3

−I

T

λ

2

+ II

T

λ −III

T

= 0,

where the three (principal) invariants of T are given by

I

T

= tr T = T

ii

,

II

T

=

1

2

(T

ii

T

jj

−T

ij

T

ji

) =

1

2

tr (Ttr T −T

2

),

III

T

= det T.

From

T u = λu

there follows after repeated multiplication with T that

T

m

u = λ

m

u.

Since each eigenvalue satisﬁes the characteristic equation and in view of the diagonal repre-

sentation, T itself satisﬁes its own characteristic equation,

T

3

−I

T

T

2

+ II

T

T −III

T

1 = 0

This is known as the Hamilton-Cayley equation and it can be used to express higher powers

of T as combinations of T

2

, T and 1.

2.9 Normal and shear stresses

The symmetry of the stress tensor has several interesting consequences. First comes the

concept of normal stress, associated with a direction n at a point P, which is deﬁned as

the component of the stress vector t

(n)

along n itself. This component can be written in

equivalent ways as

σ

(n)

N

= n t

(n)

= nn : T = T : nn = n T n.

Table of contents 25

The normal stress is the same for both the inner and the outer normal to a given plane,

σ

(n)

N

= σ

(−n)

N

,

and the stress is simply called the traction or pressure according to whether σ

(n)

N

is positive

or negative. The shear stress is the component of the stress vector t

(n)

perpendicular to the

normal, in the plane itself,

t

(n)

S

= t

(n)

−σ

(n)

N

n.

Note that

m t

(n)

= m T n = n t

(m)

i.e.: the projection of the stress vector t

(n)

associated with a direction n upon a direction m

equals the projection of the stress vector t

(m)

associated with m upon n. For two given or-

thogonal directions m and n with their associated stress vectors one speaks of the reciprocity

of the shear stresses, given by

m t

(n)

S

= n t

(m)

S

= mn : T = nm : T (m⊥ n).

All these properties simply follow from the symmetry of T.

In general one has for a given direction n at a point both normal and shear stresses. A

relevant question in this context is whether there exist planes in the continuum for which

there is a normal but no shear stress. The corresponding stress vector t

(n)

should be parallel

to the normal n for such planes, i.e.

t

(n)

= σ n,

which amounts to

T n = n T = σ n.

Thus σ is required to be a solution of

det(T −σ 1) = det(T

ij

−σδ

ij

) = 0.

We are then dealing, of course, with the eigenvalue problem for the stress tensor, for which

can use the results for symmetric tensors recalled in the previous section. The (real) eigen-

values of T are called the principal stresses, and it is possible to ﬁnd a coordinate system in

which the stress tensor has a diagonal matrix representation. In such a coordinate system

(based on a system of principal axes for stress) the coordinate planes at least satisfy the

requirement that there be no shear stress along these planes. According to whether some

eigenvalues are equal or not, or vanish or not, diﬀerent states of stress exist. They are

summarized in Table 2.1.

The coordinate planes in the system of principal axes carry no shear stresses. In the converse

problem one could ask for which directions the shear stresses are maximum, or more general,

extremum. For simplicity, the computations will be done in the system of principal axes.

We start from the magnitude squared of the shear stress vector,

σ

2

S

=

t

(n)

−σ

N

n

t

(n)

−σ

N

n

= t

(n)

t

(n)

−σ

2

N

.

Table of contents 26

state of stress T in principal axes t

(n)

in principal axes invariants

1. general stress

σ

1

0 0

0 σ

2

0

0 0 σ

3

¸

¸

n

1

σ

1

n

2

σ

2

n

3

σ

3

¸

¸

III

T

= 0 or det T = 0

with possibly

σ

1

= σ

2

but σ

2

= σ

3

2. plane stress

σ

1

0 0

0 σ

2

0

0 0 0

¸

¸

n

1

σ

1

n

2

σ

2

0

¸

¸

III

T

= 0

t

(n)

| plane (1,2) II

T

= 0

3. linear stress

σ

1

0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0

¸

¸

n

1

σ

1

0

0

¸

¸

II

T

= 0 = III

T

t

(n)

| e

(1)

I

T

= tr T = 0

4. spherical stress

σ 0 0

0 σ 0

0 0 σ

¸

¸

n

1

σ

n

2

σ

n

3

σ

¸

¸

=⇒σ

n

1

n

2

n

3

¸

¸

II

T

=

1

3

(I

T

)

2

σ

1

= σ

2

= σ

3

= σ t

(n)

= σ n (∀n) III

T

=

1

27

(I

T

)

3

T = σ 1

Table 2.1. Diﬀerent stress states

With respect to principal axes we have

σ

N

= n

2

i

σ

i

, t

(n)

α

= n

α

σ

α

(i summed, α not),

and hence

σ

2

S

= n

2

i

σ

2

i

−(n

2

i

σ

i

)

2

.

The extrema of this function have to be sought depending on the direction of n, with the

constraint that n be a unit vector,

n

i

n

i

= n

2

= 1.

With the use of a Lagrangian multiplier λ we have to ﬁnd the extrema of the function

φ = σ

2

S

−λ(n

i

n

i

−1)

as a function of the components of n. The condition that φ be extremum is

∂φ

∂n

α

= 0, (α = 1, 2, 3)

Table of contents 27

which gives the set of equations

∂φ

∂n

α

= 2n

α

σ

2

α

−2(n

2

j

σ

j

)2n

α

σ

α

−2λn

α

= 2n

α

σ

2

α

−2σ

α

(n

2

1

σ

1

+ n

2

2

σ

2

+ n

2

3

σ

3

) −λ

= 0 (α not summed).

The discussion is ﬁrst given for the case when all eigenvalues σ

α

of the stress tensor are diﬀer-

ent. Then it can be checked that at least one component of n has to vanish in order to ﬁnd a

solution, while on the other hand not all three components of n may vanish simultaneously.

A ﬁrst class of solutions is with two components of n zero, the third component then being

1, which yields

λ = −σ

2

1

if n = e

(1)

,

σ

2

S

= 0.

This type of solution yields nothing but the coordinate planes in the system of principal

axes, where the shear stresses vanish. The other class of solutions is found by putting one

component of n, say n

3

, zero and solving

σ

2

1

−2σ

1

n

2

1

σ

1

+ n

2

2

σ

2

−λ = 0,

σ

2

2

−2σ

2

n

2

1

σ

1

+ n

2

2

σ

2

−λ = 0,

n

2

1

+ n

2

2

= 1,

for n

1

and n

2

. This gives

n

2

1

= n

2

2

=

1

2

, λ = −σ

1

σ

2

,

σ

2

S

=

σ

1

−σ

2

2

2

.

The other cases are analogous, and the principal shear stresses occur along the bisector

planes of the system of principal axes,

n

2

1

= n

2

2

=

1

2

and n

3

= 0 ⇒ σ

S

=

σ

2

−σ

1

2

n

2

1

= n

2

3

=

1

2

and n

2

= 0 ⇒ σ

S

=

σ

3

−σ

1

2

n

2

2

= n

2

3

=

1

2

and n

1

= 0 ⇒ σ

S

=

σ

3

−σ

2

2

(σ

1

< σ

2

< σ

3

)

These are the maximal shear stresses, and the discussion of the solutions is herewith ex-

hausted, if we suppose that all σ

i

are diﬀerent from each other.

Suitable but straightforward corrections can be made to the above reasoning if some of the

eigenvalues coincide. We will leave this to the reader, except to say that in the case of three

equal eigenvalues

σ

1

= σ

2

= σ

3

= σ

Table of contents 28

one has a state of isotropic or spherical stress,

T = σ1,

where every direction corresponds to an eigenvector and there are no shear stresses at all,

only (equal) normal stresses.

Chapter 3

Deformation

• Finite and inﬁnitesimal deformation are obtained by comparing initial and

ﬁnal states, after subtracting translation and rigid body rotation. In its

simplest form the deformation and rotation tensors are

E =

1

2

(∇u +u∇) and W =

1

2

(∇u −u∇)

• Rates of strain similarly address the evolutionary aspects of deformation,

with rate of strain and vorticity tensors

D =

1

2

(∇v +v∇) and Ω =

1

2

(∇v −v∇)

• Eigenvalues for the strain and rate of strain tensors give principal strains

and special deformations

29

Table of contents 30

3.1 Finite deformation

Recall that the motion of a rigid body can be decomposed, for the purpose of the theoretical

description, into a translation and a rotation. For deformable bodies, which cannot be

regarded as strictly rigid, the motion will have a third aspect, that of deformation.

Two ways of looking at the motion are possible. First, without bothering about the evolution

through intermediate states, one can simply compare the initial and the ﬁnal states. This

comparison will yield a certain translation, rotation and deformation. On the other hand,

one might be interested in the motion itself, and then one gets at each time a translation

velocity, an angular velocity and a rate of deformation.

In the present section we start with the comparison of the initial and ﬁnal states and leave

the velocities for a subsequent section. In Figure 3.1 both states to be compared are drawn

with respect to the same reference system. Fix a reference frame with a Cartesian coordi-

nate system. The coordinates in the initial state, a, are called the material or Lagrangian

coordinates, whereas those in the ﬁnal state, x, are called the space or Eulerian coordinates.

The particle formerly at P

0

is displaced to P, and has a displacement vector u given by

u = x −a.

In view of the continuum hypotheses, we will suppose that the correspondence between

P

0

and P is one-to-one, which simply means that the continuum under consideration is

1

O

3

2

a

x

u

P

0

P

da

Q

0

db

R

0

dx

Q

dy

R

V

0

V

Figure 3.1. Comparison of initial and ﬁnal states.

Table of contents 31

nowhere torn apart nor joined onto another material. This requirement stems from the usual

deterministic view that the initial conditions uniquely determine the subsequent evolution of

a given particle. The one-to-one correspondence between P

0

and P, which is now built into

the theory, demands quite some caution and adaptation before the theory can be applied to

problems such as fractures of elastic materials. As a further requirement, the displacement

vector is a continuous function of the position in either the initial or the ﬁnal state.

Using the material coordinates or, equivalently, tagging all particles by their initial positions,

we ﬁnd that

x = ¯ x(a, t),

and thus for the displacement vector

u = ¯ u(a, t) = ¯ x(a, t) −a.

Conversely, using the space coordinates, we can express the original positions of the particles

now at x through

a = ´a(x, t).

Similarly, the displacement vector becomes

u = ´ u(x, t) = x −´a(x, t).

Both descriptions refer to the same comparison between an initial and a ﬁnal state, hence the

transformations x = ¯ x(a, t) and a = ´a(x, t) should be each others inverse. This in particular

implies that the Jacobian determinant of the transformation be diﬀerent from zero, and even,

for material continua, that it be positive,

J = det

¸

∂

∂a

i

¯ x

j

> 0, J

−1

= det

¸

∂

∂x

i

´a

j

> 0.

This is based on the reasoning that if the initial and ﬁnal states are smoothly connected, then

the Jacobian tends to 1 when the ﬁnal state approaches the initial state. The uniqueness

requirements prevent the Jacobian from going through zero, so that it has to keep a positive

sign. The transformation between initial and ﬁnal state is orientation preserving.

In order to separate the translation and rotation aspects of the motion from the deformation

aspects, we set out with three neighbouring points, P

0

, Q

0

and R

0

in the initial state and

consider the corresponding points in the ﬁnal state, P, Q and R. How these particles got

there is irrelevant for the time being. From P

0

to Q

0

we have the inﬁnitesimal vector da,

corresponding in the ﬁnal state to dx from P to Q. With the help of the transformations

relating a and x one gets

dx = da

∂

∂a

¯ x

dx

i

=

∂¯ x

i

∂a

j

da

j

,

da = dx

∂

∂x

´a

da

i

=

∂´a

i

∂x

j

dx

j

.

Table of contents 32

Repeating the argument for the pair of points (P

0

, R

0

) and (P, R), denoting the separation

vector resp. db and dy, we ﬁnd analogously

dy = db

∂

∂a

¯ x

dy

i

=

∂¯ x

i

∂a

j

db

j

,

db = dy

∂

∂x

´a

db

i

=

∂´a

i

∂x

j

dy

j

.

For the simplicity of subsequent calculations we abbreviate the position gradients as

F =

∂

∂a

¯ x, F

−1

= G =

∂

∂x

´a,

and rewrite the respective diﬀerentials as

dx = da F, dy = db F

da = dx G, db = dy G.

The scalar product dx dy contains information about the distances between P and Q and

P and R, as well as about the angle

**QPR. Subtracting similar information from the initial
**

state, contained in da db, we calculate successively

dx dy −da db = (da F) (db F) −da db

= da F F

t

db −da db

= da (F F

t

−1) db = 2da L db.

The symmetric tensor L is called the ﬁnite or nonlinear Lagrangian strain tensor of Green

and StVenant. That we do indeed ﬁnd a tensor can be proved in diﬀerent ways, either

directly on the deﬁnition

L =

1

2

(F F

t

−1)

or via the fact that in

dx dy −da db = 2da L db

L yields a scalar for an arbitrary choice of the (inﬁnitesimal) vectors da and db.

In a similar vein we get, via the Eulerian description,

dx dy −da db = dx dy −(dx G) (dy G)

= dx (1 −G G

t

) dy = 2dx E dy,

and the tensor E is the ﬁnite or nonlinear Eulerian strain tensor of Almansi and Cauchy.

The deﬁnition

E =

1

2

(1 −G G

t

)

Table of contents 33

shows that it is also a symmetric tensor.

To see indeed that L and E merit the name of strain tensors, or put diﬀerently, that these

tensors measure pure strain or deformation, we let for a while Q

0

and R

0

, or Q and R, refer

to the same particle and ﬁnd that

dx dx −da da = dx

2

−da

2

= 2L : da da = 2E : dxdx.

The left-hand side of this expression refers only to the distance between two particles in the

initial state and to the distance between the same two particles in the ﬁnal state. Note that

for rigid bodies we could pick any two (not even neighbouring) particles and, by deﬁnition

of a rigid body, the distance always remains invariant. This implies that for rigid bodies L

and E have to vanish (i.e. F and G are represented by orthogonal matrices). Conversely, if L

and E vanish in the neighbourhood of a particle P, we ﬁnd that the distance between P and

a neighbouring particle Q remains invariant during the motion, hence the neighbourhood

of P behaves as if it were part of rigid body. This shows that L and E indeed measure the

deformation or the strain around P

0

or P.

Instead of expressing L and E in components of the coordinates, we may just as well use the

displacements. Combining

u = ¯ u(a, t) = ¯ x(a, t) −a

with the original deﬁnition of L gives us in index notation

L

jk

=

1

2

¸

δ

ij

+

∂¯ u

i

∂a

j

δ

ik

+

∂¯ u

i

∂a

k

−δ

jk

=

1

2

δ

ij

δ

ik

+ δ

ij

∂¯ u

i

∂a

k

+ δ

ik

∂¯ u

i

∂a

j

+

∂¯ u

i

∂a

j

∂¯ u

i

∂a

k

−δ

jk

=

1

2

∂¯ u

j

∂a

k

+

∂¯ u

k

∂a

j

+

∂¯ u

i

∂a

j

∂¯ u

i

∂a

k

.

By similarly substituting

u = ´ u(x, t) = x −´a(x, t)

into the expression for E we obtain

E

jk

=

1

2

¸

δ

jk

−

δ

ij

−

∂´ u

i

∂x

j

δ

ik

−

∂´ u

i

∂x

k

=

1

2

δ

jk

−δ

ij

δ

ik

+ δ

ij

∂´ u

i

∂x

k

+ δ

ik

∂´ u

i

∂x

j

−

∂´ u

i

∂x

j

∂´ u

i

∂x

k

=

1

2

∂´ u

j

∂x

k

+

∂´ u

k

∂x

j

−

∂´ u

i

∂x

j

∂´ u

i

∂x

k

.

These expressions will be used in the next section to determine the small strain tensors.

Table of contents 34

3.2 Inﬁnitesimal deformation or small strain

If the components of the gradient of the displacement are suﬃciently small, in such a way that

the products of those components can be neglected compared to the components themselves,

∂¯ u

i

∂a

j

∂¯ u

i

∂a

k

≪

∂¯ u

j

∂a

k

or

∂´ u

i

∂x

j

∂´ u

i

∂x

k

≪

∂´ u

j

∂x

k

,

one says that the continuum is subjected to a small or inﬁnitesimal strain or deformation.

Applying the above approximation in the last obtained expressions for L and E reduce these

to

L

jk

=

1

2

∂¯ u

j

∂a

k

+

∂¯ u

k

∂a

j

,

E

jk

=

1

2

∂´ u

j

∂x

k

+

∂´ u

k

∂x

j

.

Written in tensor notation this is

L =

1

2

∇

a

¯ u + (∇

a

¯ u)

t

,

E =

1

2

∇

x

´ u + (∇

x

´ u)

t

,

and it is obvious that the distinction between a Lagrangian and an Eulerian description can

usually be omitted, the coordinates then being designated by x in both cases. Keeping this

in mind, henceforth we will use E to denote also the linear or small strain tensor,

E =

1

2

∇u + (∇u)

t

=

1

2

(∇u +u∇)

The notation u∇ will be used instead of (∇u)

t

, whenever no confusion is possible, and is

inspired by the fact that for ordinary vectors (vu)

t

is just uv.

Now E is the symmetric part of the gradient of the displacement, and the antisymmetric

part of ∇u will be called the rotation tensor W, with

W =

1

2

∇u −(∇u)

t

=

1

2

(∇u −u∇)

This decomposition of ∇u is unique:

∇u = E + W.

We yet have to show that, for small strain, W merits the name of “rotation tensor”. To do

Table of contents 35

P

0

P

Q

0

Q

u

dx

u

′

V

0

V

Figure 3.2. Decomposition of neighbouring displacements.

so, the displacement u

′

= u(Q

0

) of a particle Q

0

in the neighbourhood of P

0

, as indicated

in Figure 3.2, is expressed through a Taylor expansion around the displacement of P

0

,

u

′

= u(x

Q

0

) = u(x

P

0

+ dx) = u(x

P

0

) + dx ∇u(x

P

0

)

= u + dx ∇u = u + dx E + dx W.

The ﬁrst term on the right-hand side of the last equation is the translation part of the

motion, the second term refers to the pure deformation and the third part is nothing but the

rotation. To see this, we introduce the concept of the dual vector of an antisymmetric tensor

of order two such as W. The notion of a dual vector is restricted to a three-dimensional

space, because only there a vector and an antisymmetric tensor of order two both have three

components, so that a one-to-one correspondence between the information contained in these

is possible. For an antisymmetric tensor with components W

kℓ

, deﬁne in a unique way the

vector w with components

w

j

=

1

2

ε

jkℓ

W

kℓ

.

Conversely, it follows that

ε

pqj

w

j

=

1

2

ε

pqj

ε

jkℓ

W

kℓ

=

1

2

δ

pk

δ

qℓ

W

kℓ

−

1

2

δ

pℓ

δ

qk

W

kℓ

=

1

2

W

pq

−

1

2

W

qp

= W

pq

,

Table of contents 36

or summarized together,

w

j

=

1

2

ε

jkℓ

W

kℓ

, W

kℓ

= ε

kℓj

w

j

.

If W vanishes, so does w and vice versa. Furthermore, one can check that

(v W)

i

= v

k

W

ki

= v

k

ε

kij

w

j

= ε

ijk

w

j

v

k

= (wv)

i

and hence the expression for u

′

can be rewritten as

u

′

= u +wdx + E dx.

This shows indeed that W is giving the rotation part of the motion, namely a rotation over

an angle |w|. The explicit expression of w is

w

j

=

1

2

ε

jkℓ

W

kℓ

=

1

4

ε

jkℓ

(∂

k

u

ℓ

−∂

ℓ

u

k

)

=

1

4

ε

jkℓ

∂

k

u

ℓ

+

1

4

ε

jℓk

∂

ℓ

u

k

=

1

2

ε

jkℓ

∂

k

u

ℓ

=

1

2

(∇u)

j

or

W =

1

2

(∇u −u∇) ⇐⇒ w =

1

2

∇u

3.3 Geometric interpretation of small strain

For the interpretation of the diagonal elements of E, we return to the Lagrangian view point,

dx dx −da da = 2E : dada

and take da parallel to the ﬁrst axis,

dx

2

−da

2

= 2E

11

da

2

,

so that

E

11

=

dx

2

−da

2

2da

2

.

This yields several expressions which are equivalent within the small strain approximation,

E

11

=

(dx + da)(dx −da)

2da

2

≃

2da(dx −da)

2da

2

=

dx −da

da

.

This shows that the diagonal elements of the small strain tensor give the relative stretching

along the coordinate axes. This is a quantity which can be measured and is often used in

experimental setups.

Table of contents 37

tan β =

∂u

1

∂x

2

β

α

tan α =

∂u

2

∂x

1

O

1

2

Figure 3.3. Deformation of angles.

Once the meaning of the diagonal elements is intuitively clear, we proceed to the oﬀ-diagonal

elements. We use

dx dy −da db = 2E : dadb

with da parallel to the ﬁrst axis and db parallel to the second axis and ﬁnd

dxdy cos θ −da db cos

π

2

= 2E

12

da db.

Up to second order terms, we have that

2E

12

=

dx

da

dy

db

cos θ ≃ cos θ.

As shown in Figure 3.3, we can express the cosine of θ as follows

cos θ = cos

π

2

−α −β

= sin(α + β) ≃ α + β

≃ tan α + tan β =

∂u

2

∂x

1

+

∂u

1

∂x

2

= 2E

12

,

where it has been taken into account that α and β are assumed to be very small. Hence we

have that the oﬀ-diagonal elements of the small strain tensor give half of the change in angle

between two line elements which were perpendicular to each other before the deformation.

This change in angle is called shear. The reason that there is a factor two is that notions like

relative stretching or shear evolved experimentally long before it was recognized that these

were parts of what is now known to behave as a (small) strain tensor.

3.4 Rate of deformation

Up to now the discussion of the deformation was conﬁned to a comparison between an initial

and a ﬁnal state, without paying any attention to the intervening states or to the motion

Table of contents 38

P

Q

dx

v

v

′

V

Figure 3.4. Velocities of neighbouring particles.

involved in getting from one state to the other. To get some idea of the velocities occurring,

we Taylor decompose the velocity of a particle Q in the neighbourhood of a particle P, in

much the same way as we did with the displacements before and as shown in Figure 3.4, so

that

v

′

= v(x

Q

) = v(x

P

) + dx ∇v(x

P

) = v + dx ∇v

= v +

1

2

dx (∇v +v∇) +

1

2

dx (∇v −v∇) = v + dx D + dx Ω

or also

v

′

= v + ω dx + dx D.

The new quantities introduced in the above are respectively the rate of deformation tensor

D,

D =

1

2

(∇v +v∇) or D

ij

=

1

2

(∂

i

v

j

+ ∂

j

v

i

),

the vorticity tensor Ω,

Ω =

1

2

(∇v −v∇) or Ω

ij

=

1

2

(∂

i

v

j

−∂

j

v

i

),

and its dual vector, the vorticity (vector) ω

ω =

1

2

∇v or ω

i

=

1

2

ε

ijk

∂

j

v

k

The rate of deformation tensor D is a symmetric tensor, the vorticity tensor Ω is anti-

symmetric, and they are respectively the symmetric and antisymmetric part of the velocity

Table of contents 39

gradient tensor ∇v. The decomposition of v

′

shows that the motion contains three diﬀerent

elements, at least conceptually, since all aspects occur simultaneously in real motion. These

three diﬀerent elements are a translation velocity v, a instantaneous rotation with angular

velocity ω and a pure rate of deformation given through D.

Another way of arriving at D is by taking the time derivative of dxdx−dada (= 2E : dxdx),

which yields

d

dt

(dx

2

−da

2

) =

d

dt

(dx dx) = 2dx

d

dt

(dx).

We need to compute separately

d

dt

(dx) =

d

dt

(da ∇

a

¯ x) = da

d

dt

(∇

a

¯ x)

= da ∇

a

d

dt

x = da ∇

a

v = dv = dx ∇

x

v,

and ﬁnally get

d

dt

(dx

2

−da

2

) = 2dx dv = 2dxdx : ∇v

= 2dxdx : D + 2dxdx : Ω = 2dx D dx.

Here again, the interpretation is that if the neighbourhood of a particle P instantaneously

behaves as a rigid body, then the corresponding rate of deformation tensor vanishes.

In order to get some relation between the strain tensor E and the rate of deformation tensor

D, we calculate that

2dx D dx =

d

dt

(dx

2

−da

2

) =

d

dt

(2dx E dx)

= 2dv E dx + 2dx

˙

E dx + 2dx E dv

= 2dx

˙

E +∇v E + E (∇v)

t

dx.

It follows that

D =

˙

E +∇v E + E (∇v)

t

because

dx A dx = 0 (∀dx) ⇐⇒ A = 0,

provided A is a symmetric tensor. If the deformation is inﬁnitesimal, the last two terms on

the right-hand side of the previous equation may be neglected and there only remains

D ≃

˙

E.

Table of contents 40

3.5 Principal strains and special deformations

Both tensors E and D are symmetric and we will conﬁne the discussion to one of the tensors,

say E. The eigenvalue problem for E,

E n = εn,

means that one is looking for those directions n which remain parallel to themselves under

pure deformation, that is when neither translation nor rotation occurs. The eigenvalues are

the roots of

det(E −ε1) = −ε

3

+ I

E

ε

2

−II

E

ε + III

E

= 0

ε

1

ε

2

ε

3

with invariants

I

E

= tr E, II

E

=

1

2

tr

Etr E −E

2

, III

E

= det E.

Since E is symmetric, the eigenvalues are real and there exists at least three mutually or-

thogonal eigenvectors. After normalization, these eigenvectors can be used as the base of a

coordinate system in which E is diagonal. There are thus at least three diﬀerent directions

which remain unchanged when the continuum is subjected to pure deformation.

The ﬁrst invariant I

E

has a special meaning and is often called the coeﬃcient of cubic

dilatation in small strain. To see where this name comes from, one considers an elementary

parallelepiped around P

0

, with volume

dV

0

= da (db dc),

where da, db, dc are parallel to the three coordinate axes, respectively. Use

dx = da F = da (1 +∇

a

u)

= da + da E +wda = (1 + ε

1

)da +wda

and analogous relations between dy and db, and between dz and dc, where the computations

are done in the principal coordinate system for E. We thus ﬁnd that

dV = dx (dy dz)

= [(1 + ε

1

)da +wda] ¦[(1 + ε

2

)db +wdb] [(1 + ε

3

)dc +wdc]¦

≃ (1 + ε

1

+ ε

2

+ ε

3

)da (db dc) + da [db (wdc)]

+ da [(wdb) dc] + (wda) (db dc)

= (1 + tr E) dV

0

.

The relative change in volume is thus

dV −dV

0

dV

0

= tr E.

According to whether some of the invariants of E vanish, we can perform a classiﬁcation

reminiscent of the one given for the stress tensor T. We distinguish the following special

states of strain (and a similar survey could be given for the rate of deformation, of course):

Table of contents 41

• General deformation:

III

E

= 0, ε

1

, ε

2

= ε

3

(possibly ε

1

= ε

2

).

The stretching for a particular direction n is deﬁned as

ε

(n)

= nn : E = n

i

n

j

E

ji

= n

2

i

ε

i

,

where the last expression is only valid in a principal coordinate system based on the

strain tensor eigenvectors.

• Plane deformation:

III

E

= det E = 0, II

E

= 0, ε

1,2

= 0, ε

3

= 0.

All displacements for pure deformation are parallel to one of the coordinate planes of

the system of principal axes, here the (1,2)-plane.

• Linear deformation:

III

E

= II

E

= 0, I

E

= 0, ε

1

= 0, ε

2,3

= 0.

All displacements for pure deformation are now parallel to one of the axes of the

principal coordinate system, here the ﬁrst one.

• Spherical deformation:

ε

1

= ε

2

= ε

3

= ε, E = ε 1.

For every direction there is no shear and the stretching is the same, equal to ε. This

implies that every linear dimension is multiplied by the same number and the trans-

formation from the initial to the ﬁnal state is a homothetic one, changing the volume

of the continuum but neither the form nor the shape. In every coordinate system the

strain tensor is a multiple of the unit tensor.

For a general state of strain it is possible to distinguish between changes in volume and in

form. Every tensor, not just E or a symmetric one, can be split in a unique way into a

spherical part and a remainder, with the restriction that the remainder be traceless. Such a

traceless part is then called the deviatoric part of the tensor. Thus one ﬁnds for E that

E = ε 1 + E

′

, ε =

1

3

tr E =

1

3

∇ u, tr E

′

= 0.

In the special case of E, the spherical part is a third of the coeﬃcient of cubic dilatation

and indicates a change in volume without a change in form (homothetic transformation).

The deviatoric part E

′

is a deformation where the form changes without a change in volume,

since the coeﬃcient of cubic dilatation for E

′

vanishes. Every deformation thus consists

conceptually of two parts: a change in volume without change in form, and a change in

form without change in volume. Furthermore, the principal axes for E and E

′

coincide, as

the spherical part is diagonal in any representation.

Table of contents 42

3.6 Compatibility conditions for small strain

Up to now, the deﬁnitions of E and D have been interpreted as a way of calculating E or

D, given the displacements u or the velocities v. There are six scalar equations giving E

ij

(or D

ij

), starting from the three components u

i

(or v

i

). The inverse problem consists in

determining the displacement u when the strain tensor E is given. It is clear that without

special precautions this will be impossible, as we will have twice as many equations as

there are unknowns. Consequently, not every tensor is admissible as a strain tensor. Some

relations between the components of E have to exist in order to allow the determination of u.

This question is not only of mathematical relevance but has some experimental implications,

as it is the deformations rather than the displacements which are usually measured in an

experiment. The mathematical compatibility conditions then amount to consistency relations

for the experimental data.

The required compatibility conditions are found upon elimination of u from

1

2

(∇u +u∇) = E.

Taking the curl of both sides gives

∇E = ∇

1

2

(∇u +u∇) =

1

2

∇u∇= w∇= (∇w)

t

,

with the help of the particular expression

w =

1

2

∇u

for the dual vector w of the rotation tensor W. From

(∇E)

t

= ∇w

we ﬁnd that

∇(∇E)

t

= 0

This is the required compatibility condition of StVenant, rewritten in index notation as

ε

ikℓ

ε

jmn

∂

k

∂

m

E

nℓ

= 0.

Due to the symmetry of E, this is also symmetric and hence equivalent to six scalar equations,

three of the form

2∂

1

∂

2

E

12

= ∂

1

∂

1

E

22

+ ∂

2

∂

2

E

11

,

and three of the form

∂

1

∂

2

E

33

= ∂

3

(∂

1

E

23

+ ∂

2

E

13

−∂

3

E

12

).

In order to completely close the discussion, we will show that the compatibility condition

of StVenant is not only necessary but also suﬃcient to deduce the structure of E, if E is

supposed symmetric. From

∇(∇E)

t

= 0

Table of contents 43

there follows at once that

(∇E)

t

= ∇d,

and hence also that

∇E = d∇.

Taking the trace of this tensor yields

∇ d = tr ∇E = ε

ijk

∂

j

E

ki

= 0,

since the tensor of Levi-Civit`a is completely antisymmetric and we have assumed that E is

symmetric. As d is divergence-free, it can be written as the curl of yet another vector e and

thus

∇E = ∇e∇.

From this one ﬁnds that

E = e∇+∇f .

Because of the symmetry of E this implies that

e∇+∇f = ∇e +f ∇,

or also that

∇(f −e) = (f −e)∇.

The index notation,

∂

i

(f

j

−e

j

) = ∂

j

(f

i

−e

i

),

shows that the vector expression is equivalent to

∇(f −e) = 0.

Hence f −e has to be a gradient of a scalar,

f −e = ∇φ,

and consequently,

E = e∇+∇(e +∇φ) = ∇

e +

1

2

∇φ

+

e +

1

2

∇φ

∇

has the structure required from a strain tensor.

There is also a compatibility condition on W, which is much easier to express through its

dual vector:

w =

1

2

∇u ⇐⇒ ∇ w = 0.

Hence

ε

ijk

∂

i

W

jk

= 0.

The foregoing discussion was carried out for E and W (or w), and a similar discussion can

be given, of course, for D and Ω (or ω).

Chapter 4

Constitutive relations

• Notions of frame-indiﬀerence are used to construct constitutive relations

which connect strain or rate of strain with stress

• General isotropic media are known as Reiner-Rivlin ﬂuids, with constitutive

relation

T = C(ρ, D) = φ

0

(ρ, I

D

, II

D

, III

D

)1 + φ

1

(ρ, I

D

, II

D

, III

D

)D

+ φ

2

(ρ, I

D

, II

D

, III

D

)D

2

• Simpliﬁcations occur for linear and isotropic media, recovering well known

laws as Navier-Stokes (ﬂuids)

T = −p(ρ)1 + λ(tr D)1 + 2µD

and Hooke (elastic solids)

T = λ(tr E)1 + 2µE

• More general constitutive laws are possible, as for viscoelastic media with

memory eﬀects

T(t) =

+∞

−∞

((τ) : E(t −τ) dτ

where causality allows the existence of Kramers-Kronig relations

´

C

′

(ω) =

1

π

{

+∞

−∞

´

C

′′

(ξ)

ξ −ω

dξ

´

C

′′

(ω) = −

1

π

{

+∞

−∞

´

C

′

(ξ)

ξ −ω

dξ

44

Table of contents 45

4.1 Young’s experiment

In the previous chapters the notions of stress and strain or deformation were introduced in

general terms and the discussion was given without any attempt to relate the stress in a

given continuum to the strain or deformation it was undergoing. Stress and strain occur

in all continua, but the as yet incomplete description through the basic laws has to be

valid for many diﬀerent classes of material. The stress response to a certain strain will

vary from one material to another, not just in numerical values but also in the form of the

functional dependency. Hence the name of constitutive relations for the various stress-strain

dependencies we will survey.

The simplest starting point is to suppose that the stress depends on the strain in a linear way,

without other parameters such as the temperature or the mass density entering the relation.

To see where these ideas come from we will brieﬂy, and for the present only superﬁcially,

sketch Young’s experiment, in which a prismatic bar with cross-section S is subjected to

a force F in the principal direction of the bar, as shown in Figure 4.1. For several elastic

media the result was that for moderate forces the elongation ∆ℓ increased linearly with the

original length ℓ of the bar at rest and with the magnitude F of the force applied at one end

of the bar, the other end remaining clamped in position. At the same time ∆ℓ decreased

with the cross-section S of the bar, all in direct proportionality. Accordingly the result is

∆ℓ ∼

ℓF

S

.

If we label the principal direction of the bar the ﬁrst direction, we can call the relative

elongation in this direction the element E

11

of the strain tensor for this problem, keeping in

mind the intuitive geometric interpretation of the diagonal elements of the strain tensor for

small strains. On the other hand, the ratio F/S is the force per unit surface area, with the

dimensions of a pressure (or traction!), nothing else but T

11

. Hence with

E

11

=

∆ℓ

ℓ

, T

11

=

F

S

we have

E

11

=

1

E

T

11

or T

11

= EE

11

.

The constant of proportionality E is called Young’s modulus of elasticity. In the above

simple relationship it just converts the strain into the stress. The relationship is linear in the

2

1

O

ℓ ∆ℓ

F

S

Figure 4.1. Young’s experiment.

Table of contents 46

sense that doubling the strain results in a doubling of the stress. Furthermore, although this

is not obvious at all yet, in the above experiment we may assume the material is isotropic,

meaning that it displays the same material properties in all directions.

To give a better feeling for this, consider a cube of isotropic material. We ﬁrst subject it to a

given tension in one direction and measure the corresponding stretching. Then, if we repeat

the experiment in one of the other two directions, we expect to ﬁnd the same elongations if

the tensions are the same. In other words, for isotropic materials such as metals, the way

in which a bar is cut from an ingot is not supposed to aﬀect its elastic properties. Many

materials, of course, are not isotropic. Crystals are a notable example, because they have

speciﬁc symmetry directions, with diﬀerent properties along diﬀerent directions. Isotropic

materials have simpler constitutive relations than anisotropic ones and we will conﬁne our

study mostly to isotropic materials.

A further distinction is to whether the strain or the rate of strain causes the stress. In the

example of an extended rubber, the stress is present as long as the extension is applied, even

when constant. If there is no strain, there is no stress, and such a material seems to possess

a natural and stress-free reference state. In generalizing these intuitive ideas, we will call a

material elastic if it has a constitutive relation of the form

T = C(E), C(0) = 0.

On the other hand, if we think of ﬂuids, there will be stress, apart from the residual hydro-

static pressure which is isotropic, only as long as the strain or deformation changes. Thus

we deal with ﬂuids if

T = C(D), C(0) = γ 1.

In the two previous cases, C denotes a (tensor valued) function of its argument, sometimes

called “response function”. These two classes of materials can be generalized in many ways,

one of which is to allow the symbol C to stand for a functional dependence of T with respect

to E or D, rather than being an ordinary function, in that it may involve an integration of

E or D over the medium and over time. This means that the stress at a given point and

instant then depends on the strain at other points or at previous instants. This give rise to

materials with memory. Some of this will be discussed in section 4.5 on visco-elastic media.

4.2 Frame-indiﬀerence

For linear and isotropic elastic media, the constitutive relation (to be derived later) is called

Hooke’s law, whereas the analogous relation for ﬂuids is called Navier-Stokes’ law. These

laws have evolved historically in an ad hoc fashion, based on experimental evidence, but can

now be derived in a systematic way under the twin assumptions that the stress be a linear

function of the strain or rate of strain and this for isotropic media. However, how does one

know that, to cite only one parameter, the mass density is not to be included in a constitutive

relation? More generally, are there quantities which could be included in admittedly more

general constitutive relations, whereas some other quantities might not?

Table of contents 47

A powerful instrument in the modern theory of constitutive relations has been the principle

of frame-indiﬀerence, saying that only frame-indiﬀerent quantities should appear in consti-

tutive relations. Before we give a deﬁnition in mathematical terms of what frame-indiﬀerent

quantities are, we have to go back to the deﬁnition of vectors and tensors and their trans-

formation laws under an orthogonal transformation (cf. section 1.3)

x

′

i

= A

ij

x

j

, T

′

ijk...

= A

ip

A

jq

A

kr

T

pqr...

.

Although it was not explicitly stated, these transformations are to be interpreted in a ge-

ometric sense, where the change from one reference frame to another is really a change of

coordinates involving no time dependence, no motion. If we now admit changes of reference

frame such that the elements A

ij

of the (orthogonal) transformation matrix can be functions

of t and, in addition, we allow for time-dependent translations of the origin, we will ﬁnd

that not all quantities encountered sofar will still transform according to the transformation

rule for vectors and tensors given above. Those quantities which still do are called frame-

indiﬀerent or are said to obey the principle of frame-indiﬀerence or of material objectivity.

A time-dependent change of reference frame will in general be of the form

x

′

i

= A

ij

(t)x

j

+ c

i

(t),

which may be written in matrix notation as

x

′

= Ax + c,

where the transformation matrix A = [A

ij

(t)] is orthogonal. (Strictly speaking one could

also allow for a time translation, t

′

= t + a, but we will not consider that.) Note in passing

that we are working in the framework of Galilean relativity, i.e. we do not consider the

modiﬁcations imposed by special relativity.

Vectors and tensors will be denoted through their component representation as column and

square matrices,

x =

x

1

x

2

x

3

¸

¸

, T = [T

ij

].

In this matrix notation, uv

t

represents the tensor product uv of two vectors u and v, and

u

t

v their inproduct u v. Primes then refer to the same vectors or tensors but represented

in a diﬀerent reference frame. Similarly, the symbolic nabla vector is

∇ =

∂

1

∂

2

∂

3

¸

¸

,

and we obtain under the above change of reference frame

∂

′

i

=

∂

∂x

′

i

= A

ij

∂

∂x

j

= A

ij

∂

j

,

Table of contents 48

so that

∇

′

= A∇.

Surprisingly, in view of its derivative operator character, it is frame-indiﬀerent. A displace-

ment vector u transforms according to

u

′

= x

′

Q

−x

′

P

= A(x

Q

−x

P

) = Au.

Displacements hence are frame-indiﬀerent in the sense given above. What about the velocity?

Oﬀhand, we would not suppose the velocity to be frame-indiﬀerent if the change of reference

frame is time-dependent. This is conﬁrmed by the computation

v

′

= ˙ x

′

=

d

dt

(Ax + c) = Av +

˙

Ax + ˙ c.

For the stress tensor T there is no way of computing its frame-indiﬀerence, hence we have

to impose, on more or less plausible physical grounds, that

T

′

= ATA

t

.

In order to check the strain and rotation tensors, one ﬁrst has to compute

(∇u

t

)

′

= ∇

′

(u

′

)

t

= A∇(Au)

t

= A(∇u

t

)A

t

.

Once the gradient of the displacement tensor is proven frame-indiﬀerent, its symmetric part

E and its antisymmetric part W also are frame-indiﬀerent. This conclusion is valid even for

the full ﬁnite strain tensor,

E =

1

2

∇u + (∇u)

t

−∇u (∇u)

t

,

which is of the utmost importance if one tries to describe media in which the deformations

are not inﬁnitesimal.

Lastly we compute the gradient of the velocity tensor in transformed coordinate systems,

(∇v

t

)

′

= ∇

′

(v

′

)

t

= A∇(Av +

˙

Ax + ˙ c)

t

= A(∇v

t

)A

t

+ A(∇x

t

)

˙

A

t

= A(∇v

t

)A

t

+ A

˙

A

t

,

and ﬁnd that

D

′

=

1

2

(∇v

t

+ v∇

t

)

′

=

1

2

A(∇v

t

+ v∇

t

)A

t

+

1

2

A

˙

A

t

+

1

2

˙

AA

t

= ADA

t

.

Maybe rather unexpectedly, D is frame-indiﬀerent, because, even though time dependent,

the coordinate transformations still are between orthonormal systems and thus

AA

t

= 1 =⇒

˙

AA

t

+ A

˙

A

t

= 0.

Table of contents 49

On the other hand, one ﬁnds for the vorticity tensor Ω that

Ω

′

=

1

2

(∇v

t

−v∇

t

)

′

=

1

2

A(∇v

t

−v∇

t

)A

t

+

1

2

(A

˙

A

t

−

˙

AA

t

)

= AΩA

t

+ A

˙

A

t

= AΩA

t

−

˙

AA

t

,

which is not frame-indiﬀerent. This should come as no surprise, as it is related to the

instantaneous angular velocity and depends very much upon whether the frame moves and

rotates or not.

The question remaining after having found that T, E, W and D are frame-indiﬀerent is to

see whether their time derivatives are also frame-indiﬀerent or not. Most likely they will

not. The computation will be given for the stress tensor, but is analogous for the others.

We start from

T

′

= ATA

t

and get

˙

T

′

= A

˙

TA

t

+

˙

ATA

t

+ AT

˙

A

t

.

Clearly

˙

T is not frame-indiﬀerent. We will, however, construct a tensor involving

˙

T and

which we can use as a frame-indiﬀerent measure for the rate of change of the stress tensor.

Contracting

Ω

′

= AΩA

t

+ A

˙

A

t

with A

t

yields

˙

A

t

= A

t

Ω

′

−ΩA

t

,

˙

A = AΩ −Ω

′

A.

We use this to rewrite

˙

T

′

as

˙

T

′

= A

˙

TA

t

+ (AΩ −Ω

′

A)TA

t

+ AT(A

t

Ω

′

−ΩA

t

)

= A(

˙

T + ΩT −TΩ)A

t

−Ω

′

T

′

+ T

′

Ω

′

,

and rearrange the terms into

˙

T

′

+ Ω

′

T

′

−T

′

Ω

′

= A(

˙

T + ΩT −TΩ)A

t

.

This shows the bracketed expression to be frame-indiﬀerent, and it is called the rate of stress

tensor of Jaumann,

◦

T =

˙

T +Ω T −T Ω.

It involves

˙

T, as well as combinations of T with the vorticity tensor. When Ω vanishes,

as in the case of no instantaneous rotation, Jaumann’s rate of stress tensor coincides with

˙

T. Clearly, other choices for the stress rate are possible, by adding or subtracting frame-

indiﬀerent combinations to Jaumann’s tensor. Some of these stress rates are Truesdell’s

stress rate,

∆

T =

˙

T + T∇ v −T ∇v −(T ∇v)

t

Table of contents 50

and Green’s stress rate,

∇

T =

˙

T −T ∇v −(T ∇v)

t

.

Similar expressions can be constructed, if need be, for the strain rates involving time deriva-

tives of E and D.

At the end of this section, it is worth stressing that the principle of frame-indiﬀerence or

material objectivity can only be applied to those parts of the description which can reason-

ably be thought to be independent of the motion of the reference frame. For constitutive

relations this is valid, to a fair approximation, but it would be the height of folly to apply

such a reasoning to the equations of motion!

4.3 Isotropy and Reiner-Rivlin ﬂuids

As an example of how one would proceed in constructing a constitutive relation for isotropic

media, suppose that for a given medium the stress is thought to depend upon the mass density

ρ, the velocity v and the gradient of the velocity ∇v. In the above enumeration, ρ is just

taken as a representative to show what happens to other scalar frame-indiﬀerent quantities.

We could have included the temperature as another example. In the end, wherever ρ is

written we may put other scalar quantities as well. The dependence of T upon ∇v will be

through its symmetric part D and its antisymmetric part Ω. Hence we start from

T =

¯

C(ρ, v, ∇v) = C(ρ, v, D, Ω).

One observer will write this as

T = C(ρ, v, D, Ω),

while another observer in a moving frame will denote this as

T

′

= C(ρ

′

, v

′

, D

′

, Ω

′

).

We have here the same function C because the medium is supposed isotropic, which will turn

out to be a severe restriction. If we think again for a moment of Young’s experiment, this

amounts to requiring Young’s elasticity modulus to be independent of a particular choice of

coordinate system. If the medium is anisotropic but has some kind of symmetry, a relation

as written above will only hold for certain observers, not for all of them. For isotropic media

we thus require that

T

′

= C

ρ, Av +

˙

Ax + ˙ c, ADA

t

, AΩA

t

+ A

˙

A

t

= ATA

t

= AC(ρ, v, D, Ω)A

t

,

regardless of the particular choices for A and c. We pick a speciﬁc transformation such that

at t = 0:

A(0) = 1, c(0) = 0, ˙ c(0) = 0,

˙

A(0) = Q = 0 (Q

t

= −Q).

Table of contents 51

An example of this would be

A(t) =

cos t sin t 0

−sin t cos t 0

0 0 1

¸

¸

, A(0) =

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

¸

¸

,

with

˙

A(t) =

−sin t cos t 0

−cos t −sin t 0

0 0 0

¸

¸

,

˙

A(0) =

0 1 0

−1 0 0

0 0 0

¸

¸

.

For t = 0 we ﬁnd that

C(ρ, v + Qx, D, Ω −Q) = C(ρ, v, D, Ω).

C cannot be a function of v, as we could add whatever we wanted to v through Qx without

changing the value of the function. For the same reason C cannot depend upon Ω.

Generally, all quantities which are not frame-indiﬀerent have to drop out of the constitutive

relations and we are left with

T = C(ρ, D).

We thus should have for isotropic tensor functions that for any A

AC(ρ, D)A

t

= C(ρ, ADA

t

)

Picking a special form for A,

A = 2nn

t

−1,

with n a unit vector (i.e. n

t

n = 1), the direction of which will be speciﬁed later, we ﬁrst

verify that

AA

t

= (2nn

t

−1)(2nn

t

−1) = 1.

The transformation property T

′

= ATA

t

becomes for this choice of A

T

′

= 4n(n

t

Tn)n

t

−2n(n

t

T) −2(Tn)n

t

+ T.

The transformation represented by A is nothing but a rotation over 180

◦

along the direction

given by n. We now choose n to be an eigenvector of D, such that in matrix notation

Dn = δn

and hence

D

′

= ADA

t

= 4n(n

t

Dn)n

t

−2n(n

t

D) −2(Dn)n

t

+ D

= 4nδn

t

−2nn

t

δ −2δnn

t

+ D = D.

Using this in

AC(ρ, D)A

t

= C(ρ, ADA

t

)

Table of contents 52

gives

AC(ρ, D)A

t

= 4n

n

t

C(ρ, D)n

n

t

−2n

n

t

C(ρ, D)

−2 [C(ρ, D)n] n

t

+ C(ρ, D) = C(ρ, D),

or also

n

n

t

C(ρ, D)

+ [C(ρ, D)n] n

t

= 2n

n

t

C(ρ, D)n

n

t

.

Post-multiplying with n gives

C(ρ, D)n = n

n

t

C(ρ, D)n

= γn,

showing that n is an eigenvector of C(ρ, D) as well. The above proof indicates that every

eigenvector of D is an eigenvector of C(ρ, D). Hence C(ρ, D) is diagonal whenever D is

diagonal. A ﬁrst, intermediate result is that if D is isotropic, every direction yields an

eigenvector,

D = δ 1

and the resulting stress is uniform,

T = C(ρ, δ 1) = γ(ρ, δ)1.

A uniform rate of deformation gives uniform stress in isotropic media, regardless of whether

the constitutive relation is linear or not, complicated or straightforward.

Returning to the general form of C(ρ, D) for isotropic media, it is now easy to show that as

far as its tensor character is concerned, it has to be of the form

C(ρ, D) = φ

0

(ρ, I

D

, II

D

, III

D

)1 + φ

1

(ρ, I

D

, II

D

, III

D

)D + φ

2

(ρ, I

D

, II

D

, III

D

)D

2

If one rewrites this in principal axes for D and C(ρ, D), there comes for the eigenvalues

γ

1

= φ

0

+ φ

1

δ

1

+ φ

2

δ

2

1

,

γ

2

= φ

0

+ φ

1

δ

2

+ φ

2

δ

2

2

,

γ

3

= φ

0

+ φ

1

δ

3

+ φ

2

δ

2

3

.

For all γ

i

there exists a solution φ

0

, φ

1

, φ

2

if the determinant of the coeﬃcients does not

vanish,

1 δ

1

δ

2

1

1 δ

2

δ

2

2

1 δ

3

δ

2

3

= (δ

1

−δ

2

)(δ

2

−δ

3

)(δ

3

−δ

1

),

which is the case when the three eigenvalues of D are all diﬀerent. When there are only two

diﬀerent eigenvalues for D, the form of C reduces to

C(ρ, D) = φ

0

(ρ, I

D

, II

D

, III

D

)1 + φ

1

(ρ, I

D

, II

D

, III

D

)D,

because then C(ρ, D) also has only two diﬀerent eigenvalues. When all eigenvalues are equal

the tensors are isotropic,

C(ρ, D) = φ

0

(ρ, I

D

, II

D

, III

D

)1,

Table of contents 53

a case we discussed already. Hence we can take

C(ρ, D) = φ

0

(ρ, I

D

, II

D

, III

D

)1 + φ

1

(ρ, I

D

, II

D

, III

D

)D + φ

2

(ρ, I

D

, II

D

, III

D

)D

2

as the most general form, with the proviso that possibly φ

2

or φ

1

and φ

2

vanish. One can

check that the requirement

AC(ρ, D)A

t

= C(ρ, ADA

t

)

is fulﬁlled for isotropic ﬂuids, just because the functions φ

0

, φ

1

and φ

2

only depend on the

components of D through the invariant combinations I

D

, II

D

and III

D

. As φ

0

, φ

1

and φ

2

are functions of the components of D, the constitutive relations are still highly nonlinear

in general. Fluids with such a constitutive relation are called Reiner-Rivlin ﬂuids. The

discussion in this paragraph of the form C(ρ, D) for isotropic media can be repeated in

exactly the same terms for a constitutive relation involving C(ρ, E). As an example, the

discussion in the next section will be given with E instead of D.

4.4 Linear isotropic media

For linear media, such as seemed to be the case with the metal undergoing moderate tensions

in Young’s experiment, the constitutive law is linear (or, more precisely, aﬃne) and thus of

the form

T = ((ρ) : E + K(ρ),

or in index notation,

T

ij

= C

ijkℓ

(ρ)E

ℓk

+ K

ij

(ρ).

The concept of isotropy implies that after a change of reference frame this constitutive law

becomes

T

′

ij

= C

ijkℓ

(ρ)E

′

ℓk

+ K

ij

(ρ).

There are two ways of ﬁnding the form of the tensors ( and K. The ﬁrst one is to linearize the

expression for isotropic but general tensor functions, such as we had obtained in the previous

section. As φ

0

is multiplied with the unit tensor, it may contain both a term independent of

E and one linear in E, that is, linear in I

E

. For the next contribution, φ

1

is already multiplied

by E and hence must be independent of E, if the total relation is to be linear. For this reason

φ

2

has to vanish, being multiplied with terms quadratic in the components of E. Hence

φ

0

= κ(ρ) + λ(ρ)I

E

= κ(ρ) + λ(ρ)tr E,

φ

1

= 2µ(ρ),

φ

2

= 0,

and the constitutive relation for linear isotropic media is

T = ((ρ) : E + K(ρ) = κ(ρ)1 + λ(ρ)(tr E)1 + 2µ(ρ)E.

We ﬁnd that

C

ijkℓ

(ρ) = λ(ρ)δ

ij

δ

kℓ

+ 2µ(ρ)δ

iℓ

δ

jk

, K

ij

= κ(ρ)δ

ij

,

Table of contents 54

if ((ρ) connects a symmetric tensor with another symmetric tensor.

Another way of ﬁnding the expression for ((ρ) is to express that

C

ijkℓ

(ρ) = A

ip

A

jq

A

kr

A

ℓs

C

pqrs

(ρ)

must hold for all coordinate transformations between orthonormal systems. The components

C

ijkℓ

(ρ) can only contain a given index in pairs, because a transformation of the form

A = 2nn

t

−1

would give zero if an index were to occur in an odd number of locations, due to the rotation

over 180

◦

around n, for any n. The only components of ( that are not zero are

C

1111

(ρ) = C

2222

(ρ) = C

3333

(ρ) = α(ρ),

C

1122

(ρ) = C

1133

(ρ) = C

2211

(ρ) = C

2233

(ρ) = C

3311

(ρ) = C

3322

(ρ) = λ(ρ),

C

1212

(ρ) = C

1313

(ρ) = C

2121

(ρ) = C

2323

(ρ) = C

3131

(ρ) = C

3232

(ρ) = µ(ρ) + ν(ρ),

C

1221

(ρ) = C

1331

(ρ) = C

2112

(ρ) = C

2332

(ρ) = C

3113

(ρ) = C

3223

(ρ) = µ(ρ) −ν(ρ),

as it is obvious that the particular labels attached to some of the coordinate axes do not

matter for isotropic tensors. A transformation is always possible converting the label at-

tached to a given axis into another one. To ﬁnd a further relation between α(ρ), λ(ρ), µ(ρ)

and ν(ρ), we rotate over an angle θ around one of the axes, say the third one, so that

A =

cos θ sin θ 0

−sin θ cos θ 0

0 0 1

¸

¸

.

Calculating C

1111

(ρ) we ﬁnd

α(ρ) = C

1111

(ρ) = A

1p

A

1q

A

1r

A

1s

C

pqrs

(ρ)

= A

11

A

11

A

11

A

11

C

1111

(ρ) + A

11

A

11

A

12

A

12

C

1122

(ρ)

+ A

11

A

12

A

11

A

12

C

1212

(ρ) + A

12

A

11

A

11

A

12

C

2112

(ρ)

+ A

11

A

12

A

12

A

11

C

1221

(ρ) + A

12

A

11

A

12

A

11

C

2121

(ρ)

+ A

12

A

12

A

11

A

11

C

2211

(ρ) + A

12

A

12

A

12

A

12

C

2222

(ρ)

= (cos

4

θ + sin

4

θ)α(ρ) + 2 sin

2

θ cos

2

θ [λ(ρ) + 2µ(ρ)]

= α(ρ) + 2 sin

2

θ cos

2

θ [λ(ρ) + 2µ(ρ) −α(ρ)] ,

from which it follows that

α(ρ) = λ(ρ) + 2µ(ρ).

The structure of ((ρ) hence is

(

ijkℓ

(ρ) = λ(ρ)δ

ij

δ

kℓ

+ µ(ρ)(δ

ik

δ

jℓ

+ δ

iℓ

δ

jk

) + ν(ρ)(δ

ik

δ

jℓ

−δ

iℓ

δ

jk

).

If C

ikjℓ

(ρ) is to be symmetric in the ﬁrst two or last two indices, as ultimately required by

the symmetry of both the strain and the stress tensors, ν(ρ) has to vanish and we recover

Table of contents 55

the previous expression. Remark that C

ijkℓ

is also unchanged when the ﬁrst two indices are

switched with the last two ones,

C

ijkℓ

(ρ) = C

kℓij

(ρ).

As a byproduct of the computation of isotropic tensors of order two (which are a multiple

of the unit tensor), and of order four, one concludes immediately that there are no isotropic

tensors of odd order, as these must at least have one index which occurs an odd number of

times. (Remember that the so-called tensor of Levi-Civit`a is only a pseudo-tensor of order

three.)

We deﬁned elastic media by a stress-strain relation which vanished for zero strain, i.e. the

strain is measured from the stress-free reference state,

T = C(E), C(0) = 0.

From

T = κ(ρ)1 + λ(ρ)(tr E)1 + 2µ(ρ)E

we ﬁnd that for linear and isotropic elastic media

T = λ(ρ)(tr E)1 + 2µ(ρ)E.

For the media usually studied in the theory of elasticity λ(ρ) and µ(ρ) have a negligible

dependence upon ρ and can be treated as eﬀectively constant. These are then called the

constants of Lam´e and occur in Hooke’s law

T = λ(tr E)1 + 2µE

On the other hand, linear and isotropic ﬂuids are called Newtonian ﬂuids and have a con-

stitutive relation of the form

T = −p(ρ)1 + λ(ρ)(tr D)1 + 2µ(ρ)D.

We have reverted to the usual notation p for the residual hydrostatic pressure, deﬁned as

the opposite of a stress. In general p, λ and µ would still be functions of ρ and other scalar

quantities included in the description, such as the temperature. For the hydrostatic pressure

p this will indeed be the case and we will have to supplement the description by giving a

law of state relating the pressure to the mass density and to the temperature. On the other

hand, experience has shown that for most ﬂuids under the usual conditions of pressure and

temperature, the viscosity coeﬃcients λ and µ are indeed as good as constant and thus

independent of mass density and temperature. Under those conditions, the constitutive

relation is known as Navier-Stokes’ law,

T = −p(ρ)1 + λ(tr D)1 + 2µD

Table of contents 56

Except for the residual hydrostatic pressure, a Newtonian ﬂuid only experiences stresses as

long as the deformation changes. Such a ﬂuid has no natural state and no memory, as anyone

spilling some liquid will immediately observe!

If the tensors T and E or D are split into their spherical and deviatoric parts, as indicated

in chapter 3 for E, giving

T = σ 1 + T

′

, tr T

′

= 0, σ =

1

3

tr T,

E = ε 1 + E

′

tr E

′

= 0, ε =

1

3

tr E,

D = δ 1 + D

′

, tr D

′

= 0, δ =

1

3

tr D,

Hooke’s law can be used to compute ﬁrst that

σ =

1

3

tr T =

1

3

tr [λ(tr E)1 + 2µE] =

1

3

(3λ + 2µ)tr E = (3λ + 2µ)ε,

and hence

T

′

= T −σ 1 = λ(tr E)1 + 2µE −

1

3

(3λ + 2µ)(tr E)1

= 2µ

¸

E −

1

3

(tr E)1

= 2µE

′

.

Hooke’s law is equivalent to the two relations

σ = (3λ + 2µ)ε, T

′

= 2µE

′

.

Similarly, the law of Navier-Stokes can be written in the form

σ = −p(ρ) + (3λ + 2µ)δ, T

′

= 2µD

′

.

Use can now be made of such expressions in order to invert Hooke’s law and express the

strain as a function of the stress,

E =

1

2µ

(T −λ(tr E)1) =

1

2µ

T −

λ

2µ(3λ + 2µ)

(tr T)1.

It is time to come back to Young’s experiment, now that we have the adequate relation

between strain and stress. Young’s experiment is characterized by a state of uniaxial stress,

with t

(1)

1

= T

11

and all other components of T zero. Hence

tr T = T

11

and

E =

1

2µ

T −

λ

2µ(3λ + 2µ)

T

11

1.

Compute now E

11

as

E

11

=

1

2µ

T

11

−

λ

2µ(3λ + 2µ)

T

11

=

λ + µ

µ(3λ + 2µ)

T

11

=

1

E

T

11

,

Table of contents 57

and ﬁnd an expression for the elasticity modulus of Young as a function of Lam´e’s constants,

E =

µ(3λ + 2µ)

λ + µ

.

There is, however, another part to the strain-stress relation, which we had not discussed in

our preliminary sketch of the experiment, namely

E

22

= E

33

= −

λ

2µ(3λ + 2µ)

T

11

= −

λ

2(λ + µ)

µ(3λ + 2µ)

λ + µ

−1

T

11

= −

ν

E

T

11

,

where ν is Poisson’s coeﬃcient of lateral contraction

ν =

λ

2(λ + µ)

.

This shows that in addition to an elongation (or possibly compression), the bar in Young’s

experiment also shows a contraction (or dilatation) in the perpendicular directions. Com-

puting

1 + ν = 1 +

λ

2(λ + µ)

=

3λ + 2µ

2(λ + µ)

=

µ(3λ + 2µ)

λ + µ

1

2µ

=

E

2µ

or

1

2µ

=

1 + ν

E

,

one can express the inverted Hooke’s law in E and ν instead of in Lam´e’s constants,

E =

1 + ν

E

T −

ν

E

(tr T)1,

as used in many engineering textbooks. Further applications of Hooke’s law will be given in

the chapter on linear elasticity.

4.5 Viscoelastic media

The constitutive relations discussed sofar have one common characteristic: they are point

relations, because the stress at x and t depends only on the strain or the strain rate at

the same x and t. There are no memory eﬀects, no dispersive eﬀects. Because there are

diﬀerent possibilities of including memory eﬀects, we only give the simplest example, where

the relationship between stress and strain is still a linear one, but the stress depends upon

all previous deformations,

T

ij

(x, t) =

+∞

−∞

(

ijkℓ

(x, τ)E

ℓk

(x, t −τ) dτ

Table of contents 58

or

T(t) =

+∞

−∞

((τ) : E(t −τ) dτ.

The space dependence still being a localized one, we have suppressed the argument x to

simplify the notation. The stress is now a functional of the strain, involving the elasticity

kernel (. Such media are called viscoelastic. The kernel has to be such that

((τ) = 0 if τ < 0,

otherwise the stress would depend upon future deformations, which would be against the

principle of causality. Thus we may as well put

T(t) =

∞

0

((τ) : E(t −τ) dτ ,

but in the sequel we will continue to write the integral from −∞ to +∞. Furthermore, in

the case of such a linear response, a bounded strain is supposed to yield a bounded stress,

and this imposes the requirement that the components of the kernel satisfy a condition of

boundedness,

+∞

−∞

[(

ijkℓ

(t)[ dt < +∞.

The study of relations such as

T(t) =

+∞

−∞

((τ) : E(t −τ) dτ

usually goes via Fourier transforms, because these get rid of the convolution integrals.

In view of the many applications in other branches of physics of both linear response functions

and Fourier transforms, it is worth pursuing the subject a while here. Several ways exist to

deﬁne the Fourier transform. We will use

´

φ(ω) = T

ω

¦φ(t)¦ =

+∞

−∞

φ(t)e

iωt

dt,

together with its inverse transform

φ(t) = T

−1

t

¦

´

φ(ω)¦ =

1

2π

+∞

−∞

´

φ(ω)e

−iωt

dω.

A proper check that this is indeed the inverse requires the theory of distributions, but this

is not needed here. One of the most pleasant properties of the Fourier transform is that

T

ω

∂φ

∂t

= −iωT

ω

¦φ¦.

Table of contents 59

Furthermore, when applied to a convolution such as the one relating T and E, one has

´

T(ω) =

+∞

−∞

e

iωt

T(t)dt

=

+∞

−∞

e

iωt

dt

+∞

−∞

dτ ((τ) : E(t −τ)

=

+∞

−∞

dt

+∞

−∞

dτ ((τ) : E(t −τ)e

iωt

=

+∞

−∞

du

+∞

−∞

dv ((v) : E(u)e

iω(u+v)

.

The last step is possible because the Jacobian determinant of the transformation

t −τ = u

τ = v

or

τ = v

t = u + v

is equal to one. Hence the Fourier-transformed constitutive relation is

´

T(ω) =

+∞

−∞

dv ((v)e

iωv

:

+∞

−∞

duE(u)e

iωu

=

´

((ω) :

´

E(ω).

The information contained in ((t) is also contained in

´

((ω), although the principle of causal-

ity has yet to be translated into Fourier language. Because the importance of the resulting

relations transcends the mere case of a linear viscoelastic medium, these relations are dealt

with in the next section.

4.6 Kramers-Kronig’s relations

As said before, the constitutive relation for a linear viscoelastic medium is but an example

among many others of linear responses where causality plays a role. In order to simplify the

subsequent treatment, we deal with only one scalar component C

ijkℓ

(t) at the time, which

we denote C(t) or

´

C(ω) for notational simplicity. Split

´

C(ω) into its real and imaginary

parts,

´

C(ω) =

´

C

′

(ω) + i

´

C

′′

(ω).

Then immediately one has the following properties for real ω:

´

C(ω) =

´

C(−ω) or

´

C

′

(ω) =

´

C

′

(−ω),

´

C

′′

(ω) = −

´

C

′′

(−ω).

The real part of

´

C(ω) is even, the imaginary part odd in ω. Also

´

C(ω)

≤

+∞

−∞

[C(t)[

e

iωt

dt =

+∞

−∞

[C(t)[dt < +∞,

Table of contents 60

−R

O

ω

0

r

γ

R

Γ

+R

Figure 4.2. Contour of integration in the complex ω-plane.

which indicates that

´

C(ω) has no poles for real ω. In order to be able to use complex analysis,

we analytically continue the function

´

C(ω) into the complex domain for ω and ﬁrst put

ω = ω

′

+ iω

′′

.

Then

´

C(ω) =

+∞

−∞

C(t)e

iω

′

t

e

−ω

′′

t

dt

and we still have that

´

C(ω)

≤

∞

0

e

−ω

′′

t

[C(t)[ dt ≤

∞

0

[C(t)[dt < +∞,

but only if ω

′′

is nonnegative. This indicates that

´

C(ω) has no poles in the upper half-plane,

with even

´

C(ω) →0 as ω

′′

→+∞.

If we choose ω

0

real, then the complex function

´

C(ω)/(ω − ω

0

) has no poles in the upper

half-plane, but one on the real axis in ω

0

. We thus want to apply Cauchy’s formula,

´

C(ω)

ω −ω

0

dω = 0

for a contour not enclosing a singularity. We pick a special contour, as shown in Figure 4.2

and call γ and Γ the small and large semi-circles, respectively, with radii r and R. Cauchy’s

formula is thus applied as

ω

0

−r

−R

+

γ

+

+R

ω

0

+r

+

Γ

´

C(ω)

ω −ω

0

dω = 0.

Table of contents 61

For the integral around γ we expand ω and

´

C(ω) as

ω = ω

0

+ re

iφ

(0 ≤ φ ≤ π)

´

C(ω) =

´

C(ω

0

) + re

iφ

∂

´

C

∂ω

ω

0

+ . . .

and ﬁnd

γ

´

C(ω)

ω −ω

0

dω =

0

π

´

C(ω

0

) + . . .

re

iφ

ire

iφ

dφ = −i

´

C(ω

0

)

π

0

dφ + . . . = −iπ

´

C(ω

0

) + . . .

The dots indicate terms in r and they vanish when the limit r →0 is taken afterwards. The

integral over the large semi-circle can be shown to vanish if the limit R →∞is taken. What

remains of

ω

0

−r

−R

+

γ

+

+R

ω

0

+r

+

Γ

´

C(ω)

ω −ω

0

dω = 0

after both these limiting procedures is

lim

r→0

ω

0

−r

−∞

+

+∞

ω

0

+r

´

C(ω)

ω −ω

0

dω −iπ

´

C(ω

0

) = 0,

or

´

C(ω

0

) =

1

iπ

{

+∞

−∞

´

C(ω)

ω −ω

0

dω.

The expression

{

+∞

−∞

φ(ω)

ω −ω

0

dω = lim

ε→0

ω

0

−ε

−∞

+

+∞

ω

0

+ε

φ(ω)

ω −ω

0

dω,

if it exists, is called the Cauchy principal value. In the case under consideration, we are

assured of its existence as it equals iπ

´

C(ω

0

). After the limiting procedure, the integration is

along the real axis and we rewrite it as

´

C(ω) =

1

iπ

{

+∞

−∞

´

C(ξ)

ξ −ω

dξ.

Splitting this expression into its real and imaginary parts yields

´

C

′

(ω) =

1

π

{

+∞

−∞

´

C

′′

(ξ)

ξ −ω

dξ

´

C

′′

(ω) = −

1

π

{

+∞

−∞

´

C

′

(ξ)

ξ −ω

dξ

Table of contents 62

These are called the Kramers-Kronig’s relations. The reasoning leading ultimately to them

was based on the fact that

´

C(ω), as a complex function of a complex variable, had no poles

nor singularities in the upper half-plane. This in turn is a translation of the boundedness of

C(t), together with the principle of causality, through the fact that C(t) vanishes for negative

times. The Kramers-Kronig’s relations are thus nothing but a mathematical consequence of

the principle of causality.

The relations are often used to compute the real part of

´

C(ω) when the imaginary part is

known or vice versa. This is a boon to experimentalists, because the real and imaginary

parts of a linear response function often refer to diﬀerent physical properties, and a measure

of one these properties immediately gives the other one.

In electromagnetic theory e.g. the linear response could be the permittivity tensor linking

the dielectric displacement to the electric ﬁeld, and then the real part of the permittivity

tensor gives the dispersion in the medium, whereas the imaginary part gives the dissipa-

tion. Dispersion and dissipation are two, at ﬁrst sight totally diﬀerent characteristics of

the medium, and the Kramers-Kronig’s relations then deduce the one from the other! If

both characteristics can be measured, the Kramers-Kronig’s relations serve as a check on

the consistency of the data.

Chapter 5

Ideal ﬂuids

Application of Navier-Stokes law to ideal, non-viscous ﬂuids include discussions of

• Bernoulli’s law, applied to solar wind models

• Hydrostatic equilibrium inside stars

• Sound waves

• Waves in magnetized plasmas

• Large amplitude electrostatic and electromagnetic plasma waves

• Newtonian cosmology, leading to Friedman universes

• Complex potential theory

• Surface water waves

63

Table of contents 64

5.1 Basic equations

In this and the next chapter, ﬂuids are deﬁned as those linear isotropic media where the

stress-strain relation is the law of Navier-Stokes. Collecting the set of basic equations to

describe phenomena in these ﬂuids, we need the equation of continuity,

˙ ρ + ρ∇ v = ∂

t

ρ +∇ (ρ v) = 0

the equation of motion,

ρ ˙ v = f +∇ T = ρ b +∇ T

the symmetry of the stress tensor,

T

t

= T,

the constitutive relation of Navier-Stokes,

T = −p1 + λ(tr D)1 + 2µD

together with the deﬁnition of the rate of deformation,

D =

1

2

(∇v +v∇)

and an equation of state relating the pressure to the density and possibly the temperature,

p = p(ρ)

It is possible to reduce this set of equations, ﬁrst of all by expressing T as a function of the

velocity gradients,

T = −p1 + λ(∇ v)1 + µ(∇v +v∇).

This serves to determine T once v and p are known. The next step is to compute

∇ T = ∇ [−p1 + λ(tr D)1 + 2µD]

= ∇ [−p1 + λ(∇ v)1 + µ∇v + µv ∇]

= −∇p + λ∇∇ v + µ∇

2

v + µ∇∇ v,

= −∇p + (λ + µ)∇∇ v + µ∇

2

v.

The set of equations left is thus

˙ ρ + ρ∇ v = 0,

ρ ˙ v = f −∇p + (λ + µ)∇∇ v + µ∇

2

v

p = p(ρ).

Table of contents 65

The boxed middle equation in the previous set also carries the name of the Navier-Stokes

equation. By restricting the pressure changes to those involving only the density we steer

away from thermodynamical complications, as explained in chapter 2. The set of equations

is now a closed one, with as many unknowns as equations, and this will be used to discuss

a great variety of problems involving ﬂuids, in this chapter as well as in the next. Fluids in

this sense are not only liquids, but also gases and plasmas, at least for certain applications.

Topics to be treated can be chosen from hydraulics, hydrodynamics, aerodynamics, magne-

tohydrodynamics or electromagnetic ﬂuid theory, astrophysics even. We will try to pick one

or two examples in each of these branches of physics.

However, before embarking upon these applications of continuum mechanics, one has to note

that the set of ﬂuid equations does not contain a reference to the stress any longer. We may

check that the mean stress is

σ =

1

3

tr T = −p +

λ +

2

3

µ

tr D = −p +

λ +

2

3

µ

∇ v.

In absolute value the mean stress equals the pressure in two diﬀerent cases, ﬁrst of all when

the viscosity coeﬃcients fulﬁl the so-called Stokes’ condition

λ = −

2

3

µ,

or when the medium is incompressible

tr D = ∇ v = 0.

As we now check, the latter condition follows from the expression of the incompressibility of

a given volume V of the continuum,

˙

V =

d

dt

V

dV

=

V

∇ v dV = 0 (∀V ) ⇐⇒ ∇ v = 0.

With the help of the equation of continuity we also ﬁnd that for incompressible media

˙ ρ = 0.

The mass density is constant when the medium is followed in its motion. Often the mass

density is really constant throughout the medium, but then the condition of incompressibility

has to be coupled to the requirement of homogeneity.

5.2 Simplifying hypotheses

The full set of ﬂuid equations is mathematically complicated, as it consists of a set of coupled

nonlinear partial diﬀerential equations. In many cases of physical importance the Navier-

Stokes equations can be simpliﬁed to some degree when one or more of the hypotheses listed

below are fulﬁlled or used.

Table of contents 66

Barotropic pressures and incompressibility

When the pressure in a ﬂuid depends only upon the density, it is called barotropic, i.e. the

equation of state takes the form f(p, ρ) = 0. Applications of this are to be found in gases

when the kinetic equation of state does not include the temperature or when the processes run

isothermally or adiabatically. In isothermal processes in a monatomic gas, pV is constant,

and hence also p/ρ, whereas for adiabatic processes pV

γ

and thus pρ

−γ

remains constant,

with γ the ratio of the speciﬁc heats at respectively constant pressure and constant volume.

For barotropic pressure variations there exists a pressure function P(p), also called pressure

potential, such that

∇P =

dP

dp

∇p =

1

ρ

∇p

and deﬁned through

P(p) =

p

p

0

dp

′

ρ(p

′

)

.

To ﬁnd a physical interpretation for the pressure function we compute the energy balance in

the absence of heat and viscosity eﬀects (λ = µ = 0), as discussed in chapter 2,

˙ ε =

1

ρ

T : D = −

p

ρ

1 : D = −

p

ρ

tr D

= −

p

ρ

∇ v =

p

ρ

2

˙ ρ = −p

d

dt

1

ρ

,

so that

d

dt

(ε +

p

ρ

) =

1

ρ

dp

dt

=

dP

dp

dp

dt

=

dP

dt

.

Hence the pressure function is the speciﬁc enthalpy

P =

p

p

0

dp

′

ρ(p

′

)

=

ε +

p

ρ

p

p

0

,

ρ

p

homogeneous barotropic

ρ

0

Figure 5.1. Pressure-density relations.

Table of contents 67

up to an arbitrary additive constant.

The other practical possibility for the pressure is that the medium is incompressible and

homogeneous,

ρ(x, t) = ρ

0

and then the pressure function is not needed, as

1

ρ

∇p =

1

ρ

0

∇p = ∇

p

ρ

0

.

Both cases can be summarized in one graph, as shown in Figure 5.1. In what follows the

case of a barotropic pressure will tacitly cover also that of a homogeneous medium, where

the pressure function is a special limiting case with a vertical (p, ρ)-characteristic.

Ideal and viscous ﬂuids

A ﬂuid is called ideal when its viscosity coeﬃcients are zero

λ = 0 = µ.

In all other cases we talk about viscuous ﬂuids. The resulting form of the Navier-Stokes

equation for ideal ﬂuids carries the name of Euler’s equation,

ρ ˙ v = f −∇p or ˙ v = b −

1

ρ

∇p

Stationary and irrotational ﬂows

The ﬂow of a ﬂuid is stationary (or time-independent, or permanent) if

∂

t

v = 0, ∂

t

ρ = 0.

Another type of ﬂow is that of an irrotational ﬂow, without vorticity,

ω =

1

2

∇v = 0.

This immediately implies the existence of a potential function for the velocity,

v = ∇φ.

As usual with potentials, φ is not unique, because any arbitrary function of time added to a

given φ will yield the same velocity.

Table of contents 68

Conservative forces

The main simpliﬁcation concerning the body forces is to suppose that they can be derived

from a potential or, in other words, that the body forces are conservative. Two diﬀerent ways

of implementing this are possible, either on the force density,

∇f = 0, f = −∇Ψ,

or on the force density per mass density,

∇b = 0, b = −∇Φ.

Remember that b has the dimension of an acceleration.

Nonlinear equations and linearization techniques

The equations normally are nonlinear. This can be simpliﬁed in certain cases by the assump-

tion that the phenomena under study are small perturbations with respect to some equilibrium

state. Dropping squares and products of these small perturbations yields equations that are

linear in the unknown quantities. This technique is called linearization and is often used,

when the full nonlinear equations are too diﬃcult to handle, to obtain a ﬁrst picture of cer-

tain phenomena. Afterwards then, the nonlinearities have to be brought in. For these there

are few general techniques, compared to the vast arsenal of mathematical methods that are

at our disposal for linear equations.

To get a feeling for the method, ﬁrst write down the ﬂuid equations for a constant homoge-

neous equilibrium state, in which all equilibrium quantities are labelled with the subscript

zero,

f

0

= 0, p

0

= p(ρ

0

).

This determines what equilibrium states are possible and shows that the body forces must

vanish in equilibrium. Not all problems admit such a homogeneous equilibrium, as the

example of the stratiﬁcation of a ﬂuid under the inﬂuence of gravity shows. The next step

in the linearization is to split every quantity in its equilibrium and its perturbation value,

ρ = ρ

0

+ ρ

1

,

v = v

0

+v

1

,

p = p

0

+ p

1

,

f = f

0

+f

1

(or b = b

0

+b

1

).

Finally the linearized form of the set of ﬂuid equations appears as

(∂

t

+v

0

∇)ρ

1

+ ρ

0

∇ v

1

= 0,

(∂

t

+v

0

∇)v

1

= b

1

−

1

ρ

0

∇p

1

+

λ + µ

ρ

0

∇∇ v

1

+

µ

ρ

0

∇

2

v

1

,

p

1

=

dp

dρ

ρ=ρ

0

ρ

1

.

Table of contents 69

One is thus reduced to a linear problem for the determination of the perturbation quantities

ρ

1

, v

1

and p

1

, given the known, homogeneous equilibrium parameters ρ

0

, v

0

and p

0

. If

necessary, higher-order corrections could be considered by extending the perturbation scheme

to second or third order, in which case the problem is solved by successive steps.

5.3 Bernoulli’s law

For the remainder of this chapter we will deal with ideal ﬂuids and use Euler’s equation

instead of Navier-Stokes’ equation. Hence we start from the basic set of equations

˙ ρ + ρ ∇ v = 0,

˙ v = b −

1

ρ

∇p,

p = p(ρ).

It will be understood that in the case of an incompressible, homogeneous ﬂuid the pressure

is to be treated as one of the dynamical variables determined together with v from

∇ v = 0,

˙ v = b −

1

ρ

0

∇p.

We now return to the general case of ideal ﬂuids. One of the oldest consequences of Euler’s

equation is Bernoulli’s law, of which several variants are known. We will discuss some of

these in what follows, but ﬁrst recast ˙ v as

˙ v = ∂

t

v +v ∇v = ∂

t

v +v ∇v +

1

2

∇v

2

−

1

2

∇v

2

= ∂

t

v +v (∇v −v∇) +

1

2

∇v

2

= ∂

t

v + 2v Ω+

1

2

∇v

2

= ∂

t

v + 2ω v +

1

2

∇v

2

.

In the case of irrotational ﬂow this reduces to

˙ v = ∂

t

(∇φ) +

1

2

∇v

2

= ∇

∂

t

φ +

1

2

v

2

,

in a kind of hybrid notation. For barotropic pressures we can use the pressure function,

1

ρ

∇p = ∇P,

and ﬁnally we suppose the body forces conservative in the sense that

b = −∇Φ.

Table of contents 70

Under the previous assumptions, Euler’s equation can be written as the gradient of a scalar

function,

∇

∂

t

φ +

1

2

v

2

+ Φ + P

= 0,

and upon integration one ﬁnds a ﬁrst form of Bernoulli’s law

∂

t

φ +

1

2

v

2

+ Φ + P = 0

The trick to get rid of the integration constant with respect to x, which really means an

arbitrary function of t, is to see that the velocity potential was only determined up to an

arbitrary function of t and to let both arbitrary functions cancel each other.

Bernoulli’s law as given above is valid for the irrotational ﬂow of an ideal ﬂuid with barotropic

pressure variations under the inﬂuence of conservative forces. What happens when the

assumption of irrotational ﬂow is dropped, but the other restrictions are kept? Then one

gets

∂

t

v + 2ω v = −∇

1

2

v

2

+ Φ + P

.

A ﬁrst integral can be obtained by integrating this along one of the streamlines. A streamline

of a ﬂow is deﬁned as a curve such that the velocity vector of the ﬂuid is everywhere tangent

to it, as drawn in Figure 5.2. One ﬁrst ﬁnds that

d x ∂

t

v = ds e

v

∂

t

v = ds

1

v

v ∂

t

v =

ds

2v

∂

t

v

2

= ds ∂

t

v

and furthermore dx (ω v) vanishes, as dx is always parallel to v along a streamline.

Hence, after integrating the previous equation, the result is

s

∂

t

v ds +

1

2

v

2

+ Φ + P = C

s

(t),

which is the more general form of Bernoulli’s theorem, with a constant (with respect to x)

which will depend upon the particular choice of the streamline along which the integration

is carried out.

e

v v dx

s

Figure 5.2. Streamlines and the velocity ﬁeld.

Table of contents 71

Two special cases can be deduced: a ﬁrst one for permanent (or stationary) ﬂow, when

everything becomes time-independent,

1

2

v

2

+ Φ + P = C

s

and a second one for irrotational ﬂow, as given already before. For permanent and irrota-

tional ﬂow, the integration constant C

s

becomes independent of the choice of a particular

streamline,

1

2

v

2

+ Φ + P = C.

If we apply Bernoulli’s theorem to the case of an incompressible and homogeneous ﬂuid

inﬂuenced by gravity, we have

P =

p

ρ

0

, Φ = gx

3

and thus

1

g

s

∂

t

v ds +

v

2

2g

+

p

ρ

0

g

+ x

3

= C

′

s

(t).

As an application, chosen among many examples from hydraulics, consider the outﬂow of a

liquid from a large tank, where at the upper level pressure and height are somehow main-

tained. The outﬂow is supposed to be permanent and we can apply the corresponding form

of Bernoulli’s law in two diﬀerent points along the streamline through the outﬂow oriﬁce.

The situation is shown in Figure 5.3. Writing for simplicity z instead of x

3

, one gets

z

1

+

p

1

ρ

0

g

+

v

2

1

2g

= z

2

+

p

2

ρ

0

g

+

v

2

2

2g

.

At the upper level (with label 2) there is no velocity, so that

v

2

1

= 2g(z

2

−z

1

) +

2

ρ

0

(p

2

−p

1

)

v

1

p

1

z

1

p

2

z

2

∆z

Figure 5.3. Steady outﬂow of a tank.

Table of contents 72

or

v

1

=

2g∆z +

2

ρ

0

∆p.

The velocity v

1

of the outﬂow is caused partly by the diﬀerence in height, partly by the

diﬀerence in pressure. If there is no diﬀerence in pressure, as is the case when both the

upper level in the tank and the outﬂow oriﬁce are in the open, at atmospheric pressure, the

velocity is just the free fall velocity from a height ∆z. Another limiting case is when there

is no outﬂow, because the pressure balances gravity,

p

1

= p

2

+ ρ

0

g∆z.

This is the usual hydrostatic law, where the pressure at the lower level is the pressure at the

upper level plus the weight per unit area of a liquid column with density ρ

0

and height ∆z.

5.4 Solar wind

As a second example of Bernoulli’s law, chosen this time from solar system physics, we discuss

some aspects of the velocity of the solar wind near the Earth. The solar wind is a stream

of matter which is more or less continuously being emitted from the solar surface. The Sun,

as indeed any other main-sequence star, can be viewed as a sphere of hot, ionized gas (or

plasma) which is in equilibrium due to the opposing inﬂuences of gravitation and pressure or

temperature eﬀects. More about this equilibrium is given in the next section. Gravitation

tends to keep matter closely together, pressure pushes it apart again. However, the outer

layer of the Sun, the corona, is, for reasons still not fully understood, much hotter than the

lower layers. Such a thermodynamically unstable situation gives some of the particles in the

corona the energy to escape from the solar gravity, hence the origin of the solar wind. In this

simpliﬁed picture the solar wind really is the expanding outer corona of the Sun, blowing

past the Earth.

Again we are assuming we are dealing with a permanent ﬂow. In Bernoulli’s law the gravi-

tational potential of the Sun now enters,

Φ = −

GM

⊙

r

,

where G is the universal constant of gravitation, M

⊙

the mass of the Sun and r the radial

distance from the center of the Sun. In comparison, the gravitational inﬂuence of the Earth

can be neglected. We apply Bernoulli’s law twice along a streamline, once in a point close to

the solar surface but outside the Sun (marked with a subscipt 1), the other time in a point

in the neighbourhood of the Earth (subscript 2),

1

2

v

2

1

−

GM

⊙

r

1

+

p

1

p

0

dp

ρ

=

1

2

v

2

2

−

GM

⊙

r

2

+

p

2

p

0

dp

ρ

.

Here p

0

is some reference pressure, and the velocity of the solar wind in the neighbourhood

of the Earth is thus

v

2

2

= v

2

1

+ 2

p

1

p

2

dp

ρ

−2GM

⊙

1

r

1

−

1

r

2

.

Table of contents 73

As r

1

is of the order of the radius R

⊙

of the Sun, whereas r

2

is of the order of the radius of

the Earth’s orbit around the Sun, we can safely approximate the last term in the previous

equation by

2GM

⊙

1

r

1

−

1

r

2

≃

2GM

⊙

R

⊙

≡ v

2

E

.

Here v

E

is the escape velocity at the surface of the Sun, deﬁned (as for other astronomical

bodies) as the velocity needed by a particle starting at the surface to reach inﬁnity with zero

velocity,

1

2

mv

2

E

−

GMm

R

= 0.

Incidentally, if the escape velocity were for a particular star equal to the speed of light,

c

2

=

2GM

R

,

then one would ﬁnd the radius of a classic black star with mass M,

R =

2GM

c

2

.

The concept of such a black star is due to Laplace, predating general relativity, and has

been revived in black hole theory (but based on general relativity rather than on classical

mechanics).

Coming back to the solar wind velocity,

v

2

2

= v

2

1

−v

2

E

+ 2

p

1

p

2

dp

ρ

,

we try to apply the ideal gas law to the solar wind plasma,

p = CρT,

where T is the temperature and C a constant. At the surface of the Sun T

1

is of the

order of the temperature of the corona, some million degrees Kelvin (K), whereas in the

neighbourhood of the Earth T

2

still is 2 10

5

K. We can thus replace T by some averaged

value T

0

and ﬁnd

p

1

p

2

dp

ρ

= CT

0

ρ

1

ρ

2

dρ

ρ

= CT

0

ln

ρ(r

1

)

ρ(r

2

)

.

We ﬁnally suppose that the (quiet) solar wind escapes from the surface of the Sun with

negligible initial velocity, v

1

≃ 0, and thus near the Earth we obtain

v

2

2

≃ 2CT

0

ln

ρ(R

⊙

)

ρ(r

2

)

−v

2

E

.

This can serve as a ﬁrst approximation to ρ(R

⊙

) because all other values can be measured

or computed.

Table of contents 74

Parker model of the solar wind

In order to get a better picture of how the solar wind evolves, we look at the outer corona of

a spherically symmetric star as the Sun. For time-stationary ﬂows the equation of continuity

reduces to

∇ (ρ v) = 0.

Here

x = r e

r

and v = v e

r

= v

x

r

,

since only radial motions are possible. Hence

∇ (ρ v) = ∇

ρv

x

r

= ∂

i

ρv

r

x

i

= (∂

i

x

i

)

ρv

r

+ x

i

∂

i

ρv

r

= 3

ρv

r

+ x

i

(∂

i

r)

d

dr

ρv

r

,

since all coordinate dependence is through r. As

∂

i

r =

x

i

r

,

we ﬁnd that

∇ (ρ v) = 3

ρv

r

+ r

d

dr

ρv

r

= 2

ρv

r

+ ρ

dv

dr

+ v

dρ

dr

= 0.

Dividing by ρv yields

1

ρ

dρ

dr

= −

1

v

dv

dr

−

2

r

.

For radial motions outside the star the Euler equation

ρv ∇v = −∇p +f

reduces to

v

dv

dr

= −

1

ρ

dp

dr

−

GM

r

2

.

Using the ideal gas law gives

v

dv

dr

= −

2κT

mρ

dρ

dr

−

GM

r

2

.

Remark that integration of this would give

1

2

v

2

= −

2κT

m

ln ρ +

GM

r

+ C,

nothing but Bernoulli’s law.

Eliminate (1/ρ) dρ/dr between the equations of continuity and of motion to get

v

dv

dr

=

2κT

m

1

v

dv

dr

+

2

r

−

GM

r

2

,

Table of contents 75

which can be rearranged as

v

2

−

2κT

m

1

v

dv

dr

=

4κT

mr

−

GM

r

2

This is of the structure

A(v)

dv

dr

= B(r),

with obvious notations,

A(v) =

v

2

−c

2

S

v

,

B(r) =

2c

2

S

r

−

GM

r

2

.

At the solar surface, however deﬁned, we have

B(R

⊙

) =

2c

2

S

R

⊙

−

2GM

R

⊙

1

2R

⊙

=

2

R

⊙

c

2

S

−

1

4

v

2

E,⊙

< 0.

The condition

B(r) = 0

gives a critical distance

r

c

=

GM

2c

2

S

.

For the Sun this is outside the Sun itself, since

r

c,⊙

≃ 3R

⊙

,

at coronal temperatures of 2 10

6

K. Hence B(r) goes from negative at the solar surface to

positive faraway, and can only change sign once.

Suppose now that at the solar surface

A(v) > 0 =⇒ v

2

> c

2

S

.

This would mean a large outﬂow velocity, probably larger than the Sun can sustain for the

4.5 10

9

years it has existed already. For reasons of continuity, A(v) can only be zero at the

critical distance r

c

, otherwise we would get inﬁnite gradients in v. So when we start at the

solar surface with A(v) > 0, we note that

A(v)

dv

dr

= B(r) < 0,

and v decreases with increasing r. If at r

c

A(v)[

r

c

> 0 =⇒

dv

dr

r

c

= 0,

Table of contents 76

we still have that A(v) > 0 beyond r

c

, but now with the other sign for dv/dr,

A(v)

dv

dr

= B(r) > 0.

Now v increases again, forever. The model with

r = R

⊙

: v

2

> c

2

S

A(v) > 0

r = r

c

: v

2

> c

2

S

A(v) > 0

means that v decreases to a minimum at r

c

but increases again. This gives values of v at

the radius of the Earth’s orbit which are too high, compared to the observations.

Conversely, having

r = R

⊙

: v

2

< c

2

S

A(v) < 0

r = r

c

: v

2

< c

2

S

A(v) < 0

means that v increases to a maximum value (smaller than c

S

) at r

c

and decreases thereafter.

This gives values at 1 AU which are far too small.

The only acceptable models are where A(v) and B(r) both vanish at the same distance r

c

.

To see what happens then, we Taylor expand everything close to the critical distance,

v(r) ≃ v(r

c

) +

dv

dr

r

c

∆r = c

S

+

dv

dr

r

c

∆r.

Then we have that

A(v) = v −

c

2

S

v

= 2

dv

dr

r

c

∆r,

B(r) =

2c

2

S

r

−

GM

r

2

= −

2c

2

S

r

2

c

∆r +

2GM

r

3

c

∆r =

GM

r

3

c

∆r.

Hence from

A(v)

dv

dr

r

c

= B(r)

we see that

dv

dr

2

r

c

=

GM

2r

3

c

and dv/dr cannot change sign at r

c

where both A(v) and B(r) change sign. So the two

possibilities at R

⊙

are that

v

2

> c

2

S

=⇒ v decreases forever

v

2

< c

2

S

=⇒ v increases forever

and at

r = r

c

⇐⇒ v = c

S

.

Only the Parker model, where the solar winds starts at subsonic speeds at the solar sur-

face, goes through the sonic point at a critical distance and has supersonic velocity in the

neighbourhood of the Earth can give the right values, as observed here.

Table of contents 77

5.5 Hydrostatic equilibrium

In this paragraph we discuss a static problem, based on Euler’s equation without acceleration

term

b −

1

ρ

∇p = 0.

Two other special cases of Euler’s equation will be dealt with in the next sections. First,

when the external forces are small compared to the pressure eﬀects, we have ˙ v = −

1

ρ

∇p, and

this will be the starting point for the treatment of sound waves, in section 5.6, where the ﬂow

is determined essentially by the pressure gradient. On the other hand, the external forces

dominate for some other applications, and Euler’s equation then becomes ˙ v = b. Based on

this form we will give an introduction to surface water waves and plasma waves in section

5.7, and to Newtonian cosmology in section 5.11.

A ﬁrst problem of hydrostatics is the pressure and density stratiﬁcation with height in the

Earth’s atmosphere due to gravity. This is left as an exercise.

As another example, we now give some features of the hydrostatic equilibrium in stars, when

these stars are viewed as spheres of hot, ionized gas. The star is supposed to be in static

equilibrium and spherically symmetric, as shown in Figure 5.4. Because of the spherical

symmetry, all quantities will only depend on the radial coordinate r from the center of the

star. Hence Euler’s equation becomes in equilibrium

dp

dr

= −bρ.

The minus sign is because the pressure acts outwardly, whereas the gravitation acts inwardly,

or in other words, because the pressure will decrease outwards. However, the force of grav-

itation will also depend on r, due to the mass interior to r. To ﬁx the ideas, we mentally

O

R

r

P

m

′

M

m

Figure 5.4. Hydrostatic equilibrium of a star.

Table of contents 78

isolate an interior sphere with radius r and mass m,

m = m(r) =

|x|≤r

ρ dV =

r

0

4πr

′2

ρ(r

′

) dr

′

.

If we put a test particle with mass m

′

on the surface of this sphere in P, the force of

gravitation can be computed as if all the mass of this inner sphere were concentrated in the

center, owing to the spherical symmetry. The outer shell, between the spheres with radii r

and R (the radius of the star), does not exert any force on an interior point P, again because

of the spherical symmetry. Hence the particle feels a total force

m

′

b =

Gmm

′

r

2

,

and one ﬁnds that

b =

Gm

r

2

,

leading to

dp

dr

= −

Gmρ

r

2

.

If the density distribution ρ(r) in the interior were known as a function of r, one could

explicitly compute m and p. This density distribution, however, is not a simple matter to

determine and depends critically on the model for the stellar interior. Nevertheless, without

going into such considerations, one can obtain some reasonable estimates of pressure and

temperature in the following way.

Upon diﬀerentiation of

m = 4π

r

0

r

′2

ρ(r

′

) dr

′

with respect to r one gets

dm

dr

= 4πr

2

ρ.

So elimination of ρ with the help of the equation of motion yields

dp

dr

= −

Gm

4πr

4

dm

dr

and upon integration over the whole star, from 0 to R (in radius) or from 0 to M (in mass),

we ﬁnd

p(0) −p(R) =

R

0

Gm

4πr

4

dm

dr

dr >

G

4πR

4

R

0

m

dm

dr

dr

=

G

4πR

4

M

0

mdm =

GM

2

8πR

4

.

In other words

p(0) > p(R) +

GM

2

8πR

4

.

Table of contents 79

At the surface, the pressure p(R) is negligible, and a lower bound for the pressure at the

center is

p(0) >

GM

2

8πR

4

This estimate has been arrived at without proposing any equation of state for the pressure,

and indeed even without saying anything at all about the density distribution inside the

star. When the numbers for the Sun are substituted, one has

p(0)

⊙

> 4.5 10

13

Nm

−2

= 4.5 10

8

atm.

For an estimate of the temperature, we deﬁne a mean temperature 'T` by

'T` =

V

ρT dV

V

ρ dV =

1

M

V

ρT dV,

with the mass density as weight factor. We postulate the ideal gas law in the form

p = CρT

and get

'T` =

1

M

R

0

4πr

2

ρT dr =

4π

MC

R

0

r

2

p dr

=

4π

MC

¸

1

3

r

3

p

R

0

−

4π

3MC

R

0

r

3

dp

dr

dr ≃ −

4π

3MC

R

0

r

3

dp

dr

dr,

because p(R) is approximately zero. Using once again

dp

dr

= −

Gm

4πr

4

dm

dr

there comes

'T` =

4π

3MC

R

0

Gm

4πr

dm

dr

dr >

G

3MCR

R

0

m

dm

dr

dr

=

G

3MCR

M

0

mdm =

GM

6CR

.

Applied again to the Sun,

'T`

⊙

> 1.9 10

6

K.

The above information about the minimum pressure and averaged temperature allows us

to conclude that the interior of the Sun (and hence of similar stars), must be composed of

hydrogen plasma, because at such temperatures hydrogen is fully ionized. The diﬀerences

between gas and plasma, viewed as a completely ionized and almost electrically neutral

gas, come into play when the electromagnetic properties are studied, much less when the

pressure-temperature-density relations are used. To a ﬁrst approximation, the use of the

ideal gas law is thus justiﬁed.

Table of contents 80

5.6 Sound waves

In this and in the next sections we will give an introductory treatment of wave phenomena

in ideal ﬂuids. On the right hand side of Euler’s equation there normally are two terms, one

for the body forces and the other one giving the pressure eﬀects. When the pressure eﬀects

dominate and the body forces are negligible, this yields sound waves, which are propagating

perturbations in density.

When there are no body forces, the set of basic equations for ideal, barotropic ﬂuids in their

linearized form are

∂

t

ρ

1

+ ρ

0

∇ v

1

= 0,

∂

t

v

1

= −

1

ρ

0

∇p

1

= −

1

ρ

0

dp

dρ

ρ

0

∇ρ

1

,

p

1

=

dp

dρ

ρ

0

ρ

1

.

We have put v

0

equal to zero, as the medium is supposed to be at rest in equilibrium. The

only constants characterizing the equilibrium are the mass density ρ

0

and the pressure p

0

,

connected through the equation of state. For ﬂuids p is an increasing function of the mass

density, and hence we can put

dp

dρ

ρ=ρ

0

= c

2

S

> 0

Now c

S

has the dimensions of a velocity and will turn out to be the sound speed. The last

equation thus is

p

1

= c

2

S

ρ

1

,

whereas the ﬁrst two equations become

∂

t

ρ

1

+ ρ

0

∇ v

1

= 0,

∂

t

v

1

+

c

2

S

ρ

0

∇ρ

1

= 0.

Elimination of v

1

is possible after taking the time derivative of the ﬁrst equation and the

divergence of the second, and subtracting both equations. The result is

∂

2

t

ρ

1

= c

2

S

∇

2

ρ

1

,

also denoted as

∇

2

−

1

c

2

S

∂

2

t

ρ

1

≡ 2

2

ρ

1

= 0.

Here

2

2

= ∇

2

−

1

c

2

S

∂

2

t

Table of contents 81

stands for the d’Alembertian of the problem. Immediately one also has

2

2

p

1

= 0.

The solutions of d’Alembert’s equation are of the form

ρ

1

= φ(k x ±ωt),

with similar expressions for p

1

. The function φ is arbitrary. In the phase argument k is

the wave vector (in the direction of wave propagation) and ω the (angular) frequency of the

wave. The phase velocity of the wave is given by

ω

k

= c

S

.

The sound waves propagate in the direction given by k with a constant velocity which

is independent of ω or k. Such waves are called nondispersive. For nondispersive waves

one could also use the equivalent form ψ(n x ± c

S

t), where n is a unit vector in the

direction of propagation. However, for dispersive waves the phase velocity will be frequency

or wavenumber dependent and thus the more general form φ(k x ± ωt) is to be preferred.

From

∂

t

v

1

= −

c

2

S

ρ

0

∇ρ

1

= −

c

2

S

ρ

0

φ

′

k

we learn that v

1

is parallel to k, which is typical for longitudinal waves where the directions

of excitation and propagation coincide. Here φ

′

refers to the derivative of φ with respect to

its argument k x ±ωt.

The sound speed increases as the (p, ρ)-characteristic steepens, and one could formally in-

clude the case of an incompressible medium by saying that an incompressible medium has

an inﬁnite sound speed. This is physically plausible: sound waves are nothing but the prop-

agation of disturbances in density which in incompressible media are felt instantaneously

everywhere.

5.7 Linear waves in magnetized plasmas

A plasma is a fully or almost fully ionized gas, that contains in equilibrium as many positive

(ions, protons) as negative (electrons, negative ions) charge carriers per unit volume and

thus is electrically neutral is. Otherwise large electric ﬁelds arise that preclude the existence

of a proper equilibrium.

Plasmas could be viewed as the fourth aggregation state of matter. If one thinks of the

classic aggregation states of water, namely solid (ice), liquid and gas (vapour) for rising

temperatures, then heating the gas further ultimately leads to dissociation of atoms into

nuclei and electrons, to a plasma. As an ionized gas a plasma reacts very strongly to the

presence of electromagnetic ﬁelds, which the usual (neutral) gas hardly feels.

The occurrence of plasmas in nature is very frequent. To cite just a couple of examples:

above the neutral atmosphere there are the ionosphere and the Earth’s magnetosphere, both

Table of contents 82

ionized media, or, farther away, stars like our own Sun have to be considered as plasma

spheres rather than spheres of ‘hot gas’. In short, the overwhelming part of the known

matter in the universe is in the plasma state. Grown rapidly after 1950, plasma physics

is the last frontier in the history of classical physics, where relativistic and/or quantum

eﬀects hardly need to be taken into account. The only modern notions needed are that of

electrons and ions, but their nuclear properties are not involved. Astrophysical and energy

applications, like the aim of achieving a workable fusion reactor, have stimulated the great

blossoming of plasma physics during the last half century.

We will start the description of waves in plasmas from the use of the constitutive vacuum

relations,

D = ε

0

E, B = µ

0

H

and introduce the plasma eﬀects via appropriate deﬁnitions for the charge and current den-

sities, σ and J, respectively. We combine the laws of Faraday and Amp`ere,

∇E + ∂

t

B = 0,

c

2

∇B = ∂

t

E +

1

ε

0

J,

and eliminate in the classical way one of the ﬁelds, e.g. B. This leads to

c

2

∇∇ E −c

2

∇

2

E + ∂

2

t

E +

1

ε

0

∂

t

J = 0.

Please note from Gauss’ law

ε

0

∇ E = σ

that ∇ E does not always vanish. We will use a complex plane wave representation of the

form

E = E

a

e

i(k·r−ωt)

and likewise for all relevant other variables. This yields an algebraic wave equation,

c

2

k(k E) + (ω

2

−c

2

k

2

)E +

iω

ε

0

J = 0,

because for harmonic plane wave we substitute

∇→i k, ∂

t

→−iω.

Since for the time being we do not know anything about the wave character, and already

have one physical direction, that of wave propagation given by k or by n = k/k, we can

decompose all vector quantities into a parallel and a perpendicular part,

E = E

n +E

⊥

,

where of course

E

⊥

k = kE

⊥

n = 0,

E

= E n.

Table of contents 83

With an analogous decomposition for J the algebraic wave equation becomes

c

2

k

2

E

n + (ω

2

−c

2

k

2

)(E

n +E

⊥

) +

iω

ε

0

(J

n +J

⊥

) = 0.

Hence we ﬁnd two separate equations for the parallel and the perpendicular parts,

ω

2

E

+

iω

ε

0

J

= 0,

(ω

2

−c

2

k

2

)E

⊥

+

iω

ε

0

J

⊥

= 0.

Now is the time to introduce the appropriate form for σ and J in a plasma. We adapt the

usual deﬁnitions for moving charges and currents,

σ =

¸

s

σ

s

,

J =

¸

s

σ

s

v

s

,

and interpret these as summations over the diﬀerent species making up the plasma. Here

σ

s

is the charge density per ﬂuid composing the plasma, and ρ

s

its mass density. A plasma

consists minimally, in equilibrium, of equal numbers of electrons (s = e) and protons (s = i),

as in the case of a hydrogen plasma. As all charged particles, the plasma species undergo the

inﬂuence of electromagnetic ﬁelds via the force density of Lorentz. Hence we now introduce

an Euler equation per species,

˙ v

s

=

σ

s

ρ

s

(E +v

s

B) .

Because the full problem is complicated and nonlinear, the equations will be linearized as

follows,

ρ

s

= ρ

s0

+ ρ

s1

,

σ

s

= σ

s0

+ σ

s1

,

B = B

0

+B

1

,

the remaining quantities being zero in equilibrium. In ﬁrst instance we suppose that in the

magnetic part of the Lorentz force density, v

s

B, we can restrict ourselves to v

s

B

0

,

where B

0

is an externally applied static magnetic ﬁeld. In this way the Fourier transformed

Euler equation reduce to

−iω v

s1

=

σ

s0

ρ

s0

(E

1

+v

s1

B

0

).

In most books on plasma physics, however, instead of the mass and charge densities a

(species) number density n

s

is used, with the relations

ρ

s

= m

s

n

s

, σ

s

= q

s

n

s

,

Table of contents 84

where m

s

and q

s

are the mass and charge of the species under consideration. For a simple

hydrogen plasma we have that

q

e

= −e, q

i

= +e.

Hence we rewrite the Euler equation as

−iω v

s

=

q

s

m

s

(E +v

s

B

0

),

and omit from now on all subscripts 1 on the wave variables. Splitting this in parallel and

perpendicular parts yields

−iω v

s

=

q

s

m

s

E

+ (v

s

Ω

s

) n,

−iω v

s⊥

=

q

s

m

s

E

⊥

+ (v

s

Ω

s

)

⊥

.

We have introduced the gyrofrequency vector Ω

s

,

Ω

s

=

q

s

B

0

m

s

,

with the gyrofrequency itself being given by

Ω

s

=

q

s

B

0

m

s

.

Both these expressions include the sign of the charge under consideration.

The external magnetic ﬁeld now introduces a second physical direction, and in order not to

complicate this introduction to plasma waves too much, we will restrict ourselves to wave

propagation parallel to the external magnetic ﬁeld B

0

. Because of k | B

0

or n | Ω

s

, there

follows that

(v

s

Ω

s

) n = 0,

(v

s

Ω

s

)

⊥

= v

s⊥

Ω

s

,

and the equations for v

s

and v

s⊥

can be dealt with separately.

From the parallel part there immediately follows that

v

s

=

iq

s

m

s

ω

E

,

and hence also that

J

=

i

ω

¸

s

N

s

q

2

s

m

s

E

.

Here N

s

denotes the equilibrium value n

s0

of n

s

. Thus we ﬁnd that

ω

2

E

+

iω

ε

0

J

= 0

Table of contents 85

is rewritten as

ω

2

−

¸

s

N

s

q

2

s

ε

0

m

s

E

=

ω

2

−

¸

s

ω

2

ps

E

= 0.

Here the plasma frequencies ω

ps

per species have been deﬁned through

ω

2

ps

=

N

s

q

2

s

ε

0

m

s

and a global plasma frequency ω

p

is given through

ω

2

p

=

¸

s

ω

2

ps

.

For a simple electron-proton plasma, generated from the ionization of hydrogen, we note

that

ω

2

p

= ω

2

pe

+ ω

2

pi

=

N

e

e

2

ε

0

m

e

+

N

i

e

2

ε

0

m

i

=

Ne

2

ε

0

m

e

+

Ne

2

ε

0

m

i

≃

Ne

2

ε

0

m

e

,

because of the charge neutrality in equilibrium

N

e

= N

i

= N.

The large mass diﬀerence m

e

≪ m

i

has as a consequence that the global plasma frequency

is principally determined by the electrons. We have thus obtained that

(ω

2

−ω

2

p

)E

= 0,

from which only two choices follow.

Either we want E

**= 0 and then the allowable wave frequency is ﬁxed as
**

ω = ±ω

p

or ω takes on diﬀerent values and then E

**vanishes, which leads to transverse waves. With
**

E

**= 0 the electric ﬁeld contains already a component along the direction of wave propaga-
**

tion and the waves cannot be purely transverse. We will show that they then are longitudinal.

However, before we can complete the discussion we should ﬁrst look at the remaining part

of the information, and determine v

s⊥

from

−iω v

s⊥

+Ω

s

v

s⊥

=

q

s

m

s

E

⊥

.

First a vector multiplication with Ω

s

gives

−iω Ω

s

v

s⊥

+Ω

s

(Ω

s

v

s⊥

) =

q

s

m

s

Ω

s

E

⊥

or also

−iω Ω

s

v

s⊥

−Ω

2

s

v

s⊥

=

q

s

m

s

Ω

s

E

⊥

,

Table of contents 86

because Ω

s

v

s⊥

= 0. Elimination of Ω

s

v

s⊥

between both equations tells us that

(ω

2

−Ω

2

s

)v

s⊥

= iω

q

s

m

s

E

⊥

+

q

s

m

s

Ω

s

E

⊥

,

with solution

v

s⊥

=

q

s

m

s

iω E

⊥

+Ω

s

E

⊥

ω

2

−Ω

2

s

.

In this way we have that

J

⊥

=

¸

s

N

s

q

s

v

s⊥

= ε

0

¸

s

ω

2

ps

iω E

⊥

+Ω

s

E

⊥

ω

2

−Ω

2

s

,

and consequently there follows from

(ω

2

−c

2

k

2

)E

⊥

+

iω

ε

0

J

⊥

= 0

that

ω

2

−c

2

k

2

−ω

2

¸

s

ω

2

ps

ω

2

−Ω

2

s

E

⊥

+ iω

¸

s

ω

2

ps

Ω

s

ω

2

−Ω

2

s

n E

⊥

= 0.

This is of the structure

AE

⊥

+ iC n E

⊥

= 0,

from which vector multiplication with n shows that

An E

⊥

−iC E

⊥

= 0.

Elimination of n E

⊥

between the two equations containing it yield

(A

2

−C

2

)E

⊥

= 0.

Now the condition that E

⊥

= 0 gives us the other part of the dispersion law,

A ±C = 0

or explicitly

ω

2

−c

2

k

2

−

¸

s

ω

2

ps

ω(ω ∓Ω

s

)

ω

2

−Ω

2

s

= ω

2

−c

2

k

2

−

¸

s

ω

2

ps

ω

ω ±Ω

s

= 0.

When ω obeys this part, then we can choose E

⊥

= 0, but at the same time ω

2

= ω

2

p

, and con-

sequently E

**= 0. The waves are transverse, and the extension of the classic electromagnetic
**

waves in vacuum.

In the opposite case, when ω

2

= ω

2

p

, one cannot have that

ω

2

= c

2

k

2

+

¸

s

ω

2

ps

ω

ω ±Ω

s

Table of contents 87

and hence E

⊥

= 0. If we want to retain any electric ﬁeld at all, we need E

= 0, and the

waves are then purely longitudinal.

Special cases of the dispersion law for transverse modes,

ω

2

= c

2

k

2

+

¸

s

ω

2

ps

ω

ω ±Ω

s

are obtained when there are no plasma species at all. Then

N

s

→0 =⇒ ω

ps

= 0

and the dispersion law reduces to the well known dispersion law for electromagnetic waves

in vacuum,

ω

2

= c

2

k

2

.

On the other hand, if there is plasma but no external magnetic ﬁeld, then all Ω

s

= 0 and

there remains

ω

2

= c

2

k

2

+ ω

2

p

A characteristic of these waves is that the plasma frequency acts as a cut-oﬀ frequency.

Whereas in vacuum all frequencies are possible, in a nonmagnetized plasma only those

electromagnetic waves with frequencies above the plasma frequency can propagate. This

is of importance for the propagation of radio waves through the ionosphere, the layer of

ionized gas or plasma above the atmosphere. In the ionosphere the density and hence the

corresponding plasma frequency varies with height. For certain layers, waves with too low a

frequency will be reﬂected, as they cannot propagate into this layer. This means two things:

if the source of the waves is on Earth, certain waves will be reﬂected back to the surface of

the Earth, making radio transmission beyond the horizon possible. If on the other hand the

ω

p

source

receiver

ω < ω

p

ω ≥ ω

p

Figure 5.5. Propagation of radio signals through the ionosphere.

Table of contents 88

source is outside the ionosphere some radio signals never reach the Earth. This is a handicap

both in radioastronomy and in communicating with spacecraft. This is drawn schematically

in Figure 5.5.

In the following two sections, we will give some further examples of plasma waves of larger

amplitude, where the harmonic Fourier transform and associated linearization procedures

are not used or cannot work.

5.8 Large amplitude ion-acoustic solitons

In this section we consider large amplitude electrostatic waves in a plasma, when the relevant

equations cannot be linearized without losing the typical characteristics of these waves. By

electrostatic one usually means that no magnetic eﬀects come into play, so that Faraday’s

equation

∇E + ∂

t

B = 0

shows that

E = −∇φ.

From the other Maxwell’s equations we henceforth only use Poisson’s equation

∇ D = σ

i

+ σ

e

= e(n

i

−n

e

)

in the form

ε∇

2

φ = e(n

e

−n

i

).

For ion-acoustic waves the electrons are considered isothermal with

p

e

= κT

e

n

e

(T

e

= constant)

where κ is Boltzmann’s constant. In the electron equation of motion

˙ v

e

= −

1

ρ

e

∇p

e

−

e

m

e

E = −

κT

e

n

e

m

e

∇n

e

+

e

m

e

∇φ

one now neglects electron inertia. This means that the wave phenomena to be studied are

suﬃciently slow so as to allow the very mobile electrons to adjust almost instantaneously,

maintaining a balance between pressure and electric potential eﬀects,

κT

e

n

e

∇n

e

≃ e ∇φ.

Thus the electron density is

n

e

= n

0

exp

eφ

κT

e

,

as a constant equilibrium requires that

n

e0

= n

i0

= n

0

.

Table of contents 89

The ions, on the other hand, will be treated as cold, so that in their equation of motion the

electric potential eﬀects determine the motion,

˙ v

i

= (∂

t

+v

i

∇)v

i

= −

e

m

i

∇φ.

Collecting now the remaining equations, we need the ion continuity equation, the ion equa-

tion of motion and Poisson’s equation,

∂

t

n

i

+∇ (n

i

v

i

) = 0,

(∂

t

+v

i

∇)v

i

= −

e

m

i

∇φ,

ε∇

2

φ = en

0

exp

eφ

κT

e

−en

i

.

In what follows we will drop the subscript i on the ion quantities. We will study the nonlinear

behaviour of ion-acoustic waves and double layers moving in the z-direction and start from

∂

t

n + ∂

z

(nv) = 0,

∂

t

v + v∂

z

v = −

e

m

∂

z

φ,

ε

0

∂

2

z

φ = en

0

exp

eφ

κT

e

−en.

We now look for wave phenomena and localized structures travelling in the z-direction with

a velocity V , so that all quantities will depend upon

ξ = z −V t.

The above equations may then be integrated with one-sided boundary conditions

φ →0,

dφ

dξ

→0, v →0, n →n

0

as ξ →+∞.

The continuity equation is thus rewritten as

−V

dn

dξ

+

d

dξ

(nv) = 0,

since

∂

t

= −V

d

dξ

, ∂

z

=

d

dξ

.

We ﬁnd that

−V n + nv = −V n

0

or

n =

V n

0

V −v

.

Table of contents 90

The ion velocity v will be determined from the equation of motion

−V

dv

dξ

+ v

dv

dξ

= −

e

m

dφ

dξ

or after integration from

−V v +

1

2

v

2

= −

e

m

φ.

The only acceptable solution is

v = V −

V

2

−

2eφ

m

= V

1 −

1 −

2eφ

mV

2

,

as in the expression for n (> 0) we see that V > v. One thus ﬁnds

n = n

0

1 −

2eφ

mV

2

.

Poisson’s equation can now wholly be rewritten as a diﬀerential equation for φ,

ε

0

d

2

φ

dξ

2

= en

0

exp

eφ

κT

e

−en

0

1 −

2eφ

mV

2

.

To integrate this, we multiply with dφ/dξ and ﬁnd

ε

0

2

dφ

dξ

2

= n

0

κT

e

exp

eφ

κT

e

−1

+ n

0

mV

2

1 −

2eφ

mV

2

−1

¸

,

which is of the form

1

2

dφ

dξ

2

+ Ψ(φ, V ) = 0

with the Sagdeev pseudopotential Ψ(φ, V ) given by

Ψ(φ, V ) =

n

0

κT

e

ε

0

1 −exp

eφ

κT

e

+

n

0

mV

2

ε

0

1 −

1 −

2eφ

mV

2

¸

.

This represents the energy integral for a classical particle of unit mass moving with velocity

dφ/dξ in a potential Ψ(φ, V ), where V appears as a parameter. We see that the mass density

and velocity remain real provided

φ ≤

mV

2

2e

.

The rarefactive range of solutions (with φ < 0) is unrestricted, but only a limited compressive

range (with φ > 0) is allowed.

Table of contents 91

For both ion-acoustic solitons and double layers one requires that Ψ(φ, V ) be negative be-

tween φ = 0 (because of the boundary conditions at inﬁnity) and some extreme value φ = φ

m

.

The appearance of localized solitary wave solutions furthermore also requires that

Ψ(0, V ) =

∂Ψ

∂φ

(0, V ) = 0,

∂

2

Ψ

∂φ

2

(0, V ) < 0,

dφ

dξ

= 0 at φ = 0,

Ψ(φ

m

, V ) = 0,

∂Ψ

∂φ

(φ

m

, V ) > 0 if φ

m

> 0,

Ψ(φ

m

, V ) = 0,

∂Ψ

∂φ

(φ

m

, V ) < 0 if φ

m

< 0.

To adopt the language of classical mechanics, these requirements ensure that a particle

starting at φ = 0 makes a single transit to the point φ

m

and comes back to its initial

position, so that [φ

m

[ represents the (maximum) amplitude of the soliton.

For ion-acoustic double layers one requires in addition that

Ψ(φ

m

, V ) =

∂Ψ

∂φ

(φ

m

, V ) = 0,

∂

2

Ψ

∂φ

2

(φ

m

, V ) < 0,

Ψ(φ, V ) < 0 for 0 < [φ[ < [φ

m

[.

This means, in the mechanics analogy, that the particle will transit from 0 to φ

m

only (or

vice versa).

For small-amplitude solitons the expansion of the Sagdeev potential near φ = 0 yields

Ψ(φ, V ) =

n

0

κT

e

ε

0

−

eφ

κT

e

−

e

2

φ

2

2κ

2

T

2

e

−

e

3

φ

3

6κ

3

e

T

3

e

+

n

0

mV

2

ε

0

eφ

mV

2

+

e

2

φ

2

2m

2

V

4

+

e

3

φ

3

2m

3

V

6

=

1

2

−

n

0

e

2

ε

0

κT

e

+

n

0

e

2

ε

0

mV

2

φ

2

+

1

2

−

n

0

e

3

3ε

0

κ

2

T

2

e

+

n

0

e

3

ε

0

m

2

V

4

φ

3

.

Using the ion plasma frequency ω

pi

and the ion-acoustic velocity c

s

, deﬁned through

c

2

s

=

κT

e

m

,

we rewrite this expansion up to third order as

Ψ(φ, V ) =

ω

2

pi

2

1

V

2

−

1

c

2

s

φ

2

+

eω

2

pi

2m

1

V

4

−

1

3c

4

s

φ

3

.

Weak ion-acoustic solitons are deﬁned by taking the small-amplitude limit in the sense that

V = c

s

(1 + µ), φ = O(µ) (µ ≪1)

and retaining terms up to third order in µ and/or φ. This yields

Ψ(φ, V ) =

ω

2

pi

c

2

s

φ

2

−µ +

eφ

3mc

2

s

,

Table of contents 92

and the energy integral becomes

1

2

dφ

dξ

2

=

ω

2

pi

c

2

s

φ

2

µ −

eφ

3κT

e

.

Substituting for simplicity dimensionless variables

ψ =

eφ

κT

e

,

η =

ω

pi

c

s

ξ =

ω

pi

c

s

(z −c

s

(1 + µ)t) =

ω

pi

c

s

z −ω

pi

(1 + µ)t,

we have that

1

2

dψ

dη

2

= ψ

2

µ −

1

3

ψ

.

We can deduce from this, after taking the derivative twice (undoing so to say the integrations

performed in deriving the Sagdeev equation) that

−µ

dψ

dη

+ ψ

dψ

dη

+

1

2

d

3

ψ

dη

3

= 0.

This can also be obtained from a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation by using a reductive

perturbation analysis ab initio. The KdV equation itself looks like

∂ψ

∂τ

+ ψ

∂ψ

∂ζ

+

1

2

∂

3

ψ

∂ζ

3

= 0

so that for

η = ζ −µτ

we recover the ordinary diﬀerential equation derived before.

The KdV equation has been derived in many diﬀerent physical situations and describes e.g.

waves on shallow water, as well as the ion-acoustic plasma waves mentioned here.

For the solution we return to

1

2

dψ

dη

2

= ψ

2

µ −

1

3

ψ

.

A soliton solution for this problem is

ψ = 3µsech

2

αη =

3µ

cosh

2

αη

,

where α is yet to be determined. Since

dψ

dη

= −6αµ

sinh αη

cosh

3

αη

,

Table of contents 93

η

ψ

(α = 1, µ =

8

3

)

Figure 5.6. Proﬁle of a solitary wave joining constant states at η = ±∞ and localized in η.

we ﬁnd from

18α

2

µ

2

sinh

2

αη

cosh

6

αη

=

9µ

2

cosh

4

αη

µ −

µ

cosh

2

αη

that

α =

µ

2

.

The solution thus is

ψ = 3µsech

2

µ

2

η

This looks indeed as a localized structure, as sketched in Figure 5.6. Since µ was originally

deﬁned as

µ =

V −c

s

c

s

,

we ﬁnd localized waves where the amplitude 3µ is related to the normalized wave speed,

a typical property of nonlinear waves. Moreover, µ has to be positive, making the waves

slightly supersonic with respect to c

s

.

5.9 Large amplitude circularly polarized waves in plasmas

Here we revert to the description of transverse electromagnetic waves in magnetized plasmas,

but without linearizing the basic equations and hence obtaining large amplitude solutions.

We recall the basic equations per species, consisting of the equation of continuity for the

number densities

∂

t

n

s

+∇ (n

s

v

s

) = 0

and the equation of motion

∂

t

v

s

+v

s

∇v

s

=

q

s

m

s

(E +v

s

B).

Table of contents 94

The electric and magnetic ﬁelds E and B couple the plasma species together in Maxwell’s

equations

∇E + ∂

t

B = 0,

c

2

∇B = ∂

t

E +

1

ε

0

¸

s

n

s

q

s

v

s

.

The other Maxwell’s equations will not be used further on, except

ε

0

∇ E =

¸

s

n

s

q

s

for the equilibrium conditions.

We start from

n

s

= N

s

,

v

s

= V

s

e

z

+ u

s

,

E = E ,

B = B

0

e

z

+ b ,

where N

s

, V

s

and B

0

are constant equilibrium values and u

s

, E and b refer to the ﬂuctuations

associated with the circularly polarized waves. We emphasize, however, that these ﬂuctua-

tions are not assumed to be small, so ours is not a perturbation analysis. The equilibrium

carries neither charge nor current, hence

¸

s

N

s

q

s

= 0,

¸

s

N

s

q

s

V

s

= 0.

Such a situation is only of interest if there are at least two ion species with diﬀerent drifts,

for in a classic one-ion-species plasma V

i

(subscript i for ions) must equal V

e

(subscript e for

electrons) and then results from stationary plasmas can be transposed to drifting reference

frames. With more ion species with diﬀerent drifts, there is no longer any natural drifting

frame of reference. There is also no equilibrium electric ﬁeld, as this would only give a

common E

0

B

0

drift for all plasma components. Such a common perpendicular drift can

be eliminated by going to a deHoﬀmann-Teller frame where E

0

vanishes.

For circularly polarized waves propagating parallel to the external magnetic ﬁeld there are no

ﬂuctuations in density. This will entail that

u

sz

= E

z

= b

z

= 0.

To start with, we assume a particular form for the wave magnetic ﬁeld, corresponding to

circularly polarized modes,

b = ae

x

cos φ ±ae

y

sin φ,

where the phase of the waves is given by

φ = kz −ωt.

Table of contents 95

Here the ± signs refer to the left (with the upper sign) or right (with the lower sign) circular

polarization. For this particular dependence on z and t, we see that

db

dφ

= −a e

x

sin φ ±a e

y

cos φ = ±e

z

b.

Faraday’s law gives

∇E = e

z

∂

z

E = k e

z

dE

dφ

= −∂

t

b = ω

db

dφ

,

so that

E =

ω

k

b e

z

= ±

aω

k

e

x

sin φ −

aω

k

e

y

cos φ.

Turning next to the ﬂuid equations, one sees that the equations of continuity are fulﬁlled

identically, whereas the equations of motion become

(∂

t

+ V

s

∂

z

) u

s

+ Ω

s

e

z

u

s

=

q

s

m

s

(E + V

s

e

z

b) +

q

s

m

s

u

s

b.

Because u

s

, E and b are all orthogonal to e

z

, we deduce from the preceding equation that

(u

s

b) e

z

= 0.

If u

s

b = 0, it would be parallel to e

z

, which clearly cannot be. Hence

u

s

= γ

s

b = γ

s

a(e

x

cos φ ±e

y

sin φ),

with γ

s

a scalar, and exact ﬁnite-amplitude solutions will be possible because the only re-

maining nonlinear term u

s

b vanishes. If that were not so, higher harmonics would be

generated which cannot be cancelled against other terms. We introduce for each species the

Doppler-shifted frequency

ω

′

s

= ω −kV

s

,

and ﬁnd that

(∂

t

+ V

s

∂

z

) u

s

= γ

s

(∂

t

b + V

s

∂

z

b) = γ

s

(−ω + kV

s

)

db

dφ

= ∓γ

s

ω

′

s

e

z

b.

The equations of motion are rewritten as

∓γ

s

ω

′

s

e

z

b + Ω

s

γ

s

e

z

b =

q

s

m

s

ω

k

b e

z

+ V

s

e

z

b

= −

q

s

ω

′

s

m

s

k

e

z

b,

which yields the factor of proportionality

γ

s

= ±

q

s

ω

′

s

m

s

k(ω

′

s

∓Ω

s

)

,

and thus also the species velocity

u

s

= ±

q

s

ω

′

s

m

s

k(ω

′

s

∓Ω

s

)

(ae

x

cos φ ±ae

y

sin φ) .

Table of contents 96

We are now in a position to ﬁnally turn to Amp`ere’s law. In view of the assumed dependencies

of all quantities on z and t, the expansions and the equilibrium current neutrality condition,

this equation can be rewritten as

c

2

e

z

∂

z

b = ∂

t

E +

1

ε

0

¸

s

N

s

q

s

u

s

.

Collecting the forms for b, E and u

s

eventually yields

ω

2

−c

2

k

2

−

¸

s

ω

2

ps

ω

′

s

ω

′

s

∓Ω

s

(ae

x

cos φ ±ae

y

sin φ) = 0.

We see that the dispersion law amounts to

ω

2

−c

2

k

2

−

¸

s

ω

2

ps

(ω −kV

s

)

ω −kV

s

∓Ω

s

= 0

nothing but the usual (linear) dispersion law for circularly polarized waves propagating

parallel to the external magnetic ﬁeld, but now in the presence of parallel equilibrium drifts.

A ﬁnite-amplitude wave thus is possible indeed. Adiabatic or isothermal pressures can

easily be included in the foregoing treatment, as constant densities imply constant pressures.

Because the dispersion law was derived without referring to a particular frequency regime,

the low-frequency approximation for Alfv´en waves is automatically included, as discussed

below.

A low-frequency regime in magnetized plasmas usually implies that [ω[ ≪ [Ω

s

[. Because

of the interest in plasmas with nonzero equilibrium drifts, a long-wavelength approximation

where [kV

s

[ ≪[Ω

s

[ is also needed, so that [ω −kV

s

[ = [ω

′

s

[ ≪[Ω

s

[. The expansion of

ω −kV

s

ω −kV

s

∓Ω

s

=

ω

′

s

ω

′

s

∓Ω

s

up to second order in ω

′

s

gives

ω

′

s

ω

′

s

∓Ω

s

= ∓

ω

′

s

Ω

s

−

ω

′2

s

Ω

2

s

.

We compute separately that

¸

s

ω

2

ps

ω

′

s

Ω

s

=

¸

s

N

s

q

2

s

ε

0

m

s

(ω −kV

s

)m

s

q

s

B

0

=

¸

s

N

s

q

s

(ω −kV

s

)

ε

0

B

0

= 0,

because of the absence of global equilibrium charge and current densities,

¸

s

N

s

q

s

= 0,

¸

s

N

s

q

s

V

s

= 0.

Table of contents 97

The second-order term gives

¸

s

ω

2

ps

ω

′2

s

Ω

2

s

=

¸

s

N

s

q

2

s

ε

0

m

s

(ω −kV

s

)

2

m

2

s

q

2

s

B

2

0

=

c

2

µ

0

B

2

0

¸

s

N

s

m

s

(ω −kV

s

)

2

.

We deﬁne the global Alfv´en velocity V

A

through

V

2

A

=

B

2

0

µ

0

¸

s

N

s

m

s

,

the true bulk speed of the plasma as a whole by

V =

¸

s

N

s

m

s

V

s

¸

s

N

s

m

s

and the mean Doppler-shifted frequency as ¯ ω = ω − kV . Deviations of the mean velocity

are then denoted by V

′

s

= V

s

−V and W is a measure for the relative mass-averaged parallel

kinetic energy of all species,

W =

¸

s

N

s

m

s

V

′

s

2

¸

s

N

s

m

s

.

The dispersion law is then up to second order approximated by

ω

2

= c

2

k

2

−

c

2

V

2

A

(¯ ω

2

+ k

2

W).

Because V

A

is usually very small with respect to c, this is without much loss of generality

approximated by

¯ ω

2

= k

2

(V

2

A

−W).

One sees immediately the possibility of unstable Alfv´en waves whenever

V

2

A

< W

in other words, whenever there is enough relative streaming between the diﬀerent species

of the plasma, measured with respect to the Alfv´en velocity. A more extensive form of the

above dispersion law and the associated instability criterion has been used to study Alfv´en

wave instabilities in solar wind plasmas.

Recent missions to comets P/Giacobini-Zinner, P/Halley and P/Grigg-Skjellerup have given

new results in solar wind plasmas suﬃciently contaminated by ions of cometary origin. Due

to the low gravity of the cometary nucleus, such ions escape as neutral atoms or molecules

from the inner coma. Diﬀerent processes can then ionize these particles, which are picked-up

at ionization by the solar wind magnetic ﬁeld, with velocities which are very diﬀerent from

the usual solar wind velocity. There is an interesting region between 1 to 4 ∼ 7 10

6

km

upstream of the cometary nucleus where the instability criterion would seem to hold, leading

to Alfv´en wave turbulence.

Table of contents 98

a

x

′

x

P

O

O

′

Figure 5.7. Two observers O and O

′

and a distant galaxy P.

5.10 Newtonian cosmology

As a last application of Euler’s equation in ideal ﬂuids we discuss some elements of Newto-

nian cosmology. It is clear that a proper treatment of cosmology at present requires general

relativity. However, Newtonian cosmology leads to the same results for the scale factor as

general relativity, for Friedman models, and thus a fairly simple picture of interesting phe-

nomena can be given, without going through all the mathematical intricacies connected with

general relativity.

The universe on the largest scale is viewed as a continuous ﬂuid. This is then coupled to the

cosmological principle, which says that there are no privileged observers and that the universe

is homogeneous and isotropic on the larger scales, meaning that the universe presents the

same picture at all places and in all directions at a given instant. Both these ideas, a

continuous ﬂuid ﬁlling the universe and the cosmological principle, are not peculiarities of

Newtonian cosmology but are used also in general relativity, where they lead to the Friedman

universes.

We start with two observers O and O

′

, both recording what happens at P, as indicated in

Figure 5.7. The three diﬀerent points could e.g. refer to three diﬀerent galaxies. In view of

the homogeneity of the universe, ρ and p can at most depend upon t, but are independent of

position. If v is the velocity of P with respect to O and v

′

with respect to O

′

, the principle

of equivalent observers requires that there exist a single function v(x, t) such that

v = v(x, t), v

′

= v(x

′

, t).

Otherwise, one could class the observers according to the functional dependence included in

v(x, t). Also, O

′

has a velocity v(a, t) with respect to O. The orientation of both reference

frames in O and O

′

remains the same, there is no rotation, and hence the velocities are

additive in a Galilean sense,

v(x, t) = v(a, t) +v(x

′

, t).

However, as

x = a +x

′

,

Table of contents 99

one ﬁnds that

v(a +x

′

, t) = v(a, t) +v(x

′

, t)

for all a, x

′

and t. This is only possible when v(x, t) is a linear function of its ﬁrst argument,

without constant term

v(x, t) = M(t) x.

Here M(t) is a time-dependent tensor, which can always be decomposed into three parts

M = µ1 + M

′

+ M

′′

,

such that

M

′

t

= M

′

, M

′′

t

= −M

′′

, tr M

′

= 0.

This yields

v = µx + M

′

x +x m

′′

,

where m

′′

is the dual vector of M

′′

.

Sofar, only part of the cosmological principle has been used. The material description is given

by the equation of continuity, together with Euler’s equation. In the equation of continuity

˙ ρ + ρ ∇ v = 0

the density ρ can only depend upon t. This part of the reasoning rests on the identiﬁcation

of the velocities of the observers (or galaxies) with those of the continuum in which they are

imbedded, much as a ﬂoating cork is carried along by the water. We compute

∇ v = ∇ (M x) = M : x∇= M : 1 = tr M = 3µ.

It is customary to put

µ(t) =

˙

R(t)

R(t)

,

where R(t) is called the scale factor. Thus the equation of continuity becomes

˙ ρ + 3ρ

˙

R

R

= 0,

yielding after integration that

ρR

3

= ρ

0

R

3

0

.

This expresses the conservation of matter with density ρ inside a sphere of radius R. At

time t

0

ρ(t

0

) = ρ

0

, R(t

0

) = R

0

.

Euler’s equation reduces to

˙ v = b,

as there are no pressure gradients, p being independent of x. The normalized force density

b is only due to the gravitational interaction and obeys Poisson’s law,

∇ b = −4πGρ.

Table of contents 100

Hence for isotropic universes we have

b = −

4

3

πGρ x.

When the isotropic part of the cosmological principle is invoked here, we have to be consistent

and note that only the isotropic part of M, namely µ1, can then be nonzero. Hence

v = µx,

which expresses Hubble’s law that the velocity of distant galaxies increases with their distance

from us or from any other point. Identifying again v and ˙ x, Hubble’s law can be rewritten

as

v = ˙ x =

˙

R

R

x.

The solution of this diﬀerential equation is

x = R(t) c,

with

x

0

= x(t

0

) = R(t

0

) c = R

0

c.

Combining this with Euler’s equation and the particular form for b gives

˙ v = −

4

3

πGρ x

or in other words,

¨ x =

¨

Rc =

¨

R

R

x = −

4

3

πGρ x.

The scale factor R thus obeys the equation

¨

R

R

= −

4

3

πGρ = −

4

3

πGρ

0

R

3

0

1

R

3

with the help of conservation of mass, or more precisely

¨

R +

4

3

πGρ

0

R

3

0

1

R

2

= 0

This equation is the same as the one which is derived for pressureless Friedman models

in general relativity. Hence the discussion we now give transcends the purely Newtonian

framework.

In principle this cosmological equation determines R(t). Afterwards we have

ρ(t) =

ρ

0

R

3

0

R

3

(t)

Table of contents 101

and

x(t) = R(t) c,

and the problem is solved. Unfortunately, the determination of R(t) is not straightforward.

A ﬁrst and perhaps startling conclusion is that when R is constant, the mass density has to

vanish. In other words, a static universe must be empty! There is no nonempty stationary

solution, unless one modiﬁes the laws of gravitation ad hoc, as Einstein at ﬁrst tried to

do, since he believed the universe had to be stationary. After multiplication by 2

˙

R, the

cosmological equation can be integrated once to get

˙

R

2

−

8

3

πGρ

0

R

3

0

1

R

= C.

This is of the form of the conservation of energy for the onedimensional motion of a particle

in a conservative force ﬁeld, and the discussion can be given in analogous terms. We know

from Hubble’s observations that the universe is currently expanding, with

˙

R > 0. Two cases

are possible: either C is positive or zero, or C is negative.

In the case where C is positive or zero,

˙

R

2

is strictly positive and

˙

R cannot vanish sometime.

This means that

˙

R is always positive, as it is so now, and thus the scale factor R is an ever

increasing function of time. This is the model of the ever expanding or open universe.

On the other hand, if C were negative, we could put

C ≡ −

8

3

πGρ

0

R

3

0

1

R

c

,

which deﬁnes R

c

for a given C < 0. Substituting this into

˙

R

2

=

8

3

πGρ

0

R

3

0

1

R

+ C

gives us

˙

R

2

=

8

3

πGρ

0

R

3

0

1

R

−

1

R

c

.

We conclude that

˙

R

2

≥ 0 =⇒

1

R

≥

1

R

c

⇐⇒ R ≤ R

c

.

It is seen that R

c

corresponds to a maximum value for the scale factor. As

¨

R is always

negative, R increases to the value R

c

, where

˙

R vanishes, and then R starts to decrease

again. It will then be decreasing monotonically until zero, where it all started from. A scale

factor zero corresponds to a singularity, as the density becomes inﬁnite. This singularity is

called the “big bang”, with philosophical implications outside the scope of the present lectures

with their simple approach. The model where R is bounded by R

c

is called an oscillating

or closed universe, although it is not clear at all whether such a cycle would repeat itself or

not. As

ρR

3

= ρ

0

R

3

0

= ρ

c

R

3

c

,

Table of contents 102

there corresponds a critical value ρ

c

of the mass density to R

c

, such that

R ≤ R

c

⇐⇒ ρ ≥ ρ

c

.

Thus the mass density, if known accurately, could be an indication of whether the universe

was open or closed, expanding forever or “oscillating”. If there is enough mass, hence a

density above the critical density, the gravitational eﬀects will be able to call the expansion

to a halt. If the density is too low, on the other hand, the expansion will be slowed but

never stopped.

The special case where C is zero corresponds to the Einstein-de Sitter model, with

˙

R

2

=

8

3

πGρ

0

R

3

0

1

R

,

and the integration can be carried out explicitly,

R = (6πGρ

0

)

1/3

R

0

t

2/3

.

The corresponding mass density

ρ =

1

6πGt

2

is getting smaller and smaller in a larger and larger universe. At the end of this section, it

is an interesting but unanswerable question why Newtonian cosmology was not investigated

earlier, before rather than after the advent of general relativity. Maybe because there were

no static solutions and people believed in the permanence of our universe?

5.11 Complex potential theory

As a last application for ideal ﬂuids we introduce complex potential theory, which is a

compact way of describing plane irrotational and stationary ﬂows of an ideal homogeneous

ﬂuid, as we will show. Stationarity means that the ﬂow is time-independent, and homogeneity

reduces the equation of continuity to the incompressibility condition,

∇ v = 0,

implying the existence of vector potential a for the velocity such that

v = ∇a.

Irrotational ﬂow has no vorticity,

ω =

1

2

∇v = 0,

so that there also exists a scalar potential φ for the velocity ﬁeld,

v = ∇φ.

Table of contents 103

Both representations of v, written together,

∇φ = ∇a,

give that

∇

2

φ = 0, ∇

2

a = 0,

if we assume that

∇ a = 0,

a condition that can be imposed without loss of generality. Hence φ and a are harmonic

functions obeying a Laplace equation.

For plane ﬂows (in the x, y-plane) we will put for simplicity of notation

x = x

1

, y = x

2

and u = v

1

, v = v

2

.

Furthermore, there is no z = x

3

dependence of any kind. Putting then ψ = a

3

, we ﬁnd from

v = ∇a

that

u =

∂ψ

∂y

, v = −

∂ψ

∂x

,

and from

v = ∇φ

that

u =

∂φ

∂x

, v =

∂φ

∂y

.

The meaning of ψ becomes clear when we look at the equation for the streamlines,

dx

u

=

dy

v

or

dx

∂ψ

∂y

=

dy

−

∂ψ

∂x

.

The result is

dψ =

∂ψ

∂x

dx +

∂ψ

∂y

dy = 0,

and

ψ(x, y) = C

gives the streamlines. Hence ψ is called the stream function. Now the conditions

(u =)

∂φ

∂x

=

∂ψ

∂y

,

(v =)

∂φ

∂y

= −

∂ψ

∂x

,

Table of contents 104

are precisely the Cauchy-Riemann conditions for a complex function f of a complex argument

z, deﬁned through

f(z) := ¦C →C : z = x + iy →φ(x, y) + iψ(x, y)¦,

to be analytic in z. Moreover, there exists a derivative

w =

df

dz

= lim

∆x,∆y→0

∆φ + i∆ψ

∆x + i∆y

,

and the limiting procedure is independent of the way in which it is computed. Indeed,

df

dz

= lim

∆x →0

∆y = 0

∆φ + i∆ψ

∆x

=

∂φ

∂x

+ i

∂ψ

∂x

or

df

dz

= lim

∆x = 0

∆y →0

∆φ + i∆ψ

i∆y

=

∂ψ

∂y

−i

∂φ

∂y

are equivalent to a complex velocity

w =

df

dz

= u −iv

As φ and ψ are harmonic functions, so are u and v. Putting

w = [w[ e

−iα

means that

[w[ =

√

u

2

+ v

2

gives the absolute value of the real velocity in the xy-plane and α the angle between this

velocity and the x-axis.

Another way of recovering the Cauchy-Riemann conditions is by diﬀerentiating f to get

df = dφ + idψ = wdz = (u −iv)(dx + idy)

= udx + iudy −ivdx + vdy

=

∂φ

∂x

dx +

∂φ

∂y

dy + i

∂ψ

∂x

dx + i

∂ψ

∂y

dy,

from which there follows that

u =

∂φ

∂x

=

∂ψ

∂y

,

v =

∂φ

∂y

= −

∂ψ

∂x

.

Table of contents 105

Now w has to be analytic and uniform in a domain T, hence holomorphic. If T is simply

connected, then f is also analytic and uniform, hence holomorphic, and

f(z) = f(z

0

) +

z

z

0

wdz

is independent of the path followed from z

0

to z.

However, when T is multiply connected, then in

f(z) = f(z

0

) +

z

z

0

wdz

the last integral will depend on the path, more precisely on the number of times m the path

encircles one of the patches which do not belong to T. Hence

z

z

0

wdz = m(Γ + i D)

with m an integer and Γ + iD the residue obtained by circling once around the cut-out,

anticlockwise,

Γ + iD =

C

wdz =

C

(u −iv)(dx + i dy)

=

C

(udx + v dy) + i

C

(udy −v dx)

=

C

v dx + i

C

(v dx) e

z

.

The former integral is the circulation of v around C, the latter integral represents the debit

across the surface contained in C. Going around this same C (with interior point a) we ﬁnd

that Log (z −a) increases by 2πi. Hence

Γ + iD

2πi

Log (z −a) and

z

z

0

wdz

have the same nonuniform behaviour along path encircling e.g. a, and thus

f(z) −

Γ + iD

2πi

Log (z −a)

has to be holomorphic to yield an acceptable choice for a complex potential with holomorphic

derivative

w =

df

dz

.

The procedure can be summarized as follows:

Table of contents 106

• We pick a suitable f(z) and ﬁnd from

f = φ + iψ

that

φ = C =⇒ equipotentials

ψ = C =⇒ streamlines.

• The complex velocity

w =

df

dz

= u −iv

gives

[w[ =

√

u

2

+ v

2

: absolute value of ﬂow velocity

α = −arg w : angle between real velocity and x-axis.

Kelvin’s circle theorem

Most cases of potential ﬂow will be in multiply-connected domains, and are concerned in

particular with ﬂows around a cylinder. Luckily, there is a simple procedure to modify any

complex potential f describing an unbounded ﬂuid so that the resulting potential has the

same characteristics but also describes a ﬂow around a cylinder. This result goes by the

name of Kelvin’s circle theorem.

For any complex potential f(z), we deﬁne the complex conjugate function

¯

f(z) by

¯

f(z) = f(¯ z).

Note that

¯

f(z), now considered as a function of z, is again holomorphic. For instance, when

f has Laurent series f(z) =

¸

+∞

n=−∞

a

n

z

n

where the coeﬃcients a

n

are complex constants,

the Laurent series of

¯

f is given by

¯

f(z) =

+∞

¸

n=−∞

¯ a

n

z

n

.

Kelvin’s circle theorem now says that if f(z) is a complex potential, and R is any real

number, then the function

f

R

(z) = f(z) +

¯

f

R

2

z

,

is a complex potential describing a ﬂow around a circle of radius R centered at the origin.

To prove this, we note ﬁrst of all that f

R

(z) is holomorphic whenever f(z) is so. Secondly,

in order for f

R

(z) to describe a ﬂuid in the exterior of the circle mentioned previously, it has

Table of contents 107

to be the case that the circle of radius R is a streamline for f

R

(z). This is easily veriﬁed: on

the circle of radius R, we have that ¯ z = R

2

/z, and so

¯

f

R

2

z

=

¯

f(¯ z) = f(z) for z such that [z[

2

= R

2

.

Note that for all z, we have

¯

f

R

2

z

=

¯

f

¸

R

2

¯ z

= f

R

2

¯ z

.

The stream function ψ

R

of f

R

(z) is nothing but the imaginary part of f

R

(z). From the

previous expression, it follows that

ψ

R

(z) = Imf

R

(z) = Imf(z) + Im

¯

f

R

2

z

= Imf(z) −Imf

R

2

¯ z

**On the circle of radius R, we have that [z[
**

2

= R

2

or alternatively that z = R

2

/¯ z, so that

ψ

R

vanishes there. In other words, the boundary of the circle is a streamline and f

R

(z)

represents a ﬂuid ﬂowing around the circle.

Kelvin’s procedure is most often used in conjunction with the Riemann mapping theorem,

which states that any simply-connected region can be mapped onto the unit disc by a confor-

mal map. Since conformal mappings take holomorphic functions into holomorphic function,

we can hence study potential ﬂow around any body by mapping it conformally onto the unit

disc and applying the Kelvin circle theorem.

In what follows, some elementary examples of potential ﬂow are discussed. Wherever possi-

ble, we use the Kelvin circle theorem.

1. Uniform ﬂow

Put

f(z) = az + b,

with a and b complex constants. Then

w =

df

dz

= a = [a[e

i arg a

means that

[w[ = [a[ and α = −arg a.

This describes a ﬂow with constant velocity in a direction making a constant angle α with

the x-axis.

Table of contents 108

2. Source or sink

Choose now

f(z) =

D

2π

Log z =

D

2π

log r + i

D

2π

θ,

where

z = r e

iθ

is the polar representation. Hence

φ =

D

2π

log r = C,

in other words, the equipotentials are concentric circles, whereas

ψ =

D

2π

θ

gives the streamlines, straight lines leading into or away from the origin. Also

w =

df

dz

=

D

2πz

=

D

2πr

e

−iθ

= [w[e

−iα

gives

[w[ =

D

2πr

and α = θ (D > 0),

or

[w[ =

[D[

2πr

and α = θ −π (D < 0).

[D[ is the debit of the source or sink.

O

Figure 5.8. Flow of a source or sink in the origin.

Table of contents 109

3. Point vortex

For this we take

f(z) =

Γ

2πi

Log z = −i

Γ

2π

log r +

Γ

2π

θ

and the equipotentials follow from

φ =

Γ

2π

θ

as straight lines through the origin. The streamlines are given by

ψ = −

Γ

2π

log r,

and are concentric circles. This conﬁguration is drawn in Figure 5.9. The information about

the ﬂow velocity comes from

w =

df

dz

= −i

Γ

2πz

= −i

Γ

2πr

e

−iθ

=

[Γ[

2πr

e

−i(θ±

π

2

)

as

[w[ =

[Γ[

2πr

and α = θ ±

π

2

.

The concentric streamlines are traversed counterclockwise around the origin, if Γ > 0, or

clockwise if Γ < 0.

O

Figure 5.9. Flow around a point vortex in the origin.

4. Flow around a circle or cylinder without vortices

In the ﬁrst example, we have shown that f(z) = Az, where A is a real constant, represents

a steady ﬂow along the x-axis with velocity A. We now consider the case of uniform ﬂow

Table of contents 110

around a cylinder of radius R placed at the origin. We have that

¯

f(z) = Az, so that by

Kelvin’s circle theorem,

f

R

(z) = A

z +

R

2

z

.

From now on, we denote f

R

simply by f. In polar coordinates, we have

f(z) = A

re

iθ

+

R

2

r

e

−iθ

.

This potential has equipotentials

φ = A

r +

R

2

r

cos θ

and streamlines

ψ = A

r −

R

2

r

sin θ.

The special streamlines corresponding to ψ = 0 are the circle (or the cross section of the

cylinder) with radius R and from θ = 0 also the x-axis outside ]−R, +R[. The circle inside

R is not accessible to the ﬂow. The ﬂow velocity itself is given in complex form as

w =

df

dz

= A

1 −

R

2

z

2

= A

1 −

R

2

r

2

e

−2iθ

.

Stagnation points or lines are where w vanishes, here

w = 0 ⇐⇒ z = ±R.

Hence one streamline comes from −∞ and ends in z = −R, the other starts at z = +R and

goes to +∞.

Figure 5.10. Flow around a circle or cylinder.

Table of contents 111

5. Flows around corners and edges

To model these we start from the complex potential

f = Az

n

= Ar

n

e

niθ

(A real)

to ﬁnd

φ = Ar

n

cos nθ

for the equipotential curves and

ψ = Ar

n

sin nθ

for the streamlines. The special streamlines corresponding to ψ = 0 are

r = 0 : origin

sin nθ = 0 : θ = k

π

n

(k integer).

Furthermore the complex velocity is

w =

df

dz

= nAz

n−1

= nAr

n−1

e

i(n−1)θ

and its magnitude

[w[ = nAr

n−1

.

Stagnation points correspond to w = 0 and have to be discussed for diﬀerent possibilities.

First we take n < 1, so that

z

n−1

=

1

z

1−n

and the stagnation points lie at inﬁnity. This corresponds to ﬂows along an edge, as shown

in Figure 5.11, for which π/n > π. The special streamlines with

θ = k

π

n

are θ = 0 and θ = π/n.

Figure 5.11. Flow along an edge.

Table of contents 112

Figure 5.12. Flow in a corner.

On the other hand, if n > 1, then the ﬂow is in a corner, as shown in Figure 5.12 with

π/n < π. Now

w = 0 =⇒ z = 0 (origin)

indicates that the stagnation point lies in the origin.

To conclude this section, it is clear that diﬀerent expressions for f(z) can be combined to

describe more intricate ﬂow patterns, e.g.

f(z) = A

z +

R

2

z

+

Γ

2πi

Log z

corresponds to the ﬂow around cylinder or circle with vortex motion.

Limitations of potential ﬂow

In order to understand the solutions of the Euler equations, we have made various simplifying

assumptions. As a result, we obtained particular solutions with interesting physical and

mathematical properties, which model every-day observations very well. In some cases,

however, we obtain results which are clearly nonsensical, indicating that one or more of

our fundamental assumptions are strictly speaking erroneous. One such inconsistency is the

paradox of d’Alembert, which states that the drag on a circular body in an inviscid ﬂow

vanishes. This is clearly in contradiction with, for instance, the observed behavior of a small

object submerged in a steadily ﬂowing stream.

Blasius Formula. We will prove d’Alembert’s paradox in the context of two-dimensional

potential ﬂow, but similar results can be derived in three dimensions as well. The result

follows from Blasius’ theorem concerning the forces acting on a disc in a potential ﬂow. This

disc can have an arbitary shape — Blasius’ theorem is not limited to circular shapes.

1

1

The proof of Blasius’ theorem below holds for arbitrary body shapes. Nevertheless, it is a good exercise

to work out the details of the proof for a circular body of unit radius.

Table of contents 113

Let us consider such a disc, which is submerged in a potential ﬂow with stream function

f(z). We denote the force exerted by the ﬂuid on the body by F

body

= (F

x

, F

y

) and we

introduce the complex force F

body

as

F

body

= F

x

−iF

y

.

Blasius’ theorem then asserts that

F

body

=

iρ

0

2

df

dz

2

dz

where ρ

0

is the constant density of the ﬂuid, and the circular integral is computed along the

boundary of the rigid body.

To prove this expression, we begin by choosing a parametric representation s → z(s) for

the boundary of the rigid body, where for the sake of convenience s denotes arc length.

The (outward) normal vector to the boundary at a point with parameter s is denoted by

n(s) = (n

x

(s), n

y

(s)), and we introduce the complex normal

n(s) = n

x

(s) −in

y

(s).

It is easy to verify that n(s) = i¯ z

′

(s).

The force at a point z(s) is now given by

F(s) = −p(s)n(s),

where the minus sign is to be explained by the fact that n(s) is pointing outward of the

boundary, while F(s) by convention points inward. The total force exerted by the ﬂuid on

the body is then given by the circular integral

F

tot

= −

p(s)n(s)ds.

We already have a complex expression for n(s); all that remains is to express p(s) in terms

of the complex potential f(z). This can be done by means of Bernouilli’s law: there are no

external forces and the ﬂow is permanent and irrotational, so that

p = −

ρ

0

2

v

2

+ C

= −

ρ

0

2

df

dz

2

+ C

where C is a constant.

We know that the boundary of the disc is a streamline, so that Ψ(z(s)) is constant for all s.

This allows us to conclude that

df

dz

z

′

is a real function:

df

dz

(z(s))z

′

(s) =

df(z(s))

ds

=

d

ds

Φ(z(s)).

Table of contents 114

We now have all the necessary elements to prove Blasius’ formula. We begin by substituting

the complex expression for the pressure and the normal vector into the integral formula for

the force to obtain

F

tot

=

p(s)n(s)ds

=

iρ

0

2

df

dz

2

¯ z

′

ds.

The constant C in the pressure function doesn’t matter, since the circular integral of a

constant function is zero. The integral can be further rewritten to give

F

tot

=

iρ

0

2

df

dz

df

dz

z

′

ds

=

iρ

0

2

df

dz

2

z

′

ds

and this ﬁnally yields the formula of Blasius:

F

tot

=

iρ

0

2

df

dz

2

dz,

where the integral (according to Cauchy’s theorem) can be computed along any contour

encircling the origin.

Paradox of d’Alembert. We now return to our original goal: to show that the drag force

on a circular body in a uniform steady ﬂow is zero. Assume that the body radius is R and

that the ﬂuid ﬂows along the x-axis with velocity U. The complex potential is as before

f(z) = U

z +

R

2

z

,

and Blasius’ formula gives for the total force

F

tot

=

iρ

0

U

2

2

1 −

R

2

z

2

2

dz = 0,

since the integrand has no simple poles.

The result of d’Alembert is nowadays more of a historical curiosity. As with many paradoxes,

it merely signals that the current description is incomplete, and that a novel element is

needed. That element proved to be the development by Prandtl of boundary-layer theory,

where the body is enveloped by a thin layer in which viscous eﬀects are dominant. Outside

the boundary layer, the ﬂuid then behaves as if inviscid.

Table of contents 115

Surface water waves

In an attempt to understand some recent events, such as the tsunami disaster, it is important

to recall some elements about the propagation of waves or solitary structures on the surface of

water. We will start with the theory of linear water waves, because the nonlinear treatments

are quite involved and dealt with in other lectures.

To give some feeling about the subject of nonlinear water waves, we start in 1834, with

the observation by John Scott Russell of a solitary water wave on the then narrow canal

Edinburgh-Glasgow. His detailed ﬁndings (written down in 1844) are worth reading even

today, and provide an insight in a keen and unbiased mind:

I believe I shall best introduce the phaenomenon by describing the circumstances

of my own acquaintance with it. I was observing the motion of a boat which was

rapidly drawn along a narrow channel by a pair of horses, when the boat suddenly

stopped — not so the mass of water which it had put in motion; it accumulated

around the prow of the vessel in a state of violent agitation, then suddenly leaving

it behind, rolled forward with great velocity, assuming the form of a large solitary

elevation, a rounded, smooth and well-deﬁned heap of water, which continued

its course along the channel without change of form or diminution of speed. I

followed it on horseback, and overtook it still rolling on at a rate of some eight

or nine miles an hour, preserving its original ﬁgure some thirty feet long and a

foot to a foot and a half in height. Its height gradually diminished, and after a

chase of one or two miles I lost it in the windings of the channel.

For the propagation velocity v

f

Scott Russell empirically put forward the relation

v

2

f

= g(h + a),

where h is the depth of the water in the canal or in the laboratory vessel, and a the maximum

amplitude of the waves, measured from the undisturbed surface.

It is worth stressing that this ‘great wave of translation’ was observed to be an elevation,

a hump of water above the level surface, not the familiar succession of ups and downs

that we tend to associate with periodic water waves in a linearized description. Maybe

because of that then standard picture, and Scott Russell’s detailed observation and many

subsequent laboratory investigations notwithstanding, the scientiﬁc establishment of the day

would have nothing to do with solitary waves. Nevertheless, great scientists like Boussinesq

(1871) and Lord Rayleigh (1876) conﬁrmed the relation put forward by Scott Russell, and

have found the now famous sech

2

proﬁles for these solitary waves. These typical proﬁles

were the solution of the diﬀerential equation derived in the doctoral thesis (1895) of De

Vries, earned under Korteweg as supervisor. Both their names are now attached to the KdV

equation. As indicated already, the nonlinear derivation is involved and better dealt with in

other lectures.

To continue with the linear theory, water is to a high degree of accuracy incompressible and

homogeneous (ρ ≃ constant), so that there remains from the continuity equation only the

Table of contents 116

incompressibility condition

∇ v = 0.

The equation of motion is now

∂

∂t

v +v ∇v = g −

1

ρ

∇p.

In equilibrium the pressure gradient has to balance gravity, so that

∇p

0

= ρg.

Taking the z axis of a reference frame along the upward vertical, this becomes

dp

0

(z)

dz

= −gρ,

yielding the classical stratiﬁcation of a ﬂuid or gas under the inﬂuence of gravity. After

linearization we see that the perturbations obey

∇ δv = 0,

∂

∂t

δv = −

1

ρ

∇δp.

Because of the vertical stratiﬁcation, we can take a plane wave solution in x and t, but not

in z, and put

δv = δv(z) exp[i(kx −ωt)],

δp = δp(z) exp[i(kx −ωt)].

We have assumed that the problem is translationally invariant in the third, y direction, and

get in this way a set of three scalar equations,

ikδv

x

+

d

dz

δv

z

= 0,

ωδv

x

=

1

ρ

kδp,

iωδv

z

=

1

ρ

d

dz

δp.

Elimination of δv

x

and δv

z

yields a single equation in the pressure perturbations,

d

2

dz

2

δp = k

2

δp.

It is seen, through the elimination of δp, that the components of δv are also solutions of this

same diﬀerential equation, and hence of the form

δp = Ae

−kz

+ Be

kz

,

δv

z

= Ce

−kz

+ De

kz

.

Table of contents 117

The determination of the boundary conditions goes in two steps.

(1) At the free surface we have in general that

p = p

atm

+ ρgξ,

where ξ represents a reference height. For small perturbations in the water or at the surface

this becomes

δp = ρgδξ

or after derivation

∂

∂t

δp = gρ

∂

∂t

δξ.

We assume that for this type of problem the atmospheric pressure is constant. But the

vertical movement of the free surface is at the same time that of the water itself, which leads

to the identiﬁcation on the surface of

∂

∂t

δξ = δv

z

.

Inserting our plane solution yields

−iωδp = gρδv

z

,

and upon substitution of δp by δv

x

there comes

−

iω

2

k

δv

x

= gδv

z

.

Together with the incompressibility condition this ﬁnally gives

d

dz

δv

z

=

gk

2

ω

2

δv

z

,

which is only valid, of course, when evaluated at z = 0, the reference height of the undis-

turbed surface of the water.

(2) At the bottom, located at z = −h, there is no vertical water motion, so

δv

z

= 0.

Both boundary conditions together give for the solutions that

−kC + kD =

gk

2

ω

2

(C + D),

Ce

+kh

+ De

−kh

= 0.

This algebraic and homogeneous set of equations in C and D only has a nontrivial solution

provided

gk

ω

2

+ 1

gk

ω

2

−1

e

kh

e

−kh

= 0,

Table of contents 118

or also when

gk

ω

2

e

−kh

−e

kh

+

e

−kh

+ e

kh

= 0.

The dispersion law is thus

ω

2

= gk tanh kh

Special limiting cases

(1) Deep water

This is expressed by the requirement that

kh ≫1,

or, rewritten as

kh =

2π

λ

h = 2π

h

λ

≫1,

showing that

h ≫λ.

The wavelength of the perturbation is small compared to the depth of the channel. For large

values of the argument we can approximate tanh kh by 1 and thus get

ω

2

= gk.

The phase velocity is

v

f

=

ω

k

=

g

k

=

gλ

2π

and indicates that these waves are dispersive.

(2) Shallow water

Here the opposite limit is taken,

kh ≪1,

and the approximation

tanh kh ≃ kh

is used to arrive at the shallow water wave dispersion law

ω

2

= gk

2

h.

The phase velocity now is

v

f

=

ω

k

=

gh,

and the waves are nondispersive. Comparison with the expression given by Scott Russell for

the velocity of the observed solitary wave,

v

f

=

g(h + a),

Table of contents 119

clearly demonstrates that the linearization procedure for small perturbations necessitates

that a ≪h. In other words, we deal with surface waves in shallow water (think of the length

of the soliton as some 30 feet or ≃ 9 m), and the nonlinear considerations give a limitation

of the validity of the linear results.

This is a general conclusion. For linear systems the amplitudes can only be determined up to

a normalization factor, as the set of equations for C and D show. How large the amplitudes

can be, before we exceed the domain of validity of the linearization procedure with its neglect

of squares and products, is something that can only be ascertained by a nonlinear study of

the problem!

Whether tsunamis in the open ocean are periodic waves on shallow water or more a train

of (fairly) weak, well separated solitons is still an open question. However, their velocities

(up to 800 km/h) and separation between the successive solitons or crests (periods of 30

to 45 min) indicate that the shallow water wave picture is essentially correct. This can be

determined from the observational constraints and will be left as an exercise.

Chapter 6

Viscous ﬂuids

For viscous ﬂuids we discuss

• Similarity and dimensional analysis

• Notions of turbulence

• Matched asymptotic expansions to treat boundary layers

120

Table of contents 121

6.1 Similarity

This chapter will be devoted to some phenomena where the viscosity of the ﬂuid plays a

crucial role. The basic equations are the equation of continuity

∂

t

ρ +∇ (ρ v) = 0,

Navier-Stokes’ equation of motion, including viscosity,

ρ ˙ v = f −∇p + (λ + µ)∇∇ v + µ∇

2

v

and a pressure equation of state

p = p(ρ).

One of the simplest examples which can be treated analytically, is the steady laminar ﬂow of

a viscous liquid through a channel or a pipe. Laminar ﬂow is well-ordered or well-structured

ﬂow, as opposed to turbulent or erratic ﬂow, of which more in subsequent sections. It is for

laminar phenomena that the Navier-Stokes equation is most adequate. Applications of this

can be found in many engineering textbooks and will not be given here.

Let us return to the equation of motion for viscous ﬂuids

ρ(∂

t

v +v ∇v) = ρ g −∇p +

µ

3

∇∇ v + µ∇

2

v,

where for simplicity and to ﬁx the ideas, the forces are just gravity and Stokes’ condition

has been incorporated. This is to be considered together with the appropriate boundary

conditions, also for the continuity equation and an equation of state for the pressure.

Not all ﬂow problems are as easy as laminar Couette and Poiseuille ﬂow, and in many cases

no valid mathematical approach is possible and one has to rely upon computer simulations

or experimental evidence. In the latter case an often advocated way of dealing with as yet

unknown ﬂows is to construct a scale model before embarking upon the construction of the

real thing. The main question is whether the conclusions drawn from the scale model are

valid for a larger experiment with diﬀerent parameters, or formulated otherwise, when the

ﬂow in the model is similar to the real ﬂow. As will be shown below, this is a far from trivial

matter.

Two ﬂows will be called similar if there is geometric and dynamic similarity. For dynamic

similarity there must be a constant proportion between the variables, such as density and

velocity, in the model and in reality, in each corresponding point. This seems an inﬁnity of

conditions, but for phenomena describable by a set of diﬀerential equations it can be reduced

to the equality of some typical dimensionless numbers. Suppose, to ﬁx the ideas and give

some hypothetical numbers, that the ﬂuid in the model varies in density between 1 and 2

kg/m

3

, whereas in reality the density goes from 1000 tot 2000 kg/m

3

. We feel that in both

cases the same range is covered, relatively speaking. If we put

ρ = ρ

0

ρ

∗

,

Table of contents 122

we can take ρ

0

as a characteristic value for the mass density in a given situation, with

the dimensions included, while the dimensionless variable ρ

∗

is then typical for the span

covered. In the given theoretical example ρ

0

would be 1 kg/m

3

in the model and 1000 kg/m

3

in reality, and in both cases ρ

∗

would vary from 1 to 2. The same will be done with all

variables occurring in the given situation, and we use a typical

• length L, such as the diameter or the length of a pipe, the distance between two walls,

the thickness of a body;

• time T, such as the time constant of a transition, the period of an oscillatory movement;

• velocity V , such as the uniform ﬂow velocity, the sound speed when gases are involved,

the speed of light for electromagnetic waves;

• pressure p

0

, taken in some reference point;

• density ρ

0

, characteristic for the ﬂuid under consideration.

All variables are then rewritten as a product of such a characteristic value times a dimen-

sionless variable, which will carry a star

x = Lx

∗

, t = Tt

∗

, v = V v

∗

, p = p

0

p

∗

, ρ = ρ

0

ρ

∗

.

For simplicity a single characteristic length L and velocity V were chosen for the three space

dimensions. This is certainly not a strict requirement and one could very well envisage

situations where e.g. the length in one direction were measured in a diﬀerent way from

lengths in other directions, with something similar for the velocities. The derivatives thus

become

∇=

1

L

∇

∗

, ∂

t

=

1

T

∂

∗

t

.

Applying this to the equations of continuity and of motion gives

ρ

0

T

∂

∗

t

ρ

∗

+

ρ

0

V

L

∇

∗

(ρ

∗

v

∗

) = 0,

V

T

∂

∗

t

v

∗

+

V

2

L

v

∗

∇

∗

v

∗

= g e

(g)

−

p

0

ρ

0

L

∇

∗

p

∗

ρ

∗

+

µV

ρ

0

L

2

1

ρ

∗

1

3

∇

∗

∇

∗

v

∗

+∇

∗2

v

∗

,

or in dimensionless form

L

TV

∂

∗

t

ρ

∗

+∇

∗

(ρ

∗

v

∗

) = 0,

L

TV

∂

∗

t

v

∗

+v

∗

∇

∗

v

∗

=

Lg

V

2

e

(g)

−

p

0

ρ

0

V

2

∇

∗

p

∗

ρ

∗

+

µ

ρ

0

LV

1

ρ

∗

1

3

∇

∗

∇

∗

v

∗

+∇

∗2

v

∗

.

In these equations several dimensionless combinations of the characteristic values appear.

These characteristic numbers are all named and each of them is signiﬁcant for some partic-

ular eﬀect or for a speciﬁc type of phenomenon. The ﬁrst is called Strouhal’s number,

St =

L

TV

.

Table of contents 123

It only occurs when the ﬂow is not permanent and in this sense it is a measure for the

non-stationarity of the ﬂow. Next we have Froude’s number,

Fr =

V

2

gL

=

ρ

0

V

2

ρ

0

gL

,

which gives the relation of the kinetic to the potential energy densities, here the potential

energy density in the gravitational ﬁeld. The following number is

Eu =

p

0

ρ

0

V

2

,

Euler’s number. This time the kinetic energy density is compared to the pressure. For gases

where the pressure variations are adiabatic, p ∼ ρ

γ

, one deduces that

dp

dρ

= γ

p

ρ

,

or with the characteristic values,

c

2

S

= γ

p

0

ρ

0

.

Hence Euler’s number can be transformed into

Eu =

c

2

S

γV

2

=

1

γ

1

(Ma)

2

,

where

Ma =

V

c

S

is the Mach number. It relates the ﬂow velocity to the ambient sound speed. For Mach

numbers smaller than one, the ﬂow is subsonic, when the Mach number exceeds one the ﬂow

is supersonic. The ﬂow at Mach number one is called transonic. These measures are used in

particular to express the speed of an aircraft. Finally there is the famous Reynolds number,

Re =

ρ

0

LV

µ

=

ρ

0

V

2

µV

L

which measures the ratio of the kinetic energy density to the viscous dissipation.

It has been observed experimentally to be a good measure for the degree of turbulence in

a ﬂow. At low Reynolds numbers the ﬂow is laminar or well structured. A low Reynolds

number implies a small typical length, such as the diameter of a narrow tube, together with

a small typical velocity, such as in quiet ﬂow, and a high viscosity, indicating a large degree

of internal coherence. All these elements together give a steady, regular ﬂow. On the other

hand, when the Reynolds number is high, the typical length is large, coupled with a high ﬂow

Table of contents 124

speed in a ﬂuid where the viscosity is low. We then have turbulent or irregular ﬂow, with

a lot of vortices or eddies. The transition of laminar to turbulent ﬂow occurs at a certain

critical Reynolds number. An introduction to the mathematical description of turbulence is

given in section 6.3.

Having discussed all the characteristic numbers, we rewrite the dimensionless equations of

continuity and of motion as

St ∂

∗

t

ρ

∗

+∇

∗

(ρ

∗

v

∗

) = 0,

St ∂

∗

t

v

∗

+v

∗

∇

∗

v

∗

=

1

Fr

e

(g)

−

Eu

ρ

∗

∇

∗

p

∗

+

1

Re

1

ρ

∗

1

3

∇

∗

∇

∗

v

∗

+∇

∗2

v

∗

.

When this set of equations is applied to two diﬀerent situations, the equations and hence also

the phenomena described will be the same when the dimensionless combinations are equal.

Then the scale model and the real situation will be similar. But the stumbling block lies in

the fact that not all typical numbers can be made equal in the same comparison between

model and reality!

Suppose that we put an airplane wing model in a wind-tunnel to measure its aerodynamic

shape. The equations for steady ﬂow in the absence of external forces become

∇

∗

(ρ

∗

v

∗

) = 0,

v

∗

∇

∗

v

∗

= −

Eu

ρ

∗

∇

∗

p

∗

+

1

Re

1

ρ

∗

1

3

∇

∗

∇

∗

v

∗

+∇

∗2

v

∗

.

We label with 1 all quantities for the model, with 2 all quantities for the real setup. We set

out with the same Reynolds number,

Re

1

= Re

2

or

ρ

0

µ

1

L

1

V

1

=

ρ

0

µ

2

L

2

V

2

.

If both the model and the real wing are put in an ordinary air ﬂow, ρ

0

/µ is the same and

we ﬁnd that

V

1

= V

2

L

2

L

1

.

The velocity in the model is the real velocity divided by the scale factor L

1

/L

2

. However,

with these values one ﬁnds that

Ma

1

=

V

1

c

S

=

V

2

c

S

L

2

L

1

= Ma

2

L

2

L

1

,

if the sound velocity is the same. Even in cases where ρ

0

/µ and c

S

are not the same in

the model and in the real experiment, there is usually not enough range in the kinematic

viscosities µ/ρ

0

or sound speeds c

S

available to compensate for the scaling in length. Hence

when the Reynolds numbers are taken alike, the Mach numbers are nowhere equal! The only

Table of contents 125

way out would be to use for this experiment a gas with a totally diﬀerent density, which is

generally not possible.

The unavoidable conclusion is that it is almost never possible to get similar ﬂow in a model

experiment and in reality, if one deﬁnes similarity by requiring all corresponding dimen-

sionless numbers to be equal. The way past this diﬃculty is by deciding beforehand what

characteristic number is relevant for a given situation and disregarding other numbers. For

the airplane wing the viscosity of air is totally unimportant compared to the velocity eﬀects,

hence the equality of the Mach numbers, not of the Reynolds numbers, is adhered to.

6.2 Dimensional analysis

In the previous section several characteristic and dimensionless numbers were arrived at,

starting from the governing equations such as the Navier-Stokes equation. Through dimen-

sional analysis one can also get some of these numbers, even in the case when governing

equations are lacking or not generally accepted, as in the case of turbulence, which is dis-

cussed in the next two sections.

The general idea behind dimensional analysis is to list the diﬀerent parameters such as den-

sity, velocity, viscosity which are thought important for a given problem, and then to try and

form dimensionless numbers, of which there will be fewer, obviously, which can be used as

new parameters in establishing some kind of functional relationship.

In order to ﬁx the ideas, we will start with a simple example from classical mechanics, the

velocity of a body free-falling from a height h in the gravity ﬁeld of the Earth. We know the

result as

v =

2gh,

because it was derived from Newton’s equations. Suppose we did not know Newton’s equa-

tions, but had some feeling, probably from experiments, that the velocity v depended only

on h and g. Using the dimensions L for length and T for time, we have the following

dimensionalities

[v] =

L

T

, [h] = L, [g] =

L

T

2

,

and hence a dimensionless combination of v, h and g is only possible as v/

√

gh, possibly

raised to some power. The relation

φ(v, g, h) = 0

can thus be rewritten as

ψ

v

√

gh

= 0.

This is now an equation for the dimensionless combination, with solutions

v

√

gh

= C =⇒ v = C

gh.

Table of contents 126

The numerical value of the constant C has to be found from observational evidence. Dimen-

sional analysis is unable to give this.

The more general formulation of the above ideas is embodied in the π-theorem of Bucking-

ham, stating that a functional relation

φ(α

1

, . . . , α

k

, α

k+1

, . . . , α

n

) = 0

between n diﬀerent parameters α

j

can be equivalently replaced by another functional relation

ψ(π

1

, . . . , π

m

) = 0

between m dimensionless parameters π

j

, where

m = n −k

and k is the largest number of parameters in the original list which will not combine to a

dimensionless number. For mechanical problems one usually has that

k ≤ r,

if r is the minimum number of independent dimensions required to give the dimensions of

all parameters occurring. In the example of the falling body, one sees that v and h (or v and

g, or h and g) are dimensionally independent, but v, h and g together not. Hence:

n = 3, k = 2, r = 2, m = 1,

as only length and time play a role.

To give an outline of the proof of the π-theorem, we select, through a judicious numbering of

the original parameters, k quantities α

1

, . . . , α

k

, with independent dimensionalities, as basic

quantities,

[α

1

] = δ

1

, . . . , [α

k

] = δ

k

.

The remaining parameters then all have dimensionalities of the form

[α

k+1

] = δ

p

1

1

. . . δ

p

k

k

,

. . .

[α

n

] = δ

q

1

1

. . . δ

q

k

k

.

If we change the dimensional units of α

1

, . . . , α

k

by the factors β

1

, . . . , β

k

, we get

α

′

1

= β

1

α

1

, . . . , α

′

k

= β

k

α

k

,

and consequently for the other parameters

α

′

k+1

= β

p

1

1

β

p

k

k

α

k+1

, . . . , α

′

n

= β

q

1

1

β

q

k

k

α

n

.

In this new systems of units, the functional relation between the parameters α

′

j

becomes

φ(β

1

α

1

, . . . , β

k

α

k

, β

p

1

1

. . . β

p

k

k

α

k+1

, . . . , β

q

1

1

. . . β

q

k

k

α

n

) = 0.

Table of contents 127

We now take a particular choice for the conversion factors,

β

1

=

1

α

1

, . . . , β

k

=

1

α

k

.

For the example of the free-falling body this amounts to measuring the length dimension of

the velocity in units of the height. The accelerations are measured in units of the gravity

constant g, which imposes then

**h/g as the unit in which time is measured. Thus velocities,
**

with dimensionality length over time, are now expressed in units h(h/g)

−1/2

=

√

gh.

The relation between the parameters is supposed to be independent of the choice of the

scales or units, and with the particular choice for the conversion factors β

1

, . . . , β

k

we get

φ(1, . . . , 1

. .. .

k

, π

1

, . . . , π

n−k

) = 0,

if the new dimensionless parameters are deﬁned through

π

1

=

α

k+1

α

p

1

1

. . . α

p

k

k

, . . . , π

n−k

=

α

n

α

q

1

1

. . . α

q

k

k

.

We now have a relation between n −k new parameters, hence something of the form

ψ(π

1

, . . . , π

m

) = 0.

The set of dimensionless parameters is not unique, as the product of two dimensionless

numbers is again dimensionless. The point is that there are no more than m of those

dimensionless parameters which are independent. The problem has thus been reduced to

dealing with a functional relation between m instead of n parameters. This is of some

consequence when one has experimental data from which to infer the form of the functional

relation. For the falling body one just has to determine the constant in

v = C

gh,

rather than try to plot v as a function of g and h.

As a further example, we would like to determine the drag force F on a sphere with diameter

d, placed in the steady ﬂow with velocity V of an incompressible, viscous ﬂuid, with material

characteristics ρ and µ. We assume that we have listed all relevant parameters and put

φ(F, d, V, ρ, µ) = 0.

There are 5 parameters with dimensionalities

[F] =

ML

T

2

, [d] = L, [V ] =

L

T

, [ρ] =

M

L

3

, [µ] =

M

LT

.

The independent dimensions are length L, time T and mass M. Furthermore, ρ, V and d

can not be combined to yield a dimensionless number, hence

n = 5, k = 3, r = 3, m = 2.

Table of contents 128

We look for two dimensionless parameters of the form

π

1

= Fρ

a

V

b

d

c

, π

2

= µρ

α

V

β

d

γ

.

Such an initial choice is somewhat arbitrary. We have opted to take π

1

linear in F, whereas

π

2

will lead to a Reynolds number, always an important quantity in viscous ﬂow problems.

From the requirement that

[π

1

] = 1, [π

2

] = 1,

we ﬁnd for the exponents

a = −1, b = c = −2, α = β = γ = −1,

and thus the two dimensionless parameters are

π

1

=

F

ρV

2

d

2

, π

2

=

µ

ρV d

=

1

Re

.

The second one is indeed the inverse Reynolds number. The functional relation between the

two parameters is

ψ(π

1

, π

2

) = 0

or, solved for π

1

,

π

1

= χ(π

2

).

More explicitly

F = ρV

2

d

2

χ

µ

ρV d

= ρV

2

d

2

ξ(Re).

This might help in rearranging possible experimental data, much more so than the original

relation between ﬁve dimensional parameters.

6.3 Turbulence : Reynolds equations

Turbulence often occurs in nature, and one would intuitively describe turbulent ﬂow as some-

thing erratic and unpredictable, quite the opposite of laminar, well-ordered or well-structured

ﬂow. When observing vortices in turbulent ﬂow, it becomes clear that neighbouring material

particles can end up quite far apart, which is not the case in laminar ﬂow. One would feel

that in order to characterize a turbulent ﬂow pattern many more parameters and information

would have to be given than for laminar ﬂow where the velocity gives already quite some

information.

It was said earlier that the transition from laminar to turbulent ﬂow occurs at a critical

Reynolds number, as was shown by Reynolds in one of his famous experiments, in which he

injected a small ﬁlament of coloured ﬂuid into a transparent one, as shown in Figure 6.1. At

low Reynolds numbers the coloured ﬂuid ﬂows quietly along with the main stream without

producing vortices. This means that when small disturbances occur, they are immediately

damped out. Quite the contrary happens in turbulent ﬂow, where the coloured ﬂuid ends

Table of contents 129

laminar

turbulent

Figure 6.1. Reynolds experiment.

up in a complicated and seemingly undescribable pattern of vortices. It is also clear that

the mathematical description of turbulence must, per deﬁnition as it were, be much more

involved than the description of laminar ﬂow. Experience has shown that the Navier-Stokes

equation provides in this latter case a reasonably accurate picture. Unfortunately, this is

not at all the case for turbulence.

Suppose that we try to plot the velocity, in magnitude, at a certain point as a function of

time, as in Figure 6.2. With some hope we might be able to discern in this erratic graph

a kind of average velocity, around which many ﬂuctuations occur. If we translate this idea

into mathematical terms, we put

v = 'v` +v

′

,

where 'v` is an average velocity, deﬁned as

'v` =

1

τ

t+

τ

2

t−

τ

2

v(t

′

)dt

′

,

and v

′

is the ﬂuctuating part of the velocity. The average is still time-dependent, and thus

the time interval τ must be chosen large enough to contain enough ﬂuctuations to give a

meaningful average, and yet τ may not be too large lest the average velocity does not really

depend on time. The notion of such an average requires that within a good approximation

we have that

''v`` ≃ 'v`, 'v

′

` ≃ 0.

O

v

t

'v`

Figure 6.2. Velocity diagram in turbulent ﬂow.

Table of contents 130

Before we even try to apply this averaging procedure to the Navier-Stokes equation, we must

know what happens to space and time derivatives. Space derivatives give no problem, as

'∇v` =

1

τ

t+

τ

2

t−

τ

2

∇v dt

′

= ∇'v`.

For time derivatives we have to check that

'∂

t

v` =

1

τ

t+

τ

2

t−

τ

2

∂

t

v dt

′

=

1

τ

v(t +

τ

2

) −v(t −

τ

2

)

= ∂

t

1

τ

t+

τ

2

t−

τ

2

v dt

′

= ∂

t

'v`.

The main diﬃculty lies in the average of quadratic quantities,

'vw` = '('v` +v

′

)('w` +w

′

)`

= ''v`'w` +'v`w

′

+v

′

'w` +v

′

w

′

` ≃ 'v`'w` +'v

′

w

′

`.

We will now try to apply this to the Navier-Stokes equation for an incompressible and

homogeneous ﬂuid, really one of the simplest situations one might think of. This implies

that for the time being we will trust the Navier-Stokes equation as being valid also for

turbulence. This is by no means obvious nor generally accepted, and in the light of some

observational evidence probably not so. Nevertheless, when we start from

∇ v = 0,

∂

t

v +v ∇v = b −

1

ρ

0

∇p +

µ

ρ

0

∇

2

v,

we ﬁnd that the incompressibility condition is carried over for the average velocity and for

the ﬂuctuations,

∇ 'v` = 0, ∇ v

′

= 0.

For the Navier-Stokes equation we get

∂

t

'v` +'v ∇v` = 'b` −

1

ρ

0

∇'p` +

µ

ρ

0

∇

2

'v`.

We have to compute

'v ∇v` = '∇ vv −v∇ v` = '∇ vv` = ∇ 'vv`

= ∇ 'v`'v` +∇ 'v

′

v

′

` = 'v` ∇'v` +∇ 'v

′

v

′

`.

This means that the Navier-Stokes equation becomes

∂

t

'v` +'v` ∇'v` = 'b` −

1

ρ

0

∇'p` +

µ

ρ

0

∇

2

'v` −∇ 'v

′

v

′

`

= 'b` +

1

ρ

0

∇ (−'p`1 + 2µ'D` −ρ

0

'v

′

v

′

`) ,

Table of contents 131

almost the same as the original equation, but written with average quantities, were it not

that the pressure

−p1 → −('p`1 + ρ

0

'v

′

v

′

`)

now incorporates a part which is not to be written as a isotropic tensor, except in the case

of irrotational ﬂow, as shown below. The supplementary part in the stress tensor is known

as the turbulent stress tensor of Reynolds, and

∂

t

'v` +'v` ∇'v` = 'b` +

1

ρ

0

∇ (−'p`1 + 2µ'D` −ρ

0

'v

′

v

′

`)

is hence called Reynolds equation.

Suppose now for a moment that the ﬂow is irrotational, meaning there are no vortices. From

ω =

1

2

∇v = 0

we ﬁnd that

'ω` =

1

2

∇'v` = 0, ω

′

=

1

2

∇v

′

= 0.

Furthermore we can compute in this case that

∇ v

′

v

′

= v

′

∇ v

′

+v

′

∇v

′

= v

′

(∇v

′

−v

′

∇) +v

′

(v

′

∇)

= 2v

′

Ω

′

+

1

2

∇v

′2

= 2ω

′

v

′

+

1

2

∇v

′2

=

1

2

∇v

′2

= ∇

1

2

v

′2

1

,

so that the pressure remains isotropic

p → 'p` +

1

2

ρ

0

'v

′2

`.

The distinction between turbulent and laminar ﬂow would completely disappear, except for a

change in the eﬀective scalar pressure. This is clearly inadequate, and hence the occurrence

of vortices is an essential characteristic of turbulent ﬂow.

If one wants to continue the description of turbulent ﬂow with Reynolds equations, it is

necessary to introduce hypotheses of a statistical nature about the Reynolds stress, which

correlate v

′

with itself. This is a domain still under a lot of discussion, clearly outside the

scope of these lectures.

Another possible approach to turbulence is to Fourier transform the original Navier-Stokes

equations with respect to the space coordinates. First, however, we deduce from the unaver-

aged equation of motion that

1

ρ

0

∇

2

p = −∇ (v ∇v) (b = 0),

Table of contents 132

which is an equation for the pressure if the velocity is known. The Fourier transform with

respect to the space coordinates is deﬁned as

´

φ(k) = T

k

(φ) =

V

φ(x)e

ik·x

dV,

where the integration is carried out over the whole physical space. The Fourier transforms of

the incompressibility condition, the equation of motion and the equation for the Laplacian

of the pressure thus yield

k ´ v = 0,

∂

t

´ v +T

k

(v ∇v) =

i

ρ

0

k ´ p −

µk

2

ρ

0

´ v,

k

2

ρ

0

´ p = −i k T

k

(v ∇v).

Hence we eliminate the pressure to obtain

∂

t

+

µ

ρ

0

k

2

´ v =

1

k

2

kk −1

T

k

(v ∇v).

As the Fourier transform of a product, here the scalar product of v with ∇v, is a convolution

integral between the Fourier transforms of each of the factors, the previous equation will be

of the form

∂

t

+

µ

ρ

0

k

2

´ v =

d

3

k

′

´(k, k

′

) : ´ v(k

′

)´ v(k −k

′

)

The discussion of this equation hinges again on what kind of hypotheses one introduces

concerning the kernel ´(k, k

′

), so that one is reduced to essentially the same statistical

arguments needed to progress in the Reynolds picture.

6.4 Turbulence : Kolmogorov’s law

The preceding section should not convey the impression that nothing deﬁnite is known

about turbulence, just because no satisfactory and consistent mathematical theory has been

achieved sofar.

To begin with, there is a lot of observational information, such as the ﬂattening of the usual

parabolic Hagen-Poiseuille velocity proﬁle when the ﬂow gets turbulent, as shown in Figure

6.3.

Next we can use dimensional analysis to get some information about the turbulent kinetic

energy. If the total kinetic energy T is deﬁned as

T =

V

1

2

ρv

2

dV,

Table of contents 133

O

x

v

turbulent

H.P.

Figure 6.3. Comparison between turbulent and Hagen-Poiseuille velocity proﬁles.

then the kinetic energy density for a homogeneous ﬂuid is

1

2

ρ

0

v

2

. The average kinetic energy

density in the turbulent motion is

1

2

ρ

0

'v

′2

`. Per unit mass this becomes

W =

1

2

'v

′2

`,

which is then investigated in its spectral representation,

W =

W

λ

dλ =

W

k

dk.

Here λ represents a wavelength and k is the corresponding wavenumber, k = 2π/λ, and W

λ

or W

k

tells us how much energy there is in a mode with wavelength λ or wavenumber k. We

associate λ with the scale of a vortex and know via W

λ

or W

k

how much vortices of a given

scale contribute to the energy density. The dimensions of this type of problem are

[W] = [V

2

] =

L

2

T

2

, [W

k

] =

¸

W

k

=

L

3

T

2

.

We follow the reasoning of Kolmogorov and distinguish, albeit in a very loose and intuitive

way, three diﬀerent regimes or scales in the turbulence. First of all, the domain of small k

is called the production or hydrodynamic range, because to small k correspond large scales,

hence large vortices or eddies. This is the domain where the vortices are generated, e.g.

when we stir a ﬂuid or put an obstacle in the ﬂow, and where the energy is given to the

vortices. In a sense one could call this a hydrodynamic problem when one views the vortices

as separate entities, to be described together with the remainder of the ﬂuid.

At the other end, the domain of large k is called the dissipation range, because here the small-

scale vortices are vanishing. Returning to the picture of a ﬂuid which is stirred, as soon as

the stirring stops we observe that the vortices get smaller and smaller until all vortices die

out, their energy given up to the main ﬂow.

The domain of intermediate k, corresponding to the domain of medium-sized vortices, is

called the inertial range. The idea of Kolmogorov is to suppose that the energy which is

being fed into the large eddies cascades down via the intermediate vortices to the small-scale

eddies which ﬁnally dissipate their energy into the main ﬂow. The graph for the spectral

Table of contents 134

O

W

k

k

Figure 6.4. Energy spectrum.

energy density would look like the one given in Figure 6.4.

Kolmogorov hypothesized that in the inertial range the energy density W

k

would only depend

on k itself, on the kinematic viscosity ν = µ/ρ

0

and on the dissipation Q in the small-scale

eddies. The dimensions of the various parameters are thus

[W

k

] =

L

3

T

2

, [k] =

1

L

,

[ν] =

¸

µ

ρ

0

=

M

LT

M

L

3

−1

=

L

2

T

,

[Q] =

¸

W

t

=

L

2

T

3

.

The mass of the particles making up the ﬂuid in turbulent ﬂow does not play a role, because

we started from the turbulent kinetic energy per unit mass and used the kinematic viscosity.

Had we everywhere kept the mass density in, there would have been one supplementary

parameter ρ

0

and one supplementary dimension M, leading ultimately to the same two

dimensionless parameters.

The combination of ν and Q never yields a dimensionless number, and there are two dimen-

sions, length and time. Thus

n = 4, k = 2, r = 2, m = 2

and the functional relation

φ(W

k

, k, ν, Q) = 0

can be rearranged as

ψ(π

1

, π

2

) = 0.

The two dimensionless parameters will be taken as

π

1

= W

k

ν

a

Q

b

, π

2

= kν

α

Q

β

,

Table of contents 135

one linear in W

k

, the other linear in k. From

[π

1

] =

L

3+2a+2b

T

2+a+3b

= 1, [π

2

] =

L

−1+2α+2β

T

α+3β

= 1,

we deduce that

a = −

5

4

, b = −

1

4

, α =

3

4

, β = −

1

4

and hence

π

1

=

W

k

ν

5/4

Q

1/4

, π

2

=

kν

3/4

Q

1/4

= k

ν

3

Q

1/4

.

Hence one gets

π

1

= χ(π

2

)

or

W

k

= ν

5/4

Q

1/4

χ(kL

d

),

where

L

d

=

ν

3

Q

1/4

is the dissipation length of Kolmogorov.

Another way of arriving at this result is to construct from ν and Q a length scale, as was

done in deﬁning L

d

, and a time scale,

T

d

=

ν

Q

1/2

.

The dimensions of W

k

are then

[W

k

] =

L

3

d

T

2

d

=

ν

3

Q

3/4

ν

3

Q

−1

= ν

5/4

Q

1/4

,

and those of k are

[k] =

1

L

d

=

ν

3

Q

−1/4

.

Kolmogorov then went one step further and assumed that W

k

in the inertial range was inde-

pendent of the viscosity, as the viscosity after all was responsible for the ultimate dissipation

of the energy. No matter what the viscosity was, it inﬂuenced the dissipation and this in turn

inﬂuenced W

k

.

Two possible ways are open to compute the form of W

k

now. One way is to take

W

k

= ν

5/4

Q

1/4

χ(kL

d

),

and ﬁnd a form for χ which will make W

k

independent of ν. The only possibility is that χ

is some power of its argument times a constant, such that

W

k

= ν

5/4

Q

1/4

Ko

kν

3/4

Q

−1/4

−5/3

= Ko Q

1/4+5/12

k

−5/3

Table of contents 136

or

W

k

= Ko k

−5/3

Q

2/3

where Ko is Kolmogorov’s constant.

Another way of arriving at this is to start the dimensional analysis from

φ(W

k

, k, Q) = 0 or ψ(π) = 0,

with

[W

k

] =

L

3

T

2

, [k] =

1

L

, [Q] =

L

2

T

3

,

and construct the only dimensionless parameter π which is possible. This then leads again

to the same result, which gives the slope of the graph of W

k

in the inertial range, for a given

dissipation Q, as indicated in Figure 6.5.

When the kinematic viscosity ν is no longer deemed important, the concepts of a dissipation

length L

d

or a dissipation time T

d

in terms of ν and Q are not possible. One could construct

new length and time scales from W

k

and Q, but these now involve both the energy in

the inertial range and the dissipation themselves, not a very clarifying way to look at the

problem.

Once a more qualitative theory of turbulence emerges and is generally accepted, Kolmogo-

rov’s law will serve as a test, when such a theory is applied to the inertial range as deﬁned

above. However, such is not the case at present.

6.5 Matched asymptotic expansions

If we recall the equations describing the steady laminar ﬂow of a homogeneous ﬂuid, we have

two diﬀerent sets of equations according to whether the ﬂuid is considered viscous or ideal.

O

W

k

k

i.r.

k

−

5

3

Figure 6.5. Power law in the inertial range.

Table of contents 137

In the dimensionless notations of section 6.1 (without the asterisks) and in the absence of

body forces we ﬁnd

∇ v = 0,

v ∇v = −∇p +

1

Re

∇

2

v,

for a viscous ﬂuid and

∇ v = 0,

v ∇v = −∇p,

for an ideal one. In both cases the pressure in equilibrium has been adjusted so as to make

Euler’s number equal to one. The equation of motion for viscous ﬂuids contains a Laplacian,

whereas for ideal ﬂuids only ﬁrst-order derivatives occur. This changes the mathematical

formulation in the sense that more boundary conditions can be imposed for viscous ﬂuids,

because of the higher order of the partial diﬀerential equations.

In order to see how one could deal with problems of this nature, where the vanishing of

a small parameter (such as in the above case with 1/Re small) alters the mathematical

character of the equations, we will expose in the present section the method of matched

asymptotic expansions and defer the discussion of the ﬂuid equations themselves to the next

section, on boundary layer theory. We start from a mathematical model equation,

ε

d

2

f

dx

2

+

df

dx

= a

with ε a small parameter. We let

x ∈ [0, 1], a ∈]0, 1[,

and choose as boundary conditions

f(0) = 0, f(1) = 1.

For such a simple model equation we know the exact solution with the given boundary

conditions,

f

ε

(x) = (1 −a)

e

−x/ε

−1

e

−1/ε

−1

+ ax.

When ε tends to zero in this solution, one ﬁnds

f

0

(x) = lim

ε→0, x ﬁxed

f

ε

(x) = 1 −a + ax.

The same limiting process in the equations would yield

df

0

dx

= a,

Table of contents 138

and hence we see that f

0

is the solution of this equation with the boundary condition

f

0

(1) = 1.

Unfortunately, as we are dealing with a ﬁrst-order equation, the other boundary condition

can not be fulﬁlled and

f

0

(0) = 1 −a.

This means that

f

ε

(0)

−→ /

ε→0

f

0

(0),

so that

f

0

(x) = 1 −a + ax

is a fair approximation to

f

ε

(x) = (1 −a)

e

−x/ε

−1

e

−1/ε

−1

+ ax,

as long as x is not too small, thus outside a boundary layer in the immediate vicinity of the

origin. Because f

0

(x) serves as a ﬁrst approximation to f

ε

(x) outside this boundary layer,

it is sometimes called the outer expansion f

o

(x). It is also natural that the outer boundary

condition is satisﬁed, not the inner one.

The troublesome domain is where x and ε are both small, in such a way as to make the two

terms in the left-hand side of the original model equation comparable,

ε

d

2

f

dx

2

∼

df

dx

.

Then f varies so fast that the second derivative is large compared to the ﬁrst derivative. We

now use a transformation for this inner or boundary layer which stretches x together with

ε. We formally put

x = εξ

and keep ξ ﬁnite, even when x and ε tend to zero. We thus have that

F(ξ) ≡ f(εξ)

and ﬁnd for the derivatives that

dF

dξ

= ε

df

dx

,

d

2

F

dξ

2

= ε

2

d

2

f

dx

2

.

The equation for f is transformed into

d

2

F

dξ

2

+

dF

dξ

= εa,

subject to the inner boundary condition that f(0) or F(0) vanishes. When ε now tends to

zero, there only remains

d

2

F

0

dξ

2

+

dF

0

dξ

= 0.

Table of contents 139

However, as this still is a second-order equation, a second boundary condition must be

imposed to determine the solution completely. It would be wholly illogical to use the outer

boundary condition, as the inner expansion, leaving the ratio x/ε ﬁnite, cannot possibly be

a good approximation outside the boundary layer. Something better is needed. The solution

for F

0

is

F

0

(ξ) = Ae

−ξ

+ B,

and the inner boundary condition requires that A and B be opposite and thus

F

0

(ξ) = B(1 −e

−ξ

).

On the other hand, if we return to the exact solution of the original equation, transform it

into

F

ε

(ξ) = (1 −a)

e

−ξ

−1

e

−1/ε

−1

+ εaξ

and let ε tend to zero,

F

0

(ξ) = lim

ε→0, ξ ﬁxed

F

ε

(ξ) = (1 −a)(1 −e

−ξ

),

we see from the comparison of both forms of F

0

(ξ) that

B = 1 −a.

F

0

(ξ) is called the inner expansion f

i

(ξ), to be determined with the inner boundary condition

plus something else.

Sofar, we know the exact solution, f

ε

(x) or F

ε

(ξ), depending on whether we choose to use x

or ξ as the independent variable. There are two approximations:

Outer expansion

f

o

(x) = f

0

(x) = lim

ε→0, x ﬁxed

f

ε

(x),

f

o

(1) = f

0

(1) = 1;

Inner expansion

f

i

(ξ) = F

0

(ξ) = lim

ε→0, ξ ﬁxed

F

ε

(ξ) = lim

ε→0, ξ ﬁxed

f

ε

(εξ),

f

i

(0) = F

0

(0) = 0.

When these diﬀerent solutions are plotted in the same graph, one gets two complementary

approximations to the exact solutions, as shown in Figure 6.6. Furthermore

lim

x→0

f

o

(x) = lim

ξ→∞

f

i

(ξ) = 1 −a

Table of contents 140

O

f(x)

x

1

1

1 −a

f

o

(x)

f

i

(

x

ǫ

)

Figure 6.6. Graphs of the exact solution and the inner and outer approximations

The inner limit of the outer approximation and the outer limit of the inner approximation

coincide. This property, which we can verify here on the exact solution, is used as a require-

ment when the exact solution is not known, and serves as the missing boundary condition

for the inner expansion. If we call c

oi

the inner limit of the outer approximation,

c

oi

= lim

x→0

f

o

(x)

and c

io

the outer limit of the inner approximation,

c

io

= lim

ξ→∞

f

i

(ξ),

then obviously one requires that

c

oi

= c

io

.

In this sense the inner and the outer expansions are matched, hence the name of the method

of matched asymptotic expansions, of which only the zeroth-order approximation in ε was

exposed here. A composite approximation f

c

(x), valid both in and outside the boundary

layer, is

f

c

(x) = f

i

x

ε

+ f

o

(x) −c

oi

= f

i

x

ε

+ f

o

(x) −c

io

.

Indeed, the outer and inner approximations to f

c

(x) are

f

co

(x) ≃ c

io

+ f

o

(x) −c

oi

= f

o

(x),

f

ci

(x) ≃ f

i

x

ε

+ c

oi

−c

oi

= f

i

x

ε

.

Table of contents 141

To recapitulate what was found from this discussion, as we will need it for those cases where

there is no exact solution to guide us, the method of matched asymptotic expansions runs

as follows. For the outer solution, where ε is small but x ﬁnite, f

o

is the solution of

df

o

dx

= a, f

o

(1) = 1,

using the outer boundary condition to determine the solution completely. This diﬀerential

equation is obtained by a simple limiting procedure from the original equation. The solution

is then

f

o

(x) = 1 −a + ax,

with

f

o

(0) = 1 −a.

For the inner solution, the substitution

x = εξ

is made and then the limit is taken for small ε afterwards,

d

2

f

i

dξ

2

+

df

i

dξ

= 0, f

i

(0) = 0,

using the inner boundary condition. In view of the matching recipe

lim

ξ→∞

f

i

(ξ) = lim

x→0

f

o

(x),

one gets

lim

ξ→∞

f

i

(ξ) = 1 −a,

determining f

i

(ξ) completely as in

f

i

(ξ) = (1 −a)(1 −e

−ξ

).

One could use more reﬁned versions of the matching principle to obtain higher-order approx-

imations. Nevertheless, the zeroth-order approximation is still a useful one, in determining

where the boundary layer is situated in a given problem and how its thickness varies with

some small parameters.

6.6 Boundary layer

For the steady, laminar and plane ﬂow of a homogeneous ﬂuid, the ﬂuid can be regarded as

ideal in the middle of the ﬂow, and it is only near the wall of the channel that the viscosity

eﬀects will play a role and give rise to the boundary layer. The velocity proﬁle will then

Table of contents 142

intuitively look as sketched in Figure 6.7. The width δ(ε) of the boundary layer will depend

on the small parameter ε = 1/Re. The boundary conditions are in general

x

2

= 0 : v

1

= 0, v

2

= 0,

x

2

= 1 : v

1

= 1, v

2

= 0, p = 1,

as we are working in nondimensional variables, where distances are measured in units of

the half-width of the channel, which greatly exceeds the width of the boundary layer, and

where the reference velocity and pressure are the values in the region where the ﬂow is well

developed and ideal.

As the picture is two-dimensional in the space coordinates, starting with the outer region

where v only has a parallel component, we write

∇ v = 0,

v ∇v = −∇p,

out in full

∂

1

v

1

= 0,

v

1

∂

1

v

1

= −∂

1

p = 0,

−∂

2

p = 0.

The solution, keeping in mind the outer boundary conditions, is

v

1

= v

1

(x

2

),

p = 1,

such that

v

1

(1) = 1.

In other words, the pressure is constant and v

1

can at most vary with the height in the

channel.

O

x

2

x

1

δ(ǫ)

Figure 6.7. Velocity proﬁle.

Table of contents 143

For the inner region, we need to consider

∇ v = 0,

v ∇v = −∇p +

1

Re

∇

2

v = −∇p + ε∇

2

v,

giving explicitly that

∂

1

v

1

+ ∂

2

v

2

= 0,

(v

1

∂

1

+ v

2

∂

2

)v

1

= −∂

1

p + ε(∂

2

1

+ ∂

2

2

)v

1

,

(v

1

∂

1

+ v

2

∂

2

)v

2

= −∂

2

p + ε(∂

2

1

+ ∂

2

2

)v

2

.

The small variables are the coordinate and velocity components across the boundary layer,

as the velocity has no perpendicular component at the wall nor inside the ideal ﬂow region.

The stretching of variables, discussed in the previous section, becomes

x

2

= ε

m

η =

1

Re

m

η,

v

2

= ε

m

V =

1

Re

m

V,

where the precise value of m is yet to be determined. The reason for an equal stretching

in x

2

and v

2

lies in the fact that the incompressibility condition does not contain ε. Hence

one would not expect one term or the other to become dominant as a result of a stretching

carried out in another equation. Put diﬀerently, any other stretching would eliminate one

of the two terms in the incompressibility condition and lead to a constant solution for the

velocity component left in. With the indicated stretching one has

∂

2

= ε

−m

∂

η

and the set of viscous ﬂuid equations can be rewritten as

∂

1

v

1

+ ∂

η

V = 0,

(v

1

∂

1

+ V ∂

η

)v

1

= −∂

1

p + ε(∂

2

1

+ ε

−2m

∂

2

η

)v

1

,

(v

1

∂

1

+ V ∂

n

)V = −ε

−2m

∂

η

p + ε(∂

2

1

+ ε

−2m

∂

2

η

)V.

If the viscosity eﬀects are to be comparable to the other terms, which was after all the whole

purpose of introducing a stretching, the only possible choice is

1 −2m = 0 =⇒ m =

1

2

,

giving

x

2

= ε

1/2

η =

1

√

Re

,

∂

2

= ε

−1/2

∂

η

=

√

Re∂

η

,

v

2

= ε

1/2

V =

1

√

Re

V.

Table of contents 144

Any other choice for the stretching of the second coordinate would either make the viscos-

ity eﬀects vanish also in the boundary layer or eﬀectively decouple these eﬀects from the

remainder of the description of the ﬂow. We thus ﬁnd

∂

1

v

1

+ ∂

η

V = 0,

(v

1

∂

1

+ V ∂

η

)v

1

= −∂

1

p + (ε∂

2

1

+ ∂

2

η

)v

1

,

(v

1

∂

1

+ V ∂

η

)V = −ε

−1

∂

η

p + (ε∂

2

1

+ ∂

2

η

)V.

The small ε limit now is

∂

1

v

1

+ ∂

η

V = 0,

(v

1

∂

1

+ V ∂

η

)v

1

= −∂

1

p + ∂

2

η

v

1

,

∂

η

p = 0.

In the boundary layer the pressure can only vary in the parallel direction, whereas outside

it is constant. The condition for the matching of the two approximations yields

lim

x

2

→0

p

o

(x

1

, x

2

) = lim

x

2

→0

p

0

= 1 = lim

η→∞

p

i

(x

1

),

in other words the pressure is constant throughout the entire boundary layer. This simpliﬁes

the description still further, and reverting to more usual notations we see that the equations

for the ﬂow in the boundary layer are

∂

1

v

1

+ ∂

2

v

2

= 0

(v

1

∂

1

+ v

2

∂

2

)v

1

= ∂

2

2

v

1

The analysis given in the previous pages assures us that all important terms which matter

inside the boundary layer, and only those, are retained in the ﬁnal form of the equations.

This is to be contrasted, at constant pressure, with the outer equations, of which only

∂

1

v

1

= 0

needs to be discussed.

Finally there remains the width of the boundary layer itself, which is seen from the scaling

to go as

δ(ε) ∼ ε

1/2

=

1

√

Re

.

The more important the viscosity, the larger the boundary layer will be. Boundary layers are

encountered not only in the laminar ﬂow in channels, but also whenever a ﬂuid is ﬂowing past

an obstacle, such as air around the wing of an aircraft. In the latter problem the boundary

layer becomes extremely important, both for the stability of the ﬂight and for the eﬃciency

with which turbulence can be avoided.

Chapter 7

Linear elasticity

• Elastostatic problems lead to Beltrami-Michell relations

• Elastic waves include seismographic examples

145

Table of contents 146

7.1 Basic equations

For the elastic media considered in this chapter, the stress-strain relation will be Hooke’s

law,

T = λ(tr E)1 + 2µE

with the restriction that the displacement gradients are suﬃciently small so that the small

strain tensor E can be used. Furthermore, we need the equation of motion,

ρ ˙ v = f +∇ T,

the symmetry of the stress tensor,

T = T

t

,

the deﬁnition of the small strain tensor,

E =

1

2

(∇u +u∇),

and the deﬁnition of the velocity,

v = ˙ x = ˙ u.

The velocity is deﬁned in terms of the displacement away from the time-independent equi-

librium state.

Expressing the stress tensor as a function of the displacement gives

T = λ(∇ u)1 + µ(∇u +u∇)

and the divergence of this tensor yields

∇ T = ∇ [λ(∇ u)1 + µ(∇u +u∇)]

= (λ + µ)∇∇ u + µ∇

2

u.

Hence the set of basic equations can be reduced to the equation of Navier-Cauchy

ρ ¨ u = f + (λ + µ)∇∇ u + µ∇

2

u

This is an equation determining u when the forces f are given. Although superﬁcially similar

to the Navier-Stokes equation

ρ ˙ v = f −∇p + (λ + µ)∇∇ v + µ∇

2

v,

there are two essential diﬀerences. First, in elasticity there is no hydrostatic pressure and

thus no need for a separate equation of state. Second, the material time-derivative is a

second-order one, altering the mathematical structure of the equation as will be obvious

when studying elastic waves in section 7.3.

Table of contents 147

For suﬃciently small displacements the acceleration term can be linearized,

ρ ¨ u = ρ(∂

t

+v ∇)(∂

t

+v ∇)u ≃ ρ

0

∂

2

t

u,

and from now on we will restrict ourselves to the theory of linear elasticity, where ρ or rather

ρ

0

is taken as one of the material constants, together with Lam´e’s constants λ and µ. This

is the reason why the equation of continuity was not recalled in the set of basic equations.

Strictly speaking of course, ρ is not constant in the sense of λ and µ, but in the linearized

version of the equation of Navier-Cauchy only the equilibrium value ρ

0

enters

ρ

0

∂

2

t

u = f + (λ + µ)∇∇ u + µ∇

2

u

Note that the concept ‘linear’ enters here in two diﬀerent ways. When dealing with the

constitutive relations, Hooke’s law is a linear relation between the stress and the strain

tensors in isotropic elastic media. Now, in ‘linear’ elasticity, the nonlinear equation of motion

(obtained with the help of the linear constitutive relation) is itself linearized with respect to

the perturbations away from the equilibrium, stress-free state.

7.2 Elastostatics

For elastostatic problems the Navier-Cauchy equation reduces to

f + (λ + µ)∇∇ u + µ∇

2

u = 0.

The problem consists in the determination of u, given f and some prescribed boundary con-

ditions, here in the form of boundary displacements. Certain problems, however, involve

boundary conditions in terms of the stresses rather than the displacements, and then the

set of basic equations has to be rearranged diﬀerently. The inverted form of Hooke’s law is

used instead, and we have to start from

f +∇ T = 0,

E =

1 + ν

E

T −

ν

E

(tr T)1.

The second equation is necessary, because only part of the information about T enters into

the equation of equilibrium. However, here we are not really interested in E. Therefore we

start from the compatibility conditions of St. Venant,

∇(∇E)

t

= 0,

written in a diﬀerent but equivalent form

∇∇tr E +∇

2

E −∇∇ E −(∇∇ E)

t

= 0.

Table of contents 148

Using the deﬁnition of E, it is easy to verify that indeed

∇∇tr E +∇

2

E −∇∇ E −(∇∇ E)

t

= ∇∇∇ u +

1

2

∇

2

∇u +

1

2

∇

2

u∇−

1

2

∇(∇

2

u +∇∇ u) −

1

2

(∇

2

u∇+∇∇∇ u) = 0.

Substitution of E expressed as function of T in the modiﬁed compatibility conditions yields

∇∇tr T + (1 + ν)∇

2

T −ν(∇

2

tr T)1 −(1 + ν)

∇∇ T + (∇∇ T)

t

= 0,

or with the help of the equilibrium equation,

∇∇tr T + (1 + ν)∇

2

T −ν(∇

2

tr T)1 + (1 + ν)(∇f +f ∇) = 0.

Taking the trace of this equation gives an intermediate result,

∇

2

tr T = −

1 + ν

1 −ν

∇ f ,

which we use to eliminate ∇

2

tr T in the preceding equation, to ﬁnally obtain

∇

2

T +

1

1 + ν

∇∇tr T +

ν

1 −ν

(∇ f )1 +∇f +f ∇= 0

These equations are called the Beltrami-Michell compatibility conditions for the stress, which

have to be considered together with the equilibrium equations

∇ T +f = 0.

To solve the Beltrami-Michell conditions for T when f is given is in general an involved

problem.

An important special case is when the deformation of the elastic medium only results from

a surface loading and not from body forces, or when the body forces are constant as in the

case of gravity. Then there follows that

∇

2

tr T = 0,

and hence also that

∇

2

tr E = ∇

2

∇ u = 0.

The cubic dilatation coeﬃcient is a harmonic function in this case. Since

∇ E =

1

2

∇

2

u +

1

2

∇∇ u = −

ν

E

∇tr T,

one can take the Laplacian of this equation as well as of the Beltrami-Michell conditions for

constant f and ﬁnd that

∇

4

u = 0, ∇

4

T = 0.

Table of contents 149

Both the displacement and the stress are thus biharmonic functions.

In particular, for plane stress in the absence of body forces, the equilibrium conditions are

explicitly

∂

1

T

11

+ ∂

2

T

21

= 0,

∂

1

T

12

+ ∂

2

T

22

= 0,

and the other components are zero, T

3j

= T

j3

= 0. From the ﬁrst equation we learn that

T

11

= ∂

2

α, T

21

= −∂

1

α,

whereas the second equation similarly yields

T

12

= ∂

2

β, T

22

= −∂

1

β,

with α and β new functions to be determined. However, in view of the symmetry of the

stress tensor,

T

12

= T

21

= −∂

1

α = ∂

2

β,

there exists a single function ϕ such that

α = ∂

2

ϕ, β = −∂

1

ϕ.

This function is called Airy’s stress function and it determines the components of the plane

stress tensor as

T

11

= ∂

2

2

ϕ,

T

12

= −∂

1

∂

2

ϕ,

T

22

= ∂

2

1

ϕ.

The requirement that

∇

2

tr T = 0

thus becomes

∇

2

tr T = ∇

2

(T

11

+ T

22

) = ∇

2

(∂

2

1

+ ∂

2

2

)ϕ = ∇

4

ϕ = 0,

in other words Airy’s stress function is also a biharmonic function. Once this function is

known, keeping in mind the boundary conditions, the stress distribution inside the continuum

can be completely determined.

7.3 Elastic waves in general linear media

In this section a discussion will be given of plane waves in general linear elastic media, which

may be isotropic or anisotropic. The stress-strain relation is supposed to be linear but not

necessarily isotropic

T = ( : E.

Table of contents 150

This has to be combined with

ρ

0

∂

2

t

u = ∇ T,

E =

1

2

(∇u +u∇),

where the equation of motion is written in the absence of body forces. The starting point is

a plane-wave solution for the displacement, say

u = a ϕ(k x −ωt),

where k is the wave vector and ω the wave frequency. We need to compute some derivatives

of u,

∂

t

u = −ωa ϕ

′

, ∂

2

t

u = ω

2

a ϕ

′′

,

∇u = ka ϕ

′

, u∇= akϕ

′

,

where the dashes refer to derivatives of ϕ with respect to its full argument k x−ωt. Hence

we ﬁnd for the strain tensor

E =

1

2

(ka +ak)ϕ

′

,

and similarly for the stress tensor

T = ( : E =

1

2

(( : ka +( : ak)ϕ

′

= ( : ka ϕ

′

,

in view of the symmetry of the elasticity tensor ( with respect to its ﬁrst two or last two

sets of indices. The divergence of T is thus

∇ T = k ( : ka ϕ

′′

= (k ( k) a ϕ

′′

and ﬁnally the equation of motion yields

ρ

0

ω

2

a ϕ

′′

= (k ( k) a ϕ

′′

.

The previous expression can be divided by k

2

, and new notations introduced, n for the unit

vector in the direction of wave propagation and c for the phase velocity of the waves,

n =

k

k

, c =

ω

k

.

As ϕ

′′

is not identically zero, we deduce that

(n ( n −ρ

0

c

2

1) a = 0.

When written in scalar form, we ﬁnd a set of three homogeneous algebraic equations in the

three unknown components of the amplitude a of the displacement. If we want a nontrivial

solution, we have to choose c in such a way that

det(n ( n −ρ

0

c

2

1) = 0

In general, this dispersion law will yield three solutions for ρ

0

c

2

, namely the three eigenvalues

of the second-order tensor n ( n. In more physical terms, this indicates that for a given

direction of wave propagation there are in general three diﬀerent phase velocities and thus

three diﬀerent wave modes possible. This is valid for any linear elastic medium, which in

general may be anisotropic.

Table of contents 151

7.4 Elastic waves in linear isotropic media

We will now compute the phase velocities explicitly in the case of a linear isotropic elastic

medium. We can do this in two ways. A ﬁrst possibility is to use the explicit expression for

( in its component form

C

ijkℓ

= λδ

ij

δ

kℓ

+ µ(δ

ik

δ

jℓ

+ δ

iℓ

δ

jk

) (ν = 0)

when the medium is isotropic, and ﬁnd that

n ( n = (λ + µ) nn + µ1.

The dispersion law thus is

det

(λ + µ) nn + (µ −ρ

0

c

2

)1

= 0.

Another way is to substitute a plane-wave solution into the Navier-Cauchy equation without

body forces and ﬁnd

(λ + µ) nn a + (µ −ρ

0

c

2

) a = 0.

Again the dispersion law is the same. As the determinant of a second-order tensor is one of

its invariants, we can choose a suitable reference frame in which the determinant is easily

computed. If we take the third axis of the reference frame along the direction of wave

propagation n, we have explicitly that

µ −ρ

0

c

2

0 0

0 µ −ρ

0

c

2

0

0 0 λ + 2µ −ρ

0

c

2

= 0

and hence

(µ −ρ

0

c

2

)

2

(λ + 2µ −ρ

0

c

2

) = 0.

If we deﬁne two wave velocities c

P

and c

S

by

c

P

≡

λ + 2µ

ρ

0

1/2

, c

S

≡

µ

ρ

0

1/2

we see that the dispersion law has a double root in c

S

and a single root in c

P

. Actually,

each root is to be taken once with the plus and once with the minus sign, but that merely

amounts to wave propagation in the opposite direction without a change in the character of

the wave. To ﬁnd out the nature of the waves, it is necessary to go back to

(λ + µ) nn a + (µ −ρ

0

c

2

) a = 0.

For the P-wave we have that

c = c

P

, ρ

0

c

2

= λ + 2µ,

Table of contents 152

and thus

(λ + µ)(nn a −a) = 0.

As λ + µ is nonzero, this learns that

n(n a) = a.

In other words, a and n are parallel, the displacement is in the direction of wave propagation

and the P-wave is a longitudinal wave.

As for the S-wave, with

c = c

S

, ρ

0

c

2

= µ,

there remains that

(λ + µ) nn a = 0

or, equivalently,

nn a = 0.

Hence a is now perpendicular to n and the S-wave is a transverse wave. Actually, there are

two S waves, for which the wave amplitudes a may be taken orthogonal to each other, in

the plane perpendicular to n. In view of the fact that

c

S

≡

µ

ρ

0

1/2

<

λ + 2µ

ρ

0

1/2

≡ c

P

,

of the waves propagating along n the P-wave travels faster than the S-waves. The labels

P and S come from seismology where the waves connected with earthquakes are called the

primary and the secondary waves. From the delay between the arrivals of the P- and S-waves

one can get some estimates of the depth of the epicentre. For the Earth the numerical values

are

c

P

≃ 8 −14km/s, c

S

≃

c

P

√

3

,

depending on the rock strata through which the waves travel. From this one can deduce

that for rock layers the Lam´e constants are almost equal

3c

2

S

≃ c

2

P

=⇒

3µ

ρ

0

≃

λ + 2µ

ρ

0

=⇒ λ ≃ µ.

Another, more far reaching conclusion to be drawn from these two wave types is that the

Earth has a molten or liquid core, because at seismographic observatories located at the

antipodes of the epicentre, only the P-wave is registered, as shown in Figure 7.1. As a

longitudinal and dilatational wave, the P-wave is able to propagate in solids as well as in

ﬂuids, whereas the S-wave as a transverse and shear wave can only propagate in solids.

A ﬂuid cannot support shear waves. From the location of the epicentre and the region in

the antipodes where only the P-wave gets through, one can estimate the dimensions of the

molten core region with surprising accuracy. What cannot be deduced in this way is whether

inside the molten (iron) core there is itself a smaller but solid nucleus.

Table of contents 153

E

S

P

P

S

Figure 7.1. P- and S-earthquake waves.

The branch of seismography which tries to infer information about the interior of the Earth,

from the way in which diﬀerent wave types propagate but can only be observed at the surface,

is called seismology. Similar concepts have recently been developed for wave propagation

in the Sun, where helioseismology now gives very reliable information about the otherwise

inaccessible stratiﬁcation of the interior of the Sun, and in stars, where asteroseismology tries

to do the same for stellar interiors. Contrary to the Earth, however, the Sun and stars cannot

be treated as elastic media and one has to go back to gas- or plasma-dynamic descriptions.

In view of the importance of waves in elastic media, one can use

c

2

P

−c

2

S

=

λ + µ

ρ

0

to rewrite the Navier-Cauchy equation as

∂

2

t

u = (c

2

P

−c

2

S

) ∇∇ u + c

2

S

∇

2

u

We write the displacement in its Helmholtz representation,

u = ∇ψ +∇a

where ψ is a scalar and a a vector potential. This decomposition is always possible, and one

can even impose the auxiliary gauge condition that

∇ a = 0.

In this representation one has

∇ u = ∇

2

ψ

Table of contents 154

and hence the Navier-Cauchy equation becomes

∇∂

2

t

ψ +∇∂

2

t

a = c

2

P

∇∇

2

ψ + c

2

S

∇∇

2

a

or

∇(∂

2

t

ψ −c

2

P

∇

2

ψ) +∇(∂

2

t

a −c

2

S

∇

2

a) = 0.

When taking the divergence of this equation, there follows that the scalar potential obeys

an equation of d’Alembert with a right-hand side which is itself a harmonic function,

∂

2

t

ψ −c

2

P

∇

2

ψ = Ψ, ∇

2

Ψ = 0.

For this equation of d’Alembert the characteristic velocity is c

P

. Similarly, because the

vector potential a could be chosen divergence-free, it obeys another equation of d’Alembert

with again a harmonic function on the right-hand side,

∂

2

t

a −c

2

S

∇

2

a = A, ∇

2

A = 0.

The characteristic velocity in the d’Alembertian is now c

S

. Both harmonic functions Ψ and

A are furthermore linked by

∇Ψ +∇A = 0.

For the special choice when these harmonic functions are both zero, one recovers two equa-

tions of d’Alembert, which give plane-wave solutions for both the scalar and the vector

potential and hence for the longitudinal and the transverse part of the displacement in its

Helmholtz decomposition. This brings one back to results derived earlier in a more direct

but less general way.

Chapter 8

Epilogue: Kinetic theory

• Kinetic theory is a more advanced level of description of continuous media

• It is shown how one can derive the basic equations, used in previous chap-

ters, from a general kinetic equation

155

Table of contents 156

8.1 Kinetic equations

Up to now, the description of continua has been given in physical space, with as independent

coordinates the usual space and time coordinates. This implies that the velocity is one of the

macroscopic and dependent quantities, much as the pressure or density, in the sense that it

is given at each physical point and for each moment as an average for the ﬂuid or the elastic

medium. For a ﬂuid with its rather higher coherence, this might be a fair assumption, but

from detailed studies of gases and plasmas it is known that neighbouring material particles

can have quite diﬀerent velocities. In the usual continuum description these diﬀerences in

velocities are just averaged out, but it is conceivable that one would like to get a description

in which these diﬀerent velocities play a more essential role.

The resulting kinetic theory is in a sense also a continuum description but on a higher level.

Such a description requires the introduction of a 6-dimensional phase space instead of the

usual 3-dimensional physical space, a phase space in which the independent coordinates are

the three (physical) space coordinates x

i

and the three velocity coordinates w

i

. These are for

the purpose of kinetic theory all independent coordinates. Using still the 3-vector notation

x for the space coordinates and w for the velocity, we ﬁnd that the mathematical point

(x, w) in phase space locates a material particle with position in physical space at x and

with velocity w.

The next step in the development of the theory of kinetic equations is the introduction of a

density or distribution function ϕ(x, w, t) in phase space, in such a way that ϕ(x, w, t)d

3

xd

3

w

gives the mass of material particles which are contained in an elementary range d

3

x around

the point x and such that their velocities lie in an elementary range d

3

w around w. Schemat-

ically this is indicated in Figure 8.1. Instead of d

3

w we will use dW, as we wrote dV instead of

d

3

x in the introductory chapters, where the usual continuum description was developed. The

(velocity) space in which w varies is denoted by W. Such a distribution function ϕ(x, w, t)

is only meaningful as a measure in phase space, if upon integration over all possible values

O

w

x

x x + d

3

x

w

w + d

3

w

Figure 8.1. Description in phase space.

Table of contents 157

of the velocities the usual mass density ρ(x, t) in physical space is recovered,

ρ =

W

ϕdW

For the purpose of the present chapter, where we only want to give the link between the

kinetic equations and the usual continuum equations without going into a detailed study of

the kinetic equations themselves, a kinetic equation is an equation of the general form

Dϕ

Dt

=

δϕ

δt

.

On the left-hand side use has been made of the total time derivative in phase space, when

the particles are followed in their motion, whereas on the right-hand side the change in ϕ is

due to the interactions of the particles between themselves. The total time derivative can

be expanded as

Dϕ

Dt

=

∂ϕ

∂t

+

∂ϕ

∂x

dx

dt

+

∂ϕ

∂w

dw

dt

=

∂ϕ

∂t

+w

∂ϕ

∂x

+b

∂ϕ

∂w

,

if the microscopic laws of motion are incorporated

w =

dx

dt

, b =

dw

dt

.

Here b is the normalized force density at the microscopic level, and the notation ∂/∂ x

replaces ∇ in this chapter to avoid confusion with ∂/∂ w.

The kinetic equation thus is

∂ϕ

∂t

+w

∂ϕ

∂x

+b

∂ϕ

∂w

=

δϕ

δt

If the particles do not interact, the right-hand side vanishes and we get the Liouville equation,

which essentially expresses the conservation of particle mass or number in phase space. If the

right-hand side is computed for a gas of hard-sphere particles undergoing binary collisions

only, one gets the Boltzmann equation. There are many more examples of kinetic equations

to be given, according to the hypotheses one introduces about the interactions between the

particles, but a deeper discussion of these would lead us to far.

The study of kinetic equations thus has two aspects: ﬁrst, the making of suitable assumptions

about the right-hand side involving the interactions, and second, the solution of the equation

itself for the distribution function. This is certainly not the purpose of this chapter, but

essential for our considerations is the fact that the left-hand side of the kinetic equations

has a deﬁnite expression, and we will now show how the usual continuum equations can be

deduced from it.

Table of contents 158

8.2 Macroscopic averages

In view of the fact that the distribution gives the mass density upon integration over w, we

deﬁne the average velocity v as

ρ v = ρ'w` =

W

ϕwdW.

In more general terms, when we have a certain microscopic quantity Q, such as velocity or

energy, we deﬁne the average or macroscopic corresponding quantity 'Q` as

ρ'Q` =

W

ϕQdW.

This is consistent with both

ρ =

W

ϕdW,

if we put Q = 1 and get 'Q` = 1, and with

ρ'w` =

W

ϕwdW,

if Q = w and 'Q` = v. For further use we deﬁne the peculiar velocity

w

′

= w−v = w−'w`,

with zero average, to express the way in which the individual or microscopic velocities diﬀer

from the averaged or ﬂuid velocity.

In order to get an equation for 'Q`, we multiply

∂ϕ

∂t

+w

∂ϕ

∂x

+b

∂ϕ

∂w

=

δϕ

δt

with Q and integrate over all w,

W

Q

∂ϕ

∂t

+w

∂ϕ

∂x

+b

∂ϕ

∂w

dW = ∆Q,

where we deﬁne

∆Q =

W

δϕ

δt

QdW

as the contribution to the changes in Q due to the particle interactions. We will compute

some of the integrals separately. The ﬁrst term gives

W

Q

∂ϕ

∂t

dW =

W

∂

∂t

(ϕQ)dW −

W

ϕ

∂Q

∂t

dW =

∂

∂t

(ρ'Q`) −ρ

∂Q

∂t

.

Table of contents 159

For the second term we ﬁnd

W

Qw

∂ϕ

∂x

dW =

W

∂

∂x

(wQϕ)dW −

W

ϕw

∂Q

∂x

dW

=

∂

∂x

(ρ'wQ`) −ρ

w

∂Q

∂x

.

For the last term we will explicitly use the fact that the distribution function vanishes at

the boundaries in phase space, meaning simply that there are no particles at inﬁnite or very

large distances, nor with inﬁnite or very large velocities,

W

Qb

∂ϕ

∂w

dW =

W

∂

∂w

(bQϕ)dW −

W

ϕ

∂

∂w

(bQ)dW

= −ρ

∂

∂w

(bQ)

.

Collecting all the results one ﬁnds

∂

∂t

(ρ'Q`) +

∂

∂x

(ρ'wQ`) = ρ

∂Q

∂t

+w

∂Q

∂x

+

∂

∂w

(bQ)

+ ∆Q

8.3 Macroscopic equations

To recover the continuity equations, the equations of motion and the energy balance, we will

successively put Q equal to 1, w

′

and

1

2

w

′

2

. For the case that Q = 1 we ﬁnd for some of the

expressions that

'wQ` = v,

∂Q

∂w

= 0, ∆Q = 0.

The last term, ∆Q, vanishes because it is assumed that the interactions between the par-

ticles do not aﬀect their numbers or masses. The idea of the conservation of mass is thus

incorporated into the theory of kinetic equations. Hence

∂

∂t

(ρ'Q`) +

∂

∂x

(ρ'wQ`) = ρ b

∂Q

∂w

+ ∆Q

becomes the equation of continuity,

∂

∂t

ρ +

∂

∂x

(ρ v) = 0

For the equation of motion, we put Q = w

′

so that 'Q` = 0, and compute that

'wQ` = 'ww

′

` = 'w

′

w

′

` +'vw

′

` = 'w

′

w

′

` = −

1

ρ

T,

Table of contents 160

for the terms on the left hand side of the moment equation governing the averages, whereas

for the right hand side we need

∂Q

∂t

=

∂

∂t

(w−v)

= −

∂v

∂t

,

w

∂Q

∂x

=

w

∂

∂x

(w−v)

= −

w

∂

∂x

v

= −v

∂

∂x

v,

∂

∂w

(bQ)

=

∂

∂w

b(w−u)

=

b

∂

∂w

w

= 'b 1` = 'b` .

Here T is the stress tensor, deﬁned as

T = −ρ'w

′

w

′

` = −

W

ϕ(w−v)(w−v)dW,

and it is worth noting that in this derivation the stress tensor is symmetric by deﬁnition.

We have also used the fact that the velocity dependent forces are essentially restricted to

the Lorentz term,

b =

q

m

(wB),

for which

∂

∂w

b = 0

is valid. All this leads to the intermediate result that

∂Q

∂t

+w

∂Q

∂x

+

∂

∂w

(bQ)

= −

∂v

∂t

−v

∂

∂x

v +'b` .

If in addition the interaction between any two particles conserves their total momentum, as

in the case of elastic collisions between like particles, ∆w vanishes. Substitution of all this

ﬁnally gives the desired equation of motion

∂v

∂t

+v

∂

∂x

v = 'b` +

1

ρ

∂

∂x

T

Finally, we put Q equal to

1

2

w

′

2

and compute

'wQ` =

1

2

'ww

′

2

` =

1

2

v'w

′

2

` +

1

2

'w

′

w

′

2

`,

for the terms on the left hand side of the moment equation, whereas for the right hand side

we get

∂Q

∂t

=

1

2

∂

∂t

w

′

2

=

w

′

∂

∂t

w

′

= −'w

′

`

∂

∂t

v = 0,

w

∂Q

∂x

=

1

2

w

∂

∂x

w

′

2

=

w

′

w :

∂

∂x

w

′

= −'w

′

w` :

∂

∂x

v =

1

ρ

T :

∂

∂x

v,

∂

∂w

(bQ)

=

1

2

b

∂

∂w

w

′

2

=

w

′

b :

∂

∂w

w

′

= 'w

′

b : 1` = 'w

′

b` = 0.

Table of contents 161

The last step is evident for velocity independent forces, but also holds for the magnetic part

of the Lorentz force, since

'w

′

b` =

q

m

'w

′

(wB)` =

q

m

'w

′

(w

′

B)` +

q

m

'w

′

` (v B) = 0.

Again, if the interactions between any two particles conserve their total (kinetic) energy,

1

2

∆w

′

2

vanishes and we get

1

2

∂

∂t

(ρ'w

′

2

`) +

1

2

∂

∂x

(ρ v'w

′

2

` + ρ'w

′

w

′

2

`) = T :

∂

∂x

v.

Upon expansion of this equation, we have

1

2

'w

′

2

`

¸

∂ρ

∂t

+

∂

∂x

(ρ v)

+

1

2

ρ

¸

∂

∂t

+v

∂

∂x

'w

′

2

` +

1

2

∂

∂x

(ρ'w

′

w

′

2

`) = T :

∂

∂x

v,

and some terms are found to cancel due to the continuity equation. There only remains

1

2

ρ

d

dt

'w

′

2

` = T : D −

1

2

∂

∂x

(ρ'w

′

w

′

2

`),

where D is the symmetric part of (∂/∂x)v.

If this energy balance is compared to the previous form

ρ ˙ ε = ρν −∇ q + T : D,

the internal energy ε is found as

ε =

1

2

'w

′

2

` =

1

2ρ

W

ϕ(w−v)

2

dW

and the heat ﬂow q as

q =

1

2

ρ'w

′

w

′

2

` =

1

2

W

ϕ(w−v)

2

(w−v) dW.

The energy balance is thus

ρ ˙ ε = T : D −

∂

∂x

q.

Heat sources are not included here, because then ∆Q would no longer be zero for Q taken

as

1

2

w

′

2

.

Throughout the above derivations of the continuity equation, the equation of motion and

the energy balance by suitable averaging of the kinetic equation, it is seen that as soon

as the distribution function is known, all the averages (the mean velocity, the stress and

even the internal energy density or the heat ﬂow) can be computed explicitly. But as said

already before, this requires the solution of the corresponding kinetic equation and that is

quite another mathematical problem!

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4

Constitutive relations 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Young’s experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frame-indiﬀerence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Isotropy and Reiner-Rivlin ﬂuids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Linear isotropic media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Viscoelastic media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kramers-Kronig’s relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44 45 46 50 53 57 59 63 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 65 69 72 77 80 81 88 93 98

5

Ideal ﬂuids 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 Basic equations Simplifying hypotheses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bernoulli’s law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solar wind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydrostatic equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sound waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Linear waves in magnetized plasmas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Large amplitude ion-acoustic solitons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Large amplitude circularly polarized waves in plasmas . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.10 Newtonian cosmology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.11 Complex potential theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 6 Viscous ﬂuids 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 7 120

Similarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Dimensional analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Turbulence : Reynolds equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Turbulence : Kolmogorov’s law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Matched asymptotic expansions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Boundary layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 145 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

Linear elasticity 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Basic equations

Elastostatics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Elastic waves in general linear media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Elastic waves in linear isotropic media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151

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8

Epilogue: Kinetic theory 8.1 8.2 8.3

155

Kinetic equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Macroscopic averages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Macroscopic equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydrostatic equilibrium of a star. . . . . . .8 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .List of ﬁgures 2. . . . . .2 6.1 6. . . 112 6. . . . . . . . . . Two observers O and O′ and a distant galaxy P . . . 110 5. . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Propagation of radio signals through the ionosphere. . . . . . . . .7 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Energy spectrum. . . . . . . .5 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Flow around a circle or cylinder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 17 30 35 37 38 45 60 66 70 71 77 87 98 Proﬁle of a solitary wave joining constant states at η = ±∞ and localized in η. . .1 5. . . . .9 Sequence of domains enclosing P . . .12 Flow in a corner. . . . . . . . . 93 Flow of a source or sink in the origin.5 Reynolds experiment. . . . Young’s experiment. Deformation of angles. . . . . . . . .2 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Surface elements around P . . . . . .4 5.3 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comparison of initial and ﬁnal states. . . . . . Streamlines and the velocity ﬁeld. . . . . . . . . .6 5. . . . . . . . Decomposition of neighbouring displacements. . . . . . . . . . .2 3. Contour of integration in the complex ω-plane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Flow around a point vortex in the origin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Comparison between turbulent and Hagen-Poiseuille velocity proﬁles. . . 134 Power law in the inertial range. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . 111 5. . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 iv .4 4. . . . . .3 3. Pressure-density relations. . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Flow along an edge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steady outﬂow of a tank. . . . . . . .4 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Velocities of neighbouring particles. . 129 Velocity diagram in turbulent ﬂow. . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .and S-earthquake waves. . . .Table of contents v 6. .1 8. . . . . . . . . .7 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Description in phase space. 140 Velocity proﬁle. . .1 Graphs of the exact solution and the inner and outer approximations . . . . . . . . . . . 142 P . . . . . . . . .

vector and tensor algebra and analysis • ﬁnally address time derivatives of material quantities. both in punctual as in integral form 1 .Chapter 1 Preliminaries In this chapter we • give a short introduction to continuum mechanics • recall concepts from coordinate transformations.

The indices i. i. This restriction avoids the complication of having to distinguish between covariant and contravariant tensors. will reveal itself also in the notation. As soon as a coordinate system is chosen.e as a mathematical entity on its own and through its coordinate representation. where it complements the notion of rigid bodies and leads to the theory of elasticity. Nevertheless. 1. Of course. These components change when one passes from one coordinate system to another according to speciﬁc rules.Table of contents 2 1. or else we will use its components Tij. continuum mechanics deals with certain physical quantities which exist and can be talked of independently of a particular coordinate system. in physical space that is. .2 Questions of notation As is the case with most branches of physics. The coordinate systems used henceforth will always be orthogonal Cartesian coordinate systems. if only because of the vast number of molecules to be accounted for. and also for matter in the liquid or gas states. when referred to a coordinate system. these same physical quantities will be measured and attributed numbers or values with respect to an appropriate coordinate system. for the ﬂow of water through a pipe the knowledge of the molecular structure of water will learn strictly nothing as far as the ﬂow speed is concerned. Some of the mathematical properties recalled in the following paragraphs are indeed valid for general tensors in n-dimensional space. an idealization if one thinks of the molecular or (sub)atomic structure of all matter. is completely speciﬁed through its components. This dual way of thinking of a tensor. and the whole question then revolves around knowing the limits of accuracy and applicability of this continuum concept in practical cases. although a mathematical entity on its own.1 Continuum mechanics The basic idea behind continuum mechanics is to describe the kinematical and dynamical properties of certain classes of material as if the material under consideration were ﬁlling part of physical space in a continuous way and had characteristics which depend continuously upon space and time. this is a model. where one gets hydro. Treating matter as a continuum can be done for matter in the solid state. Of course. To quote just one example at this stage.. because it stands almost totally divorced from the mathematical modelling which can proceed once basic concepts and laws are deﬁned and postulated. We write T for a certain tensor. for one could as easily deﬁne tensors in n-dimensional space and the range of the indices would then be from 1 to n. This is a rather diﬃcult problem. experience has learned that many macroscopic properties can be described with an amazing degree of precision by indeed pretending that certain materials are continua. So it seems that matter under certain circumstances permits us to use the mathematical concept of a continuum. On the microscopic scale much more discontinuity than continuity is to be found. In mathematical terms this means that such physical quantities are represented by tensors and that the physical laws are expressible as tensor equations. run from 1 to 3. a tensor. as will be done in the next chapter. but still allows enough . .. in the mathematical sense of the word. .and aerodynamics which are sometimes grouped together into ﬂuid dynamics. j.

z). 3). The word “tensor” will then mean “Cartesian tensor”. with unit vectors e′ (j) . a tensor of order two will be called a tensor. the relation between the position vector and the coordinates of a point P is simply x = xi e(i) . whenever an index appears twice in a product. In the few cases where the summation convention cannot be followed.). The unit vectors then transform according to e′ (i) = Aij e(j) .. The next step is the transformation of one coordinate system Ox1 x2 x3 . ai . Once a base of a coordinate system is known. j = 1.e. the familiar Kronecker deltas.3 consecutively and the three terms thus formed are summed. The summation convention implies that. a. The triplet (e(1) . A vector is a tensor of order one and will be written in boldface (e. e(2) ..2. invariant component in each coordinate system.Table of contents 3 interesting properties and applications for a ﬁrst course in continuum mechanics. with components δij . modelled on I 3 . . 1. e(j) . y. which will be denoted xi for i = 1. (i) Since we are dealing with orthogonal coordinate systems. to another one Ox′1 x′2 x′3 . through its Cartesian coordinates. Finally. 2. Aij = e′ (i) · e(j) = cos e′ . 2. When a certain expression is written in index notation. vi .. The position of a point P is given through its position vector x = OP or. v .g. Its three components will be denoted by the same letter subscripted once (e.. A R reference frame in space is given by the choice of an origin and of a positive (i.g. By a coordinate system we will always mean a Cartesian coordinate system and we will denote it by Ox1 x2 x3 . 3. A scalar is a tensor of order zero and has one. Aij Akj = δik . this yields two sets of orthonormality relations: Aij Aik = δjk .). 2. 3 (rather than through x.g. Both coordinate systems have for simplicity the same origin. equivalently. It has nine components which are written Tij for i. this will be mentioned explicitly. The unit tensor will be written as 1. right-handed) orthonormal basis e(i) (i = 1.3 Coordinate and component transformations Physical space is seen as a three dimensional aﬃne Euclidean space. by T. with unit vectors e(i) . in short. the index or subscript takes the values 1. and is denoted e. use will be made of the Einstein summation convention in order to save the writing of summation signs with the appropriate summation ranges. e(3) ) determines the orientation of the physical space. where Aij are the direction cosines of the new axes referred to the old ones.

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4

i.e. the matrix [Aij ] is an orthogonal matrix. In addition, the transformation is orientation preserving, i.e.: det[Aij ] = 1. Thus the required coordinate transformations between the old coordinates xi and the new ones x′j of a point P is x′i = Aij xj . The inverse transformation is xi = Aji x′j , as can easily be checked, Aji x′j = Aji Ajk xk = δik xk = xi . Deﬁning an arbitrary vector v in space as the diﬀerence between the position vectors of its two endpoints P and Q, allows us to deduce the transformation laws of the components of ′ v, which are denoted by vi in Ox1 x2 x3 and by vj in Ox′1 x′2 x′3 ,

′ vi = Aij vj

We could also turn the argument around and postulate that a vector is deﬁned in such a way that its components obey this transformation law. It is easy to check and left to the reader to verify that vectors thus deﬁned are the elements of a vector space. Next come the transformation laws for the components of a tensor of order two or higher. For a tensor of order two these are

′ Tij = Aip Ajq Tpq

and for more general tensors Tijk... = Aip Ajq Akr · · · Tpqr... . We will say that a tensor is isotropic if it is invariant under any orthogonal coordinate transformation, i.e. Tijk... = Aip Ajq Akr · · · Tpqr... , for every orthogonal matrix A.

′

Each component of a tensor of order n has n indices, and there are just n factors Aip in the transformation equation. If one thinks of a tensor of rank two T as a linear transformation which maps a vector u into a vector v, v = T · u, or in index notation vi = Tij uj , then the transformation laws for a tensor of order two can be deduced from those for a vector. Tensors of the same order can again be proved elements of a vector space. More precisely, if S and T are tensors of order two, say, and λ is an arbitrary real number, then λ S and S + T are again tensors of order two, and all the traditional properties of a vector space are

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5

satisﬁed. Let us denote the space of second order tensors by V. For each element S of V there exists an ‘inverse’ in V, denoted −S, and the following distributive properties hold: λ(S + T) = λ S + λ T, (λ + µ)T = λ T + µ T, where λ and µ are scalars. Finally, let’s go back to the transformation rule for the components of a general tensor ′ Tijk... = Aip Ajq Akr · · · Tpqr... . These hold not only for transformations from one right-handed basis to another right-handed basis, but for any transformation of the basis. Quantities for which the transformation rule only holds for an orthogonal transformation with det[Aij ] = 1 are called pseudo-tensors. Stated otherwise, if the transformation equations for vector or tensor components only hold when det[Aij ] = +1, then we are dealing with pseudo-tensors rather than with tensors in the proper sense. An often-used pseudo-tensor of order three is the alternating pseudo-tensor of Levi-Civit` εijk with components a = +1 if i, j, k are an even permutation of 1,2,3, = −1 if i, j, k are an odd permutation of 1,2,3, εijk = 0 otherwise, when two or three indices are equal. εijk εiℓm εijk εijℓ εijk εijk δii = = = = δjℓ δkm − δjm δkℓ , 2δkℓ , 6, 3.

Some useful identities involving the components of the pseudo-tensor of Levi-Civit` and of a the unit tensor of Kronecker are

For a given tensor T, with components Tij , one can always construct the transposed tensor, denoted by Tt or T, such that (T t )ij = Tji . A coordinate independent deﬁnition would be through for all u. A tensor is called symmetric iﬀ Tij = Tji u · Tt = T · u or Tt = T.

Any tensor T of order two can be split in a unique way into a symmetric and an antisymmetric part, 1 1 T = (T + Tt ) + (T − Tt ), 2 2 or in index notation 1 1 Tij = (Tij + Tji ) + (Tij − Tji ). 2 2 It is possible to generalize the concept of the transposed of a tensor to tensors of higher order, where such a transposed tensor is called an isomer, but extreme care has to be exercised as to which pair of indices is involved in such a permutation. The pseudo-tensor of Levi-Civit` a is totally antisymmetric, because any permutation of two indices changes the sign of the components.

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6

1.4

Tensor products

Starting with scalars λ and µ we have only one kind of product, the usual one, λµ, in the sense of number theory. For vectors u and v in Euclidean space, one is supposed to be familiar with the scalar or inner product u · v = ui v i ,

which yields a scalar, and (if the dimension of the space is three) with the vector or cross product u × v (u × v)i = εijk uj vk , which is really a pseudo-vector. Next, we can deﬁne a product on vectors which yield a (second-order) tensor: the so-called tensor or outer product (uv)ij = ui vj .

One can indeed verify that the object deﬁned by the right-hand side is a second-order tensor by checking the transformation property. The ideas of inner and outer products can be extended to tensors of order two by putting (S · T)ij = Sik Tkj for the inner product and (S T)ijkℓ = Sij Tkℓ for the outer product. In more general terms even, the inner product of a tensor of order m with a tensor of order n yields a tensor of order m + n − 2, (S · T )i···jk···ℓ = Si···jp Tpk···ℓ , whereas the outer (or tensor) product gives a tensor of order m + n, (S T )i···jk···ℓ = Si···j Tk···ℓ . If m + n − 2 is 2 or more, the inner product or contraction can be repeated to yield the double inner product or the double contraction of two tensors, (S : T )i···jk···ℓ = Si···jpq Tqpk···ℓ . In particular, the double inner product of two tensors of order two is a scalar, S : T = Sij Tji One sometimes ﬁnds the double inner product deﬁned in another way, S ··T = Sij Tij ,

e. If one introduces the trace of a tensor of order two. in view of the introduction of the curl of a tensor in the next paragraph. One could also try to extend the idea of the cross product of two vectors. divergence and curl. but it seems only useful to do so for the cross product of a vector with a tensor of order two. u · (vw) = (u · v)w = u · vw. (v × T)ij = εipq vp Tqj .5 Tensor analysis In this paragraph the notions of gradient. ∂xi . which are known from vector analysis. tr (S · T) = (S · T)ii = Sij Tji = S : T. u ⊗ v. tr T = Tii ). This shows that a notation such as uv · w is unambiguous. In mathematical textbooks one will usually adopt the notation ⊗ for tensor product (e. (uv) · w = u(v · w) = uv · w. .Table of contents 7 which usually gives a diﬀerent result. some forms of (T · v)i = Tij vj and (v · T)i = vj Tji are given in the special case when the tensor itself is the tensor product of two other vectors.). as was already the case with the cross product of two vectors.g. This cross product is a pseudo-tensor. ′ which is invariant under orthogonal coordinate transformations (i. . . The usual gradient of a scalar function φ of x (and possibly t) is a vector with components (grad φ)i = (∇ φ)i = ∂φ = ∂i φ. Remark. one ﬁnds the following relations as special cases: tr (uv) = ui vi = u · v. S ⊗ T. To round oﬀ this paragraph. in that order. It is to be noted that both deﬁnitions coincide if at least one of the two tensors is symmetric. and there is no need to write any brackets. are recalled and extended to general tensors. 1. tr T = Tii .

has components ∂i and could formally be regarded as a vector obeying the transformation laws. The symbolic vector nabla.Table of contents 8 The partial derivative operator with respect to the coordinate xi will henceforth be denoted ∂i . generalizing this concept. (∇∇ φ)ij = ∂ 2φ = ∂i ∂j φ.. Special cases of this equation are the gradient of a vector. Hence the (generalized) gradient of a tensor T of order n is a tensor of order n + 1. and the gradient of a tensor T of order two. the curl of a vector is a pseudo-vector.. ∂vj = ∂ i vj ∂xi (grad v)ij = (∇ v)ij = which is a tensor of order two.. constructed as the inner product of the nabla vector with T : (div T )ij. Hence we deﬁne the divergence of a general tensor T of order n as a tensor of order n − 1. (grad T)ijk = (∇ T)ijk = ∂i Tjk . in vector analysis. = ∂i Tj. This includes as a special case the divergence of a tensor (of order two). constructed as the tensor product of the ‘nabla’ vector with the said tensor.. (curl T)ij = (∇ × T)ij = εipq ∂p Tqj . On the other hand. (curl v)i = (∇ × v)i = εijk ∂j vk . as in the following example of the double gradient of a scalar function.. ∇. the usual divergence of a vector is a scalar.. if the resulting expressions permit.. .. div v = ∇ · v = ∂i vi . divergence and curl operations can be repeated several times. (div T)i = (∇ · T)i = ∂j Tji Finally... although it retains its derivative operator characteristics. and. (grad T )ij. The gradient. the curl of a tensor T (of order two) is a pseudo-tensor of the same order.. = (∇ T )ij. which is a tensor of order two.. which is a tensor of order three. = (∇ · T )ij. ∂xi ∂xj . = ∂p Tpij.

in the time evolution of certain objects. either in index i notation. . ℓ k or in vector notation. such that position vector of a material point becomes a diﬀerentiable function of time. . Note. the change of the tensor when following the material in its motion.. The partial time derivative of a tensor depending explicitly on t will be denoted by ∂t T = with ∂T . Tij. 1. ∂t dt The operator d = ∂ t + v · ∇ = ∂ t + vi ∂ i dt is called the material time derivative.. or with coordinates xo . the change of a tensor along a ‘ﬂow line’ is given by the total or material time derivative (i. is for functions which are deﬁned in each point of the material.. v ∇ : T + Tt : ∇ v.. λ ∇ · v + v · ∇ λ. (xo ) + . (x) = Tij.. hence the name of material derivative): (∂t T)ij. t) T= dt dt ∂T d x = + · ∇ T = ∂t T + v · ∇ T. ∂t ∂Tij.. The material derivative. = d dT ˙ = T(x(t).. (∇ · u)v + u · ∇ v. 2 Some useful identities involving the nabla operator are: ∇(u · v) ∇ · (uv) ∇ · (T · v) ∇ · (λ v) = = = = u · ∇v + v · ∇u + u × (∇ × v) + v × (∇ × u). ∂t If the continuum moves in space. . 1 T (x) = T (xo ) + (x − xo ) · ∇ T (xo ) + (x − xo )(x − xo ) : ∇∇ T (xo ) + ..6 Time derivatives In continuum mechanics we are interested.Table of contents 9 Once these operations are established. in particular. (xo ) + (xℓ − xo )∂ℓ Tij. it becomes straightforward to write a Taylor expansion of a tensor around a point with position vector xo .e. as calculated above. . .. .. among others. that the material derivative of the position vector x at a point P is the velocity of the material in that point (or the velocity of P for short).

d dt V0 ψ[x(a. t) be a continuous function of coordinates and time and φ(t) the integral of ψ over a certain material volume V . t]J} dV0 dt ˙ ψJ + ψ J˙ dV0 . To compute the material derivative d ˙ φ(t) = dt ψ(x. and J is the Jacobian of the transformation. the two remaining terms occur because the limits vary with the same parameter. J = det Hence d dt ψ(x. α) ∂α dξ1 − f (ξ. and the derivative of the integral is sought with respect to this parameter. ξ=ξ0 (α) dα The ﬁrst term on the right-hand side of this equation comes from the dependence of the integrand on the parameter. t) dV. the problem will also arise of ﬁnding the total time derivative of quantities which are expressed as a time-dependent volume integral. when the volume under consideration coincides at all times with a well-deﬁned part of the material in motion. φ(t) = V ψ(x. α) ξ=ξ1 (α) dα dξ0 . α) dξ. t) dV V we choose some time-independent reference conﬁguration. ξ1 (α) I(α) = ξ0 (α) f (ξ. t]J dV0 V0 = = V0 d {ψ[x(a.Table of contents 10 Further on. t). For this transformation the volume-elements dV = d3 x and dV0 = d3 a are related through dV = J dV0 . where dV0 refers to the initial state. Let ψ(x. In this way we can express x = x(a. in such a way that a particle which was at position a at a given (original and ﬁxed) instant of time is at x at time t. Something analogous arises when in a one-dimensional integral both the integrand and the integration limits depend on a parameter. . dI = dα ξ1 (α) ξ0 (α) ∂f dξ + f (ξ. t) dV = V ∂xi ∂aj . which evolves in time in such a way that the same material points remain contained in V . t). t).

. we obtain d ˙ ˙ ψ + ψ ∇ · v dV. . however. the other one giving the total ﬂux of ψ v through the boundary ∂V .. dt ∂aj ∂aj ∂aj ∂xk ∂aj The time derivative of J thus gives rise to d dt J˙ = ∂x1 ∂a1 ∂x2 ∂a1 ∂x3 ∂a1 = d dt ∂x1 ∂a2 ∂x2 ∂a2 ∂x3 ∂a2 d dt ∂x1 ∂a3 ∂x2 ∂a3 ∂x3 ∂a3 + . To work out what J˙ is. to expand the ˙ deﬁnition of the material time derivative ψ and get ˙ φ= V (∂t ψ + v · ∇ ψ + ψ ∇ · v)dV ∂t ψ dV + V = V ∇ · (ψ v)dV.. It is instructive. ∂a3 ∂x3 ∂a3 ∂v2 ∂v3 ∂v1 J+ J+ J = J∂i vi = J ∇ · v. and similarly for the other two determinants. we also need ∂ xi ˙ d ∂xi ∂vi ∂vi ∂xk = = = . V ∂V ˙ where ∂V is the boundary of V and n is an outer unit normal to ∂V . The transition from the second to the third expression for J˙ in the previous derivation comes about because only the value k = 1 gives a nontrivial result for the ﬁrst determinant. The expression for φ thus consists of two parts: one related to the time change of ψ inside V . Once J˙ is known. t) dV = dt V V V0 or ˙ φ(t) = V ˙ (ψ + ψ ∇ · v)dV This expression will be used several times later on. The second volume integral can be changed into a surface integral by using the GaussOstrogradski theorem ˙ φ= ∂t ψ dV + n · (ψ v)dS. = ∂xk ∂a1 ∂v1 ∂x2 ∂xk ∂a1 ∂x3 ∂a1 ∂xk ∂a2 ∂x2 ∂a2 ∂x3 ∂a2 ∂xk ∂a3 ∂x2 + .. ψ + ψ ∇ · v JdV0 = ψ(x. ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 where the dots refer to similar determinants with the second or the third row diﬀerentiated instead of the ﬁrst one.Table of contents 11 using the deﬁnition of the material time derivative of ψ.

Chapter 2 Conservation laws and stress Conservation laws lead to basic equations: • Conservation of mass gives the equation of continuity ∂t ρ + ∇ · (ρv) = 0 = ρ + ρ∇ · v ˙ • Conservation of momentum gives the equation of motion. for which we need the concept of stress to describe internal forces in a continuous medium ˙ ρv = f + ∇ · T • Conservation of angular momentum leads to the symmetry of the stress tensor For the (symmetric) stress tensor the eigenvalue problem yields the notions of principal normal and shear stresses 12 .

Sequence of domains enclosing P .Table of contents 13 2. . This is done in a way which might also serve to get other required properties in P . consider a sequence of domains Di enclosed in each other.1. we introduce the notion of mass density. of course. The matter enclosed in a domain Di with volume Vi has a mass Mi . which in the continuum concept ﬁlls a domain D0 in space having a volume V0 and with boundary ∂D0 . Nevertheless. The mass density ρ in P is then deﬁned as the limit of this sequence. This is a stratagem we will often resort to in the development of continuum mechanics: mentally isolating part of the continuum under consideration. The continuum enclosed in D0 has a total mass M0 . V0 The mass density in P would then be somehow the limit of this expression. Next. regardless of the sequence of domains Di used to construct the limit. Mi i→∞ −→ ρ(P ) (Mi → 0. The average mass density in each interior point of D0 is simply M0 ρaverage = . The domains Di can be ﬁctitious and need not at all have physical boundaries. How do we proceed? First. Each of the domains Di should contain P . as shown in Figure 2. Vi → 0). With the sequence of domains we get a corresponding sequence of average mass densities. The notions of mass and volume should be familiar from theoretical mechanics and give no diﬃculties at this level of the description.1. if we go back for a moment to the physical side of the D0 Di P Figure 2. In an interior point P the description of the continuum and its behaviour requires the deﬁnition and knowledge of certain physical properties.1 Mass density and equation of continuity Let us start by choosing a reference frame (coordinate system) Ox1 x2 x3 for the physical space. we can think of a lump of matter. if the volume around P were tending to zero. they are just a theoretical construction used to deﬁne the concept of mass density. To see what this implies. ρi = Vi This limit should exist and be unique. or a portion of a liquid or gas.

This process of deﬁning a mass density can be repeated for each interior point P . more intuitive way of deﬁning the mass density. Then the Radon-Nikodym theorem states the existence of a unique (mass) density ρ such that mass and volume are related according to M (D) = D dM = D ρ dV. Here comes a natural limitation of the kind of phenomena one can hope to describe adequately with a continuum theory: phenomena that are on a scale which is large compared to the atomic interparticle distance and a fortiori to the size of an atom or a molecule. both volume and mass are two such measures deﬁned in D0 . since it is precisely their motion which is constituting the motion of V . such as an energy density or a momentum density. this mass density is a continuous function of x in D0 at all times. This enables us at once to get the total mass contained in a domain D ⊂ D0 with volume V . What are needed are properties of a measure µ deﬁned in D0 such that in particular µ(U ∪ U ′ ) = µ(U ) + µ(U ′ ) µ(U ) ≥ 0. Instead of the preceding. U. in extensive form for a speciﬁc volume V . it is clear that even an elementary volume around P should still contain a large enough number of molecules in order not to violate the whole idea of a continuum. from the moment one deals with a continuum such that one can associate with every volume V in D0 a number giving the mass in V . The result is a mass density ρ(x. Clearly. ˙ M = 0. ˙ M= V (∂t ρ + ∇ · (ρv))dV = V (ρ + ρ∇ · v)dV = 0. Indeed. ˙ . the conservation of mass. t) deﬁned everywhere in D0 and by virtue of the ever present continuum hypothesis. chopping oﬀ part of such a volume will result in a discontinuous change in the mass density whenever a molecule is discarded. µ(∅) = 0. mass only in the continuum limit which precludes masses concentrated in one point. In a similar vein other densities can be deﬁned. This expresses the ﬁrst conservation law.Table of contents 14 argument. Hence the mass in V is invariant when V is followed in its motion and the material time derivative of M vanishes. Henceforth. such integrals will be written as volume integrals over V rather than over D: M= V ρ dV. if volumes of molecular or intra-molecular scale are considered. one can also use measure theory to deﬁne a mass density in a unique way. If the volume V of a continuum is followed in its motion. (U ∩ U ′ = ∅. U ′ ⊂ D0 ). it is assumed that V will always consist of the same material particles.

V ˙ Two things remain to be done. The translation of this principle into mathematical form requires a suitable deﬁnition of the total linear momentum of the mass in V . Going then to the notion of rigid bodies with a ﬁnite extent. Hence Newton’s law now stands in the form ˙ ρ v dV = F. as well as a suitable deﬁnition of all forces acting upon V . Continuum mechanics can be viewed as a limit of point mechanics with an ever increasing number of particles of ever decreasing mass. 2. total) time derivative of the total linear momentum of the mass contained in a volume V is equal to the sum of all forces acting upon V . we get for a continuum something formally very similar. It is straightforward to ﬁnd that d ˙ P= dt ρ v dV V = V ˙ (ρv + ρ v + ρ v ∇ · v) dV = ˙ ˙ ρ v dV. V . as soon as the equation of continuity is valid. ∂t ρ + ∇ · (ρv) = 0 = ρ + ρ∇ · v ˙ This equation is known as the equation of continuity. As we will need this property several times afterwards. even imagined ones.Table of contents 15 If the conservation of mass is to hold throughout the continuum for arbitrary volumes.2 Forces and conservation of linear momentum From point mechanics one knows Newton’s (second) law in the form: the time derivative of the total linear momentum of all particles equals the sum of all forces acting upon these particles. we check that for a tensor T of any order d dt ρT dV V = V ˙ ρT + ρT + ρT ∇ · v dV = ˙ V ˙ ρT dV. which yields the point or diﬀerential form of mass conservation. one had Euler’s laws as the appropriate generalizations of Newton’s law of motion. the computation of P and a proper deﬁnition of F. d ˙ P= dt ρ v dV = F. Instead of Euler’s ﬁrst law for a rigid body. V The simpliﬁcation in the integrand comes from invoking the continuity equation and is a result which is valid for more general integrands besides v. hence it would seem natural to postulate a rephrasing of Euler’s ﬁrst law for rigid bodies: the material (i. then the integrands in the previous integrals have to vanish everywhere. which we take as P= V ρv dV.e.

and passing through P . however. t) = ρ(x. such as when the atmospheric pressure has to be considered at the surface of a body. t). and ∆NO the . and they represent something as the cohesion of the material. and only survive with a non-null resultant at the boundary of the continuum. In this sense the surface forces could be thought of as generalizing the idea of internal forces in a set of particles. Usually. As part of V0 this volume V is in a certain state of motion and deformation. if part of the continuum is considered separately but yet in the same state of motion and deformation. t). on the other hand. whether the real physical boundary of a lump of matter or a ﬁctitious boundary which is thought of isolating part of the continuum from the rest. The sum of the body forces acting upon a volume V of the continuum is thus Fbody = V f dV = V ρ b dV. t) g. Consider now an elementary surface element ∆S (⊂ ∂V ) at P . interior in the volume V0 . one usually distinguishes two kinds of forces: the body or volume forces and the surface forces. as shown in Figure 2. Such forces act in each point of the continuum and we will characterize them through a force density per unit volume f (x. These forces cancel each other in each interior point as the result of the law of action and reaction. the action which the mass in V0 \V exerts on V has to be taken into account explicitly. The relation between both densities is f (x. t) with the dimensions of an acceleration. t) b(x. electromagnetic forces and the like. Body forces arise as a consequence of action at a distance and are intuitively thought of as the generalization of external forces in point mechanics. which we assume to be continuous. and could in some rare cases belong to the external forces. and imagine an internal volume V in such a way that P lies on the boundary ∂V of V . t) = g. Typical examples are gravity. Deﬁne n as a unit vector in the external direction. Surface forces. act on the surface of a continuum.2. and (n) call ∆F(n) the total force exerted by V0 \V upon V . Think of a point P . acting through ∆S. or else through a normalized force density b(x. b(x. In the case of gravity one ﬁnds that Fgrav = M g = V ρ dV g= V ρ g dV and hence f (x. surface forces have to be introduced to translate the action of one part of the continuum upon another. t) = ρ(x.Table of contents 16 As far as the forces are concerned. normal to ∂V . If we now want to describe only V and forget about the remainder of V0 without changing the motion or deformation of V .

The argument to have no net stress moment is based intuitively on the shrinking of the dimensions of the surface around P to zero. Suﬃce it here to mention that for so-called Cosserat continua the stress moment density is taken into account in a fully coherent development of the continuum theory. Obviously. the stress vector t(n) is uniquely deﬁned under this hypothesis regardless of the choice of V or its boundary. even though introduced on fairly obvious physical grounds. Note that this postulate tells us that there is no stress moment density. a unique and well deﬁned limit: ∆F(n) (n) lim∆S→0 =t ∆S (∆S → 0 n ⊥ ∆S. First of all. resulting moment (with respect to O). The sum of the surface forces acting upon a continuum with volume V and boundary ∂V is Fsurface = ∂V t(n) dS. Let ∆S shrink to zero and we get. Surface elements around P . something simpler will be necessary for a more workable description. Several remarks are in order here. To know the stress ﬁeld fully at this stage is equivalent to knowing a triple inﬁnity of stress vectors at each interior point P . according to the stress postulate of Euler-Cauchy. We will follow this argument for the sake of simplicity. The principle of action and reaction in an interior point P means that t(−n) = −t(n) . can not be proven).e.Table of contents 17 n V0 V ∆S P Figure 2. associated with the choice of the normal n in P . Furthermore. P ∈ ∆S ⊂ ∂V ). (n) ∆NO lim∆S→0 =0 ∆S The vector t(n) is called stress vector. the Euler-Cauchy postulate is a postulate (i. and it has the dimension of force per area. as long as n is the external unit vector in P normal to ∂V . although it is by no means required to construct a consistent theory.2. .

which was left in the form ˙ ρ v dV = F. For the present. or componentwise. such that t(n) = n · T This tensor T is called the stress tensor and the knowledge of the stress tensor determines the stress ﬁeld in P completely. This will have to wait until after the introduction of the stress tensor. t(n) dS = ∂V ∂V n · T dS = ni Tij dS = V ∇ · T dV ∂i Tij dV. ρvj = fj + ∂i Tij . and it is now possible to go to the diﬀerential or pointwise form of the equation expressing the conservation of momentum: ˙ ρv = f + ∇ · T or equivalently in index notation.Table of contents 18 If we return to the law of motion. V we ﬁnd ˙ ρ v dV = V V f dV + ∂V t(n) dS. 2. expressed in terms of a tensor T of order two. We are now in a position to further transcribe the equations expressing the conservation of linear momentum. It is generally admitted that there exists a linear relation between both. The surface integral appearing in the momentum equation can be transformed into a volume integral with the help of the Gauss-Ostrogradski theorem. On the other hand. no point or diﬀerential form of this conservation law is possible.3 Stress tensor In an interior point P the body force density f or ρb is a given quantity. with each choice of the normal n in P there corresponds a stress vector t(n) . . ˙ These are known under the name of equations of motion. ∂V tj dS = (n) ∂V V The momentum equation itself thus becomes ˙ ρ v dV = V V f dV + V ∇ · T dV.

M V ρ dV V with M the total mass of V . Hence ˙ P = M xC .4 Center of mass We deﬁne. center of mass and total forces. Precisely this property has ensured the success of the classical point mechanics and the mechanics of rigid bodies. When the material time derivative of this expression is taken. or when all the mass of a body can be thought of as being concentrated in one point. A similar principle will be invoked in continuum mechanics. we ﬁnd with the help of ˙ ρ v dV = V V f dV + ∂V t(n) dS that ¨ xC = 1 1 d ˙ ρ v dV = ρ v dV M dt V M V 1 1 1 F. with respect to the given reference frame and again in analogy to what is known from point mechanics and rigid body mechanics. where the deformation is negligible compared to other characteristics.Table of contents 19 2. V with the help of the equation of continuity. Taking once again the material derivative. The details of the distribution of matter in V seem to be forgotten. f dV + t(n) dS = = M V M ∂V M This states that the acceleration of the center of mass times the total mass is equal to the sum of the forces acting upon V . . just as for a rigid body. its center of mass. all momenta being computed with respect to a given ﬁxed point.5 Conservation of angular momentum In point or rigid body mechanics the conservation of angular momentum is formulated as follows: the time derivative of the total angular momentum equals the resulting momentum of all forces acting upon the system. This allows a coarser description of deformable media in terms of the total mass. and the actual shape of the volume only plays a role when computing the sum of the forces. we use the fact that M remains constant and get ˙ xC = 1 d M dt ρ x dV = V 1 M ρ v dV. The total angular momentum (with respect to chosen the origin) of a continuum in a volume V is LO = V x × ρ v dV. the center of mass of a continuum contained in V as ρ x dV 1 xC = V = ρ x dV . 2.

ε ··T = 0 There follows that εipq εijk Tjk = δpj δqk Tjk − δpk δqj Tjk = Tpq − Tqp = 0. Again one ﬁnds the diﬀerential or point form of the equation expressing the conservation of angular momentum. or εijk Tjk = 0. ε ··T = 0 ⇐⇒ Tt = T. Such a result would not exist for Cosserat continua where a stress momentum distribution is present. If stress momenta would have been included in the description. ∂V x × t(n) i dS = ∂V (x × (n · T))i dS εijk xj nℓ Tℓk dS = ∂ℓ (εijk xj Tℓk ) dV V = ∂V = V εijk (δℓj Tℓk + xj ∂ℓ Tℓk ) dV = V (ε ··T + x × (∇ · T))i dV. so that What remains of the conservation of angular momentum is that the stress tensor has to be a symmetric tensor. since d d ˙ ρ x × v dV. formally reminiscent of classical mechanics. or in more explicit form. There remains in the angular momentum equation that V ˙ x × ρ v dV = V x × f dV + V (x × ∇ · T + ε ··T) dV or with the help of the equation of motion. x × ρ v dV = ρ (x × v) dV = dt dt V V V One has to change the surface integral into a volume integral according to the theorem of Gauss-Ostrogradski. The conservation of angular momentum for continua is hence ˙ L O = NO . .Table of contents 20 The total momentum results only from the momenta of the forces acting upon V and is NO = V x × f dV + ∂V x × t(n) dS. and conversely. V ε ··T dV = 0. V ˙ ρ x × v dV = V x × f dV + ∂V x × t(n) dS. this result would no longer be valid. The computation was done in index notation because in vector notation it is well-nigh impossible and would be at any rate confusing.

V V 1 2 ρv dV. which will be treated in more detail in the next chapter. to rewrite P= as P= V V (f + ∇ · T) · v dV + T : D dV = V T : ∇ v dV V 1 dv 2 ρ dV + 2 dt d dt V 1 2 ρv dV + 2 T : D dV. 2 i. We recall that the forces acting upon the part of the continuum under consideration were the body forces f and the stress forces t(n) . As we restrict ourselves in the next chapters to problems which can be studied from an almost purely mechanical point of view (and there are enough interesting problems falling in this category) we will give the balance of energy in this paragraph in very simple terms. as 1 D= ∇ v + (∇ v)t .6 Conservation of energy Many things could be said about energy. V ∂V which can be computed to be P = = V V f · v dV + f · v dV + f · v dV + ∂V n · T · v dS V ∇ · (T · v) dV (∇ · T) · v + Tt : ∇ v dV T : ∇ v dV. together with the equation of motion.e. V = V V = V (f + ∇ · T) · v dV + We deﬁne the rate of deformation tensor D. 2 2 This will be used. The total mechanical power then is P= f · v dV + t(n) · v dS. 2 . In view of the symmetry of T it is easy to prove that T : ∇v = T : 1 1 ∇ v + (∇ v)t + T : ∇ v − (∇ v)t = T : D. V With the deﬁnition of the kinetic energy as T = we ﬁnd that ˙ P=T + T : D dV. it is the symmetric part of ∇ v. but most of them straightaway involve thermodynamical considerations.Table of contents 21 2.

V The remainder in the energy balance. in such a way that the total mechanical power plus the heat is given by the time variation of the kinetic plus the internal energy: ˙ ˙ P +Q=T +E This is the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics. such that Q= As a result. characterized by a density ε of internal energy: E= ρε dV. where there are no heat sources/sinks nor heat ﬂuxes. To get a point form of this balance of energy requires some additional hypotheses about how the heat changes. will be lumped together and called the heat Q. one connected with the internal heat sources or sinks. V ∂V . the stress power changes the internal energy density in a unique way. ˙ This will be as far as we need to push the reasoning about energy for the purpose of this and subsequent chapters. the non-mechanical power.Table of contents 22 stating that the total mechanical power equals the change in kinetic energy per unit time plus something which will be related to the behaviour of the medium as a deformable continuum (and is sometimes called the stress power). Comparing both expressions for P. E. ρε = T : D. with density ν (possibly from a radiation ﬁeld). We will split the heat contained in a volume V in two parts. one ﬁnds that Q+ T : D dV = V d dt ρε dV V . and one connected with the heat ﬂux through the boundary. For adiabatic processes. we ﬁnally obtain that ρε = ρν − ∇ · q + T : D ˙ The time rate of change in the internal energy is given by the heat source density. ρν dV − n · q dS . the divergence of the heat ﬂux and the stress power T : D. with heat ﬂux vector q. The kinetic energy is not the only form of energy for a continuum. There is the internal energy.

but we leave it out of the discussion. until chapter 4. If this is possible. One can then ask the question if and when u and T · u can be parallel. . because we only expressed very general principles which are supposed to hold for all kinds of continua. the symmetry of the stress tensor adds three further equations. where something more speciﬁc is said about given classes of continua.7 Basic equations We are now in a position to collect the basic equations obtained sofar: the equation of continuity. If an eigenvector u is to be found at all. because ﬁrst deformation has to be treated and this will occupy chapter 3. the components of the stress tensor. 2.e. we have at our disposal seven scalar equations containing thirteen unknown scalar quantities. as it simply determines the internal energy once T and v (and hence ∇v and D) are known. the determinant of the coeﬃcients must vanish. Finally. i. which form in three-dimensional space a set of three homogeneous equations in the three components of u. det(Tij − λ δij ) = det(T − λ 1) = 0. In index notation we have that Tij uj = λ ui .8 Eigenvalue problem for symmetric tensors We recall the interpretation of a tensor of order two as a linear operator mapping a vector u into another one. The theoretical description is thus not closed at all. The equation of motion corresponds to three scalar equations in nine additional unknowns. The remainder of the present chapter will be devoted to some properties of the stress tensor as a symmetric tensor. If in the preceding set of equations one counts in scalar components.Table of contents 23 2. This should not be surprising. λ is called an eigenvalue and u is the corresponding eigenvector of T. the equation of motion and the symmetry of the stress tensor : ρ + ρ ∇ · v = ∂t ρ + ∇ · (ρv) = 0 ˙ ˙ ρv = f + ∇ · T = ρb + ∇ · T Tt = T To this one could add the energy balance. as the example of gravity shows. To sum up. Constitutive equations will have to wait. The closure of the theoretical description will only be obtained by the introduction of constitutive equations. however. if and when there exists a scalar λ such that T · u = λu. the equation of continuity is one equation in four unknowns. all of which can be encountered in various guises. The terminology has been carried over from what is used in matrix algebra. the mass density and the three components of the velocity. be they elastic material or ﬂuids. because the volume force density f has to be considered a given quantity.

Since each eigenvalue satisﬁes the characteristic equation and in view of the diagonal representation. This component can be written in equivalent ways as (n) σN = n · t(n) = nn : T = T : nn = n · T · n.9 Normal and shear stresses The symmetry of the stress tensor has several interesting consequences. 0 0 λ3 Expansion of the characteristic equation leads to λ3 − IT λ2 + IIT λ − IIIT = 0. where the three (principal) invariants of T are given by IT = tr T = Tii . 2 2 IIIT = det T. If the eigenvalues are not all diﬀerent. values for λ. First comes the concept of normal stress. possibly coinciding. If they are diﬀerent from each other. T and 1. 2. with the three eigenvalues as diagonal elements. We know that a symmetric tensor T has three real eigenvalues. and with each one corresponds an eigenvector. There are three eigenvalues thus. . λ1 0 0 T = 0 λ2 0 . In this orthogonal system the representation of T is diagonal. T3 − IT T2 + IIT T − IIIT 1 = 0 This is known as the Hamilton-Cayley equation and it can be used to express higher powers of T as combinations of T2 . then it is still possible to construct three eigenvectors which form an orthogonal system. T itself satisﬁes its own characteristic equation. which is deﬁned as the component of the stress vector t(n) along n itself. From T · u = λu there follows after repeated multiplication with T that Tm · u = λm u.Table of contents 24 This is the characteristic equation of T which yields in general three. the corresponding eigenvectors form an orthogonal system. associated with a direction n at a point P . 1 1 IIT = (Tii Tjj − Tij Tji ) = tr (T tr T − T2 ).

in the plane itself. In the converse problem one could ask for which directions the shear stresses are maximum. For simplicity. Thus σ is required to be a solution of det(T − σ 1) = det(Tij − σδij ) = 0. A relevant question in this context is whether there exist planes in the continuum for which there is a normal but no shear stress. They are summarized in Table 2. i. We start from the magnitude squared of the shear stress vector. of course. (n) and the stress is simply called the traction or pressure according to whether σN is positive or negative. or more general. or vanish or not. and it is possible to ﬁnd a coordinate system in which the stress tensor has a diagonal matrix representation.Table of contents 25 The normal stress is the same for both the inner and the outer normal to a given plane. We are then dealing. In general one has for a given direction n at a point both normal and shear stresses. All these properties simply follow from the symmetry of T.: the projection of the stress vector t(n) associated with a direction n upon a direction m equals the projection of the stress vector t(m) associated with m upon n. In such a coordinate system (based on a system of principal axes for stress) the coordinate planes at least satisfy the requirement that there be no shear stress along these planes.e. Note that i. The coordinate planes in the system of principal axes carry no shear stresses. 2 2 σS = t(n) − σN n · t(n) − σN n = t(n) · t(n) − σN .1. (n) (n) tS = t(n) − σN n.e. t(n) = σ n. which amounts to T · n = n · T = σ n. The corresponding stress vector t(n) should be parallel to the normal n for such planes. given by m · tS = n · tS (n) (m) m · t(n) = m · T · n = n · t(m) = mn : T = nm : T (m ⊥ n). The (real) eigenvalues of T are called the principal stresses. For two given orthogonal directions m and n with their associated stress vectors one speaks of the reciprocity of the shear stresses. . σN = σN (n) (−n) . the computations will be done in the system of principal axes. diﬀerent states of stress exist. for which can use the results for symmetric tensors recalled in the previous section. extremum. with the eigenvalue problem for the stress tensor. The shear stress is the component of the stress vector t(n) perpendicular to the normal. According to whether some eigenvalues are equal or not.

linear stress σ 0 0 4. i and hence 2 2 σS = n2 σi − (n2 σi )2 . With the use of a Lagrangian multiplier λ we have to ﬁnd the extrema of the function 2 φ = σS − λ(ni ni − 1) as a function of the components of n. The extrema of this function have to be sought depending on the direction of n. The condition that φ be extremum is ∂φ = 0. plane stress T in principal axes σ1 0 0 0 σ2 0 0 0 σ3 with possibly σ1 = σ2 but σ2 = σ3 σ1 0 0 0 σ2 0 0 0 0 σ1 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 t(n) in principal axes n1 σ 1 n2 σ 2 n3 σ 3 n1 σ 1 n2 σ 2 0 t(n) plane (1. 2. general stress 2. ∂nα (α = 1. α not).1. with the constraint that n be a unit vector.2) n1 σ 1 0 0 (n) t e(1) n1 n1 σ n2 σ =⇒ σ n2 n3 n3 σ (n) t = σ n (∀n) invariants IIIT = 0 or det T = 0 IIIT = 0 IIT = 0 IIT = 0 = IIIT IT = tr T = 0 1 IIT = 3 (IT )2 3. i i t(n) = nα σα α (i summed. Diﬀerent stress states With respect to principal axes we have σ N = n2 σ i . 3) . ni ni = n2 = 1. spherical stress 0 σ 0 0 0σ σ1 = σ2 = σ3 = σ T = σ1 IIIT = 1 (I )3 27 T Table 2.Table of contents 26 state of stress 1.

The other class of solutions is found by putting one component of n. 1 2 2 σ2 − 2σ2 n2 σ1 + n2 σ2 − λ = 0. The discussion is ﬁrst given for the case when all eigenvalues σα of the stress tensor are diﬀerent. the third component then being 1. except to say that in the case of three equal eigenvalues σ1 = σ2 = σ3 = σ . which yields 2 λ = −σ1 2 σS = 0. and the discussion of the solutions is herewith exhausted. if n = e(1) . 1 2 2 σ1 − σ2 2 σS = 2 2 λ = −σ1 σ2 . zero and solving 2 σ1 − 2σ1 n2 σ1 + n2 σ2 − λ = 0. 1 2 for n1 and n2 . The other cases are analogous. We will leave this to the reader. This type of solution yields nothing but the coordinate planes in the system of principal axes. This gives 1 n2 = n2 = . 1 σ2 − σ1 2 2 n1 = n2 = and n3 = 0 ⇒ σS = 2 2 1 σ3 − σ1 2 2 (σ1 < σ2 < σ3 ) n1 = n3 = and n2 = 0 ⇒ σS = 2 2 1 σ3 − σ2 2 n2 = n2 = and n1 = 0 ⇒ σS = 3 2 2 These are the maximal shear stresses. A ﬁrst class of solutions is with two components of n zero. and the principal shear stresses occur along the bisector planes of the system of principal axes. say n3 . Then it can be checked that at least one component of n has to vanish in order to ﬁnd a solution. 1 2 n2 + n2 = 1. while on the other hand not all three components of n may vanish simultaneously. where the shear stresses vanish.Table of contents 27 which gives the set of equations ∂φ 2 = 2nα σα − 2(n2 σj )2nα σα − 2λnα j ∂nα 2 = 2nα σα − 2σα (n2 σ1 + n2 σ2 + n2 σ3 ) − λ = 0 1 2 3 (α not summed). Suitable but straightforward corrections can be made to the above reasoning if some of the eigenvalues coincide. . if we suppose that all σi are diﬀerent from each other.

T = σ1. . where every direction corresponds to an eigenvector and there are no shear stresses at all. only (equal) normal stresses.Table of contents 28 one has a state of isotropic or spherical stress.

after subtracting translation and rigid body rotation. with rate of strain and vorticity tensors 1 D = (∇v + v∇) 2 and 1 Ω = (∇v − v∇) 2 • Eigenvalues for the strain and rate of strain tensors give principal strains and special deformations 29 . In its simplest form the deformation and rotation tensors are 1 E = (∇u + u∇) 2 and 1 W = (∇u − u∇) 2 • Rates of strain similarly address the evolutionary aspects of deformation.Chapter 3 Deformation • Finite and inﬁnitesimal deformation are obtained by comparing initial and ﬁnal states.

and then one gets at each time a translation velocity. Two ways of looking at the motion are possible. an angular velocity and a rate of deformation. one can simply compare the initial and the ﬁnal states. This comparison will yield a certain translation. the motion will have a third aspect. one might be interested in the motion itself. In view of the continuum hypotheses. which simply means that the continuum under consideration is V0 R0 Q0 db da P0 u dx P a 3 x Q dy R V O 1 2 Figure 3. In the present section we start with the comparison of the initial and ﬁnal states and leave the velocities for a subsequent section. are called the material or Lagrangian coordinates. The particle formerly at P0 is displaced to P . and has a displacement vector u given by u = x − a.1. First. Comparison of initial and ﬁnal states. we will suppose that the correspondence between P0 and P is one-to-one. . For deformable bodies.Table of contents 30 3. On the other hand. a.1 both states to be compared are drawn with respect to the same reference system. that of deformation. x. without bothering about the evolution through intermediate states. for the purpose of the theoretical description. Fix a reference frame with a Cartesian coordinate system. The coordinates in the initial state. are called the space or Eulerian coordinates. rotation and deformation. into a translation and a rotation. whereas those in the ﬁnal state.1 Finite deformation Recall that the motion of a rigid body can be decomposed. In Figure 3. which cannot be regarded as strictly rigid.

then the Jacobian tends to 1 when the ﬁnal state approaches the initial state. the displacement vector becomes u = u(x. With the help of the transformations relating a and x one gets dx = da · ∂ x ∂a ∂ a da = dx · ∂x dxi = ∂xi daj . the displacement vector is a continuous function of the position in either the initial or the ﬁnal state. hence the transformations x = x(a. t) − a. equivalently. which is now built into the theory. J = det ∂ xj > 0. and thus for the displacement vector u = u(a. Q0 and R0 in the initial state and consider the corresponding points in the ﬁnal state. From P0 to Q0 we have the inﬁnitesimal vector da. The uniqueness requirements prevent the Jacobian from going through zero. t). t) = x − a(x. Conversely. How these particles got there is irrelevant for the time being. P . demands quite some caution and adaptation before the theory can be applied to problems such as fractures of elastic materials. The one-to-one correspondence between P0 and P . t) = x(a. This requirement stems from the usual deterministic view that the initial conditions uniquely determine the subsequent evolution of a given particle. In order to separate the translation and rotation aspects of the motion from the deformation aspects. ∂aj ∂ai dai = dxj . The transformation between initial and ﬁnal state is orientation preserving. t) should be each others inverse. t) and a = a(x. we set out with three neighbouring points. so that it has to keep a positive sign. P0 . Q and R. ∂xi This is based on the reasoning that if the initial and ﬁnal states are smoothly connected. t). tagging all particles by their initial positions. we ﬁnd that x = x(a. corresponding in the ﬁnal state to dx from P to Q. This in particular implies that the Jacobian determinant of the transformation be diﬀerent from zero. As a further requirement. Both descriptions refer to the same comparison between an initial and a ﬁnal state. and even. that it be positive. Using the material coordinates or. ∂ai J −1 = det ∂ aj > 0. using the space coordinates.Table of contents 31 nowhere torn apart nor joined onto another material. we can express the original positions of the particles now at x through a = a(x. t). for material continua. Similarly. ∂xj .

The symmetric tensor L is called the ﬁnite or nonlinear Lagrangian strain tensor of Green and StVenant. via the Eulerian description. That we do indeed ﬁnd a tensor can be proved in diﬀerent ways. contained in da · db. da = dx · G. ∂xj For the simplicity of subsequent calculations we abbreviate the position gradients as F= ∂ x. The scalar product dx · dy contains information about the distances between P and Q and P and R. and the tensor E is the ﬁnite or nonlinear Eulerian strain tensor of Almansi and Cauchy. In a similar vein we get. we calculate successively dx · dy − da · db = (da · F) · (db · F) − da · db = da · F · Ft · db − da · db = da · (F · Ft − 1) · db = 2da · L · db. ∂a F−1 = G = ∂ a. dx · dy − da · db = dx · dy − (dx · G) · (dy · G) = dx · (1 − G · Gt ) · dy = 2dx · E · dy. dy = db · F db = dy · G. we ﬁnd analogously dy = db · ∂ x ∂a ∂ a db = dy · ∂x dyi = ∂xi dbj . R0 ) and (P. db and dy. as well as about the angle QP R. ∂aj ∂ai dbi = dyj .Table of contents 32 Repeating the argument for the pair of points (P0 . ∂x and rewrite the respective diﬀerentials as dx = da · F. denoting the separation vector resp. R). either directly on the deﬁnition 1 L = (F · Ft − 1) 2 or via the fact that in dx · dy − da · db = 2da · L · db L yields a scalar for an arbitrary choice of the (inﬁnitesimal) vectors da and db. The deﬁnition 1 E = (1 − G · Gt ) 2 . Subtracting similar information from the initial state.

F and G are represented by orthogonal matrices). or Q and R. This implies that for rigid bodies L and E have to vanish (i.Table of contents 33 shows that it is also a symmetric tensor. if L and E vanish in the neighbourhood of a particle P . Conversely. we let for a while Q0 and R0 . t) = x(a. the distance always remains invariant. hence the neighbourhood of P behaves as if it were part of rigid body. To see indeed that L and E merit the name of strain tensors. t) into the expression for E we obtain Ejk = 1 ∂ui ∂ui δjk − δij − δik − 2 ∂xj ∂xk ∂ui ∂ui ∂ui ∂ui 1 + δik − δjk − δij δik + δij = 2 ∂xk ∂xj ∂xj ∂xk 1 ∂uj ∂uk ∂ui ∂ui = + − . by deﬁnition of a rigid body. This shows that L and E indeed measure the deformation or the strain around P0 or P . 2 ∂xk ∂xj ∂xj ∂xk By similarly substituting These expressions will be used in the next section to determine the small strain tensors. t) − a with the original deﬁnition of L gives us in index notation Ljk = 1 2 1 = 2 1 = 2 ∂ui − δjk ∂ak ∂ui ∂ui ∂ui ∂ui δij δik + δij + δik + − δjk ∂ak ∂aj ∂aj ∂ak ∂uj ∂uk ∂ui ∂ui . Combining u = u(a. or put diﬀerently. we may just as well use the displacements. . that these tensors measure pure strain or deformation. t) = x − a(x. refer to the same particle and ﬁnd that dx · dx − da · da = dx2 − da2 = 2L : da da = 2E : dx dx. The left-hand side of this expression refers only to the distance between two particles in the initial state and to the distance between the same two particles in the ﬁnal state. we ﬁnd that the distance between P and a neighbouring particle Q remains invariant during the motion. + + ∂ak ∂aj ∂aj ∂ak δij + ∂ui ∂aj δik + u = u(x. Note that for rigid bodies we could pick any two (not even neighbouring) particles and. Instead of expressing L and E in components of the coordinates.e.

∂xj ∂xk ∂xk one says that the continuum is subjected to a small or inﬁnitesimal strain or deformation. for small strain. the coordinates then being designated by x in both cases. and the antisymmetric part of ∇u will be called the rotation tensor W. 2 L= and it is obvious that the distinction between a Lagrangian and an Eulerian description can usually be omitted.Table of contents 34 3. in such a way that the products of those components can be neglected compared to the components themselves. whenever no confusion is possible. . ∂ui ∂ui ∂uj ≪ ∂aj ∂ak ∂ak or ∂ui ∂ui ∂uj ≪ . E= 1 1 ∇u + (∇u)t = (∇u + u∇) 2 2 1 2 1 = 2 ∂uj ∂uk + ∂ak ∂aj ∂uj ∂uk + ∂xk ∂xj . Now E is the symmetric part of the gradient of the displacement. We yet have to show that. 2 1 E= ∇x u + (∇x u)t . To do . with W= 1 1 ∇u − (∇u)t = (∇u − u∇) 2 2 This decomposition of ∇u is unique: ∇u = E + W. and is inspired by the fact that for ordinary vectors (vu)t is just uv. Keeping this in mind.2 Inﬁnitesimal deformation or small strain If the components of the gradient of the displacement are suﬃciently small. Applying the above approximation in the last obtained expressions for L and E reduce these to Ljk = Ejk Written in tensor notation this is 1 ∇a u + (∇a u)t . henceforth we will use E to denote also the linear or small strain tensor. W merits the name of “rotation tensor”. The notation u∇ will be used instead of (∇u)t .

so. 2 2 . To see this. For an antisymmetric tensor with components Wkℓ .Table of contents 35 V V0 u′ Q0 Q dx P0 u P Figure 3. 2 Conversely. deﬁne in a unique way the vector w with components 1 wj = εjkℓ Wkℓ . the second term refers to the pure deformation and the third part is nothing but the rotation. Decomposition of neighbouring displacements. The ﬁrst term on the right-hand side of the last equation is the translation part of the motion. is expressed through a Taylor expansion around the displacement of P0 . we introduce the concept of the dual vector of an antisymmetric tensor of order two such as W. the displacement u′ = u(Q0 ) of a particle Q0 in the neighbourhood of P0 . because only there a vector and an antisymmetric tensor of order two both have three components.2. it follows that εpqj wj = 1 1 1 εpqj εjkℓ Wkℓ = δpk δqℓ Wkℓ − δpℓ δqk Wkℓ 2 2 2 1 1 = Wpq − Wqp = Wpq . so that a one-to-one correspondence between the information contained in these is possible. u′ = u(xQ0 ) = u(xP0 + dx) = u(xP0 ) + dx · ∇u(xP0 ) = u + dx · ∇u = u + dx · E + dx · W.2. as indicated in Figure 3. The notion of a dual vector is restricted to a three-dimensional space.

The explicit expression of w is wj = 1 1 εjkℓ Wkℓ = εjkℓ (∂k uℓ − ∂ℓ uk ) 2 4 1 1 1 1 = εjkℓ ∂k uℓ + εjℓk ∂ℓ uk = εjkℓ ∂k uℓ = (∇ × u)j 4 4 2 2 1 W = (∇u − u∇) 2 1 w = ∇×u 2 or ⇐⇒ 3. This shows indeed that W is giving the rotation part of the motion. so that dx2 − da2 . 2 Wkℓ = εkℓj wj . so does w and vice versa.Table of contents 36 or summarized together. 2da2 This yields several expressions which are equivalent within the small strain approximation. we return to the Lagrangian view point. If W vanishes. one can check that (v · W)i = vk Wki = vk εkij wj = εijk wj vk = (w × v)i and hence the expression for u′ can be rewritten as u′ = u + w × dx + E · dx.3 Geometric interpretation of small strain For the interpretation of the diagonal elements of E. 2 2 2da 2da da This shows that the diagonal elements of the small strain tensor give the relative stretching along the coordinate axes. 1 wj = εjkℓ Wkℓ . dx · dx − da · da = 2E : dada and take da parallel to the ﬁrst axis. Furthermore. dx2 − da2 = 2E11 da2 . E11 = E11 = (dx + da)(dx − da) 2da(dx − da) dx − da ≃ = . namely a rotation over an angle w . . This is a quantity which can be measured and is often used in experimental setups.

This change in angle is called shear. ∂x1 ∂x2 where it has been taken into account that α and β are assumed to be very small. da db π = 2E12 da db. Hence we have that the oﬀ-diagonal elements of the small strain tensor give half of the change in angle between two line elements which were perpendicular to each other before the deformation. with da parallel to the ﬁrst axis and db parallel to the second axis and ﬁnd dx dy cos θ − da db cos Up to second order terms. We use dx · dy − da · db = 2E : dadb As shown in Figure 3.4 Rate of deformation Up to now the discussion of the deformation was conﬁned to a comparison between an initial and a ﬁnal state. 3. we have that 2E12 = dx dy cos θ ≃ cos θ. 2 Once the meaning of the diagonal elements is intuitively clear. Deformation of angles. we proceed to the oﬀ-diagonal elements.3. The reason that there is a factor two is that notions like relative stretching or shear evolved experimentally long before it was recognized that these were parts of what is now known to behave as a (small) strain tensor. we can express the cosine of θ as follows cos θ = cos π − α − β = sin(α + β) ≃ α + β 2 ∂u2 ∂u1 ≃ tan α + tan β = + = 2E12 .Table of contents 37 2 β tan β = ∂u1 ∂x2 ∂u2 ∂x1 tan α = α 1 O Figure 3.3. without paying any attention to the intervening states or to the motion .

To get some idea of the velocities occurring. involved in getting from one state to the other. we Taylor decompose the velocity of a particle Q in the neighbourhood of a particle P . the vorticity tensor Ω is antisymmetric. the vorticity (vector) ω 1 ω = ∇×v 2 or 1 ωi = εijk ∂j vk 2 or 1 Ωij = (∂i vj − ∂j vi ). so that v′ = v(xQ ) = v(xP ) + dx · ∇v(xP ) = v + dx · ∇v 1 1 = v + dx · (∇v + v∇) + dx · (∇v − v∇) = v + dx · D + dx · Ω 2 2 or also v′ = v + ω × dx + dx · D.Table of contents 38 v′ Q dx v P V Figure 3.4. and they are respectively the symmetric and antisymmetric part of the velocity . in much the same way as we did with the displacements before and as shown in Figure 3. 2 or 1 Dij = (∂i vj + ∂j vi ). The new quantities introduced in the above are respectively the rate of deformation tensor D.4. Velocities of neighbouring particles. 2 The rate of deformation tensor D is a symmetric tensor. 1 Ω = (∇v − v∇) 2 and its dual vector. 1 D = (∇v + v∇) 2 the vorticity tensor Ω.

we calculate that 2dx · D · dx = d d (dx2 − da2 ) = (2dx · E · dx) dt dt ˙ = 2dv · E · dx + 2dx · E · dx + 2dx · E · dv ˙ = 2dx · E + ∇v · E + E · (∇v)t · dx. ˙ D = E + ∇v · E + E · (∇v)t because dx · A · dx = 0 (∀dx) ⇐⇒ A = 0. provided A is a symmetric tensor. which yields d d d (dx2 − da2 ) = (dx · dx) = 2dx · (dx). It follows that . dt and ﬁnally get d (dx2 − da2 ) = 2dx · dv = 2dx dx : ∇v dt = 2dx dx : D + 2dx dx : Ω = 2dx · D · dx. at least conceptually. dt dt dt We need to compute separately d d d (dx) = (da · ∇a x) = da · (∇a x) dt dt dt d = da · ∇a x = da · ∇a v = dv = dx · ∇x v. The decomposition of v′ shows that the motion contains three diﬀerent elements. In order to get some relation between the strain tensor E and the rate of deformation tensor D.Table of contents 39 gradient tensor ∇v. a instantaneous rotation with angular velocity ω and a pure rate of deformation given through D. the interpretation is that if the neighbourhood of a particle P instantaneously behaves as a rigid body. then the corresponding rate of deformation tensor vanishes. the last two terms on the right-hand side of the previous equation may be neglected and there only remains ˙ D ≃ E. These three diﬀerent elements are a translation velocity v. If the deformation is inﬁnitesimal. Here again. since all aspects occur simultaneously in real motion. Another way of arriving at D is by taking the time derivative of dx·dx−da·da (= 2E : dxdx).

the eigenvalues are real and there exists at least three mutually orthogonal eigenvectors. say E.5 Principal strains and special deformations Both tensors E and D are symmetric and we will conﬁne the discussion to one of the tensors. with invariants 1 IIE = tr E tr E − E2 . 2 Since E is symmetric. these eigenvectors can be used as the base of a coordinate system in which E is diagonal. where the computations are done in the principal coordinate system for E. of course): . with volume dV0 = da · (db × dc). The relative change in volume is thus dV − dV0 = tr E. respectively. one considers an elementary parallelepiped around P0 . The eigenvalue problem for E. db. and between dz and dc. After normalization. we can perform a classiﬁcation reminiscent of the one given for the stress tensor T. means that one is looking for those directions n which remain parallel to themselves under pure deformation. dV0 According to whether some of the invariants of E vanish. that is when neither translation nor rotation occurs. IIIE = det E. Use dx = da · F = da · (1 + ∇a u) = da + da · E + w × da = (1 + ε1 )da + w × da and analogous relations between dy and db. There are thus at least three diﬀerent directions which remain unchanged when the continuum is subjected to pure deformation. To see where this name comes from. where da. The ﬁrst invariant IE has a special meaning and is often called the coeﬃcient of cubic dilatation in small strain. E · n = εn. The eigenvalues are the roots of ε1 3 2 ε2 det(E − ε1) = −ε + IE ε − IIE ε + IIIE = 0 ε3 IE = tr E. dc are parallel to the three coordinate axes. We distinguish the following special states of strain (and a similar survey could be given for the rate of deformation. We thus ﬁnd that dV = dx · (dy × dz) = [(1 + ε1 )da + w × da] · {[(1 + ε2 )db + w × db] × [(1 + ε3 )dc + w × dc]} ≃ (1 + ε1 + ε2 + ε3 )da · (db × dc) + da · [db × (w × dc)] + da · [(w × db) × dc] + (w × da) · (db × dc) = (1 + tr E) dV0 .Table of contents 40 3.

Table of contents 41 • General deformation: IIIE = 0. Every deformation thus consists conceptually of two parts: a change in volume without change in form. since the coeﬃcient of cubic dilatation for E′ vanishes. with the restriction that the remainder be traceless. The deviatoric part E′ is a deformation where the form changes without a change in volume. E = ε 1. equal to ε. here the (1. 3 3 tr E′ = 0. ε2. Furthermore. and a change in form without change in volume.2)-plane. here the ﬁrst one. IE = 0. changing the volume of the continuum but neither the form nor the shape. Every tensor. All displacements for pure deformation are parallel to one of the coordinate planes of the system of principal axes. Thus one ﬁnds for E that E = ε 1 + E′ . Such a traceless part is then called the deviatoric part of the tensor. • Plane deformation: IIIE = det E = 0. ε1 = 0. the principal axes for E and E′ coincide. All displacements for pure deformation are now parallel to one of the axes of the principal coordinate system.3 = 0. not just E or a symmetric one. For a general state of strain it is possible to distinguish between changes in volume and in form. The stretching for a particular direction n is deﬁned as 2 ε(n) = nn : E = ni nj Eji = ni εi . the spherical part is a third of the coeﬃcient of cubic dilatation and indicates a change in volume without a change in form (homothetic transformation). ε1. IIE = 0. where the last expression is only valid in a principal coordinate system based on the strain tensor eigenvectors. . ε2 = ε3 (possibly ε1 = ε2 ).2 = 0. • Linear deformation: IIIE = IIE = 0. In the special case of E. • Spherical deformation: ε1 = ε2 = ε3 = ε. For every direction there is no shear and the stretching is the same. ε1 . as the spherical part is diagonal in any representation. can be split in a unique way into a spherical part and a remainder. ε3 = 0. This implies that every linear dimension is multiplied by the same number and the transformation from the initial to the ﬁnal state is a homothetic one. In every coordinate system the strain tensor is a multiple of the unit tensor. 1 1 ε = tr E = ∇ · u.

as we will have twice as many equations as there are unknowns. as it is the deformations rather than the displacements which are usually measured in an experiment. Due to the symmetry of E. 2 2 with the help of the particular expression 1 w = ∇×u 2 for the dual vector w of the rotation tensor W. The required compatibility conditions are found upon elimination of u from 1 (∇u + u∇) = E. From ∇ × (∇ × E)t = 0 ∂1 ∂2 E33 = ∂3 (∂1 E23 + ∂2 E13 − ∂3 E12 ). rewritten in index notation as εikℓ εjmn ∂k ∂m Enℓ = 0. we will show that the compatibility condition of StVenant is not only necessary but also suﬃcient to deduce the structure of E. From (∇ × E)t = ∇w we ﬁnd that ∇ × (∇ × E)t = 0 This is the required compatibility condition of StVenant. It is clear that without special precautions this will be impossible. this is also symmetric and hence equivalent to six scalar equations. This question is not only of mathematical relevance but has some experimental implications.Table of contents 42 3. Consequently. The mathematical compatibility conditions then amount to consistency relations for the experimental data. 2 Taking the curl of both sides gives 1 1 ∇ × E = ∇ × (∇u + u∇) = ∇ × u∇ = w∇ = (∇w)t . The inverse problem consists in determining the displacement u when the strain tensor E is given. three of the form 2∂1 ∂2 E12 = ∂1 ∂1 E22 + ∂2 ∂2 E11 . . the deﬁnitions of E and D have been interpreted as a way of calculating E or D.6 Compatibility conditions for small strain Up to now. given the displacements u or the velocities v. Some relations between the components of E have to exist in order to allow the determination of u. and three of the form In order to completely close the discussion. if E is supposed symmetric. not every tensor is admissible as a strain tensor. There are six scalar equations giving Eij (or Dij ). starting from the three components ui (or vi ).

or also that The index notation. As d is divergence-free. ∇(f − e) = (f − e)∇. ∂i (fj − ej ) = ∂j (fi − ei ). it can be written as the curl of yet another vector e and thus ∇ × E = ∇ × e∇. From this one ﬁnds that E = e∇ + ∇f . for D and Ω (or ω). f − e = ∇φ. There is also a compatibility condition on W. Hence f − e has to be a gradient of a scalar. and a similar discussion can be given. since the tensor of Levi-Civit` is completely antisymmetric and we have assumed that E is a symmetric. and consequently. 1 1 E = e∇ + ∇(e + ∇φ) = ∇ e + ∇φ + e + ∇φ ∇ 2 2 has the structure required from a strain tensor. shows that the vector expression is equivalent to . of course. The foregoing discussion was carried out for E and W (or w). ∇ × E = d∇. 2 Hence εijk ∂i Wjk = 0. ∇ · d = tr ∇ × E = εijk ∂j Eki = 0. which is much easier to express through its dual vector: 1 w = ∇ × u ⇐⇒ ∇ · w = 0. Because of the symmetry of E this implies that e∇ + ∇f = ∇e + f ∇. ∇ × (f − e) = 0.Table of contents 43 there follows at once that and hence also that Taking the trace of this tensor yields (∇ × E)t = ∇d.

with constitutive relation T = C(ρ. as for viscoelastic media with memory eﬀects +∞ T(t) = −∞ C(τ ) : E(t − τ ) dτ where causality allows the existence of Kramers-Kronig relations 1 C (ω) = P π ′ +∞ −∞ 1 C ′′ (ω) = − P π +∞ −∞ C ′′ (ξ) dξ ξ−ω C ′ (ξ) dξ ξ−ω 44 . ID . IID . ID . ID . IIID )D2 • Simpliﬁcations occur for linear and isotropic media. recovering well known laws as Navier-Stokes (ﬂuids) T = − p(ρ)1 + λ(tr D)1 + 2µD and Hooke (elastic solids) T = λ(tr E)1 + 2µE • More general constitutive laws are possible.Chapter 4 Constitutive relations • Notions of frame-indiﬀerence are used to construct constitutive relations which connect strain or rate of strain with stress • General isotropic media are known as Reiner-Rivlin ﬂuids. IIID )1 + φ1 (ρ. IIID )D + φ2 (ρ. IID . D) = φ0 (ρ. IID .

Stress and strain occur in all continua. At the same time ∆ℓ decreased with the cross-section S of the bar. but the as yet incomplete description through the basic laws has to be valid for many diﬀerent classes of material. all in direct proportionality. the other end remaining clamped in position. without other parameters such as the temperature or the mass density entering the relation. ℓ T11 = F S 1 T11 or T11 = EE11 . Young’s experiment. On the other hand. Hence the name of constitutive relations for the various stress-strain dependencies we will survey. The stress response to a certain strain will vary from one material to another. For several elastic media the result was that for moderate forces the elongation ∆ℓ increased linearly with the original length ℓ of the bar at rest and with the magnitude F of the force applied at one end of the bar.1. Accordingly the result is ∆ℓ ∼ ℓF .1. keeping in mind the intuitive geometric interpretation of the diagonal elements of the strain tensor for small strains. Hence with E11 = we have ∆ℓ . The relationship is linear in the E11 = 2 ℓ S O Figure 4. The simplest starting point is to suppose that the stress depends on the strain in a linear way. as shown in Figure 4. we can call the relative elongation in this direction the element E11 of the strain tensor for this problem. not just in numerical values but also in the form of the functional dependency. sketch Young’s experiment. and for the present only superﬁcially. the ratio F/S is the force per unit surface area. To see where these ideas come from we will brieﬂy. E The constant of proportionality E is called Young’s modulus of elasticity.Table of contents 45 4. S If we label the principal direction of the bar the ﬁrst direction.1 Young’s experiment In the previous chapters the notions of stress and strain or deformation were introduced in general terms and the discussion was given without any attempt to relate the stress in a given continuum to the strain or deformation it was undergoing. ∆ℓ F 1 . in which a prismatic bar with cross-section S is subjected to a force F in the principal direction of the bar. nothing else but T11 . In the above simple relationship it just converts the strain into the stress. with the dimensions of a pressure (or traction!).

In other words. C(0) = 0. Then. how does one know that. meaning that it displays the same material properties in all directions. In generalizing these intuitive ideas. C(0) = γ 1. the constitutive relation (to be derived later) is called Hooke’s law. In the two previous cases. are there quantities which could be included in admittedly more general constitutive relations.Table of contents 46 sense that doubling the strain results in a doubling of the stress. However.2 Frame-indiﬀerence For linear and isotropic elastic media. These two classes of materials can be generalized in many ways. but can now be derived in a systematic way under the twin assumptions that the stress be a linear function of the strain or rate of strain and this for isotropic media. In the example of an extended rubber. even when constant. and such a material seems to possess a natural and stress-free reference state. On the other hand. sometimes called “response function”. Some of this will be discussed in section 4. the mass density is not to be included in a constitutive relation? More generally. for isotropic materials such as metals. This give rise to materials with memory. the way in which a bar is cut from an ingot is not supposed to aﬀect its elastic properties. although this is not obvious at all yet. we expect to ﬁnd the same elongations if the tensions are the same. are not isotropic. only as long as the strain or deformation changes. If there is no strain. to cite only one parameter. the stress is present as long as the extension is applied. whereas some other quantities might not? . Furthermore. of course. 4. apart from the residual hydrostatic pressure which is isotropic. whereas the analogous relation for ﬂuids is called Navier-Stokes’ law. We ﬁrst subject it to a given tension in one direction and measure the corresponding stretching. there will be stress. rather than being an ordinary function. if we think of ﬂuids. Thus we deal with ﬂuids if T = C(D). This means that the stress at a given point and instant then depends on the strain at other points or at previous instants. C denotes a (tensor valued) function of its argument. consider a cube of isotropic material. based on experimental evidence. if we repeat the experiment in one of the other two directions.5 on visco-elastic media. in that it may involve an integration of E or D over the medium and over time. there is no stress. we will call a material elastic if it has a constitutive relation of the form T = C(E). because they have speciﬁc symmetry directions. in the above experiment we may assume the material is isotropic. To give a better feeling for this. A further distinction is to whether the strain or the rate of strain causes the stress. Crystals are a notable example. with diﬀerent properties along diﬀerent directions. Many materials. These laws have evolved historically in an ad hoc fashion. Isotropic materials have simpler constitutive relations than anisotropic ones and we will conﬁne our study mostly to isotropic materials. one of which is to allow the symbol C to stand for a functional dependence of T with respect to E or D.

section 1. A time-dependent change of reference frame will in general be of the form x′i = Aij (t)xj + ci (t).. these transformations are to be interpreted in a geometric sense. Primes then refer to the same vectors or tensors but represented in a diﬀerent reference frame. If we now admit changes of reference frame such that the elements Aij of the (orthogonal) transformation matrix can be functions of t and. we allow for time-dependent translations of the origin. = Aip Ajq Akr · · · Tpqr. T = [Tij ]. in addition. ′ ∂xi ∂xj .e. we do not consider the modiﬁcations imposed by special relativity. ∇= ∂3 and we obtain under the above change of reference frame ∂i′ = ∂ ∂ = Aij = Aij ∂j . x1 x2 . Tijk. where the transformation matrix A = [Aij (t)] is orthogonal. the symbolic nabla vector is ∂1 ∂2 .. x= x3 In this matrix notation. no motion.) Note in passing that we are working in the framework of Galilean relativity. . where the change from one reference frame to another is really a change of coordinates involving no time dependence. uv t represents the tensor product uv of two vectors u and v. and ut v their inproduct u · v. Those quantities which still do are called frameindiﬀerent or are said to obey the principle of frame-indiﬀerence or of material objectivity.Table of contents 47 A powerful instrument in the modern theory of constitutive relations has been the principle of frame-indiﬀerence. Similarly. saying that only frame-indiﬀerent quantities should appear in constitutive relations. i. but we will not consider that. t′ = t + a. we will ﬁnd that not all quantities encountered sofar will still transform according to the transformation rule for vectors and tensors given above. (Strictly speaking one could also allow for a time translation. which may be written in matrix notation as x′ = Ax + c. Before we give a deﬁnition in mathematical terms of what frame-indiﬀerent quantities are.3) x′i = Aij xj .. we have to go back to the deﬁnition of vectors and tensors and their transformation laws under an orthogonal transformation (cf.. Vectors and tensors will be denoted through their component representation as column and square matrices. ′ Although it was not explicitly stated.

even though time dependent. ˙ dt For the stress tensor T there is no way of computing its frame-indiﬀerence. What about the velocity? Oﬀhand. D is frame-indiﬀerent. A displacement vector u transforms according to u′ = x′Q − x′P = A(xQ − xP ) = Au. its symmetric part E and its antisymmetric part W also are frame-indiﬀerent. on more or less plausible physical grounds. the coordinate transformations still are between orthonormal systems and thus AAt = 1 =⇒ ˙ ˙ AAt + AAt = 0. Surprisingly. and ﬁnd that D′ = 1 (∇v t + v∇t )′ 2 1 ˙ 1 ˙ 1 = A(∇v t + v∇t )At + AAt + AAt = ADAt . 2 which is of the utmost importance if one tries to describe media in which the deformations are not inﬁnitesimal. because. E= 1 ∇u + (∇u)t − ∇u · (∇u)t . In order to check the strain and rotation tensors. Lastly we compute the gradient of the velocity tensor in transformed coordinate systems. 2 2 2 Maybe rather unexpectedly. Once the gradient of the displacement tensor is proven frame-indiﬀerent. This is conﬁrmed by the computation v ′ = x′ = ˙ d ˙ (Ax + c) = Av + Ax + c. that T ′ = AT At . . ˙ (∇v t )′ = ∇′ (v ′ )t = A∇(Av + Ax + c)t ˙ t t t ˙t ˙ = A(∇v )A + A(∇x )A = A(∇v t )At + AAt . it is frame-indiﬀerent. Displacements hence are frame-indiﬀerent in the sense given above. This conclusion is valid even for the full ﬁnite strain tensor.Table of contents 48 so that ∇′ = A ∇. one ﬁrst has to compute (∇ut )′ = ∇′ (u′ )t = A∇(Au)t = A(∇ut )At . we would not suppose the velocity to be frame-indiﬀerent if the change of reference frame is time-dependent. hence we have to impose. in view of its derivative operator character.

as in the case of no instantaneous rotation.Table of contents 49 On the other hand. E. This shows the bracketed expression to be frame-indiﬀerent. one ﬁnds for the vorticity tensor Ω that Ω′ = 1 1 1 ˙ ˙ (∇v t − v∇t )′ = A(∇v t − v∇t )At + (AAt − AAt ) 2 2 2 ˙ ˙ = AΩAt + AAt = AΩAt − AAt . ˙ A = AΩ − Ω′ A. which is not frame-indiﬀerent. Jaumann’s rate of stress tensor coincides with ˙ T. ◦ ˙ T = T + Ω · T − T · Ω. The computation will be given for the stress tensor. other choices for the stress rate are possible. Contracting ˙ Ω′ = AΩAt + AAt with At yields ˙ At = At Ω′ − ΩAt . When Ω vanishes. Most likely they will not. but is analogous for the others. We start from T ′ = AT At and get ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ T ′ = AT At + AT At + AT At . however. ˙ ˙ Clearly T is not frame-indiﬀerent. Some of these stress rates are Truesdell’s stress rate. and rearrange the terms into ˙ ˙ T ′ + Ω′ T ′ − T ′ Ω′ = A(T + ΩT − T Ω)At . construct a tensor involving T and which we can use as a frame-indiﬀerent measure for the rate of change of the stress tensor. We will. ˙ It involves T. W and D are frame-indiﬀerent is to see whether their time derivatives are also frame-indiﬀerent or not. ˙ We use this to rewrite T ′ as ˙ ˙ T ′ = AT At + (AΩ − Ω′ A)T At + AT (At Ω′ − ΩAt ) ˙ = A(T + ΩT − T Ω)At − Ω′ T ′ + T ′ Ω′ . and it is called the rate of stress tensor of Jaumann. as well as combinations of T with the vorticity tensor. Clearly. as it is related to the instantaneous angular velocity and depends very much upon whether the frame moves and rotates or not. This should come as no surprise. ∆ ˙ T = T + T∇ · v − T · ∇v − (T · ∇v)t . by adding or subtracting frameindiﬀerent combinations to Jaumann’s tensor. The question remaining after having found that T.

v.3 Isotropy and Reiner-Rivlin ﬂuids As an example of how one would proceed in constructing a constitutive relation for isotropic media. Ω). Hence we start from T = C(ρ. ˙ ˙ A(0) = Q = 0 (Qt = −Q). Ω)At . suppose that for a given medium the stress is thought to depend upon the mass density ρ. In the end. it is worth stressing that the principle of frame-indiﬀerence or material objectivity can only be applied to those parts of the description which can reasonably be thought to be independent of the motion of the reference frame. Ω′ ). Ω). the velocity v and the gradient of the velocity ∇ v. v ′ . which will turn out to be a severe restriction. v. this amounts to requiring Young’s elasticity modulus to be independent of a particular choice of coordinate system. ρ is just taken as a representative to show what happens to other scalar frame-indiﬀerent quantities. D′ . If we think again for a moment of Young’s experiment. For constitutive relations this is valid. a relation as written above will only hold for certain observers. If the medium is anisotropic but has some kind of symmetry.Table of contents 50 and Green’s stress rate. ˙ T = T − T · ∇v − (T · ∇v)t . AΩAt + AAt = AT At = AC(ρ. We have here the same function C because the medium is supposed isotropic. In the above enumeration. ∇v) = C(ρ. We pick a speciﬁc transformation such that at t = 0: A(0) = 1. but it would be the height of folly to apply such a reasoning to the equations of motion! ∇ 4. wherever ρ is written we may put other scalar quantities as well. Av + Ax + c. One observer will write this as T = C(ρ. for the strain rates involving time derivatives of E and D. not for all of them. The dependence of T upon ∇ v will be through its symmetric part D and its antisymmetric part Ω. v. D. while another observer in a moving frame will denote this as T ′ = C(ρ′ . if need be. ˙ regardless of the particular choices for A and c. Similar expressions can be constructed. ADAt . At the end of this section. For isotropic media we thus require that ˙ ˙ T ′ = C ρ. c(0) = 0. to a fair approximation. v. D. D. . We could have included the temperature as another example. c(0) = 0.

0 0 0 C(ρ. as we could add whatever we wanted to v through Qx without changing the value of the function. 0 0 1 0 1 0 ˙ A(0) = −1 0 0 . v. D)At = C(ρ. 0 0 0 cos t sin t 0 A(t) = − sin t cos t 0 . D)At = C(ρ.e. with n a unit vector (i. nt n = 1). 0 0 1 1 0 0 A(0) = 0 1 0 . The transformation represented by A is nothing but a rotation over 180◦ along the direction given by n. Generally. all quantities which are not frame-indiﬀerent have to drop out of the constitutive relations and we are left with T = C(ρ. the direction of which will be speciﬁed later. . We thus should have for isotropic tensor functions that for any A AC(ρ. Using this in AC(ρ. For the same reason C cannot depend upon Ω. v + Qx. ADAt ) Picking a special form for A.Table of contents 51 An example of this would be with For t = 0 we ﬁnd that − sin t cos t 0 ˙ A(t) = − cos t − sin t 0 . D). D. C cannot be a function of v. D. such that in matrix notation Dn = δn and hence D′ = ADAt = 4n(nt Dn)nt − 2n(nt D) − 2(Dn)nt + D = 4nδnt − 2nnt δ − 2δnnt + D = D. The transformation property T ′ = AT At becomes for this choice of A T ′ = 4n(nt T n)nt − 2n(nt T ) − 2(T n)nt + T. We now choose n to be an eigenvector of D. ADAt ) A = 2nnt − 1. Ω). we ﬁrst verify that AAt = (2nnt − 1)(2nnt − 1) = 1. Ω − Q) = C(ρ.

D) for isotropic media. IIID )1. it is now easy to show that as far as its tensor character is concerned. When all eigenvalues are equal the tensors are isotropic. 2 γ 3 = φ0 + φ1 δ3 + φ2 δ3 . D) − 2 [C(ρ. the form of C reduces to C(ρ. C(ρ. ID . D)n nt . When there are only two diﬀerent eigenvalues for D. The above proof indicates that every eigenvector of D is an eigenvector of C(ρ. D) = φ0 (ρ. ID . IIID )1 + φ1 (ρ. . IID . ID . D) = φ0 (ρ. IIID )D + φ2 (ρ. IIID )1 + φ1 (ρ. IID . 2 γ 2 = φ0 + φ1 δ2 + φ2 δ2 . Hence C(ρ. D). D)n nt − 2n nt C(ρ. D)n = γn. Post-multiplying with n gives C(ρ. D) is diagonal whenever D is diagonal. IIID )D. D)n = n nt C(ρ. D).Table of contents 52 gives AC(ρ. D)n] nt = 2n nt C(ρ. D) = C(ρ. T = C(ρ. 2 1 δ3 δ3 which is the case when the three eigenvalues of D are all diﬀerent. complicated or straightforward. A ﬁrst. IID . there comes for the eigenvalues 2 γ 1 = φ0 + φ1 δ1 + φ2 δ1 . IID . D) + [C(ρ. φ1 . D). D) also has only two diﬀerent eigenvalues. φ2 if the determinant of the coeﬃcients does not vanish. or also n nt C(ρ. D = δ1 and the resulting stress is uniform. ID . it has to be of the form C(ρ. ID . ID . For all γi there exists a solution φ0 . Returning to the general form of C(ρ. regardless of whether the constitutive relation is linear or not. because then C(ρ. 2 1 δ1 δ1 2 1 δ2 δ2 = (δ1 − δ2 )(δ2 − δ3 )(δ3 − δ1 ). A uniform rate of deformation gives uniform stress in isotropic media. IIID )D2 If one rewrites this in principal axes for D and C(ρ. D)n] nt + C(ρ. D) as well. δ 1) = γ(ρ. D) = φ0 (ρ. D)At = 4n nt C(ρ. IID . δ)1. every direction yields an eigenvector. IID . showing that n is an eigenvector of C(ρ. intermediate result is that if D is isotropic.

Hence we can take C(ρ. being multiplied with terms quadratic in the components of E. One can check that the requirement AC(ρ. the constitutive law is linear (or. φ2 = 0. if the total relation is to be linear. D) = φ0 (ρ. As φ0 . φ1 is already multiplied by E and hence must be independent of E. For the next contribution. The discussion in this paragraph of the form C(ρ. ADAt ) is fulﬁlled for isotropic ﬂuids. Hence φ0 = κ(ρ) + λ(ρ)IE = κ(ρ) + λ(ρ)tr E. Fluids with such a constitutive relation are called Reiner-Rivlin ﬂuids. with the proviso that possibly φ2 or φ1 and φ2 vanish. Tij = Cijkℓ (ρ)Eℓk + Kij (ρ). the constitutive relations are still highly nonlinear in general. IID . 4. We ﬁnd that Cijkℓ (ρ) = λ(ρ)δij δkℓ + 2µ(ρ)δiℓ δjk . As φ0 is multiplied with the unit tensor. IID . ID . IID . ID .Table of contents 53 a case we discussed already. that is. such as seemed to be the case with the metal undergoing moderate tensions in Young’s experiment. φ1 and φ2 are functions of the components of D. For linear media. E). and the constitutive relation for linear isotropic media is T = C(ρ) : E + K(ρ) = κ(ρ)1 + λ(ρ)(tr E)1 + 2µ(ρ)E. IIID )D2 as the most general form. The concept of isotropy implies that after a change of reference frame this constitutive law becomes ′ ′ Tij = Cijkℓ (ρ)Eℓk + Kij (ρ). just because the functions φ0 . . such as we had obtained in the previous section. As an example. IIID )1 + φ1 (ρ. Kij = κ(ρ)δij . φ1 and φ2 only depend on the components of D through the invariant combinations ID . it may contain both a term independent of E and one linear in E. For this reason φ2 has to vanish. D)At = C(ρ. IIID )D + φ2 (ρ. D) for isotropic media can be repeated in exactly the same terms for a constitutive relation involving C(ρ.4 Linear isotropic media or in index notation. φ1 = 2µ(ρ). The ﬁrst one is to linearize the expression for isotropic but general tensor functions. the discussion in the next section will be given with E instead of D. IID and IIID . linear in IE . more precisely. ID . There are two ways of ﬁnding the form of the tensors C and K. aﬃne) and thus of the form T = C(ρ) : E + K(ρ).

0 0 1 Calculating C1111 (ρ) we ﬁnd α(ρ) = C1111 (ρ) = A1p A1q A1r A1s Cpqrs (ρ) = A11 A11 A11 A11 C1111 (ρ) + A11 A11 A12 A12 C1122 (ρ) + A11 A12 A11 A12 C1212 (ρ) + A12 A11 A11 A12 C2112 (ρ) + A11 A12 A12 A11 C1221 (ρ) + A12 A11 A12 A11 C2121 (ρ) + A12 A12 A11 A11 C2211 (ρ) + A12 A12 A12 A12 C2222 (ρ) = (cos4 θ + sin4 θ)α(ρ) + 2 sin2 θ cos2 θ [λ(ρ) + 2µ(ρ)] = α(ρ) + 2 sin2 θ cos2 θ [λ(ρ) + 2µ(ρ) − α(ρ)] . The only components of C that are not zero are C1111 (ρ) C1122 (ρ) C1212 (ρ) C1221 (ρ) = = = = C2222 (ρ) = C3333 (ρ) = α(ρ). as it is obvious that the particular labels attached to some of the coordinate axes do not matter for isotropic tensors. due to the rotation over 180◦ around n. from which it follows that α(ρ) = λ(ρ) + 2µ(ρ). If Cikjℓ (ρ) is to be symmetric in the ﬁrst two or last two indices. for any n. The structure of C(ρ) hence is Cijkℓ (ρ) = λ(ρ)δij δkℓ + µ(ρ)(δik δjℓ + δiℓ δjk ) + ν(ρ)(δik δjℓ − δiℓ δjk ).Table of contents 54 if C(ρ) connects a symmetric tensor with another symmetric tensor. because a transformation of the form A = 2nnt − 1 would give zero if an index were to occur in an odd number of locations. say the third one. C1331 (ρ) = C2112 (ρ) = C2332 (ρ) = C3113 (ρ) = C3223 (ρ) = µ(ρ) − ν(ρ). C1133 (ρ) = C2211 (ρ) = C2233 (ρ) = C3311 (ρ) = C3322 (ρ) = λ(ρ). C1313 (ρ) = C2121 (ρ) = C2323 (ρ) = C3131 (ρ) = C3232 (ρ) = µ(ρ) + ν(ρ). λ(ρ). A transformation is always possible converting the label attached to a given axis into another one. as ultimately required by the symmetry of both the strain and the stress tensors. so that cos θ sin θ 0 A = − sin θ cos θ 0 . The components Cijkℓ (ρ) can only contain a given index in pairs. To ﬁnd a further relation between α(ρ). we rotate over an angle θ around one of the axes. µ(ρ) and ν(ρ). ν(ρ) has to vanish and we recover . Another way of ﬁnding the expression for C(ρ) is to express that Cijkℓ (ρ) = Aip Ajq Akr Aℓs Cpqrs (ρ) must hold for all coordinate transformations between orthonormal systems.

T = C(E). (Remember that the so-called tensor of Levi-Civit` is only a pseudo-tensor of order a three. i. linear and isotropic ﬂuids are called Newtonian ﬂuids and have a constitutive relation of the form T = −p(ρ)1 + λ(ρ)(tr D)1 + 2µ(ρ)D. T = −p(ρ)1 + λ(tr D)1 + 2µD C(0) = 0. We have reverted to the usual notation p for the residual hydrostatic pressure. On the other hand. Under those conditions. the strain is measured from the stress-free reference state. Remark that Cijkℓ is also unchanged when the ﬁrst two indices are switched with the last two ones. the viscosity coeﬃcients λ and µ are indeed as good as constant and thus independent of mass density and temperature. one concludes immediately that there are no isotropic tensors of odd order. In general p.e. such as the temperature. For the hydrostatic pressure p this will indeed be the case and we will have to supplement the description by giving a law of state relating the pressure to the mass density and to the temperature. For the media usually studied in the theory of elasticity λ(ρ) and µ(ρ) have a negligible dependence upon ρ and can be treated as eﬀectively constant.) We deﬁned elastic media by a stress-strain relation which vanished for zero strain. and of order four. As a byproduct of the computation of isotropic tensors of order two (which are a multiple of the unit tensor). These are then called the constants of Lam´ and occur in Hooke’s law e T = λ(tr E)1 + 2µE On the other hand. as these must at least have one index which occurs an odd number of times. the constitutive relation is known as Navier-Stokes’ law. deﬁned as the opposite of a stress. From T = κ(ρ)1 + λ(ρ)(tr E)1 + 2µ(ρ)E we ﬁnd that for linear and isotropic elastic media T = λ(ρ)(tr E)1 + 2µ(ρ)E. . Cijkℓ (ρ) = Ckℓij (ρ). λ and µ would still be functions of ρ and other scalar quantities included in the description. experience has shown that for most ﬂuids under the usual conditions of pressure and temperature.Table of contents 55 the previous expression.

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Except for the residual hydrostatic pressure, a Newtonian ﬂuid only experiences stresses as long as the deformation changes. Such a ﬂuid has no natural state and no memory, as anyone spilling some liquid will immediately observe! If the tensors T and E or D are split into their spherical and deviatoric parts, as indicated in chapter 3 for E, giving T = σ 1 + T′ , E = ε 1 + E′ D = δ 1 + D′ , tr T′ = 0, tr E′ = 0, tr D′ = 0, σ = 1 tr T, 3 ε = 1 tr E, 3

1 δ = 3 tr D,

Hooke’s law can be used to compute ﬁrst that 1 1 1 σ = tr T = tr [λ(tr E)1 + 2µE] = (3λ + 2µ)tr E = (3λ + 2µ)ε, 3 3 3 and hence 1 T′ = T − σ 1 = λ(tr E)1 + 2µE − (3λ + 2µ)(tr E)1 3 1 = 2µ E − (tr E)1 = 2µE′ . 3 Hooke’s law is equivalent to the two relations σ = (3λ + 2µ)ε, T′ = 2µE′ .

Similarly, the law of Navier-Stokes can be written in the form σ = −p(ρ) + (3λ + 2µ)δ, T′ = 2µD′ .

Use can now be made of such expressions in order to invert Hooke’s law and express the strain as a function of the stress, E= 1 1 λ (T − λ(tr E)1) = T− (tr T)1. 2µ 2µ 2µ(3λ + 2µ)

It is time to come back to Young’s experiment, now that we have the adequate relation between strain and stress. Young’s experiment is characterized by a state of uniaxial stress, (1) with t1 = T11 and all other components of T zero. Hence tr T = T11 and E= Compute now E11 as E11 = λ λ+µ 1 1 T11 − T11 = T11 = T11 , 2µ 2µ(3λ + 2µ) µ(3λ + 2µ) E 1 λ T− T11 1. 2µ 2µ(3λ + 2µ)

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and ﬁnd an expression for the elasticity modulus of Young as a function of Lam´’s constants, e E= µ(3λ + 2µ) . λ+µ

There is, however, another part to the strain-stress relation, which we had not discussed in our preliminary sketch of the experiment, namely E22 = E33 = − =− λ T11 2µ(3λ + 2µ) λ 2(λ + µ) µ(3λ + 2µ) λ+µ

−1

T11 = −

ν T11 , E

where ν is Poisson’s coeﬃcient of lateral contraction ν= λ . 2(λ + µ)

This shows that in addition to an elongation (or possibly compression), the bar in Young’s experiment also shows a contraction (or dilatation) in the perpendicular directions. Computing 3λ + 2µ µ(3λ + 2µ) 1 E λ = = = 1+ν =1+ 2(λ + µ) 2(λ + µ) λ + µ 2µ 2µ or 1 1+ν = , 2µ E one can express the inverted Hooke’s law in E and ν instead of in Lam´’s constants, e E= 1+ν ν T − (tr T)1, E E

as used in many engineering textbooks. Further applications of Hooke’s law will be given in the chapter on linear elasticity.

4.5

Viscoelastic media

The constitutive relations discussed sofar have one common characteristic: they are point relations, because the stress at x and t depends only on the strain or the strain rate at the same x and t. There are no memory eﬀects, no dispersive eﬀects. Because there are diﬀerent possibilities of including memory eﬀects, we only give the simplest example, where the relationship between stress and strain is still a linear one, but the stress depends upon all previous deformations,

+∞

Tij (x, t) =

−∞

Cijkℓ (x, τ )Eℓk (x, t − τ ) dτ

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or T(t) =

+∞ −∞

C(τ ) : E(t − τ ) dτ.

The space dependence still being a localized one, we have suppressed the argument x to simplify the notation. The stress is now a functional of the strain, involving the elasticity kernel C. Such media are called viscoelastic. The kernel has to be such that C(τ ) = 0 if τ < 0,

otherwise the stress would depend upon future deformations, which would be against the principle of causality. Thus we may as well put

∞

T(t) =

0

C(τ ) : E(t − τ ) dτ ,

but in the sequel we will continue to write the integral from −∞ to +∞. Furthermore, in the case of such a linear response, a bounded strain is supposed to yield a bounded stress, and this imposes the requirement that the components of the kernel satisfy a condition of boundedness,

+∞ −∞

|Cijkℓ (t)| dt < +∞.

**The study of relations such as
**

+∞

T(t) =

−∞

C(τ ) : E(t − τ ) dτ

usually goes via Fourier transforms, because these get rid of the convolution integrals. In view of the many applications in other branches of physics of both linear response functions and Fourier transforms, it is worth pursuing the subject a while here. Several ways exist to deﬁne the Fourier transform. We will use

+∞

φ(ω) = Fω {φ(t)} = together with its inverse transform φ(t) = Ft−1 {φ(ω)} 1 = 2π

φ(t)eiωt dt,

−∞

+∞

φ(ω)e−iωt dω.

−∞

A proper check that this is indeed the inverse requires the theory of distributions, but this is not needed here. One of the most pleasant properties of the Fourier transform is that Fω ∂φ ∂t = −iωFω {φ}.

Table of contents 59 Furthermore. Also +∞ +∞ C(ω) ≤ −∞ |C(t)| e iωt dt = −∞ |C(t)|dt < +∞. the constitutive relation for a linear viscoelastic medium is but an example among many others of linear responses where causality plays a role. The real part of C(ω) is even. when applied to a convolution such as the one relating T and E. = −∞ du −∞ The last step is possible because the Jacobian determinant of the transformation t−τ = u τ =v or τ =v t = u+v is equal to one. Because the importance of the resulting relations transcends the mere case of a linear viscoelastic medium. 4. C(ω) = C ′ (ω) + iC ′′ (ω). C ′′ (ω) = −C ′′ (−ω). In order to simplify the subsequent treatment. Split C(ω) into its real and imaginary parts. which we denote C(t) or C(ω) for notational simplicity. Then immediately one has the following properties for real ω: C(ω) = C(−ω) or C ′ (ω) = C ′ (−ω). one has +∞ T(ω) = −∞ +∞ eiωt T(t)dt +∞ = −∞ +∞ e iωt dt −∞ +∞ dτ C(τ ) : E(t − τ ) = −∞ +∞ dt −∞ +∞ dτ C(τ ) : E(t − τ )eiωt dv C(v) : E(u)eiω(u+v) . the imaginary part odd in ω. although the principle of causality has yet to be translated into Fourier language. . we deal with only one scalar component Cijkℓ (t) at the time. The information contained in C(t) is also contained in C(ω). Hence the Fourier-transformed constitutive relation is +∞ +∞ T(ω) = −∞ dv C(v)eiωv : −∞ du E(u)eiωu = C(ω) : E(ω). these relations are dealt with in the next section.6 Kramers-Kronig’s relations As said before.

ω − ω0 . Then C(ω) = −∞ +∞ C(t)eiω t e−ω t dt ′ ′′ and we still have that ∞ ∞ C(ω) ≤ e 0 −ω ′′ t |C(t)| dt ≤ 0 |C(t)|dt < +∞. In order to be able to use complex analysis. which indicates that C(ω) has no poles for real ω. Cauchy’s formula is thus applied as ω0 −r +R + −R γ + ω0 +r + Γ C(ω) dω = 0.Table of contents 60 Γ R γ r −R O ω0 +R Figure 4. This indicates that C(ω) has no poles in the upper half-plane.2 and call γ and Γ the small and large semi-circles. If we choose ω0 real. with radii r and R. as shown in Figure 4. respectively. but only if ω ′′ is nonnegative. we analytically continue the function C(ω) into the complex domain for ω and ﬁrst put ω = ω ′ + iω ′′ .2. C(ω) dω = 0 ω − ω0 for a contour not enclosing a singularity. then the complex function C(ω)/(ω − ω0 ) has no poles in the upper half-plane. with even C(ω) → 0 as ω ′′ → +∞. but one on the real axis in ω0 . We thus want to apply Cauchy’s formula. We pick a special contour. Contour of integration in the complex ω-plane.

The integral over the large semi-circle can be shown to vanish if the limit R → ∞ is taken. = −iπ C(ω0 ) + . . . ω − ω0 +∞ P −∞ φ(ω) dω = lim ε→0 ω − ω0 ω0 −ε + −∞ ω0 +ε φ(ω) dω. ω − ω0 +∞ −∞ or C(ω0 ) = The expression +∞ 1 P iπ C(ω) dω. In the case under consideration. After the limiting procedure. The dots indicate terms in r and they vanish when the limit r → 0 is taken afterwards.. ω − ω0 if it exists. ξ−ω Splitting this expression into its real and imaginary parts yields 1 P π +∞ −∞ C ′ (ω) = ′′ C ′′ (ξ) dξ ξ−ω C ′ (ξ) dξ ξ−ω 1 C (ω) = − P π +∞ −∞ . .Table of contents 61 For the integral around γ we expand ω and C(ω) as ω = ω0 + reiφ (0 ≤ φ ≤ π) ∂C ∂ω + . the integration is along the real axis and we rewrite it as 1 C(ω) = P iπ +∞ −∞ C(ξ) dξ. iφ ire dφ = −iC(ω0 ) reiφ π 0 dφ + . What remains of +R ω0 −r C(ω) dω = 0 + + + ω − ω0 ω0 +r Γ −R γ after both these limiting procedures is ω0 −r r→0 +∞ lim + −∞ ω0 +r C(ω) dω − iπ C(ω0 ) = 0. . .. . is called the Cauchy principal value. we are assured of its existence as it equals iπ C(ω0 ). ω0 C(ω) = C(ω0 ) + reiφ and ﬁnd C(ω) dω = ω − ω0 0 π γ C(ω0 ) + .

Table of contents 62 These are called the Kramers-Kronig’s relations. whereas the imaginary part gives the dissipation. and the Kramers-Kronig’s relations then deduce the one from the other! If both characteristics can be measured. This is a boon to experimentalists. as a complex function of a complex variable. The Kramers-Kronig’s relations are thus nothing but a mathematical consequence of the principle of causality.g. The relations are often used to compute the real part of C(ω) when the imaginary part is known or vice versa. The reasoning leading ultimately to them was based on the fact that C(ω). Dispersion and dissipation are two. In electromagnetic theory e. the linear response could be the permittivity tensor linking the dielectric displacement to the electric ﬁeld. at ﬁrst sight totally diﬀerent characteristics of the medium. This in turn is a translation of the boundedness of C(t). the Kramers-Kronig’s relations serve as a check on the consistency of the data. because the real and imaginary parts of a linear response function often refer to diﬀerent physical properties. and a measure of one these properties immediately gives the other one. . through the fact that C(t) vanishes for negative times. had no poles nor singularities in the upper half-plane. together with the principle of causality. and then the real part of the permittivity tensor gives the dispersion in the medium.

leading to Friedman universes • Complex potential theory • Surface water waves 63 .Chapter 5 Ideal ﬂuids Application of Navier-Stokes law to ideal. non-viscous ﬂuids include discussions of • Bernoulli’s law. applied to solar wind models • Hydrostatic equilibrium inside stars • Sound waves • Waves in magnetized plasmas • Large amplitude electrostatic and electromagnetic plasma waves • Newtonian cosmology.

1 Basic equations In this and the next chapter. The set of equations left is thus ρ + ρ∇ · v = 0. This serves to determine T once v and p are known. ˙ ρv = f + ∇ · T = ρb + ∇ · T the symmetry of the stress tensor. ˙ ˙ ρ v = f − ∇p + (λ + µ)∇∇ · v + µ∇2 v p = p(ρ). p = p(ρ) It is possible to reduce this set of equations. the constitutive relation of Navier-Stokes. Collecting the set of basic equations to describe phenomena in these ﬂuids. we need the equation of continuity. 1 D = (∇v + v∇) 2 and an equation of state relating the pressure to the density and possibly the temperature. T = −p1 + λ(∇ · v)1 + µ(∇v + v∇). −∇p + (λ + µ)∇∇ · v + µ∇2 v. . ρ + ρ∇ · v = ∂t ρ + ∇ · (ρ v) = 0 ˙ the equation of motion. The next step is to compute ∇·T = = = = ∇ · [−p1 + λ(tr D)1 + 2µD] ∇ · [−p1 + λ(∇ · v)1 + µ∇v + µv ∇] −∇p + λ∇∇ · v + µ∇2 v + µ∇∇ · v. ﬁrst of all by expressing T as a function of the velocity gradients. ﬂuids are deﬁned as those linear isotropic media where the stress-strain relation is the law of Navier-Stokes. Tt = T. T = −p1 + λ(tr D)1 + 2µD together with the deﬁnition of the rate of deformation.Table of contents 64 5.

3 or when the medium is incompressible tr D = ∇ · v = 0. before embarking upon these applications of continuum mechanics. ˙ The mass density is constant when the medium is followed in its motion. With the help of the equation of continuity we also ﬁnd that for incompressible media ρ = 0. We may check that the mean stress is σ= 1 2 tr T = −p + λ + µ 3 3 2 tr D = −p + λ + µ ∇ · v. astrophysics even. As we now check.Table of contents 65 The boxed middle equation in the previous set also carries the name of the Navier-Stokes equation. magnetohydrodynamics or electromagnetic ﬂuid theory. Fluids in this sense are not only liquids. aerodynamics. By restricting the pressure changes to those involving only the density we steer away from thermodynamical complications. The set of equations is now a closed one. but then the condition of incompressibility has to be coupled to the requirement of homogeneity. and this will be used to discuss a great variety of problems involving ﬂuids. Often the mass density is really constant throughout the medium. . We will try to pick one or two examples in each of these branches of physics. In many cases of physical importance the NavierStokes equations can be simpliﬁed to some degree when one or more of the hypotheses listed below are fulﬁlled or used. Topics to be treated can be chosen from hydraulics. as it consists of a set of coupled nonlinear partial diﬀerential equations. at least for certain applications. hydrodynamics. However. with as many unknowns as equations. as explained in chapter 2. d ˙ V = dt dV V = V ∇ · v dV = 0 (∀V ) ⇐⇒ ∇ · v = 0. but also gases and plasmas. 3 In absolute value the mean stress equals the pressure in two diﬀerent cases. ﬁrst of all when the viscosity coeﬃcients fulﬁl the so-called Stokes’ condition 2 λ = − µ. one has to note that the set of ﬂuid equations does not contain a reference to the stress any longer. in this chapter as well as in the next. the latter condition follows from the expression of the incompressibility of a given volume V of the continuum.2 Simplifying hypotheses The full set of ﬂuid equations is mathematically complicated. 5.

dt ρ ρ dt dp dt dt Hence the pressure function is the speciﬁc enthalpy p P = p0 dp′ = ρ(p′ ) p ε+ ρ p . ρ ρ dt ρ so that p 1 dp dP dp dP d (ε + ) = = = . In isothermal processes in a monatomic gas.1. ε= ˙ p p 1 T : D = − 1 : D = − tr D ρ ρ ρ p p d 1 = − ∇ · v = 2 ρ = −p ˙ . Applications of this are to be found in gases when the kinetic equation of state does not include the temperature or when the processes run isothermally or adiabatically. i. p0 p homogeneous barotropic ρ0 ρ Figure 5. . Pressure-density relations. also called pressure potential. such that dP 1 ∇P = ∇p = ∇p dp ρ and deﬁned through p dp′ . whereas for adiabatic processes pV γ and thus pρ−γ remains constant. as discussed in chapter 2.e. P (p) = ′ p0 ρ(p ) To ﬁnd a physical interpretation for the pressure function we compute the energy balance in the absence of heat and viscosity eﬀects (λ = µ = 0). ρ) = 0. with γ the ratio of the speciﬁc heats at respectively constant pressure and constant volume. pV is constant. it is called barotropic. and hence also p/ρ.Table of contents 66 Barotropic pressures and incompressibility When the pressure in a ﬂuid depends only upon the density. the equation of state takes the form f (p. For barotropic pressure variations there exists a pressure function P (p).

as shown in Figure 5. because any arbitrary function of time added to a given φ will yield the same velocity. In all other cases we talk about viscuous ﬂuids. t) = ρ0 and then the pressure function is not needed. ρ ρ0 ρ0 Both cases can be summarized in one graph. where the pressure function is a special limiting case with a vertical (p. The other practical possibility for the pressure is that the medium is incompressible and homogeneous. ρ(x. 2 This immediately implies the existence of a potential function for the velocity. The resulting form of the Navier-Stokes equation for ideal ﬂuids carries the name of Euler’s equation.Table of contents 67 up to an arbitrary additive constant. without vorticity. as 1 1 p ∇p = ∇p = ∇ . ρ)-characteristic. In what follows the case of a barotropic pressure will tacitly cover also that of a homogeneous medium.1. φ is not unique. ∂t ρ = 0. or permanent) if ∂t v = 0. Ideal and viscous ﬂuids A ﬂuid is called ideal when its viscosity coeﬃcients are zero λ = 0 = µ. . As usual with potentials. Another type of ﬂow is that of an irrotational ﬂow. 1 ω = ∇ × v = 0. v = ∇φ. ˙ ρ v = f − ∇p or 1 ˙ v = b − ∇p ρ Stationary and irrotational ﬂows The ﬂow of a ﬂuid is stationary (or time-independent.

compared to the vast arsenal of mathematical methods that are at our disposal for linear equations. b = −∇Φ. ﬁrst write down the ﬂuid equations for a constant homogeneous equilibrium state. The next step in the linearization is to split every quantity in its equilibrium and its perturbation value. f = −∇Ψ. either on the force density. Two diﬀerent ways of implementing this are possible. To get a feeling for the method. p0 = p(ρ0 ). This technique is called linearization and is often used. that the body forces are conservative. ρ v p f = = = = ρ0 + ρ1 . the nonlinearities have to be brought in. 1 λ+µ µ (∂t + v0 · ∇)v1 = b1 − ∇p1 + ∇∇ · v1 + ∇2 v1 . p1 = dρ ρ=ρ0 . For these there are few general techniques. v0 + v1 . Afterwards then. f0 + f1 (or b = b0 + b1 ). Dropping squares and products of these small perturbations yields equations that are linear in the unknown quantities. in which all equilibrium quantities are labelled with the subscript zero. f0 = 0. This can be simpliﬁed in certain cases by the assumption that the phenomena under study are small perturbations with respect to some equilibrium state. as the example of the stratiﬁcation of a ﬂuid under the inﬂuence of gravity shows. Finally the linearized form of the set of ﬂuid equations appears as (∂t + v0 · ∇)ρ1 + ρ0 ∇ · v1 = 0. Remember that b has the dimension of an acceleration.Table of contents 68 Conservative forces The main simpliﬁcation concerning the body forces is to suppose that they can be derived from a potential or. to obtain a ﬁrst picture of certain phenomena. p0 + p1 . ∇ × f = 0. This determines what equilibrium states are possible and shows that the body forces must vanish in equilibrium. when the full nonlinear equations are too diﬃcult to handle. or on the force density per mass density. ρ0 ρ0 ρ0 dp ρ1 . in other words. ∇ × b = 0. Not all problems admit such a homogeneous equilibrium. Nonlinear equations and linearization techniques The equations normally are nonlinear.

in which case the problem is solved by successive steps. 2 2 In the case of irrotational ﬂow this reduces to 1 1 ˙ v = ∂t (∇φ) + ∇v 2 = ∇ ∂t φ + v 2 . 2 2 in a kind of hybrid notation. One of the oldest consequences of Euler’s equation is Bernoulli’s law. ρ and ﬁnally we suppose the body forces conservative in the sense that b = −∇Φ. v1 and p1 . higher-order corrections could be considered by extending the perturbation scheme to second or third order. It will be understood that in the case of an incompressible. . If necessary. 5. homogeneous ﬂuid the pressure is to be treated as one of the dynamical variables determined together with v from ∇ · v = 0. Hence we start from the basic set of equations ρ + ρ ∇ · v = 0. homogeneous equilibrium parameters ρ0 . ρ p = p(ρ). 1 ˙ v = b − ∇p. v0 and p0 . For barotropic pressures we can use the pressure function. but ﬁrst recast v as 1 1 ˙ v = ∂t v + v · ∇v = ∂t v + v · ∇v + ∇v 2 − ∇v 2 2 2 1 = ∂t v + v · (∇v − v∇) + ∇v 2 2 1 1 = ∂t v + 2v · Ω + ∇v 2 = ∂t v + 2ω × v + ∇v 2 .Table of contents 69 One is thus reduced to a linear problem for the determination of the perturbation quantities ρ1 . given the known. 1 ∇p = ∇P. ρ0 We now return to the general case of ideal ﬂuids. of which several variants are known. We will discuss some of ˙ these in what follows.3 Bernoulli’s law For the remainder of this chapter we will deal with ideal ﬂuids and use Euler’s equation instead of Navier-Stokes’ equation. ˙ 1 ˙ v = b − ∇p.

Table of contents 70 Under the previous assumptions. 2 A ﬁrst integral can be obtained by integrating this along one of the streamlines. as drawn in Figure 5. Bernoulli’s law as given above is valid for the irrotational ﬂow of an ideal ﬂuid with barotropic pressure variations under the inﬂuence of conservative forces. dx ev s v Figure 5. after integrating the previous equation.2. 2 s which is the more general form of Bernoulli’s theorem. Euler’s equation can be written as the gradient of a scalar function. What happens when the assumption of irrotational ﬂow is dropped. which really means an arbitrary function of t. but the other restrictions are kept? Then one gets 1 2 ∂t v + 2ω × v = −∇ v +Φ+P . A streamline of a ﬂow is deﬁned as a curve such that the velocity vector of the ﬂuid is everywhere tangent to it.2. Streamlines and the velocity ﬁeld. with a constant (with respect to x) which will depend upon the particular choice of the streamline along which the integration is carried out. is to see that the velocity potential was only determined up to an arbitrary function of t and to let both arbitrary functions cancel each other. 2 and upon integration one ﬁnds a ﬁrst form of Bernoulli’s law 1 ∂t φ + v 2 + Φ + P = 0 2 The trick to get rid of the integration constant with respect to x. One ﬁrst ﬁnds that ds 1 d x · ∂t v = ds ev · ∂t v = ds v · ∂t v = ∂t v 2 = ds ∂t v v 2v and furthermore dx · (ω × v) vanishes. 1 ∇ ∂t φ + v 2 + Φ + P = 0. the result is 1 ∂t v ds + v 2 + Φ + P = Cs (t). . as dx is always parallel to v along a streamline. Hence.

The situation is shown in Figure 5. when everything becomes time-independent. ∂t v ds + g s 2g ρ0 g As an application. For permanent and irrotational ﬂow. ρ0 g 2g ρ0 g 2g At the upper level (with label 2) there is no velocity.3. chosen among many examples from hydraulics. Writing for simplicity z instead of x3 . Steady outﬂow of a tank. so that 2 v1 = 2g(z2 − z1 ) + 2 (p2 − p1 ) ρ0 z2 p2 ∆z p1 v1 Figure 5. The outﬂow is supposed to be permanent and we can apply the corresponding form of Bernoulli’s law in two diﬀerent points along the streamline through the outﬂow oriﬁce. z1 . 1 2 v + Φ + P = Cs 2 and a second one for irrotational ﬂow. 2 If we apply Bernoulli’s theorem to the case of an incompressible and homogeneous ﬂuid inﬂuenced by gravity. the integration constant Cs becomes independent of the choice of a particular streamline. ρ0 Φ = gx3 1 p v2 ′ + + x3 = Cs (t). we have P = and thus p . as given already before. one gets z1 + p1 v2 p2 v2 + 1 = z2 + + 2.3. consider the outﬂow of a liquid from a large tank.Table of contents 71 Two special cases can be deduced: a ﬁrst one for permanent (or stationary) ﬂow. 1 2 v + Φ + P = C. where at the upper level pressure and height are somehow maintained.

or 5.Table of contents 72 2 ∆p. ρ Here p0 is some reference pressure. − 2GM⊙ − v2 = v1 + 2 ρ r1 r2 p2 . partly by the diﬀerence in pressure. because the pressure balances gravity. can be viewed as a sphere of hot. We apply Bernoulli’s law twice along a streamline. Φ=− 1 2 GM⊙ v − + 2 1 r1 p1 p0 dp 1 2 GM⊙ = v2 − + ρ 2 r2 p2 p0 dp . the velocity is just the free fall velocity from a height ∆z. and the velocity of the solar wind in the neighbourhood of the Earth is thus p1 dp 1 1 2 2 . much hotter than the lower layers. GM⊙ . The Sun. the other time in a point in the neighbourhood of the Earth (subscript 2). Another limiting case is when there is no outﬂow. In Bernoulli’s law the gravitational potential of the Sun now enters. Gravitation tends to keep matter closely together. ρ0 The velocity v1 of the outﬂow is caused partly by the diﬀerence in height. for reasons still not fully understood. In this simpliﬁed picture the solar wind really is the expanding outer corona of the Sun. However. In comparison. is. at atmospheric pressure. we discuss some aspects of the velocity of the solar wind near the Earth. ionized gas (or plasma) which is in equilibrium due to the opposing inﬂuences of gravitation and pressure or temperature eﬀects. chosen this time from solar system physics. The solar wind is a stream of matter which is more or less continuously being emitted from the solar surface. the corona. once in a point close to the solar surface but outside the Sun (marked with a subscipt 1). If there is no diﬀerence in pressure. blowing past the Earth.4 Solar wind As a second example of Bernoulli’s law. as indeed any other main-sequence star. where the pressure at the lower level is the pressure at the upper level plus the weight per unit area of a liquid column with density ρ0 and height ∆z. r where G is the universal constant of gravitation. This is the usual hydrostatic law. as is the case when both the upper level in the tank and the outﬂow oriﬁce are in the open. Such a thermodynamically unstable situation gives some of the particles in the corona the energy to escape from the solar gravity. hence the origin of the solar wind. More about this equilibrium is given in the next section. M⊙ the mass of the Sun and r the radial distance from the center of the Sun. v1 = 2g∆z + p1 = p2 + ρ0 g∆z. the outer layer of the Sun. the gravitational inﬂuence of the Earth can be neglected. pressure pushes it apart again. Again we are assuming we are dealing with a permanent ﬂow.

ρ we try to apply the ideal gas law to the solar wind plasma. whereas in the neighbourhood of the Earth T2 still is 2 × 105 K. Coming back to the solar wind velocity. whereas r2 is of the order of the radius of the Earth’s orbit around the Sun. and has been revived in black hole theory (but based on general relativity rather than on classical mechanics). 2 R Incidentally. R then one would ﬁnd the radius of a classic black star with mass M . ρ ρ ρ(r2 ) ρ2 p2 We ﬁnally suppose that the (quiet) solar wind escapes from the surface of the Sun with negligible initial velocity. r1 r2 R⊙ Here vE is the escape velocity at the surface of the Sun.Table of contents 73 As r1 is of the order of the radius R⊙ of the Sun. c2 The concept of such a black star is due to Laplace. deﬁned (as for other astronomical bodies) as the velocity needed by a particle starting at the surface to reach inﬁnity with zero velocity. some million degrees Kelvin (K). p1 2 2 2 v2 = v1 − vE + 2 p2 dp . ρ(r2 ) This can serve as a ﬁrst approximation to ρ(R⊙ ) because all other values can be measured or computed. if the escape velocity were for a particular star equal to the speed of light. At the surface of the Sun T1 is of the order of the temperature of the corona. c2 = 2GM . . GM m 1 2 mvE − = 0. p = CρT. where T is the temperature and C a constant. v1 ≃ 0. and thus near the Earth we obtain 2 v2 ≃ 2CT0 ln ρ(R⊙ ) 2 − vE . R= 2GM . we can safely approximate the last term in the previous equation by 1 2GM⊙ 1 2 2GM⊙ ≃ − ≡ vE . We can thus replace T by some averaged value T0 and ﬁnd ρ1 p1 dρ ρ(r1 ) dp = CT0 = CT0 ln . predating general relativity.

r =2 dv dρ ρv +ρ +v = 0. we look at the outer corona of a spherically symmetric star as the Sun. = (∂i xi ) + xi ∂i r r r dr r xi . ρ dr v dr r For radial motions outside the star the Euler equation ρv · ∇v = −∇p + f reduces to v Using the ideal gas law gives v 1 dp GM dv =− − 2 .Table of contents 74 Parker model of the solar wind In order to get a better picture of how the solar wind evolves. Eliminate (1/ρ) dρ/dr between the equations of continuity and of motion to get v dv 2κT = dr m 1 dv 2 + v dr r − GM . dr mρ dr r Remark that integration of this would give 1 2 2κT GM v =− ln ρ + + C. dr ρ dr r 2κT dρ GM dv =− − 2 . As ∂i r = we ﬁnd that ∇ · (ρ v) = 3 Dividing by ρv yields ρv d ρv +r r dr r 1 dρ 1 dv 2 =− − . For time-stationary ﬂows the equation of continuity reduces to ∇ · (ρ v) = 0. 2 m r nothing but Bernoulli’s law. r dr dr x v = v er = v . Here x = r er and since only radial motions are possible. Hence ∇ · (ρ v) = ∇ · ρv x ρv xi = ∂i r r d ρv ρv ρv ρv = 3 + xi (∂i r) . r since all coordinate dependence is through r. r2 .

⊙ S 4 < 0. So when we start at the solar surface with A(v) > 0. dr For the Sun this is outside the Sun itself. we note that A(v) dv = B(r) < 0. v GM 2c2 B(r) = S − 2 . and can only change sign once.⊙ ≃ 3R⊙ . rc . 2c2 S 2c2 2GM 1 2 S − = R⊙ R⊙ 2R⊙ R⊙ 1 2 c2 − vE. otherwise we would get inﬁnite gradients in v. at coronal temperatures of 2 × 106 K. r r A(v) = At the solar surface.5 × 109 years it has existed already. S This would mean a large outﬂow velocity. however deﬁned. For reasons of continuity. If at rc A(v)|rc > 0 =⇒ dv dr = 0.Table of contents 75 which can be rearranged as v2 − This is of the structure A(v) with obvious notations. 2κT m 1 dv 4κT GM = − 2 v dr mr r dv = B(r). v 2 − c2 S . dr and v decreases with increasing r. probably larger than the Sun can sustain for the 4. since rc. A(v) can only be zero at the critical distance rc . Hence B(r) goes from negative at the solar surface to positive faraway. Suppose now that at the solar surface A(v) > 0 =⇒ v 2 > c2 . we have B(R⊙ ) = The condition B(r) = 0 gives a critical distance rc = GM .

This gives values of v at the radius of the Earth’s orbit which are too high. dr Now v increases again. we Taylor expand everything close to the critical distance. This gives values at 1 AU which are far too small. as observed here. goes through the sonic point at a critical distance and has supersonic velocity in the neighbourhood of the Earth can give the right values. rc dv dr ∆r = cS + rc dv dr ∆r. − 2 = − 2S ∆r + 3 r r rc rc rc Hence from A(v) we see that dv dr dv dr 2 = B(r) rc = rc GM 3 2rc and dv/dr cannot change sign at rc where both A(v) and B(r) change sign. having r = R⊙ : r = rc : v 2 < c2 S v 2 < c2 S A(v) < 0 A(v) < 0 means that v increases to a maximum value (smaller than cS ) at rc and decreases thereafter. compared to the observations. v(r) ≃ v(rc ) + Then we have that A(v) = v − dv c2 S =2 v dr ∆r. So the two possibilities at R⊙ are that v 2 > c2 S v 2 < c2 S and at r = rc Only the Parker model. The only acceptable models are where A(v) and B(r) both vanish at the same distance rc . where the solar winds starts at subsonic speeds at the solar surface. rc 2c2 2GM GM GM 2c2 S B(r) = ∆r = 3 ∆r. =⇒ =⇒ v decreases forever v increases forever . Conversely. but now with the other sign for dv/dr.Table of contents 76 we still have that A(v) > 0 beyond rc . The model with A(v) r = R⊙ : r = rc : v 2 > c2 S v 2 > c2 S A(v) > 0 A(v) > 0 means that v decreases to a minimum at rc but increases again. forever. ⇐⇒ v = cS . To see what happens then. dv = B(r) > 0.

The star is supposed to be in static equilibrium and spherically symmetric. when these stars are viewed as spheres of hot.11. we now give some features of the hydrostatic equilibrium in stars. Based on this form we will give an introduction to surface water waves and plasma waves in section 5. Hence Euler’s equation becomes in equilibrium dp = −bρ. in section 5.4. First. Because of the spherical symmetry.4. However. As another example. This is left as an exercise. and to Newtonian cosmology in section 5. we mentally m′ m O R r P M Figure 5. ρ Two other special cases of Euler’s equation will be dealt with in the next sections. based on Euler’s equation without acceleration term 1 b − ∇p = 0.7. because the pressure will decrease outwards.Table of contents 77 5. On the other hand. we have v = − ∇p. all quantities will only depend on the radial coordinate r from the center of the star. . as shown in Figure 5. To ﬁx the ideas.6. Hydrostatic equilibrium of a star. ionized gas. 1 ˙ when the external forces are small compared to the pressure eﬀects. the force of gravitation will also depend on r. the external forces ˙ dominate for some other applications. A ﬁrst problem of hydrostatics is the pressure and density stratiﬁcation with height in the Earth’s atmosphere due to gravity.5 Hydrostatic equilibrium In this paragraph we discuss a static problem. and ρ this will be the starting point for the treatment of sound waves. and Euler’s equation then becomes v = b. dr The minus sign is because the pressure acts outwardly. due to the mass interior to r. where the ﬂow is determined essentially by the pressure gradient. or in other words. whereas the gravitation acts inwardly.

Nevertheless. If we put a test particle with mass m′ on the surface of this sphere in P . one can obtain some reasonable estimates of pressure and temperature in the following way. without going into such considerations. 8πR4 R m 0 M dm dr dr GM 2 . we ﬁnd R with respect to r one gets p(0) − p(R) = 0 Gm dm G dr > 4 dr 4πr 4πR4 G = 4πR4 p(0) > p(R) + GM 2 . The outer shell. again because of the spherical symmetry. Upon diﬀerentiation of m = 4π 0 r r′2 ρ(r′ ) dr′ dm = 4πr2 ρ. dr r If the density distribution ρ(r) in the interior were known as a function of r. however. between the spheres with radii r and R (the radius of the star). owing to the spherical symmetry. r2 Gmρ dp =− 2 . does not exert any force on an interior point P . is not a simple matter to determine and depends critically on the model for the stellar interior.Table of contents 78 isolate an interior sphere with radius r and mass m. 8πR4 m dm = 0 In other words . This density distribution. r2 Gm . from 0 to R (in radius) or from 0 to M (in mass). Hence the particle feels a total force m′ b = and one ﬁnds that b= leading to Gmm′ . dr So elimination of ρ with the help of the equation of motion yields Gm dm dp =− dr 4πr4 dr and upon integration over the whole star. r m = m(r) = |x|≤r ρ dV = 0 4πr′2 ρ(r′ ) dr′ . the force of gravitation can be computed as if all the mass of this inner sphere were concentrated in the center. one could explicitly compute m and p.

9 × 106 K. .Table of contents 79 At the surface. We postulate the ideal gas law in the form p = CρT and get T = 1 M R 4πr2 ρT dr = 0 R 0 4π MC R 0 R r2 p dr 0 4π 1 3 r p = MC 3 4π − 3M C r3 4π dp dr ≃ − dr 3M C R r3 0 dp dr. viewed as a completely ionized and almost electrically neutral gas. come into play when the electromagnetic properties are studied. must be composed of hydrogen plasma. we deﬁne a mean temperature T by T = V ρT dV V ρ dV = 1 M ρT dV. because at such temperatures hydrogen is fully ionized. > 1. To a ﬁrst approximation. dr because p(R) is approximately zero. The above information about the minimum pressure and averaged temperature allows us to conclude that the interior of the Sun (and hence of similar stars). V with the mass density as weight factor. For an estimate of the temperature. and a lower bound for the pressure at the center is p(0) > GM 2 8πR4 This estimate has been arrived at without proposing any equation of state for the pressure.5 × 1013 Nm−2 = 4. 6CR m dm = 0 Applied again to the Sun. the pressure p(R) is negligible. Using once again Gm dm dp =− dr 4πr4 dr there comes T = 4π 3M C R 0 G Gm dm dr > 4πr dr 3M CR G = 3M CR T ⊙ R m 0 M dm dr dr GM . one has p(0)⊙ > 4. much less when the pressure-temperature-density relations are used. The diﬀerences between gas and plasma. When the numbers for the Sun are substituted.5 × 108 atm. and indeed even without saying anything at all about the density distribution inside the star. the use of the ideal gas law is thus justiﬁed.

c2 ∂t v1 + S ∇ρ1 = 0. The last equation thus is 2 p 1 = c S ρ1 .6 Sound waves In this and in the next sections we will give an introductory treatment of wave phenomena in ideal ﬂuids. The result is 2 ∂ t ρ1 = c 2 ∇ 2 ρ1 . whereas the ﬁrst two equations become ∂t ρ1 + ρ0 ∇ · v1 = 0. one for the body forces and the other one giving the pressure eﬀects. and subtracting both equations. and hence we can put dp dρ = c2 > 0 S ρ=ρ0 Now cS has the dimensions of a velocity and will turn out to be the sound speed. For ﬂuids p is an increasing function of the mass density. ρ0 ∇ρ1 . When there are no body forces. c2 t S 1 2 ∂ c2 t S 2 2 = ∇2 − .Table of contents 80 5. which are propagating perturbations in density. connected through the equation of state. ρ0 We have put v0 equal to zero. the set of basic equations for ideal. barotropic ﬂuids in their linearized form are ∂t ρ1 + ρ0 ∇ · v1 = 0. When the pressure eﬀects dominate and the body forces are negligible. S also denoted as ∇2 − Here 1 2 ∂ ρ1 ≡ 22 ρ1 = 0. 1 1 dp ∂t v1 = − ∇p1 = − ρ0 ρ0 dρ p1 = dp dρ ρ1 . this yields sound waves. as the medium is supposed to be at rest in equilibrium. On the right hand side of Euler’s equation there normally are two terms. ρ0 Elimination of v1 is possible after taking the time derivative of the ﬁrst equation and the divergence of the second. The only constants characterizing the equilibrium are the mass density ρ0 and the pressure p0 .

Otherwise large electric ﬁelds arise that preclude the existence of a proper equilibrium. To cite just a couple of examples: above the neutral atmosphere there are the ionosphere and the Earth’s magnetosphere. However. which is typical for longitudinal waves where the directions of excitation and propagation coincide.7 Linear waves in magnetized plasmas A plasma is a fully or almost fully ionized gas. The phase velocity of the wave is given by ω = cS . both . then heating the gas further ultimately leads to dissociation of atoms into nuclei and electrons. For nondispersive waves one could also use the equivalent form ψ(n · x ± cS t). namely solid (ice). liquid and gas (vapour) for rising temperatures. The sound speed increases as the (p. Here φ′ refers to the derivative of φ with respect to its argument k · x ± ωt. Such waves are called nondispersive. From c2 c2 ∂t v1 = − S ∇ρ1 = − S φ′ k ρ0 ρ0 we learn that v1 is parallel to k. As an ionized gas a plasma reacts very strongly to the presence of electromagnetic ﬁelds. k The sound waves propagate in the direction given by k with a constant velocity which is independent of ω or k. that contains in equilibrium as many positive (ions. If one thinks of the classic aggregation states of water. which the usual (neutral) gas hardly feels. This is physically plausible: sound waves are nothing but the propagation of disturbances in density which in incompressible media are felt instantaneously everywhere. protons) as negative (electrons.Table of contents 81 stands for the d’Alembertian of the problem. The solutions of d’Alembert’s equation are of the form ρ1 = φ(k · x ± ωt). ρ)-characteristic steepens. to a plasma. 5. where n is a unit vector in the direction of propagation. negative ions) charge carriers per unit volume and thus is electrically neutral is. Plasmas could be viewed as the fourth aggregation state of matter. with similar expressions for p1 . and one could formally include the case of an incompressible medium by saying that an incompressible medium has an inﬁnite sound speed. The function φ is arbitrary. In the phase argument k is the wave vector (in the direction of wave propagation) and ω the (angular) frequency of the wave. Immediately one also has 22 p1 = 0. The occurrence of plasmas in nature is very frequent. for dispersive waves the phase velocity will be frequency or wavenumber dependent and thus the more general form φ(k · x ± ωt) is to be preferred.

respectively. The only modern notions needed are that of electrons and ions. Grown rapidly after 1950. stars like our own Sun have to be considered as plasma spheres rather than spheres of ‘hot gas’. We combine the laws of Faraday and Amp`re. like the aim of achieving a workable fusion reactor.Table of contents 82 ionized media. Astrophysical and energy applications.g. E = E n + E⊥ . e. D = ε0 E. We will start the description of waves in plasmas from the use of the constitutive vacuum relations. ε0 1 ∂t J = 0. ∂t → −iω. B = µ0 H and introduce the plasma eﬀects via appropriate deﬁnitions for the charge and current densities. ε0 c2 ∇ × B = ∂ t E + and eliminate in the classical way one of the ﬁelds. In short. and already have one physical direction. iω J = 0. c2 k(k · E) + (ω 2 − c2 k 2 )E + because for harmonic plane wave we substitute ∇ → i k. the overwhelming part of the known matter in the universe is in the plasma state. This leads to 2 c2 ∇∇ · E − c2 ∇2 E + ∂t E + Please note from Gauss’ law that ∇ · E does not always vanish. where of course E⊥ · k = kE⊥ · n = 0. or. we can decompose all vector quantities into a parallel and a perpendicular part. e ∇ × E + ∂t B = 0. B. . have stimulated the great blossoming of plasma physics during the last half century. farther away. We will use a complex plane wave representation of the form E = Ea ei(k·r−ωt) and likewise for all relevant other variables. σ and J. that of wave propagation given by k or by n = k/k. ε0 ε0 ∇ · E = σ Since for the time being we do not know anything about the wave character. where relativistic and/or quantum eﬀects hardly need to be taken into account. 1 J. E = E · n. but their nuclear properties are not involved. plasma physics is the last frontier in the history of classical physics. This yields an algebraic wave equation.

the plasma species undergo the inﬂuence of electromagnetic ﬁelds via the force density of Lorentz.Table of contents 83 With an analogous decomposition for J the algebraic wave equation becomes c2 k 2 E n + (ω 2 − c2 k 2 )(E n + E⊥ ) + iω (J n + J⊥ ) = 0. σs = σs0 + σs1 . and ρs its mass density. B = B0 + B1 . A plasma consists minimally. . in equilibrium. ˙ vs = σs (E + vs × B) . however. Hence we now introduce an Euler equation per species. vs × B. ε0 Hence we ﬁnd two separate equations for the parallel and the perpendicular parts. ρs0 In most books on plasma physics. the equations will be linearized as follows. We adapt the usual deﬁnitions for moving charges and currents. with the relations ρs = m s ns . ρs = ρs0 + ρs1 . In this way the Fourier transformed Euler equation reduce to σs0 −iω vs1 = (E1 + vs1 × B0 ). ε0 Now is the time to introduce the appropriate form for σ and J in a plasma. σs v s . we can restrict ourselves to vs × B0 . ω2E + iω J = 0. In ﬁrst instance we suppose that in the magnetic part of the Lorentz force density. as in the case of a hydrogen plasma. where B0 is an externally applied static magnetic ﬁeld. of equal numbers of electrons (s = e) and protons (s = i). ε0 iω (ω 2 − c2 k 2 )E⊥ + J⊥ = 0. instead of the mass and charge densities a (species) number density ns is used. σ= s σs . As all charged particles. s J= and interpret these as summations over the diﬀerent species making up the plasma. σ s = q s ns . the remaining quantities being zero in equilibrium. Here σs is the charge density per ﬂuid composing the plasma. ρs Because the full problem is complicated and nonlinear.

Thus we ﬁnd that ω2E + iω J =0 ε0 . For a simple hydrogen plasma we have that qe = −e. = ms We have introduced the gyrofrequency vector Ωs . (vs × Ωs )⊥ = vs⊥ × Ωs . ms ω 2 Ns qs E. and the equations for vs and vs⊥ can be dealt with separately. ms qs E⊥ + (vs × Ωs )⊥ . we will restrict ourselves to wave propagation parallel to the external magnetic ﬁeld B0 . ms Both these expressions include the sign of the charge under consideration. From the parallel part there immediately follows that vs = and hence also that i J = ω iqs E. and omit from now on all subscripts 1 on the wave variables. Because of k B0 or n Ωs . ms qi = +e. and in order not to complicate this introduction to plasma waves too much. ms qs B0 . Hence we rewrite the Euler equation as −iω vs = qs (E + vs × B0 ). Splitting this in parallel and perpendicular parts yields − iω vs = − iω vs⊥ qs E + (vs × Ωs ) · n.Table of contents 84 where ms and qs are the mass and charge of the species under consideration. ms s Here Ns denotes the equilibrium value ns0 of ns . Ωs = with the gyrofrequency itself being given by Ωs = qs B 0 . The external magnetic ﬁeld now introduces a second physical direction. there follows that (vs × Ωs ) · n = 0.

from which only two choices follow. For a simple electron-proton plasma. However. before we can complete the discussion we should ﬁrst look at the remaining part of the information. Either we want E = 0 and then the allowable wave frequency is ﬁxed as ω = ±ωp or ω takes on diﬀerent values and then E vanishes. The large mass diﬀerence me ≪ mi has as a consequence that the global plasma frequency is principally determined by the electrons. We will show that they then are longitudinal.Table of contents 85 is rewritten as ω2 − s 2 Ns qs ε0 m s E = ω2 − 2 ωps E = 0. generated from the ionization of hydrogen. ms . We have thus obtained that 2 (ω 2 − ωp )E = 0. With E = 0 the electric ﬁeld contains already a component along the direction of wave propagation and the waves cannot be purely transverse. we note that Ni e 2 N e2 N e2 N e2 Ne e 2 2 2 2 + = + ≃ . ωp = ωpe + ωpi = ε0 m e ε0 m i ε0 m e ε0 m i ε0 m e because of the charge neutrality in equilibrium Ne = Ni = N. and determine vs⊥ from − iω vs⊥ + Ωs × vs⊥ = First a vector multiplication with Ωs gives − iω Ωs × vs⊥ + Ωs × (Ωs × vs⊥ ) = or also − iω Ωs × vs⊥ − Ω2 vs⊥ = s qs Ωs × E ⊥ ms qs E⊥ . s Here the plasma frequencies ωps per species have been deﬁned through 2 ωps = 2 Ns qs ε0 m s and a global plasma frequency ωp is given through 2 ωp = s 2 ωps . which leads to transverse waves. ms qs Ω s × E⊥ .

ω ± Ωs s s 2 When ω obeys this part. s 2 ωps ω 2 − Ω2 s iω J⊥ = 0 ε0 2 ωps Ωs n × E⊥ = 0. The waves are transverse. but at the same time ω 2 = ωp . and consequently E = 0. one cannot have that ω 2 = c2 k 2 + s 2 ωps ω ω ± Ωs . 2 In the opposite case. Now the condition that E⊥ = 0 gives us the other part of the dispersion law. ω 2 − Ω2 s and consequently there follows from (ω 2 − c2 k 2 )E⊥ + that ω 2 − c2 k 2 − ω 2 This is of the structure from which vector multiplication with n shows that A E⊥ + iC n × E⊥ = 0. Elimination of Ωs × vs⊥ between both equations tells us that (ω 2 − Ω2 )vs⊥ = iω s with solution vs⊥ = In this way we have that J⊥ = s qs qs E⊥ + Ωs × E ⊥ . then we can choose E⊥ = 0. ms ms qs iω E⊥ + Ωs × E⊥ . ω 2 − Ω2 s E⊥ + iω s A n × E⊥ − iC E⊥ = 0.Table of contents 86 because Ωs · vs⊥ = 0. when ω 2 = ωp . and the extension of the classic electromagnetic waves in vacuum. A±C =0 or explicitly ω 2 − c2 k 2 − 2 ωps ω(ω ∓ Ωs ) = ω 2 − c2 k 2 − ω 2 − Ω2 s 2 ωps ω = 0. ms ω 2 − Ω2 s 2 ωps s Ns qs vs⊥ = ε0 iω E⊥ + Ωs × E⊥ . Elimination of n × E⊥ between the two equations containing it yield (A2 − C 2 )E⊥ = 0.

we need E = 0. if there is plasma but no external magnetic ﬁeld. making radio transmission beyond the horizon possible. Whereas in vacuum all frequencies are possible. waves with too low a frequency will be reﬂected. If on the other hand the ω ≥ ωp ωp ω < ωp source receiver Figure 5. as they cannot propagate into this layer. 2 ωps ω ω ± Ωs ω =c k + s 2 2 2 are obtained when there are no plasma species at all. Propagation of radio signals through the ionosphere.Table of contents 87 and hence E⊥ = 0. ω 2 = c2 k 2 . in a nonmagnetized plasma only those electromagnetic waves with frequencies above the plasma frequency can propagate. . Then Ns → 0 =⇒ ωps = 0 and the dispersion law reduces to the well known dispersion law for electromagnetic waves in vacuum. This is of importance for the propagation of radio waves through the ionosphere. If we want to retain any electric ﬁeld at all. the layer of ionized gas or plasma above the atmosphere. certain waves will be reﬂected back to the surface of the Earth. On the other hand.5. This means two things: if the source of the waves is on Earth. In the ionosphere the density and hence the corresponding plasma frequency varies with height. For certain layers. and the waves are then purely longitudinal. Special cases of the dispersion law for transverse modes. then all Ωs = 0 and there remains 2 ω 2 = c2 k 2 + ωp A characteristic of these waves is that the plasma frequency acts as a cut-oﬀ frequency.

In the electron equation of motion ˙ ve = − 1 e κTe e ∇pe − E=− ∇ne + ∇φ ρe me ne m e me one now neglects electron inertia. κTe ∇ne ≃ e ∇φ. ne Thus the electron density is ne = n0 exp as a constant equilibrium requires that ne0 = ni0 = n0 . By electrostatic one usually means that no magnetic eﬀects come into play.5. This means that the wave phenomena to be studied are suﬃciently slow so as to allow the very mobile electrons to adjust almost instantaneously. . From the other Maxwell’s equations we henceforth only use Poisson’s equation ∇ · D = σi + σe = e(ni − ne ) in the form ε∇2 φ = e(ne − ni ). so that Faraday’s equation ∇ × E + ∂t B = 0 shows that E = −∇φ. In the following two sections. This is a handicap both in radioastronomy and in communicating with spacecraft. we will give some further examples of plasma waves of larger amplitude. when the relevant equations cannot be linearized without losing the typical characteristics of these waves. maintaining a balance between pressure and electric potential eﬀects. where the harmonic Fourier transform and associated linearization procedures are not used or cannot work. For ion-acoustic waves the electrons are considered isothermal with pe = κTe ne (Te = constant) where κ is Boltzmann’s constant.Table of contents 88 source is outside the ionosphere some radio signals never reach the Earth.8 Large amplitude ion-acoustic solitons In this section we consider large amplitude electrostatic waves in a plasma. This is drawn schematically in Figure 5. 5. eφ κTe .

mi eφ ε∇2 φ = en0 exp − eni . dξ ∂z = d . We will study the nonlinear behaviour of ion-acoustic waves and double layers moving in the z-direction and start from ∂t n + ∂z (nv) = 0. the ion equation of motion and Poisson’s equation. The continuity equation is thus rewritten as −V since ∂t = −V We ﬁnd that −V n + nv = −V n0 or n= V n0 . we need the ion continuity equation.Table of contents 89 The ions. mi Collecting now the remaining equations. ˙ vi = (∂t + vi · ∇)vi = − e ∇φ. so that in their equation of motion the electric potential eﬀects determine the motion. n → n0 dξ as ξ → +∞. dξ dξ d . on the other hand. ∂t ni + ∇ · (ni vi ) = 0. dξ . e ∂t v + v∂z v = − ∂z φ. will be treated as cold. e (∂t + vi · ∇)vi = − ∇φ. The above equations may then be integrated with one-sided boundary conditions φ → 0. m eφ 2 ε0 ∂z φ = en0 exp κTe − en. so that all quantities will depend upon ξ = z − V t. v → 0. We now look for wave phenomena and localized structures travelling in the z-direction with a velocity V . dφ → 0. V −v dn d + (nv) = 0. κTe In what follows we will drop the subscript i on the ion quantities.

V ) = n0 κTe ε0 1 − exp eφ κTe + n0 mV 2 ε0 1− 1− 2eφ mV 2 . One thus ﬁnds n = n0 1− 2eφ . we multiply with dφ/dξ and ﬁnd ε0 2 dφ dξ 2 = n0 κTe exp eφ κTe − 1 + n0 mV 2 1− 2eφ −1 . 2e The rarefactive range of solutions (with φ < 0) is unrestricted. 2 m The only acceptable solution is v=V − V2− 2eφ =V m 1− 1− 2eφ mV 2 . We see that the mass density and velocity remain real provided mV 2 φ≤ . . mV 2 To integrate this. where V appears as a parameter. mV 2 which is of the form 1 dφ 2 dξ 2 + Ψ(φ. V ) given by Ψ(φ. as in the expression for n (> 0) we see that V > v. V ).Table of contents 90 The ion velocity v will be determined from the equation of motion −V or after integration from dv e dφ dv +v =− dξ dξ m dξ 1 e −V v + v 2 = − φ. but only a limited compressive range (with φ > 0) is allowed. This represents the energy integral for a classical particle of unit mass moving with velocity dφ/dξ in a potential Ψ(φ. d2 φ ε0 2 = en0 exp dξ eφ κTe − en0 1− 2eφ . mV 2 Poisson’s equation can now wholly be rewritten as a diﬀerential equation for φ. V ) = 0 with the Sagdeev pseudopotential Ψ(φ.

V ) < 0. V ) < 0 if φm < 0. 2 ∂φ ∂φ dξ ∂Ψ Ψ(φm . φ = O(µ) 2 ωpi 2 eφ φ −µ + 2 cs 3mc2 s (µ ≪ 1) and retaining terms up to third order in µ and/or φ. (φm . Weak ion-acoustic solitons are deﬁned by taking the small-amplitude limit in the sense that V = cs (1 + µ). m 1 1 − 2 2 V cs φ2 + 2 eωpi 2m 1 1 − 4 4 V 3cs φ3 . ∂φ ∂Ψ (φm . deﬁned through c2 = s we rewrite this expansion up to third order as Ψ(φ. For small-amplitude solitons the expansion of the Sagdeev potential near φ = 0 yields Ψ(φ. these requirements ensure that a particle starting at φ = 0 makes a single transit to the point φm and comes back to its initial position. This yields Ψ(φ. ∂φ Ψ(0. For ion-acoustic double layers one requires in addition that Ψ(φm . V ) = 0. V ) = 0. ∂φ ∂φ2 Ψ(φ. The appearance of localized solitary wave solutions furthermore also requires that ∂Ψ ∂ 2Ψ dφ (0.Table of contents 91 For both ion-acoustic solitons and double layers one requires that Ψ(φ. V ) be negative between φ = 0 (because of the boundary conditions at inﬁnity) and some extreme value φ = φm . . =0 (0. V ) < 0. so that |φm | represents the (maximum) amplitude of the soliton. in the mechanics analogy. V ) = 0. V ) < 0 for 0 < |φ| < |φm |. (φm . V ) = 2 ωpi 2 κTe . + + − − 2 ε0 κTe ε0 mV 2 2 3ε0 κ2 Te2 ε0 m2 V 4 Using the ion plasma frequency ωpi and the ion-acoustic velocity cs . V ) = eφ n0 mV 2 e 3 φ3 eφ e 2 φ2 e 3 φ3 e 2 φ2 n0 κTe − + + − 2 2− 3 3 + ε0 κTe 2κ Te 6κe Te ε0 mV 2 2m2 V 4 2m3 V 6 1 1 n0 e 3 n0 e 2 n0 e 2 n0 e 3 = φ2 + φ3 . V ) > 0 if φm > 0. V ) = . ∂Ψ ∂ 2Ψ (φm . Ψ(φm . that the particle will transit from 0 to φm only (or vice versa). This means. V ) = To adopt the language of classical mechanics. V ) = 0. V ) = at φ = 0.

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**and the energy integral becomes 1 2 dφ dξ
**

2

=

2 ωpi 2 eφ φ µ− 2 cs 3κTe

.

**Substituting for simplicity dimensionless variables ψ= eφ , κTe ωpi ωpi ωpi η= ξ= (z − cs (1 + µ)t) = z − ωpi (1 + µ)t, cs cs cs 1 2 dψ dη
**

2

we have that

1 = ψ2 µ − ψ . 3

We can deduce from this, after taking the derivative twice (undoing so to say the integrations performed in deriving the Sagdeev equation) that −µ dψ 1 d3 ψ dψ +ψ + = 0. dη dη 2 dη 3

This can also be obtained from a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation by using a reductive perturbation analysis ab initio. The KdV equation itself looks like ∂ψ ∂ψ 1 ∂ 3 ψ +ψ + =0 ∂τ ∂ζ 2 ∂ζ 3 so that for η = ζ − µτ we recover the ordinary diﬀerential equation derived before. The KdV equation has been derived in many diﬀerent physical situations and describes e.g. waves on shallow water, as well as the ion-acoustic plasma waves mentioned here. For the solution we return to 1 2 dψ dη

2

1 = ψ2 µ − ψ . 3

A soliton solution for this problem is ψ = 3µsech2 αη = where α is yet to be determined. Since dψ sinh αη , = −6αµ dη cosh3 αη 3µ , cosh2 αη

Table of contents ψ

8 (α = 1, µ = 3 )

93

η

Figure 5.6. Proﬁle of a solitary wave joining constant states at η = ±∞ and localized in η.

we ﬁnd from 18α2 µ2 that

sinh2 αη 9µ2 = cosh6 αη cosh4 αη α= µ . 2

µ−

µ cosh2 αη

The solution thus is ψ = 3µsech2 µ η 2

This looks indeed as a localized structure, as sketched in Figure 5.6. Since µ was originally deﬁned as V − cs µ= , cs we ﬁnd localized waves where the amplitude 3µ is related to the normalized wave speed, a typical property of nonlinear waves. Moreover, µ has to be positive, making the waves slightly supersonic with respect to cs .

5.9

Large amplitude circularly polarized waves in plasmas

Here we revert to the description of transverse electromagnetic waves in magnetized plasmas, but without linearizing the basic equations and hence obtaining large amplitude solutions. We recall the basic equations per species, consisting of the equation of continuity for the number densities ∂t ns + ∇ · (ns vs ) = 0 and the equation of motion ∂t vs + vs · ∇vs = qs (E + vs × B). ms

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The electric and magnetic ﬁelds E and B couple the plasma species together in Maxwell’s equations ∇ × E + ∂t B = 0, c2 ∇ × B = ∂ t E + 1 ε0

ns q s v s .

s

The other Maxwell’s equations will not be used further on, except ε0 ∇ · E = for the equilibrium conditions. We start from ns vs E B = Ns , = Vs ez + us , = E , = B 0 ez + b , ns q s

s

where Ns , Vs and B0 are constant equilibrium values and us , E and b refer to the ﬂuctuations associated with the circularly polarized waves. We emphasize, however, that these ﬂuctuations are not assumed to be small, so ours is not a perturbation analysis. The equilibrium carries neither charge nor current, hence Ns qs = 0,

s s

Ns qs Vs = 0.

Such a situation is only of interest if there are at least two ion species with diﬀerent drifts, for in a classic one-ion-species plasma Vi (subscript i for ions) must equal Ve (subscript e for electrons) and then results from stationary plasmas can be transposed to drifting reference frames. With more ion species with diﬀerent drifts, there is no longer any natural drifting frame of reference. There is also no equilibrium electric ﬁeld, as this would only give a common E0 × B0 drift for all plasma components. Such a common perpendicular drift can be eliminated by going to a deHoﬀmann-Teller frame where E0 vanishes. For circularly polarized waves propagating parallel to the external magnetic ﬁeld there are no ﬂuctuations in density. This will entail that usz = Ez = bz = 0. To start with, we assume a particular form for the wave magnetic ﬁeld, corresponding to circularly polarized modes, b = aex cos φ ± aey sin φ, where the phase of the waves is given by φ = kz − ωt.

dφ dφ aω aω ω b × ez = ± ex sin φ − ey cos φ. dφ Faraday’s law gives ∇ × E = ez × ∂ z E = k ez × so that E= db dE = −∂t b = ω . If that were not so. which clearly cannot be. we deduce from the preceding equation that (us × b) · ez = 0. one sees that the equations of continuity are fulﬁlled identically. k k k Turning next to the ﬂuid equations. We introduce for each species the Doppler-shifted frequency ′ ωs = ω − kVs . ms ms Because us . and ﬁnd that (∂t + Vs ∂z ) us = γs (∂t b + Vs ∂z b) = γs (−ω + kVs ) The equations of motion are rewritten as ′ ∓γs ωs ez × b + Ωs γs ez × b = db ′ = ∓γs ωs ez × b.Table of contents 95 Here the ± signs refer to the left (with the upper sign) or right (with the lower sign) circular polarization. Hence us = γs b = γs a(ex cos φ ± ey sin φ). we see that db = −a ex sin φ ± a ey cos φ = ±ez × b. If us × b = 0. For this particular dependence on z and t. higher harmonics would be generated which cannot be cancelled against other terms. k ms k which yields the factor of proportionality γs = ± and thus also the species velocity us = ± ′ qs ωs (aex cos φ ± aey sin φ) . E and b are all orthogonal to ez . with γs a scalar. it would be parallel to ez . dφ qs ms ′ ω qs ωs b × ez + V s ez × b = − ez × b. whereas the equations of motion become (∂t + Vs ∂z ) us + Ωs ez × us = qs qs (E + Vs ez × b) + us × b. ′ ms k(ωs ∓ Ωs ) ′ qs ωs . and exact ﬁnite-amplitude solutions will be possible because the only remaining nonlinear term us × b vanishes. ′ ms k(ωs ∓ Ωs ) .

Because the dispersion law was derived without referring to a particular frequency regime. ε0 B 0 because of the absence of global equilibrium charge and current densities. but now in the presence of parallel equilibrium drifts. this equation can be rewritten as c2 ez × ∂ z b = ∂ t E + 1 ε0 Ns qs us .Table of contents 96 We are now in a position to ﬁnally turn to Amp`re’s law. the low-frequency approximation for Alfv´n waves is automatically included. a long-wavelength approximation ′ where |kVs | ≪ |Ωs | is also needed. The expansion of ω − kVs ω′ = ′ s ω − kVs ∓ Ωs ωs ∓ Ωs ′ up to second order in ωs gives ′ ωs ω′ ω ′2 = ∓ s − s2 . A low-frequency regime in magnetized plasmas usually implies that |ω| ≪ |Ωs |. Ns qs = 0. s s Ns qs Vs = 0. . A ﬁnite-amplitude wave thus is possible indeed. so that |ω − kVs | = |ωs | ≪ |Ωs |. Because of the interest in plasmas with nonzero equilibrium drifts. as discussed e below. ′ ωs ∓ Ωs Ωs Ωs We compute separately that 2 ′ ωps ωs = Ωs 2 Ns qs (ω − kVs )ms · = ε0 m s qs B 0 s s s Ns qs (ω − kVs ) = 0. s Collecting the forms for b. the expansions and the equilibrium current neutrality condition. E and us eventually yields ω 2 − c2 k 2 − 2 ′ ωps ωs ′ ωs ∓ Ωs s (aex cos φ ± aey sin φ) = 0. In view of the assumed dependencies e of all quantities on z and t. We see that the dispersion law amounts to ω 2 − c2 k 2 − 2 ωps (ω − kVs ) =0 ω − kVs ∓ Ωs s nothing but the usual (linear) dispersion law for circularly polarized waves propagating parallel to the external magnetic ﬁeld. Adiabatic or isothermal pressures can easily be included in the foregoing treatment. as constant densities imply constant pressures.

the true bulk speed of the plasma as a whole by V = s Ns m s V s s Ns m s and the mean Doppler-shifted frequency as ω = ω − kV . P/Halley and P/Grigg-Skjellerup have given new results in solar wind plasmas suﬃciently contaminated by ions of cometary origin. The dispersion law is then up to second order approximated by ω 2 = c2 k 2 − c2 2 (ω + k 2 W ). in other words. 2 VA One sees immediately the possibility of unstable Alfv´n waves whenever e 2 VA < W Because VA is usually very small with respect to c. measured with respect to the Alfv´n velocity.Table of contents 97 The second-order term gives 2 ′2 ωps ωs = Ω2 s 2 Ns qs (ω − kVs )2 m2 c 2 µ0 s · = 2 2 2 ε0 m s qs B 0 B0 s s s Ns ms (ω − kVs )2 . with velocities which are very diﬀerent from the usual solar wind velocity. Deviations of the mean velocity are then denoted by Vs′ = Vs − V and W is a measure for the relative mass-averaged parallel kinetic energy of all species. There is an interesting region between 1 to 4 ∼ 7 × 106 km upstream of the cometary nucleus where the instability criterion would seem to hold. Due to the low gravity of the cometary nucleus. Recent missions to comets P/Giacobini-Zinner. leading to Alfv´n wave turbulence. e . W = s Ns ms Vs′ 2 s Ns m s . Diﬀerent processes can then ionize these particles. such ions escape as neutral atoms or molecules from the inner coma. We deﬁne the global Alfv´n velocity VA through e 2 VA = 2 B0 µ0 s Ns m s . whenever there is enough relative streaming between the diﬀerent species of the plasma. this is without much loss of generality approximated by 2 ω 2 = k 2 (VA − W ). which are picked-up at ionization by the solar wind magnetic ﬁeld. A more extensive form of the e above dispersion law and the associated instability criterion has been used to study Alfv´n e wave instabilities in solar wind plasmas.

ρ and p can at most depend upon t. The universe on the largest scale is viewed as a continuous ﬂuid. which says that there are no privileged observers and that the universe is homogeneous and isotropic on the larger scales.g. t). In view of the homogeneity of the universe. but are independent of position. The orientation of both reference frames in O and O′ remains the same. x′ 5. Two observers O and O′ and a distant galaxy P . The three diﬀerent points could e. meaning that the universe presents the same picture at all places and in all directions at a given instant. However. If v is the velocity of P with respect to O and v′ with respect to O′ . t) such that v = v(x. as indicated in Figure 5. Otherwise. Newtonian cosmology leads to the same results for the scale factor as general relativity. t) + v(x′ . This is then coupled to the cosmological principle. t) with respect to O. both recording what happens at P . v′ = v(x′ . are not peculiarities of Newtonian cosmology but are used also in general relativity.10 Newtonian cosmology As a last application of Euler’s equation in ideal ﬂuids we discuss some elements of Newtonian cosmology. v(x. Both these ideas. there is no rotation. O′ has a velocity v(a. It is clear that a proper treatment of cosmology at present requires general relativity. t). However. and thus a fairly simple picture of interesting phenomena can be given. refer to three diﬀerent galaxies. without going through all the mathematical intricacies connected with general relativity.Table of contents 98 P x O a O′ Figure 5. the principle of equivalent observers requires that there exist a single function v(x. a continuous ﬂuid ﬁlling the universe and the cosmological principle. We start with two observers O and O′ . one could class the observers according to the functional dependence included in v(x. t). for Friedman models. Also. t) = v(a. where they lead to the Friedman universes. t). and hence the velocities are additive in a Galilean sense.7. . as x = a + x′ .7.

At time t0 ρ(t0 ) = ρ0 . This is only possible when v(x. M′ = M′ . p being independent of x. In the equation of continuity ρ + ρ∇ · v = 0 ˙ the density ρ can only depend upon t. R This expresses the conservation of matter with density ρ inside a sphere of radius R. ∇ · b = −4πGρ. . v = µ x + M′ · x + x × m′′ . t) = M(t) · x. R(t0 ) = R0 .Table of contents 99 one ﬁnds that v(a + x′ . This part of the reasoning rests on the identiﬁcation of the velocities of the observers (or galaxies) with those of the continuum in which they are imbedded. The material description is given by the equation of continuity. ˙ R = 0. as there are no pressure gradients. together with Euler’s equation. t) is a linear function of its ﬁrst argument. which can always be decomposed into three parts M = µ 1 + M′ + M′′ . t) for all a. t) + v(x′ . We compute ∇ · v = ∇ · (M · x) = M : x ∇ = M : 1 = tr M = 3µ. Here M(t) is a time-dependent tensor. such that This yields where m′′ is the dual vector of M′′ . t) = v(a. Sofar. t M′′ = −M′′ . Thus the equation of continuity becomes ρ + 3ρ ˙ yielding after integration that 3 ρR3 = ρ0 R0 . t tr M′ = 0. without constant term v(x. It is customary to put µ(t) = ˙ R(t) . R(t) where R(t) is called the scale factor. much as a ﬂoating cork is carried along by the water. x′ and t. only part of the cosmological principle has been used. Euler’s equation reduces to ˙ v = b. The normalized force density b is only due to the gravitational interaction and obeys Poisson’s law.

or more precisely ¨ R+ 4 3 πGρ0 R0 3 1 =0 R2 or in other words.Table of contents 100 Hence for isotropic universes we have 4 b = − πGρ x. we have to be consistent and note that only the isotropic part of M. Hubble’s law can be rewritten as ˙ R ˙ v = x = x. namely µ 1. Hence v = µ x. R The solution of this diﬀerential equation is x = R(t) c. with x0 = x (t0 ) = R(t0 ) c = R0 c. In principle this cosmological equation determines R(t). 3 When the isotropic part of the cosmological principle is invoked here. which expresses Hubble’s law that the velocity of distant galaxies increases with their distance ˙ from us or from any other point. Hence the discussion we now give transcends the purely Newtonian framework. Afterwards we have ρ(t) = 3 ρ0 R 0 R3 (t) . can then be nonzero. Identifying again v and x. This equation is the same as the one which is derived for pressureless Friedman models in general relativity. Combining this with Euler’s equation and the particular form for b gives 4 ˙ v = − πGρ x 3 ¨ 4 R ¨ ¨ x = R c = x = − πGρ x. R 3 The scale factor R thus obeys the equation ¨ R 4 4 3 1 = − πGρ = − πGρ0 R0 3 R 3 3 R with the help of conservation of mass.

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and x(t) = R(t) c, and the problem is solved. Unfortunately, the determination of R(t) is not straightforward. A ﬁrst and perhaps startling conclusion is that when R is vanish. In other words, a static universe must be empty! solution, unless one modiﬁes the laws of gravitation ad do, since he believed the universe had to be stationary. cosmological equation can be integrated once to get ˙ R2 − 8 3 πGρ0 R0 3 constant, the mass density has to There is no nonempty stationary hoc, as Einstein at ﬁrst tried to ˙ After multiplication by 2R, the

1 = C. R

This is of the form of the conservation of energy for the onedimensional motion of a particle in a conservative force ﬁeld, and the discussion can be given in analogous terms. We know ˙ from Hubble’s observations that the universe is currently expanding, with R > 0. Two cases are possible: either C is positive or zero, or C is negative. ˙ ˙ In the case where C is positive or zero, R2 is strictly positive and R cannot vanish sometime. ˙ This means that R is always positive, as it is so now, and thus the scale factor R is an ever increasing function of time. This is the model of the ever expanding or open universe. On the other hand, if C were negative, we could put C≡− 8 3 πGρ0 R0 3 1 , Rc

which deﬁnes Rc for a given C < 0. Substituting this into ˙ R2 = gives us ˙ R2 = We conclude that ˙ R2 ≥ 0 =⇒ 1 1 ≥ R Rc ⇐⇒ R ≤ Rc . 8 3 πGρ0 R0 3 1 1 − R Rc . 8 3 πGρ0 R0 3 1 +C R

¨ It is seen that Rc corresponds to a maximum value for the scale factor. As R is always ˙ vanishes, and then R starts to decrease negative, R increases to the value Rc , where R again. It will then be decreasing monotonically until zero, where it all started from. A scale factor zero corresponds to a singularity, as the density becomes inﬁnite. This singularity is called the “big bang”, with philosophical implications outside the scope of the present lectures with their simple approach. The model where R is bounded by Rc is called an oscillating or closed universe, although it is not clear at all whether such a cycle would repeat itself or not. As 3 3 ρR3 = ρ0 R0 = ρc Rc ,

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there corresponds a critical value ρc of the mass density to Rc , such that R ≤ Rc ⇐⇒ ρ ≥ ρc .

Thus the mass density, if known accurately, could be an indication of whether the universe was open or closed, expanding forever or “oscillating”. If there is enough mass, hence a density above the critical density, the gravitational eﬀects will be able to call the expansion to a halt. If the density is too low, on the other hand, the expansion will be slowed but never stopped. The special case where C is zero corresponds to the Einstein-de Sitter model, with 8 3 1 ˙ R2 = πGρ0 R0 , 3 R and the integration can be carried out explicitly, R = (6πGρ0 )1/3 R0 t2/3 . The corresponding mass density 1 6πGt2 is getting smaller and smaller in a larger and larger universe. At the end of this section, it is an interesting but unanswerable question why Newtonian cosmology was not investigated earlier, before rather than after the advent of general relativity. Maybe because there were no static solutions and people believed in the permanence of our universe? ρ=

5.11

Complex potential theory

As a last application for ideal ﬂuids we introduce complex potential theory, which is a compact way of describing plane irrotational and stationary ﬂows of an ideal homogeneous ﬂuid, as we will show. Stationarity means that the ﬂow is time-independent, and homogeneity reduces the equation of continuity to the incompressibility condition, ∇ · v = 0, implying the existence of vector potential a for the velocity such that v = ∇ × a. Irrotational ﬂow has no vorticity, 1 ω = ∇ × v = 0, 2 so that there also exists a scalar potential φ for the velocity ﬁeld, v = ∇φ.

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Both representations of v, written together, ∇φ = ∇ × a, give that ∇2 φ = 0, if we assume that ∇ · a = 0, a condition that can be imposed without loss of generality. Hence φ and a are harmonic functions obeying a Laplace equation. For plane ﬂows (in the x, y-plane) we will put for simplicity of notation x = x1 , y = x2 and u = v1 , v = v2 . ∇2 a = 0,

Furthermore, there is no z = x3 dependence of any kind. Putting then ψ = a3 , we ﬁnd from v =∇×a that u= and from v = ∇φ that u= ∂φ , ∂x v= ∂φ . ∂y dy . ∂ψ − ∂x ∂ψ , ∂y v=− ∂ψ , ∂x

The meaning of ψ becomes clear when we look at the equation for the streamlines, dy dx = u v The result is dψ = and ψ(x, y) = C gives the streamlines. Hence ψ is called the stream function. Now the conditions (u =) ∂φ ∂ψ = , ∂x ∂y ∂φ ∂ψ (v =) =− , ∂y ∂x or dx ∂ψ ∂y =

∂ψ ∂ψ dx + dy = 0, ∂x ∂y

y) + iψ(x. = ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y from which there follows that u= ∂ψ ∂φ = . Putting w = |w| e−iα means that |w| = √ u2 + v 2 gives the absolute value of the real velocity in the xy-plane and α the angle between this velocity and the x-axis. y)}. dz ∆x.∆y→0 ∆x + i∆y and the limiting procedure is independent of the way in which it is computed. Another way of recovering the Cauchy-Riemann conditions is by diﬀerentiating f to get df = dφ + idψ = w dz = (u − iv)(dx + idy) = udx + iudy − ivdx + vdy ∂φ ∂ψ ∂ψ ∂φ dx + dy + i dx + i dy. v= ∂y ∂x . deﬁned through f (z) := {C → C : z = x + iy → φ(x. to be analytic in z. Moreover. ∂φ ∂ψ df ∆φ + i∆ψ = lim = +i dz ∆x ∂x ∂x ∆x → 0 ∆y = 0 or df ∂ψ ∂φ ∆φ + i∆ψ = lim = −i dz i∆y ∂y ∂y ∆x = 0 ∆y → 0 are equivalent to a complex velocity w= df = u − iv dz As φ and ψ are harmonic functions. Indeed. there exists a derivative w= df ∆φ + i∆ψ = lim .Table of contents 104 are precisely the Cauchy-Riemann conditions for a complex function f of a complex argument z. so are u and v. ∂x ∂y ∂ψ ∂φ =− .

Hence z w dz = m(Γ + i D) z0 with m an integer and Γ + iD the residue obtained by circling once around the cut-out. anticlockwise. hence holomorphic. and thus f (z) − Γ + iD Log (z − a) 2πi has to be holomorphic to yield an acceptable choice for a complex potential with holomorphic derivative df w= . hence holomorphic.Table of contents 105 Now w has to be analytic and uniform in a domain D. and z f (z) = f (z0 ) + z0 w dz is independent of the path followed from z0 to z. Going around this same C (with interior point a) we ﬁnd that Log (z − a) increases by 2πi. a. Γ + iD = C w dz = C (u − iv)(dx + i dy) C = C (u dx + v dy) + i v · dx + i (u dy − v dx) = C C (v × dx) · ez . then in z f (z) = f (z0 ) + z0 w dz the last integral will depend on the path. However. the latter integral represents the debit across the surface contained in C. dz The procedure can be summarized as follows: . The former integral is the circulation of v around C. Hence Γ + iD Log (z − a) 2πi z and z0 w dz have the same nonuniform behaviour along path encircling e.g. then f is also analytic and uniform. If D is simply connected. more precisely on the number of times m the path encircles one of the patches which do not belong to D. when D is multiply connected.

we note ﬁrst of all that fR (z) is holomorphic whenever f (z) is so. now considered as a function of z. and R is any real number. To prove this. in order for fR (z) to describe a ﬂuid in the exterior of the circle mentioned previously. Secondly. it has . when f has Laurent series f (z) = +∞ an z n where the coeﬃcients an are complex constants. For instance.Table of contents 106 • We pick a suitable f (z) and ﬁnd from f = φ + iψ that φ=C ψ=C • The complex velocity gives √ |w| = u2 + v 2 α = − arg w Kelvin’s circle theorem Most cases of potential ﬂow will be in multiply-connected domains. and are concerned in particular with ﬂows around a cylinder. fR (z) = f (z) + f z is a complex potential describing a ﬂow around a circle of radius R centered at the origin. we deﬁne the complex conjugate function f (z) by ¯ z f (z) = f (¯). Luckily. then the function 2 ¯ R . ¯ For any complex potential f (z). there is a simple procedure to modify any complex potential f describing an unbounded ﬂuid so that the resulting potential has the same characteristics but also describes a ﬂow around a cylinder. w= df = u − iv dz : : absolute value of ﬂow velocity angle between real velocity and x-axis. is again holomorphic. ¯ f (z) = n=−∞ an z n . This result goes by the name of Kelvin’s circle theorem. ¯ Note that f (z). ¯ Kelvin’s circle theorem now says that if f (z) is a complex potential. n=−∞ ¯ the Laurent series of f is given by +∞ =⇒ =⇒ equipotentials streamlines.

Table of contents 107 to be the case that the circle of radius R is a streamline for fR (z). which states that any simply-connected region can be mapped onto the unit disc by a conformal map. This describes a ﬂow with constant velocity in a direction making a constant angle α with the x-axis. we have that z = R2 /z. we have that |z|2 = R2 or alternatively that z = R2 /¯. we have 2 ¯ R f z ¯ =f R2 z ¯ =f R2 . df = a = |a|ei arg a dz . Then w= means that |w| = |a| and α = − arg a. In what follows. Wherever possible. with a and b complex constants. some elementary examples of potential ﬂow are discussed. This is easily veriﬁed: on the circle of radius R. we use the Kelvin circle theorem. 1. and so ¯ 2 ¯ R f z ¯z = f (¯) = f (z) for z such that |z|2 = R2 . it follows that ¯ ψR (z) = ImfR (z) = Imf (z) + Imf = Imf (z) − Imf R2 z R2 z ¯ On the circle of radius R. we can hence study potential ﬂow around any body by mapping it conformally onto the unit disc and applying the Kelvin circle theorem. so that z ψR vanishes there. In other words. From the previous expression. z ¯ The stream function ψR of fR (z) is nothing but the imaginary part of fR (z). Kelvin’s procedure is most often used in conjunction with the Riemann mapping theorem. the boundary of the circle is a streamline and fR (z) represents a ﬂuid ﬂowing around the circle. Since conformal mappings take holomorphic functions into holomorphic function. Note that for all z. Uniform ﬂow Put f (z) = az + b.

Source or sink Choose now f (z) = where z = r eiθ is the polar representation. Hence φ= D log r = C.8. whereas ψ= D θ 2π gives the streamlines. straight lines leading into or away from the origin.Table of contents 108 2. 2π 2π 2π in other words. O Figure 5. |D| and 2πr |D| is the debit of the source or sink. (D < 0). . Flow of a source or sink in the origin. the equipotentials are concentric circles. 2π D D D Log z = log r + i θ. Also w= gives |w| = or |w| = D 2πr df D D −iθ = = e = |w|e−iα dz 2πz 2πr and α=θ α=θ−π (D > 0).

This conﬁguration is drawn in Figure 5.Table of contents 109 3. We now consider the case of uniform ﬂow .9. 2π and are concentric circles. The information about the ﬂow velocity comes from w= as Γ Γ −iθ |Γ| −i(θ± π ) df 2 = −i = −i e = e dz 2πz 2πr 2πr |w| = |Γ| π and α=θ± . Flow around a point vortex in the origin. Point vortex For this we take f (z) = and the equipotentials follow from Γ Γ Γ Log z = −i log r + θ 2πi 2π 2π φ= Γ θ 2π as straight lines through the origin. Flow around a circle or cylinder without vortices In the ﬁrst example. where A is a real constant. if Γ > 0. or clockwise if Γ < 0. represents a steady ﬂow along the x-axis with velocity A. The streamlines are given by ψ=− Γ log r. 4. we have shown that f (z) = Az.9. O Figure 5. 2πr 2 The concentric streamlines are traversed counterclockwise around the origin.

the other starts at z = +R and goes to +∞. so that by Kelvin’s circle theorem. In polar coordinates. The special streamlines corresponding to ψ = 0 are the circle (or the cross section of the cylinder) with radius R and from θ = 0 also the x-axis outside ]−R. Flow around a circle or cylinder. We have that f (z) = Az. z From now on. R2 fR (z) = A z + . . e r sin θ. e r2 Stagnation points or lines are where w vanishes.10. we have f (z) = A reiθ + This potential has equipotentials φ=A r+ and streamlines ψ=A r− R2 r R2 r cos θ R2 −iθ . we denote fR simply by f . Hence one streamline comes from −∞ and ends in z = −R. here w=0 ⇐⇒ z = ±R.Table of contents 110 ¯ around a cylinder of radius R placed at the origin. +R[. Figure 5. The ﬂow velocity itself is given in complex form as w= R2 df =A 1− 2 dz z =A 1− R2 −2iθ . The circle inside R is not accessible to the ﬂow.

Flows around corners and edges To model these we start from the complex potential f = Az n = Arn eniθ to ﬁnd φ = Arn cos nθ for the equipotential curves and ψ = Arn sin nθ for the streamlines. π n Figure 5.Table of contents 111 5. so that z n−1 = 1 z 1−n df = nAz n−1 = nArn−1 ei(n−1)θ dz : : origin π θ=k n (A real) (k integer). as shown in Figure 5. Flow along an edge. Stagnation points correspond to w = 0 and have to be discussed for diﬀerent possibilities. The special streamlines corresponding to ψ = 0 are r=0 sin nθ = 0 Furthermore the complex velocity is w= and its magnitude |w| = nArn−1 .11. First we take n < 1.11. The special streamlines with θ=k are θ = 0 and θ = π/n. and the stagnation points lie at inﬁnity. for which π/n > π. . This corresponds to ﬂows along an edge.

then the ﬂow is in a corner. Flow in a corner. indicating that one or more of our fundamental assumptions are strictly speaking erroneous. as shown in Figure 5. Nevertheless. Limitations of potential ﬂow In order to understand the solutions of the Euler equations. This is clearly in contradiction with. On the other hand. Now w = 0 =⇒ z = 0 (origin) indicates that the stagnation point lies in the origin. the observed behavior of a small object submerged in a steadily ﬂowing stream. In some cases. we obtain results which are clearly nonsensical.12 with π/n < π. if n > 1. we have made various simplifying assumptions. it is clear that diﬀerent expressions for f (z) can be combined to describe more intricate ﬂow patterns. it is a good exercise to work out the details of the proof for a circular body of unit radius. which states that the drag on a circular body in an inviscid ﬂow vanishes. As a result. but similar results can be derived in three dimensions as well. which model every-day observations very well. e. for instance. 1 . Blasius Formula. One such inconsistency is the paradox of d’Alembert. This disc can have an arbitary shape — Blasius’ theorem is not limited to circular shapes.g. We will prove d’Alembert’s paradox in the context of two-dimensional potential ﬂow. we obtained particular solutions with interesting physical and mathematical properties.Table of contents 112 Figure 5.12. To conclude this section.1 The proof of Blasius’ theorem below holds for arbitrary body shapes. however. f (z) = A z + R2 z + Γ Log z 2πi corresponds to the ﬂow around cylinder or circle with vortex motion. The result follows from Blasius’ theorem concerning the forces acting on a disc in a potential ﬂow.

We denote the force exerted by the ﬂuid on the body by Fbody = (Fx . where the minus sign is to be explained by the fact that n(s) is pointing outward of the boundary. where for the sake of convenience s denotes arc length. while F (s) by convention points inward. To prove this expression. We know that the boundary of the disc is a streamline. This can be done by means of Bernouilli’s law: there are no external forces and the ﬂow is permanent and irrotational. we begin by choosing a parametric representation s → z(s) for the boundary of the rigid body. dz ds ds . The (outward) normal vector to the boundary at a point with parameter s is denoted by n(s) = (nx (s). The total force exerted by the ﬂuid on the body is then given by the circular integral Ftot = − p(s)n(s)ds. which is submerged in a potential ﬂow with stream function f (z). Fy ) and we introduce the complex force Fbody as Fbody = Fx − iFy . z The force at a point z(s) is now given by F (s) = −p(s)n(s). so that Ψ(z(s)) is constant for all s. Blasius’ theorem then asserts that Fbody iρ0 = 2 df dz 2 dz where ρ0 is the constant density of the ﬂuid. and the circular integral is computed along the boundary of the rigid body.Table of contents 113 Let us consider such a disc. all that remains is to express p(s) in terms of the complex potential f (z). and we introduce the complex normal n(s) = nx (s) − iny (s). ny (s)). df This allows us to conclude that dz z ′ is a real function: df (z(s)) d df (z(s))z ′ (s) = = Φ(z(s)). We already have a complex expression for n(s). so that p=− ρ0 2 v +C 2 2 ρ0 df +C =− 2 dz where C is a constant. It is easy to verify that n(s) = i¯′ (s).

Assume that the body radius is R and that the ﬂuid ﬂows along the x-axis with velocity U . . Outside the boundary layer. We begin by substituting the complex expression for the pressure and the normal vector into the integral formula for the force to obtain Ftot = p(s)n(s)ds df dz 2 iρ0 = 2 z ′ ds. since the integrand has no simple poles. As with many paradoxes. it merely signals that the current description is incomplete. Paradox of d’Alembert. The integral can be further rewritten to give Ftot = iρ0 2 df df ′ z ds dz dz df dz 2 iρ0 = 2 and this ﬁnally yields the formula of Blasius: Ftot iρ0 = 2 z ′ ds df dz 2 dz. That element proved to be the development by Prandtl of boundary-layer theory. ¯ The constant C in the pressure function doesn’t matter. We now return to our original goal: to show that the drag force on a circular body in a uniform steady ﬂow is zero. dz = 0. where the integral (according to Cauchy’s theorem) can be computed along any contour encircling the origin. since the circular integral of a constant function is zero. where the body is enveloped by a thin layer in which viscous eﬀects are dominant. and that a novel element is needed. The result of d’Alembert is nowadays more of a historical curiosity.Table of contents 114 We now have all the necessary elements to prove Blasius’ formula. The complex potential is as before f (z) = U and Blasius’ formula gives for the total force Ftot = iρ0 U 2 2 1− R2 z2 2 z+ R2 z . the ﬂuid then behaves as if inviscid.

when the boat suddenly stopped — not so the mass of water which it had put in motion. It is worth stressing that this ‘great wave of translation’ was observed to be an elevation. we start in 1834. the scientiﬁc establishment of the day would have nothing to do with solitary waves. a rounded.Table of contents 115 Surface water waves In an attempt to understand some recent events. To give some feeling about the subject of nonlinear water waves. so that there remains from the continuity equation only the . Nevertheless. and have found the now famous sech2 proﬁles for these solitary waves. great scientists like Boussinesq (1871) and Lord Rayleigh (1876) conﬁrmed the relation put forward by Scott Russell. These typical proﬁles were the solution of the diﬀerential equation derived in the doctoral thesis (1895) of De Vries. Maybe because of that then standard picture. Both their names are now attached to the KdV equation. His detailed ﬁndings (written down in 1844) are worth reading even today. the nonlinear derivation is involved and better dealt with in other lectures. with the observation by John Scott Russell of a solitary water wave on the then narrow canal Edinburgh-Glasgow. For the propagation velocity vf Scott Russell empirically put forward the relation 2 vf = g(h + a). To continue with the linear theory. measured from the undisturbed surface. not the familiar succession of ups and downs that we tend to associate with periodic water waves in a linearized description. and after a chase of one or two miles I lost it in the windings of the channel. We will start with the theory of linear water waves. and Scott Russell’s detailed observation and many subsequent laboratory investigations notwithstanding. I was observing the motion of a boat which was rapidly drawn along a narrow channel by a pair of horses. rolled forward with great velocity. assuming the form of a large solitary elevation. As indicated already. I followed it on horseback. and a the maximum amplitude of the waves. where h is the depth of the water in the canal or in the laboratory vessel. water is to a high degree of accuracy incompressible and homogeneous (ρ ≃ constant). which continued its course along the channel without change of form or diminution of speed. such as the tsunami disaster. then suddenly leaving it behind. a hump of water above the level surface. because the nonlinear treatments are quite involved and dealt with in other lectures. preserving its original ﬁgure some thirty feet long and a foot to a foot and a half in height. smooth and well-deﬁned heap of water. Its height gradually diminished. and overtook it still rolling on at a rate of some eight or nine miles an hour. it accumulated around the prow of the vessel in a state of violent agitation. it is important to recall some elements about the propagation of waves or solitary structures on the surface of water. and provide an insight in a keen and unbiased mind: I believe I shall best introduce the phaenomenon by describing the circumstances of my own acquaintance with it. earned under Korteweg as supervisor.

we can take a plane wave solution in x and t. We have assumed that the problem is translationally invariant in the third. this becomes dp0 (z) = − gρ. ρ 1 d iωδvz = δp. and put δv = δv(z) exp[i(kx − ωt)]. so that ∇p0 = ρg. that the components of δv are also solutions of this same diﬀerential equation. dz 1 ωδvx = kδp. ikδvx + d δvz = 0. . δp = δp(z) exp[i(kx − ωt)]. and get in this way a set of three scalar equations. y direction. ρ dz Elimination of δvx and δvz yields a single equation in the pressure perturbations.Table of contents 116 incompressibility condition The equation of motion is now ∇ · v = 0. but not in z. ∂t ρ Because of the vertical stratiﬁcation. and hence of the form δp = Ae−kz + Bekz . d2 δp = k 2 δp. Taking the z axis of a reference frame along the upward vertical. dz yielding the classical stratiﬁcation of a ﬂuid or gas under the inﬂuence of gravity. dz 2 It is seen. ∂ 1 δv = − ∇δp. ∂t ρ In equilibrium the pressure gradient has to balance gravity. δvz = Ce−kz + Dekz . through the elimination of δp. ∂ 1 v + v · ∇v = g − ∇p. After linearization we see that the perturbations obey ∇ · δv = 0.

dz ω which is only valid. there is no vertical water motion. located at z = −h.Table of contents 117 The determination of the boundary conditions goes in two steps. when evaluated at z = 0. where ξ represents a reference height. −kC + kD = This algebraic and homogeneous set of equations in C and D only has a nontrivial solution provided gk gk +1 −1 2 ω ω2 = 0. kh −kh e e . the reference height of the undisturbed surface of the water. But the vertical movement of the free surface is at the same time that of the water itself. ∂t Inserting our plane solution yields − iωδp = gρδvz . of course. (1) At the free surface we have in general that p = patm + ρgξ. k or after derivation Together with the incompressibility condition this ﬁnally gives d gk 2 δvz = 2 δvz . ω2 Ce+kh + De−kh = 0. Both boundary conditions together give for the solutions that gk 2 (C + D). For small perturbations in the water or at the surface this becomes δp = ρgδξ ∂ ∂ δp = gρ δξ. and upon substitution of δp by δvx there comes − iω 2 δvx = gδvz . (2) At the bottom. which leads to the identiﬁcation on the surface of ∂ δξ = δvz . so δvz = 0. ∂t ∂t We assume that for this type of problem the atmospheric pressure is constant.

For large values of the argument we can approximate tanh kh by 1 and thus get ω 2 = gk. 2π h h = 2π ≫ 1. Comparison with the expression given by Scott Russell for the velocity of the observed solitary wave. λ λ is used to arrive at the shallow water wave dispersion law . ω = gh. vf = (2) Shallow water Here the opposite limit is taken. The phase velocity is ω g = = k k and indicates that these waves are dispersive. ω2 ω 2 = gk tanh kh Special limiting cases (1) Deep water This is expressed by the requirement that kh ≫ 1. rewritten as kh = showing that The wavelength of the perturbation is small compared to the depth of the channel. The phase velocity now is gλ 2π h ≫ λ. k and the waves are nondispersive.Table of contents 118 or also when The dispersion law is thus gk −kh e − ekh + e−kh + ekh = 0. or. vf = vf = g(h + a). and the approximation kh ≪ 1. tanh kh ≃ kh ω 2 = gk 2 h.

However.Table of contents 119 clearly demonstrates that the linearization procedure for small perturbations necessitates that a ≪ h. their velocities (up to 800 km/h) and separation between the successive solitons or crests (periods of 30 to 45 min) indicate that the shallow water wave picture is essentially correct. . This is a general conclusion. well separated solitons is still an open question. In other words. For linear systems the amplitudes can only be determined up to a normalization factor. This can be determined from the observational constraints and will be left as an exercise. as the set of equations for C and D show. How large the amplitudes can be. and the nonlinear considerations give a limitation of the validity of the linear results. is something that can only be ascertained by a nonlinear study of the problem! Whether tsunamis in the open ocean are periodic waves on shallow water or more a train of (fairly) weak. before we exceed the domain of validity of the linearization procedure with its neglect of squares and products. we deal with surface waves in shallow water (think of the length of the soliton as some 30 feet or ≃ 9 m).

Chapter 6 Viscous ﬂuids For viscous ﬂuids we discuss • Similarity and dimensional analysis • Notions of turbulence • Matched asymptotic expansions to treat boundary layers 120 .

that the ﬂuid in the model varies in density between 1 and 2 kg/m3 . The main question is whether the conclusions drawn from the scale model are valid for a larger experiment with diﬀerent parameters. whereas in reality the density goes from 1000 tot 2000 kg/m3 . but for phenomena describable by a set of diﬀerential equations it can be reduced to the equality of some typical dimensionless numbers. As will be shown below. If we put ρ = ρ0 ρ∗ . as opposed to turbulent or erratic ﬂow. In the latter case an often advocated way of dealing with as yet unknown ﬂows is to construct a scale model before embarking upon the construction of the real thing. also for the continuity equation and an equation of state for the pressure. The basic equations are the equation of continuity ∂t ρ + ∇ · (ρ v) = 0. Applications of this can be found in many engineering textbooks and will not be given here. relatively speaking. this is a far from trivial matter. Two ﬂows will be called similar if there is geometric and dynamic similarity. when the ﬂow in the model is similar to the real ﬂow. ˙ ρ v = f − ∇ p + (λ + µ)∇∇ · v + µ∇2 v and a pressure equation of state p = p(ρ). This seems an inﬁnity of conditions. 3 where for simplicity and to ﬁx the ideas. or formulated otherwise. in the model and in reality.Table of contents 121 6. the forces are just gravity and Stokes’ condition has been incorporated. including viscosity. and in many cases no valid mathematical approach is possible and one has to rely upon computer simulations or experimental evidence. Laminar ﬂow is well-ordered or well-structured ﬂow. Suppose. is the steady laminar ﬂow of a viscous liquid through a channel or a pipe. We feel that in both cases the same range is covered. . For dynamic similarity there must be a constant proportion between the variables. Not all ﬂow problems are as easy as laminar Couette and Poiseuille ﬂow. to ﬁx the ideas and give some hypothetical numbers. such as density and velocity.1 Similarity This chapter will be devoted to some phenomena where the viscosity of the ﬂuid plays a crucial role. Navier-Stokes’ equation of motion. One of the simplest examples which can be treated analytically. It is for laminar phenomena that the Navier-Stokes equation is most adequate. in each corresponding point. of which more in subsequent sections. This is to be considered together with the appropriate boundary conditions. Let us return to the equation of motion for viscous ﬂuids ρ(∂t v + v · ∇v) = ρ g − ∇ p + µ ∇∇ · v + µ∇2 v.

The same will be done with all variables occurring in the given situation. which will carry a star x = L x∗ . TV L ∗ ∗ Lg p 0 ∇∗ p ∗ µ 1 ∂t v + v∗ · ∇∗ v∗ = 2 e(g) − + 2 ρ∗ TV V ρ0 V ρ0 LV ρ∗ 1 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∇ ∇ · v + ∇∗ 2 v ∗ . v = V v∗ . such as the uniform ﬂow velocity. ∂t = ∂t . the speed of light for electromagnetic waves. characteristic for the ﬂuid under consideration. The ﬁrst is called Strouhal’s number. For simplicity a single characteristic length L and velocity V were chosen for the three space dimensions. L T Applying this to the equations of continuity and of motion gives ρ0 ∗ ∗ ρ0 V ∗ ∂ ρ + ∇ · (ρ∗ v∗ ) = 0. t = T t∗ . taken in some reference point. with something similar for the velocities. This is certainly not a strict requirement and one could very well envisage situations where e. the sound speed when gases are involved. The derivatives thus become 1 1 ∗ ∇ = ∇∗ . TV . • velocity V . and in both cases ρ∗ would vary from 1 to 2. St = L . 3 In these equations several dimensionless combinations of the characteristic values appear.g. with the dimensions included. • pressure p0 . the thickness of a body. All variables are then rewritten as a product of such a characteristic value times a dimensionless variable. such as the diameter or the length of a pipe. while the dimensionless variable ρ∗ is then typical for the span covered. 3 1 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∇ ∇ · v + ∇∗ 2 v ∗ . the length in one direction were measured in a diﬀerent way from lengths in other directions. such as the time constant of a transition. the distance between two walls. ρ = ρ0 ρ∗ . • density ρ0 .Table of contents 122 we can take ρ0 as a characteristic value for the mass density in a given situation. These characteristic numbers are all named and each of them is signiﬁcant for some particular eﬀect or for a speciﬁc type of phenomenon. the period of an oscillatory movement. • time T . and we use a typical • length L. In the given theoretical example ρ0 would be 1 kg/m3 in the model and 1000 kg/m3 in reality. p = p0 p∗ . T t L V ∗ ∗ V2 ∗ p 0 ∇∗ p ∗ µV 1 ∗ ∗ (g) ∂t v + v ·∇ v = ge − + ∗ T L ρ0 L ρ ρ0 L 2 ρ∗ or in dimensionless form L ∗ ∗ ∂t ρ + ∇∗ · (ρ∗ v∗ ) = 0.

Table of contents 123 It only occurs when the ﬂow is not permanent and in this sense it is a measure for the non-stationarity of the ﬂow. On the other hand. ρ0 V 2 Euler’s number. p ∼ ργ . gL ρ0 gL which gives the relation of the kinetic to the potential energy densities. At low Reynolds numbers the ﬂow is laminar or well structured. one deduces that dp p =γ . ρ0 is the Mach number. ρ0 LV ρ0 V 2 = µV µ L Re = which measures the ratio of the kinetic energy density to the viscous dissipation. when the Reynolds number is high. here the potential energy density in the gravitational ﬁeld. It has been observed experimentally to be a good measure for the degree of turbulence in a ﬂow. The following number is Eu = p0 . the ﬂow is subsonic. For gases where the pressure variations are adiabatic. Finally there is the famous Reynolds number. such as the diameter of a narrow tube. These measures are used in particular to express the speed of an aircraft. Next we have Froude’s number. and a high viscosity. A low Reynolds number implies a small typical length. It relates the ﬂow velocity to the ambient sound speed. when the Mach number exceeds one the ﬂow is supersonic. the typical length is large. This time the kinetic energy density is compared to the pressure. The ﬂow at Mach number one is called transonic. c2 = γ S Hence Euler’s number can be transformed into Eu = where Ma = V cS 1 1 c2 S = . regular ﬂow. together with a small typical velocity. such as in quiet ﬂow. Fr = V2 ρ0 V 2 = . All these elements together give a steady. coupled with a high ﬂow . 2 γV γ (Ma)2 p0 . dρ ρ or with the characteristic values. indicating a large degree of internal coherence. For Mach numbers smaller than one.

Then the scale model and the real situation will be similar. the Mach numbers are nowhere equal! The only . But the stumbling block lies in the fact that not all typical numbers can be made equal in the same comparison between model and reality! Suppose that we put an airplane wing model in a wind-tunnel to measure its aerodynamic shape. with 2 all quantities for the real setup. Having discussed all the characteristic numbers. we rewrite the dimensionless equations of continuity and of motion as ∗ St ∂t ρ∗ + ∇∗ · (ρ∗ v∗ ) = 0. 1 (g) Eu ∗ ∗ 1 1 ∗ St ∂t v∗ + v∗ · ∇∗ v∗ = e − ∗ ∇ p + Fr ρ Re ρ∗ 1 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∇ ∇ · v + ∇∗ 2 v ∗ .3. Re1 = Re2 or ρ0 µ ρ0 µ L1 V 1 = 1 L2 V 2 . with these values one ﬁnds that Ma1 = V 2 L2 L2 V1 = = Ma2 . 1 1 Eu v ∗ · ∇∗ v ∗ = − ∗ ∇∗ p ∗ + ρ Re ρ∗ 1 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∇ ∇ · v + ∇∗ 2 v ∗ . ρ0 /µ is the same and we ﬁnd that L2 V1 = V2 .Table of contents 124 speed in a ﬂuid where the viscosity is low. An introduction to the mathematical description of turbulence is given in section 6. 3 We label with 1 all quantities for the model. 2 If both the model and the real wing are put in an ordinary air ﬂow. The equations for steady ﬂow in the absence of external forces become ∇∗ · (ρ∗ v∗ ) = 0. We then have turbulent or irregular ﬂow. with a lot of vortices or eddies. cS c S L1 L1 if the sound velocity is the same. Even in cases where ρ0 /µ and cS are not the same in the model and in the real experiment. 3 When this set of equations is applied to two diﬀerent situations. the equations and hence also the phenomena described will be the same when the dimensionless combinations are equal. We set out with the same Reynolds number. L1 The velocity in the model is the real velocity divided by the scale factor L1 /L2 . there is usually not enough range in the kinematic viscosities µ/ρ0 or sound speeds cS available to compensate for the scaling in length. Hence when the Reynolds numbers are taken alike. The transition of laminar to turbulent ﬂow occurs at a certain critical Reynolds number. However.

The unavoidable conclusion is that it is almost never possible to get similar ﬂow in a model experiment and in reality. viscosity which are thought important for a given problem. hence the equality of the Mach numbers. as in the case of turbulence.2 Dimensional analysis In the previous section several characteristic and dimensionless numbers were arrived at. velocity. that the velocity v depended only on h and g. The general idea behind dimensional analysis is to list the diﬀerent parameters such as density. possibly raised to some power. g. Through dimensional analysis one can also get some of these numbers. because it was derived from Newton’s equations. we have the following dimensionalities L L [v] = . [g] = 2 . even in the case when governing equations are lacking or not generally accepted. h and g is only possible as v/ gh. and then to try and form dimensionless numbers. 6. we will start with a simple example from classical mechanics. which is discussed in the next two sections.Table of contents 125 way out would be to use for this experiment a gas with a totally diﬀerent density. Using the dimensions L for length and T for time. which is generally not possible. For the airplane wing the viscosity of air is totally unimportant compared to the velocity eﬀects. not of the Reynolds numbers. The relation φ(v. h) = 0 can thus be rewritten as ψ v √ gh = 0. starting from the governing equations such as the Navier-Stokes equation. This is now an equation for the dimensionless combination. We know the result as v = 2gh. probably from experiments. . if one deﬁnes similarity by requiring all corresponding dimensionless numbers to be equal. The way past this diﬃculty is by deciding beforehand what characteristic number is relevant for a given situation and disregarding other numbers. the velocity of a body free-falling from a height h in the gravity ﬁeld of the Earth. with solutions v √ =C gh =⇒ v=C gh. but had some feeling. obviously. is adhered to. [h] = L. Suppose we did not know Newton’s equations. which can be used as new parameters in establishing some kind of functional relationship. In order to ﬁx the ideas. of which there will be fewer. T T √ and hence a dimensionless combination of v.

. .. one sees that v and h (or v and g. or h and g) are dimensionally independent. r = 2. . . δkk . . m = 1. . as only length and time play a role. . k quantities α1 . . πm ) = 0 between m dimensionless parameters πj . . βkk αn ) = 0. h and g together not. The more general formulation of the above ideas is embodied in the π-theorem of Buckingham. βk αk . [α1 ] = δ1 . . . . . through a judicious numbering of the original parameters. . . δkk . ′ αk = βk αk . . . .. To give an outline of the proof of the π-theorem. αn ) = 0 between n diﬀerent parameters αj can be equivalently replaced by another functional relation ψ(π1 . .. . . we select. . . . we get ′ α1 = β1 α1 . For mechanical problems one usually has that k ≤ r. with independent dimensionalities. . αk . . the functional relation between the parameters αj becomes p p q q φ (β1 α1 . β11 . .. . . . . The remaining parameters then all have dimensionalities of the form p p [αk+1 ] = δ1 1 .. If we change the dimensional units of α1 . . . . . . . q q ′ αn = β11 · · · βkk αn . . . where m=n−k and k is the largest number of parameters in the original list which will not combine to a dimensionless number. βk k αk+1 . Hence: n = 3. and consequently for the other parameters p p ′ αk+1 = β1 1 · · · βk k αk+1 .Table of contents 126 The numerical value of the constant C has to be found from observational evidence. αk by the factors β1 . . In the example of the falling body. if r is the minimum number of independent dimensions required to give the dimensions of all parameters occurring. ′ In this new systems of units. but v. . stating that a functional relation φ(α1 . [αk ] = δk . . .. k = 2. as basic quantities. . αk+1 . β1 1 . βk . . .. q q [αn ] = δ11 . αk . Dimensional analysis is unable to give this. . ..

. The accelerations are measured in units of the gravity constant g. viscous ﬂuid. . . and with the particular choice for the conversion factors β1 . we would like to determine the drag force F on a sphere with diameter d. The relation between the parameters is supposed to be independent of the choice of the scales or units. m = 2. k = 3. r = 3. . time T and mass M . rather than try to plot v as a function of g and h. . π1 . The problem has thus been reduced to dealing with a functional relation between m instead of n parameters. . hence n = 5. L3 [µ] = M .. are now expressed in units h(h/g)−1/2 = gh. ρ. . This is of some consequence when one has experimental data from which to infer the form of the functional relation. . which imposes then h/g as the unit in which time is measured. V and d can not be combined to yield a dimensionless number. For the falling body one just has to determine the constant in v=C gh. . . with material characteristics ρ and µ. . Furthermore. We assume that we have listed all relevant parameters and put φ(F. V. . 1. . πn−k = q α11 αn q . There are 5 parameters with dimensionalities [F ] = ML . . The set of dimensionless parameters is not unique. . βk = 1 . βk we get φ(1. πn−k ) = 0. As a further example. d. . [V ] = L . Thus velocities.. LT The independent dimensions are length L. √ with dimensionality length over time. . . .Table of contents 127 We now take a particular choice for the conversion factors. k if the new dimensionless parameters are deﬁned through π1 = p α1 1 αk+1 p . .. . αkk We now have a relation between n − k new parameters. as the product of two dimensionless numbers is again dimensionless. πm ) = 0.. . αk For the example of the free-falling body this amounts to measuring the length dimension of the velocity in units of the height. ρ. αkk . T [ρ] = M . . β1 = 1 . placed in the steady ﬂow with velocity V of an incompressible. hence something of the form ψ(π1 . T2 [d] = L. . α1 . The point is that there are no more than m of those dimensionless parameters which are independent.. µ) = 0.

At low Reynolds numbers the coloured ﬂuid ﬂows quietly along with the main stream without producing vortices. π2 ) = 0 or. π2 = µρα V β dγ . F . they are immediately damped out.Table of contents 128 We look for two dimensionless parameters of the form π 1 = F ρa V b d c .3 Turbulence : Reynolds equations Turbulence often occurs in nature. which is not the case in laminar ﬂow. We have opted to take π1 linear in F . When observing vortices in turbulent ﬂow. The functional relation between the two parameters is ψ(π1 . 6. as was shown by Reynolds in one of his famous experiments. From the requirement that [π1 ] = 1. ρV d Re and thus the two dimensionless parameters are π1 = π2 = The second one is indeed the inverse Reynolds number. One would feel that in order to characterize a turbulent ﬂow pattern many more parameters and information would have to be given than for laminar ﬂow where the velocity gives already quite some information. π1 = χ(π2 ). More explicitly F = ρV 2 d2 χ µ ρV d = ρV 2 d2 ξ(Re). and one would intuitively describe turbulent ﬂow as something erratic and unpredictable. Quite the contrary happens in turbulent ﬂow. we ﬁnd for the exponents a = −1. where the coloured ﬂuid ends . [π2 ] = 1. quite the opposite of laminar. This might help in rearranging possible experimental data. solved for π1 . b = c = −2. ρV 2 d2 α = β = γ = −1.1. Such an initial choice is somewhat arbitrary. It was said earlier that the transition from laminar to turbulent ﬂow occurs at a critical Reynolds number. as shown in Figure 6. µ 1 = . whereas π2 will lead to a Reynolds number. This means that when small disturbances occur. always an important quantity in viscous ﬂow problems. it becomes clear that neighbouring material particles can end up quite far apart. much more so than the original relation between ﬁve dimensional parameters. well-ordered or well-structured ﬂow. in which he injected a small ﬁlament of coloured ﬂuid into a transparent one.

as in Figure 6.Table of contents 129 laminar turbulent Figure 6. at a certain point as a function of time. v v O t Figure 6. we put v = v + v′ . It is also clear that the mathematical description of turbulence must.2. and v′ is the ﬂuctuating part of the velocity. v′ ≃ 0. be much more involved than the description of laminar ﬂow.1. . Suppose that we try to plot the velocity. in magnitude. Unfortunately. Reynolds experiment. deﬁned as 1 v = τ t+ τ 2 t− τ 2 v(t′ )dt′ . With some hope we might be able to discern in this erratic graph a kind of average velocity. this is not at all the case for turbulence. and yet τ may not be too large lest the average velocity does not really depend on time. up in a complicated and seemingly undescribable pattern of vortices.2. If we translate this idea into mathematical terms. The notion of such an average requires that within a good approximation we have that v ≃ v . and thus the time interval τ must be chosen large enough to contain enough ﬂuctuations to give a meaningful average. where v is an average velocity. per deﬁnition as it were. Experience has shown that the Navier-Stokes equation provides in this latter case a reasonably accurate picture. Velocity diagram in turbulent ﬂow. The average is still time-dependent. around which many ﬂuctuations occur.

Table of contents 130 Before we even try to apply this averaging procedure to the Navier-Stokes equation. ∂t v + v · ∇v = b − We have to compute v · ∇v = ∇ · vv − v∇ · v = ∇ · vv = ∇ · vv = ∇ · v v + ∇ · v′ v′ = v · ∇ v + ∇ · v′ v′ . ∇ · v′ = 0. ρ0 ρ0 For the Navier-Stokes equation we get we ﬁnd that the incompressibility condition is carried over for the average velocity and for the ﬂuctuations. vw = ( v + v′ )( w + w′ ) = v w + v w′ + v′ w + v′ w′ ≃ v w + v′ w′ . 1 τ v dt′ The main diﬃculty lies in the average of quadratic quantities. when we start from ∇ · v = 0. We will now try to apply this to the Navier-Stokes equation for an incompressible and homogeneous ﬂuid. ∂t v + v · ∇v = b − 1 µ ∇ p + ∇2 v. This means that the Navier-Stokes equation becomes ∂t v + v · ∇ v = b − µ 1 ∇ p + ∇2 v − ∇ · v ′ v ′ ρ0 ρ0 1 = b + ∇ · (− p 1 + 2µ D − ρ0 v′ v′ ) . we must know what happens to space and time derivatives. This implies that for the time being we will trust the Navier-Stokes equation as being valid also for turbulence. This is by no means obvious nor generally accepted. as 1 ∇v = τ t+ τ 2 t− τ 2 ∇v dt′ = ∇ v . Nevertheless. ρ0 ρ0 . ρ0 1 µ ∇ p + ∇2 v . and in the light of some observational evidence probably not so. Space derivatives give no problem. For time derivatives we have to check that 1 ∂t v = τ = ∂t t+ τ 2 t− τ 2 ∂t v dt′ = t+ τ 2 t− τ 2 τ τ 1 v(t + ) − v(t − ) τ 2 2 = ∂t v . really one of the simplest situations one might think of. ∇ · v = 0.

From 1 ω = ∇×v =0 2 1 ω = ∇ × v = 0. This is clearly inadequate. 2 The distinction between turbulent and laminar ﬂow would completely disappear. as shown below. but written with average quantities. clearly outside the scope of these lectures. meaning there are no vortices. . 2 Furthermore we can compute in this case that we ﬁnd that 1 ω ′ = ∇ × v′ = 0. except for a change in the eﬀective scalar pressure. however. and ∂t v + v · ∇ v = b + is hence called Reynolds equation. we deduce from the unaveraged equation of motion that 1 2 ∇ p = −∇ · (v · ∇v) ρ0 (b = 0). it is necessary to introduce hypotheses of a statistical nature about the Reynolds stress. This is a domain still under a lot of discussion.Table of contents 131 almost the same as the original equation. First. and hence the occurrence of vortices is an essential characteristic of turbulent ﬂow. 2 2 so that the pressure remains isotropic p → 1 p + ρ0 v ′2 . Another possible approach to turbulence is to Fourier transform the original Navier-Stokes equations with respect to the space coordinates. The supplementary part in the stress tensor is known as the turbulent stress tensor of Reynolds. except in the case of irrotational ﬂow. which correlate v′ with itself. If one wants to continue the description of turbulent ﬂow with Reynolds equations. 2 1 ∇ · (− p 1 + 2µ D − ρ0 v′ v′ ) ρ0 ∇ · v′ v′ = v′ ∇ · v′ + v′ · ∇v′ = v′ · (∇v′ − v′ ∇) + v′ · (v′ ∇) 1 1 = 2v′ · Ω′ + ∇ v ′2 = 2ω ′ × v′ + ∇ v ′2 2 2 1 1 ′2 = ∇ v ′2 = ∇ · v 1 . were it not that the pressure −p1 → − ( p 1 + ρ0 v ′ v ′ ) now incorporates a part which is not to be written as a isotropic tensor. Suppose now for a moment that the ﬂow is irrotational.

here the scalar product of v with ∇v.Table of contents 132 which is an equation for the pressure if the velocity is known. k′ ). so that one is reduced to essentially the same statistical arguments needed to progress in the Reynolds picture. there is a lot of observational information. 6. the equation of motion and the equation for the Laplacian of the pressure thus yield k · v = 0. The Fourier transform with respect to the space coordinates is deﬁned as φ(k) = Fk (φ) = φ(x)eik·x dV. ∂t v + Fk (v · ∇v) = i µk 2 v. k′ ) : v(k′ )v(k − k′ ) The discussion of this equation hinges again on what kind of hypotheses one introduces concerning the kernel M(k. ρ0 Hence we eliminate the pressure to obtain ∂t + µ 2 k v= ρ0 1 kk − 1 · Fk (v · ∇v). Next we can use dimensional analysis to get some information about the turbulent kinetic energy. k2 As the Fourier transform of a product. If the total kinetic energy T is deﬁned as T = V 1 2 ρv dV. as shown in Figure 6. 2 . is a convolution integral between the Fourier transforms of each of the factors.4 Turbulence : Kolmogorov’s law The preceding section should not convey the impression that nothing deﬁnite is known about turbulence. V where the integration is carried out over the whole physical space. The Fourier transforms of the incompressibility condition. the previous equation will be of the form ∂t + µ 2 k v= ρ0 d3 k′ M(k. just because no satisfactory and consistent mathematical theory has been achieved sofar. kp − ρ0 ρ0 k2 p = −i k · Fk (v · ∇v). To begin with. such as the ﬂattening of the usual parabolic Hagen-Poiseuille velocity proﬁle when the ﬂow gets turbulent.3.

The graph for the spectral . Comparison between turbulent and Hagen-Poiseuille velocity proﬁles. 2 which is then investigated in its spectral representation. The domain of intermediate k. the domain of large k is called the dissipation range. their energy given up to the main ﬂow.P. as soon as the stirring stops we observe that the vortices get smaller and smaller until all vortices die out.Table of contents 133 x turbulent H. In a sense one could call this a hydrodynamic problem when one views the vortices as separate entities. hence large vortices or eddies. corresponding to the domain of medium-sized vortices.g. when we stir a ﬂuid or put an obstacle in the ﬂow. The idea of Kolmogorov is to suppose that the energy which is being fed into the large eddies cascades down via the intermediate vortices to the small-scale eddies which ﬁnally dissipate their energy into the main ﬂow. and Wλ or Wk tells us how much energy there is in a mode with wavelength λ or wavenumber k. First of all. k = 2π/λ.3. albeit in a very loose and intuitive way. because to small k correspond large scales. e. to be described together with the remainder of the ﬂuid. three diﬀerent regimes or scales in the turbulence. This is the domain where the vortices are generated. The average kinetic energy 1 ′2 density in the turbulent motion is 2 ρ0 v . and where the energy is given to the vortices. Returning to the picture of a ﬂuid which is stirred. T2 We follow the reasoning of Kolmogorov and distinguish. The dimensions of this type of problem are [W ] = [V 2 ] = L2 . O v Figure 6. At the other end. the domain of small k is called the production or hydrodynamic range. We associate λ with the scale of a vortex and know via Wλ or Wk how much vortices of a given scale contribute to the energy density. Per unit mass this becomes W = 1 ′2 v . T2 [Wk ] = W k = L3 . W = Wλ dλ = Wk dk. Here λ represents a wavelength and k is the corresponding wavenumber. is called the inertial range. 1 then the kinetic energy density for a homogeneous ﬂuid is 2 ρ0 v 2 . because here the smallscale vortices are vanishing.

k = 2. because we started from the turbulent kinetic energy per unit mass and used the kinematic viscosity.4. Q) = 0 can be rearranged as ψ(π1 . 2 T L −1 M M L2 µ = [ν] = . length and time. and there are two dimensions. there would have been one supplementary parameter ρ0 and one supplementary dimension M . energy density would look like the one given in Figure 6. The dimensions of the various parameters are thus [Wk ] = L3 1 . [k] = . Thus n = 4. k. m=2 . The combination of ν and Q never yields a dimensionless number. π2 = kν α Qβ . Had we everywhere kept the mass density in. The two dimensionless parameters will be taken as π 1 = Wk ν a Qb . Kolmogorov hypothesized that in the inertial range the energy density Wk would only depend on k itself. leading ultimately to the same two dimensionless parameters.4. ν. = ρ0 LT L3 T L2 W [Q] = = 3. on the kinematic viscosity ν = µ/ρ0 and on the dissipation Q in the small-scale eddies. π2 ) = 0. t T The mass of the particles making up the ﬂuid in turbulent ﬂow does not play a role.Table of contents 134 Wk O k Figure 6. Energy spectrum. r = 2. and the functional relation φ(Wk .

Another way of arriving at this result is to construct from ν and Q a length scale. ν3 Q −1 = ν 5/4 Q1/4 . No matter what the viscosity was. where Ld = is the dissipation length of Kolmogorov. The only possibility is that χ is some power of its argument times a constant. ν3 Q 1/4 ν Q 1/2 . 4 π2 = kν 3/4 =k Q1/4 ν3 Q β=− 1/4 . and ﬁnd a form for χ which will make Wk independent of ν. as the viscosity after all was responsible for the ultimate dissipation of the energy. Ld Q Kolmogorov then went one step further and assumed that Wk in the inertial range was independent of the viscosity. as was done in deﬁning Ld .Table of contents 135 one linear in Wk . ν 5/4 Q1/4 [π2 ] = L−1+2α+2β = 1. From [π1 ] = we deduce that 5 a=− . 4 Wk . Td = The dimensions of Wk are then L3 [Wk ] = d = 2 Td and those of k are [k] = ν3 Q 3/4 L3+2a+2b = 1. T 2+a+3b 1 b=− . One way is to take Wk = ν 5/4 Q1/4 χ(kLd ). and a time scale. −1/4 1 ν3 = . the other linear in k. T α+3β 1 4 3 α= . it inﬂuenced the dissipation and this in turn inﬂuenced Wk . 4 and hence π1 = Hence one gets π1 = χ(π2 ) or Wk = ν 5/4 Q1/4 χ(kLd ). such that Wk = ν 5/4 Q1/4 Ko kν 3/4 Q−1/4 −5/3 = Ko Q1/4+5/12 k −5/3 . Two possible ways are open to compute the form of Wk now.

which gives the slope of the graph of Wk in the inertial range. However. k.5. [Q] = 3 . not a very clarifying way to look at the problem. Power law in the inertial range. such is not the case at present. but these now involve both the energy in the inertial range and the dissipation themselves. T L T and construct the only dimensionless parameter π which is possible. [k] = . the concepts of a dissipation length Ld or a dissipation time Td in terms of ν and Q are not possible. O k Figure 6. we have two diﬀerent sets of equations according to whether the ﬂuid is considered viscous or ideal. Once a more qualitative theory of turbulence emerges and is generally accepted.5 Matched asymptotic expansions If we recall the equations describing the steady laminar ﬂow of a homogeneous ﬂuid.5. This then leads again to the same result. Another way of arriving at this is to start the dimensional analysis from φ(Wk . for a given dissipation Q. One could construct new length and time scales from Wk and Q. 6. Kolmogorov’s law will serve as a test. when such a theory is applied to the inertial range as deﬁned above. Q) = 0 with or ψ(π) = 0. When the kinematic viscosity ν is no longer deemed important. L3 1 L2 [Wk ] = 2 . Wk k− 3 5 i. .Table of contents 136 or Wk = Ko k −5/3 Q2/3 where Ko is Kolmogorov’s constant. as indicated in Figure 6.r.

In both cases the pressure in equilibrium has been adjusted so as to make Euler’s number equal to one. and choose as boundary conditions f (0) = 0. 1].1 (without the asterisks) and in the absence of body forces we ﬁnd ∇ · v = 0. e−x/ε − 1 fε (x) = (1 − a) −1/ε + ax. In order to see how one could deal with problems of this nature. This changes the mathematical formulation in the sense that more boundary conditions can be imposed for viscous ﬂuids. we will expose in the present section the method of matched asymptotic expansions and defer the discussion of the ﬂuid equations themselves to the next section. on boundary layer theory. x ﬁxed lim fε (x) = 1 − a + ax. We start from a mathematical model equation. d2 f df + =a 2 dx dx 1 2 ∇ v. v · ∇v = −∇ p.Table of contents 137 In the dimensionless notations of section 6. Re ε with ε a small parameter. where the vanishing of a small parameter (such as in the above case with 1/Re small) alters the mathematical character of the equations. f (1) = 1. For such a simple model equation we know the exact solution with the given boundary conditions. a ∈]0. The same limiting process in the equations would yield df0 = a. We let x ∈ [0. v · ∇v = −∇ p + for a viscous ﬂuid and ∇ · v = 0. e −1 When ε tends to zero in this solution. dx . because of the higher order of the partial diﬀerential equations. one ﬁnds f0 (x) = ε→0. The equation of motion for viscous ﬂuids contains a Laplacian. 1[. whereas for ideal ﬂuids only ﬁrst-order derivatives occur. for an ideal one.

e−1/ε − 1 as long as x is not too small. there only remains d2 F0 dF0 + = 0. as we are dealing with a ﬁrst-order equation. ε→0 so that is a fair approximation to f0 (x) = 1 − a + ax fε (x) = (1 − a) e−x/ε − 1 + ax. thus outside a boundary layer in the immediate vicinity of the origin. We thus have that F (ξ) ≡ f (εξ) and ﬁnd for the derivatives that dF df =ε .Table of contents 138 and hence we see that f0 is the solution of this equation with the boundary condition f0 (1) = 1. Because f0 (x) serves as a ﬁrst approximation to fε (x) outside this boundary layer. dξ dx The equation for f is transformed into dF d2 F + = εa. in such a way as to make the two terms in the left-hand side of the original model equation comparable. ∼ 2 dx dx Then f varies so fast that the second derivative is large compared to the ﬁrst derivative. When ε now tends to zero. The troublesome domain is where x and ε are both small. even when x and ε tend to zero. ε d2 f df . 2 dξ dξ subject to the inner boundary condition that f (0) or F (0) vanishes. We formally put x = εξ and keep ξ ﬁnite. This means that / fε (0) −→ f0 (0). dξ 2 dξ d2 F d2 f = ε2 2 . It is also natural that the outer boundary condition is satisﬁed. We now use a transformation for this inner or boundary layer which stretches x together with ε. it is sometimes called the outer expansion f o (x). not the inner one. Unfortunately. the other boundary condition can not be fulﬁlled and f0 (0) = 1 − a. dξ 2 dx .

as the inner expansion. On the other hand. F0 (ξ) = ε→0. When these diﬀerent solutions are plotted in the same graph. ξ ﬁxed lim fε (εξ). ξ ﬁxed lim Fε (ξ) = (1 − a)(1 − e−ξ ). as this still is a second-order equation. depending on whether we choose to use x or ξ as the independent variable. f o (1) = f0 (1) = 1. as shown in Figure 6. we know the exact solution. fε (x) or Fε (ξ). Sofar. There are two approximations: Outer expansion f o (x) = f0 (x) = ε→0. if we return to the exact solution of the original equation.6. Furthermore lim f o (x) = lim f i (ξ) = 1 − a ξ→∞ x→0 . we see from the comparison of both forms of F0 (ξ) that B = 1 − a. f i (0) = F0 (0) = 0. a second boundary condition must be imposed to determine the solution completely. cannot possibly be a good approximation outside the boundary layer. Something better is needed. transform it into e−ξ − 1 Fε (ξ) = (1 − a) −1/ε + εaξ e −1 and let ε tend to zero. x ﬁxed lim fε (x). to be determined with the inner boundary condition plus something else.Table of contents 139 However. Inner expansion f i (ξ) = F0 (ξ) = ε→0. and the inner boundary condition requires that A and B be opposite and thus F0 (ξ) = B(1 − e−ξ ). The solution for F0 is F0 (ξ) = Ae−ξ + B. one gets two complementary approximations to the exact solutions. F0 (ξ) is called the inner expansion f i (ξ). ξ ﬁxed lim Fε (ξ) = ε→0. leaving the ratio x/ε ﬁnite. It would be wholly illogical to use the outer boundary condition.

ξ→∞ then obviously one requires that coi = cio .Table of contents 140 f (x) 1 f o (x) 1−a f i( x ) ǫ 1 O x Figure 6. ε ε Indeed. is x x f c (x) = f i + f o (x) − coi = f i + f o (x) − cio . is used as a requirement when the exact solution is not known. This property.6. cio = lim f i (ξ). x x + coi − coi = f i . In this sense the inner and the outer expansions are matched. which we can verify here on the exact solution. Graphs of the exact solution and the inner and outer approximations The inner limit of the outer approximation and the outer limit of the inner approximation coincide. coi = lim f o (x) x→0 and cio the outer limit of the inner approximation. valid both in and outside the boundary layer. hence the name of the method of matched asymptotic expansions. and serves as the missing boundary condition for the inner expansion. f ci (x) ≃ f i ε ε . A composite approximation f c (x). of which only the zeroth-order approximation in ε was exposed here. the outer and inner approximations to f c (x) are f co (x) ≃ cio + f o (x) − coi = f o (x). If we call coi the inner limit of the outer approximation.

6 Boundary layer For the steady. For the outer solution. and it is only near the wall of the channel that the viscosity eﬀects will play a role and give rise to the boundary layer. The solution is then f o (x) = 1 − a + ax. dξ 2 dξ f i (0) = 0. as we will need it for those cases where there is no exact solution to guide us. the ﬂuid can be regarded as ideal in the middle of the ﬂow. the substitution x = εξ is made and then the limit is taken for small ε afterwards. using the outer boundary condition to determine the solution completely. the zeroth-order approximation is still a useful one. using the inner boundary condition. laminar and plane ﬂow of a homogeneous ﬂuid. For the inner solution. determining f i (ξ) completely as in f i (ξ) = (1 − a)(1 − e−ξ ). The velocity proﬁle will then . dx f o (1) = 1. This diﬀerential equation is obtained by a simple limiting procedure from the original equation.Table of contents 141 To recapitulate what was found from this discussion. 6. In view of the matching recipe ξ→∞ lim f i (ξ) = lim f o (x). the method of matched asymptotic expansions runs as follows. where ε is small but x ﬁnite. in determining where the boundary layer is situated in a given problem and how its thickness varies with some small parameters. with f o (0) = 1 − a. d2 f i df i + = 0. Nevertheless. f o is the solution of df o = a. x→0 one gets ξ→∞ lim f i (ξ) = 1 − a. One could use more reﬁned versions of the matching principle to obtain higher-order approximations.

As the picture is two-dimensional in the space coordinates. where distances are measured in units of the half-width of the channel.7. and where the reference velocity and pressure are the values in the region where the ﬂow is well developed and ideal. v2 = 0. we write ∇ · v = 0. .7. p = 1. keeping in mind the outer boundary conditions. as we are working in nondimensional variables. The boundary conditions are in general x2 = 0 : x2 = 1 : v1 = 0. The solution. Velocity proﬁle. The width δ(ε) of the boundary layer will depend on the small parameter ε = 1/Re. starting with the outer region where v only has a parallel component. v · ∇v = −∇ p. the pressure is constant and v1 can at most vary with the height in the channel. p = 1. In other words.Table of contents 142 intuitively look as sketched in Figure 6. such that v1 (1) = 1. is v1 = v1 (x2 ). x2 δ(ǫ) O x1 Figure 6. which greatly exceeds the width of the boundary layer. v2 = 0. v1 ∂1 v1 = −∂1 p = 0. out in full ∂1 v1 = 0. v1 = 1. −∂2 p = 0.

If the viscosity eﬀects are to be comparable to the other terms. discussed in the previous section. which was after all the whole purpose of introducing a stretching. 2 2 (v1 ∂1 + v2 ∂2 )v1 = −∂1 p + ε(∂1 + ∂2 )v1 . With the indicated stretching one has ∂2 = ε−m ∂η and the set of viscous ﬂuid equations can be rewritten as ∂1 v1 + ∂η V = 0. The reason for an equal stretching in x2 and v2 lies in the fact that the incompressibility condition does not contain ε. we need to consider ∇ · v = 0. 2 2 (v1 ∂1 + V ∂η )v1 = −∂1 p + ε(∂1 + ε−2m ∂η )v1 . The small variables are the coordinate and velocity components across the boundary layer. Rem 1 V. v2 = εm V = Rem 1 2 ∇ v = −∇ p + ε∇2 v. The stretching of variables.Table of contents 143 For the inner region. Re √ −1/2 ∂2 = ε ∂η = Re∂η . the only possible choice is 1 − 2m = 0 giving 1 x2 = ε1/2 η = √ . Hence one would not expect one term or the other to become dominant as a result of a stretching carried out in another equation. 1 v2 = ε1/2 V = √ V. any other stretching would eliminate one of the two terms in the incompressibility condition and lead to a constant solution for the velocity component left in. Put diﬀerently. 2 2 (v1 ∂1 + V ∂n )V = −ε−2m ∂η p + ε(∂1 + ε−2m ∂η )V. Re =⇒ 1 m= . becomes x2 = ε m η = 1 η. as the velocity has no perpendicular component at the wall nor inside the ideal ﬂow region. Re where the precise value of m is yet to be determined. 2 . v · ∇v = −∇ p + giving explicitly that ∂1 v1 + ∂2 v2 = 0. 2 2 (v1 ∂1 + v2 ∂2 )v2 = −∂2 p + ε(∂1 + ∂2 )v2 .

but also whenever a ﬂuid is ﬂowing past an obstacle.Table of contents 144 Any other choice for the stretching of the second coordinate would either make the viscosity eﬀects vanish also in the boundary layer or eﬀectively decouple these eﬀects from the remainder of the description of the ﬂow. We thus ﬁnd ∂1 v1 + ∂η V = 0. are retained in the ﬁnal form of the equations. Finally there remains the width of the boundary layer itself. Re The more important the viscosity. The small ε limit now is ∂1 v1 + ∂η V = 0. ∂η p = 0. lim po (x1 . of which only ∂ 1 v1 = 0 needs to be discussed. 2 (v1 ∂1 + V ∂η )v1 = −∂1 p + ∂η v1 . The condition for the matching of the two approximations yields x2 →0 2 2 (v1 ∂1 + V ∂η )V = −ε−1 ∂η p + (ε∂1 + ∂η )V. and reverting to more usual notations we see that the equations for the ﬂow in the boundary layer are ∂ 1 v1 + ∂ 2 v2 = 0 2 (v1 ∂1 + v2 ∂2 )v1 = ∂2 v1 The analysis given in the previous pages assures us that all important terms which matter inside the boundary layer. which is seen from the scaling to go as 1 δ(ε) ∼ ε1/2 = √ . the larger the boundary layer will be. Boundary layers are encountered not only in the laminar ﬂow in channels. This simpliﬁes the description still further. x2 ) = lim p0 = 1 = lim pi (x1 ). both for the stability of the ﬂight and for the eﬃciency with which turbulence can be avoided. 2 2 (v1 ∂1 + V ∂η )v1 = −∂1 p + (ε∂1 + ∂η )v1 . and only those. This is to be contrasted. In the boundary layer the pressure can only vary in the parallel direction. . at constant pressure. x2 →0 η→∞ in other words the pressure is constant throughout the entire boundary layer. whereas outside it is constant. In the latter problem the boundary layer becomes extremely important. with the outer equations. such as air around the wing of an aircraft.

Chapter 7 Linear elasticity • Elastostatic problems lead to Beltrami-Michell relations • Elastic waves include seismographic examples 145 .

the symmetry of the stress tensor. ˙ ρ v = f + ∇ · T. in elasticity there is no hydrostatic pressure and thus no need for a separate equation of state. . The velocity is deﬁned in terms of the displacement away from the time-independent equilibrium state. First. 1 E = (∇u + u∇). T = λ(tr E)1 + 2µ E with the restriction that the displacement gradients are suﬃciently small so that the small strain tensor E can be used. T = Tt . Although superﬁcially similar to the Navier-Stokes equation ˙ ρ v = f − ∇p + (λ + µ)∇∇ · v + µ∇2 v. Expressing the stress tensor as a function of the displacement gives T = λ(∇ · u)1 + µ(∇u + u∇) and the divergence of this tensor yields ∇ · T = ∇ · [λ(∇ · u)1 + µ(∇u + u∇)] = (λ + µ)∇∇ · u + µ∇2 u. Second. ˙ ˙ v = x = u. altering the mathematical structure of the equation as will be obvious when studying elastic waves in section 7. we need the equation of motion. Hence the set of basic equations can be reduced to the equation of Navier-Cauchy ¨ ρ u = f + (λ + µ)∇∇ · u + µ∇2 u This is an equation determining u when the forces f are given. the deﬁnition of the small strain tensor. Furthermore.1 Basic equations For the elastic media considered in this chapter. the stress-strain relation will be Hooke’s law. there are two essential diﬀerences. the material time-derivative is a second-order one. 2 and the deﬁnition of the velocity.3.Table of contents 146 7.

Therefore we start from the compatibility conditions of St. E= E E The second equation is necessary. ν 1+ν T − (tr T)1. where ρ or rather ρ0 is taken as one of the material constants. written in a diﬀerent but equivalent form ∇∇ tr E + ∇2 E − ∇∇ · E − (∇∇ · E)t = 0. and then the set of basic equations has to be rearranged diﬀerently. Strictly speaking of course. 2 ¨ ρ u = ρ(∂t + v · ∇)(∂t + v · ∇)u ≃ ρ0 ∂t u. ∇ × (∇ × E)t = 0. here in the form of boundary displacements. Now. When dealing with the constitutive relations. The inverted form of Hooke’s law is used instead. . the nonlinear equation of motion (obtained with the help of the linear constitutive relation) is itself linearized with respect to the perturbations away from the equilibrium. and from now on we will restrict ourselves to the theory of linear elasticity. together with Lam´’s constants λ and µ. Hooke’s law is a linear relation between the stress and the strain tensors in isotropic elastic media.Table of contents 147 For suﬃciently small displacements the acceleration term can be linearized. involve boundary conditions in terms of the stresses rather than the displacements. and we have to start from f + ∇ · T = 0. stress-free state. This e is the reason why the equation of continuity was not recalled in the set of basic equations. however. in ‘linear’ elasticity. The problem consists in the determination of u. ρ is not constant in the sense of λ and µ. given f and some prescribed boundary conditions. because only part of the information about T enters into the equation of equilibrium. Certain problems. Venant. 7. but in the linearized version of the equation of Navier-Cauchy only the equilibrium value ρ0 enters 2 ρ0 ∂t u = f + (λ + µ)∇∇ · u + µ∇2 u Note that the concept ‘linear’ enters here in two diﬀerent ways. here we are not really interested in E. However.2 Elastostatics For elastostatic problems the Navier-Cauchy equation reduces to f + (λ + µ)∇∇ · u + µ∇2 u = 0.

and hence also that ∇2 tr E = ∇2 ∇ · u = 0.Table of contents 148 Using the deﬁnition of E. or when the body forces are constant as in the case of gravity. to ﬁnally obtain ∇2 T + ν 1 ∇∇ tr T + (∇ · f )1 + ∇f + f ∇ = 0 1+ν 1−ν These equations are called the Beltrami-Michell compatibility conditions for the stress. 2 2 E one can take the Laplacian of this equation as well as of the Beltrami-Michell conditions for constant f and ﬁnd that ∇4 u = 0. or with the help of the equilibrium equation. 2 2 2 2 Substitution of E expressed as function of T in the modiﬁed compatibility conditions yields ∇∇ tr T + (1 + ν)∇2 T − ν(∇2 tr T)1 − (1 + ν) ∇∇ · T + (∇∇ · T)t = 0. . ∇4 T = 0. To solve the Beltrami-Michell conditions for T when f is given is in general an involved problem. Since ν 1 1 ∇ · E = ∇2 u + ∇∇ · u = − ∇ tr T. Then there follows that ∇2 tr T = 0. which have to be considered together with the equilibrium equations ∇ · T + f = 0. ∇∇ tr T + (1 + ν)∇2 T − ν(∇2 tr T)1 + (1 + ν)(∇f + f ∇) = 0. it is easy to verify that indeed ∇∇ tr E + ∇2 E − ∇∇ · E − (∇∇ · E)t 1 1 1 1 = ∇∇∇ · u + ∇2 ∇u + ∇2 u∇ − ∇(∇2 u + ∇∇ · u) − (∇2 u∇ + ∇∇∇ · u) = 0. Taking the trace of this equation gives an intermediate result. ∇2 tr T = − 1+ν ∇ · f. 1−ν which we use to eliminate ∇2 tr T in the preceding equation. The cubic dilatation coeﬃcient is a harmonic function in this case. An important special case is when the deformation of the elastic medium only results from a surface loading and not from body forces.

in other words Airy’s stress function is also a biharmonic function. This function is called Airy’s stress function and it determines the components of the plane stress tensor as 2 T11 = ∂2 ϕ. In particular. T12 = T21 = −∂1 α = ∂2 β. the stress distribution inside the continuum can be completely determined. the equilibrium conditions are explicitly ∂1 T11 + ∂2 T21 = 0. From the ﬁrst equation we learn that T11 = ∂2 α. Once this function is known. T21 = −∂1 α. 7. β = −∂1 ϕ. for plane stress in the absence of body forces. and the other components are zero. However.Table of contents 149 Both the displacement and the stress are thus biharmonic functions. . The stress-strain relation is supposed to be linear but not necessarily isotropic T = C : E. which may be isotropic or anisotropic. 2 T22 = ∂1 ϕ. ∂1 T12 + ∂2 T22 = 0. in view of the symmetry of the stress tensor. there exists a single function ϕ such that α = ∂2 ϕ.3 Elastic waves in general linear media In this section a discussion will be given of plane waves in general linear elastic media. keeping in mind the boundary conditions. T3j = Tj3 = 0. whereas the second equation similarly yields T12 = ∂2 β. T12 = −∂1 ∂2 ϕ. with α and β new functions to be determined. T22 = −∂1 β. The requirement that ∇2 tr T = 0 thus becomes 2 2 ∇2 tr T = ∇2 (T11 + T22 ) = ∇2 (∂1 + ∂2 )ϕ = ∇4 ϕ = 0.

k k ′′ As ϕ is not identically zero. this indicates that for a given direction of wave propagation there are in general three diﬀerent phase velocities and thus three diﬀerent wave modes possible. ω k c= . and new notations introduced. (n · C · n − ρ0 c2 1) · a = 0. 2 where the equation of motion is written in the absence of body forces. n= . u∇ = ak ϕ′ .Table of contents 150 This has to be combined with 2 ρ0 ∂t u = ∇ · T. this dispersion law will yield three solutions for ρ0 c2 . u = a ϕ(k · x − ωt). Hence we ﬁnd for the strain tensor 1 E = (ka + ak)ϕ′ . we have to choose c in such a way that det(n · C · n − ρ0 c2 1) = 0 In general. 2 and similarly for the stress tensor 1 T = C : E = (C : ka + C : ak)ϕ′ = C : ka ϕ′ . ∇u = ka ϕ′ . 2 ∂t u = ω 2 a ϕ′′ . 2 in view of the symmetry of the elasticity tensor C with respect to its ﬁrst two or last two sets of indices. In more physical terms. where the dashes refer to derivatives of ϕ with respect to its full argument k · x − ωt. We need to compute some derivatives of u. ∂t u = −ωa ϕ′ . 1 E = (∇u + u∇). The divergence of T is thus and ﬁnally the equation of motion yields ∇ · T = k · C : ka ϕ′′ = (k · C · k) · a ϕ′′ ρ0 ω 2 a ϕ′′ = (k · C · k) · a ϕ′′ . say where k is the wave vector and ω the wave frequency. we ﬁnd a set of three homogeneous algebraic equations in the three unknown components of the amplitude a of the displacement. The previous expression can be divided by k 2 . n for the unit vector in the direction of wave propagation and c for the phase velocity of the waves. we deduce that When written in scalar form. If we want a nontrivial solution. This is valid for any linear elastic medium. . which in general may be anisotropic. The starting point is a plane-wave solution for the displacement. namely the three eigenvalues of the second-order tensor n · C · n.

Table of contents 151 7. We can do this in two ways. As the determinant of a second-order tensor is one of its invariants. For the P -wave we have that c = cP . Again the dispersion law is the same. If we deﬁne two wave velocities cP and cS by λ + 2µ ρ0 1/2 (ν = 0) cP ≡ . . we can choose a suitable reference frame in which the determinant is easily computed. it is necessary to go back to (λ + µ) nn · a + (µ − ρ0 c2 ) a = 0. cS ≡ µ ρ0 1/2 we see that the dispersion law has a double root in cS and a single root in cP . A ﬁrst possibility is to use the explicit expression for C in its component form Cijkℓ = λ δij δkℓ + µ(δik δjℓ + δiℓ δjk ) when the medium is isotropic. To ﬁnd out the nature of the waves. we have explicitly that µ − ρ0 c 2 0 0 2 0 µ − ρ0 c 0 =0 0 0 λ + 2µ − ρ0 c2 and hence (µ − ρ0 c2 )2 (λ + 2µ − ρ0 c2 ) = 0. If we take the third axis of the reference frame along the direction of wave propagation n. Another way is to substitute a plane-wave solution into the Navier-Cauchy equation without body forces and ﬁnd (λ + µ) nn · a + (µ − ρ0 c2 ) a = 0. The dispersion law thus is det (λ + µ) nn + (µ − ρ0 c2 )1 = 0. Actually.4 Elastic waves in linear isotropic media We will now compute the phase velocities explicitly in the case of a linear isotropic elastic medium. each root is to be taken once with the plus and once with the minus sign. but that merely amounts to wave propagation in the opposite direction without a change in the character of the wave. and ﬁnd that n · C · n = (λ + µ) nn + µ 1. ρ0 c2 = λ + 2µ.

What cannot be deduced in this way is whether inside the molten (iron) core there is itself a smaller but solid nucleus. for which the wave amplitudes a may be taken orthogonal to each other. From the delay between the arrivals of the P . there remains that (λ + µ) nn · a = 0 or. . this learns that n (n · a) = a.and S-waves one can get some estimates of the depth of the epicentre. in the plane perpendicular to n. of the waves propagating along n the P -wave travels faster than the S-waves. there are two S waves. a and n are parallel. From the location of the epicentre and the region in the antipodes where only the P -wave gets through. whereas the S-wave as a transverse and shear wave can only propagate in solids. In other words. < λ + 2µ ρ0 1/2 ≡ cP . Another. In view of the fact that cS ≡ µ ρ0 1/2 ρ0 c2 = µ. For the Earth the numerical values are cP cP ≃ 8 − 14km/s. because at seismographic observatories located at the antipodes of the epicentre. equivalently. The labels P and S come from seismology where the waves connected with earthquakes are called the primary and the secondary waves. A ﬂuid cannot support shear waves. one can estimate the dimensions of the molten core region with surprising accuracy.1. more far reaching conclusion to be drawn from these two wave types is that the Earth has a molten or liquid core. Hence a is now perpendicular to n and the S-wave is a transverse wave. nn · a = 0. cS ≃ √ . with c = cS . As for the S-wave.Table of contents 152 and thus (λ + µ)(nn · a − a) = 0. From this one can deduce that for rock layers the Lam´ constants are almost equal e 3c2 ≃ c2 S P =⇒ λ + 2µ 3µ ≃ ρ0 ρ0 =⇒ λ ≃ µ. as shown in Figure 7. the P -wave is able to propagate in solids as well as in ﬂuids. the displacement is in the direction of wave propagation and the P -wave is a longitudinal wave. Actually. As a longitudinal and dilatational wave. As λ + µ is nonzero. only the P -wave is registered. 3 depending on the rock strata through which the waves travel.

In view of the importance of waves in elastic media. however. In this representation one has ∇ · u = ∇2 ψ . one can use c2 − c2 = P S to rewrite the Navier-Cauchy equation as 2 ∂t u = (c2 − c2 ) ∇∇ · u + c2 ∇2 u P S S λ+µ ρ0 We write the displacement in its Helmholtz representation. P . from the way in which diﬀerent wave types propagate but can only be observed at the surface. Similar concepts have recently been developed for wave propagation in the Sun.Table of contents 153 E S P S P Figure 7. where asteroseismology tries to do the same for stellar interiors.or plasma-dynamic descriptions. and in stars. the Sun and stars cannot be treated as elastic media and one has to go back to gas. Contrary to the Earth. The branch of seismography which tries to infer information about the interior of the Earth.and S-earthquake waves. and one can even impose the auxiliary gauge condition that ∇ · a = 0. where helioseismology now gives very reliable information about the otherwise inaccessible stratiﬁcation of the interior of the Sun. u = ∇ψ + ∇ × a where ψ is a scalar and a a vector potential.1. is called seismology. This decomposition is always possible.

P S When taking the divergence of this equation. 2 ∂t ψ − c2 ∇2 ψ = Ψ. This brings one back to results derived earlier in a more direct but less general way. one recovers two equations of d’Alembert. it obeys another equation of d’Alembert with again a harmonic function on the right-hand side. For the special choice when these harmonic functions are both zero. S ∇2 A = 0. because the vector potential a could be chosen divergence-free. which give plane-wave solutions for both the scalar and the vector potential and hence for the longitudinal and the transverse part of the displacement in its Helmholtz decomposition. P ∇2 Ψ = 0. For this equation of d’Alembert the characteristic velocity is cP . there follows that the scalar potential obeys an equation of d’Alembert with a right-hand side which is itself a harmonic function. . 2 ∂t a − c2 ∇2 a = A. The characteristic velocity in the d’Alembertian is now cS .Table of contents 154 and hence the Navier-Cauchy equation becomes 2 2 2 ∇ ∂ t ψ + ∇ × ∂ t a = c P ∇ ∇2 ψ + c 2 ∇ × ∇2 a S or 2 2 ∇(∂t ψ − c2 ∇2 ψ) + ∇ × (∂t a − c2 ∇2 a) = 0. Both harmonic functions Ψ and A are furthermore linked by ∇ Ψ + ∇ × A = 0. Similarly.

used in previous chapters.Chapter 8 Epilogue: Kinetic theory • Kinetic theory is a more advanced level of description of continuous media • It is shown how one can derive the basic equations. from a general kinetic equation 155 .

1. Schematically this is indicated in Figure 8. but from detailed studies of gases and plasmas it is known that neighbouring material particles can have quite diﬀerent velocities. Using still the 3-vector notation x for the space coordinates and w for the velocity. in such a way that ϕ(x. Description in phase space. w.1 Kinetic equations Up to now. t) in phase space. The resulting kinetic theory is in a sense also a continuum description but on a higher level. where the usual continuum description was developed. Such a distribution function ϕ(x. the description of continua has been given in physical space. t)d3 x d3 w gives the mass of material particles which are contained in an elementary range d3 x around the point x and such that their velocities lie in an elementary range d3 w around w. but it is conceivable that one would like to get a description in which these diﬀerent velocities play a more essential role.1. as we wrote dV instead of d3 x in the introductory chapters. These are for the purpose of kinetic theory all independent coordinates. In the usual continuum description these diﬀerences in velocities are just averaged out. much as the pressure or density. if upon integration over all possible values w w + d3 w w O x x + d3 x x Figure 8. For a ﬂuid with its rather higher coherence. this might be a fair assumption. in the sense that it is given at each physical point and for each moment as an average for the ﬂuid or the elastic medium. t) is only meaningful as a measure in phase space. a phase space in which the independent coordinates are the three (physical) space coordinates xi and the three velocity coordinates wi . The (velocity) space in which w varies is denoted by W . The next step in the development of the theory of kinetic equations is the introduction of a density or distribution function ϕ(x. . w) in phase space locates a material particle with position in physical space at x and with velocity w. This implies that the velocity is one of the macroscopic and dependent quantities. Instead of d3 w we will use dW . Such a description requires the introduction of a 6-dimensional phase space instead of the usual 3-dimensional physical space. we ﬁnd that the mathematical point (x. w. w.Table of contents 156 8. with as independent coordinates the usual space and time coordinates.

according to the hypotheses one introduces about the interactions between the particles. and second. If the right-hand side is computed for a gas of hard-sphere particles undergoing binary collisions only. The study of kinetic equations thus has two aspects: ﬁrst. There are many more examples of kinetic equations to be given. and we will now show how the usual continuum equations can be deduced from it. The total time derivative can be expanded as Dϕ ∂ϕ ∂ϕ dx ∂ϕ dw = + · + · Dt ∂t ∂x dt ∂w dt ∂ϕ ∂ϕ ∂ϕ +w· +b· . = ∂t ∂x ∂w if the microscopic laws of motion are incorporated w= dx . dt b= dw . . whereas on the right-hand side the change in ϕ is due to the interactions of the particles between themselves. the making of suitable assumptions about the right-hand side involving the interactions. t) in physical space is recovered. but essential for our considerations is the fact that the left-hand side of the kinetic equations has a deﬁnite expression. a kinetic equation is an equation of the general form Dϕ δϕ = . ρ= W ϕ dW For the purpose of the present chapter.Table of contents 157 of the velocities the usual mass density ρ(x. when the particles are followed in their motion. This is certainly not the purpose of this chapter. the right-hand side vanishes and we get the Liouville equation. one gets the Boltzmann equation. Dt δt On the left-hand side use has been made of the total time derivative in phase space. dt Here b is the normalized force density at the microscopic level. which essentially expresses the conservation of particle mass or number in phase space. The kinetic equation thus is ∂ϕ ∂ϕ δϕ ∂ϕ +w· +b· = ∂t ∂x ∂w δt If the particles do not interact. where we only want to give the link between the kinetic equations and the usual continuum equations without going into a detailed study of the kinetic equations themselves. and the notation ∂/∂ x replaces ∇ in this chapter to avoid confusion with ∂/∂ w. the solution of the equation itself for the distribution function. but a deeper discussion of these would lead us to far.

We will compute some of the integrals separately.2 Macroscopic averages In view of the fact that the distribution gives the mass density upon integration over w. where we deﬁne δϕ Q dW δt as the contribution to the changes in Q due to the particle interactions. For further use we deﬁne the peculiar velocity w′ = w − v = w − w . In order to get an equation for Q . This is consistent with both ρ= W ϕ dW.Table of contents 158 8. . Q W ∂ϕ ∂ϕ ∂ϕ +w· +b· ∂t ∂x ∂w ∆Q = W dW = ∆Q. to express the way in which the individual or microscopic velocities diﬀer from the averaged or ﬂuid velocity. and with ρw = W ϕw dW. we multiply ∂ϕ ∂ϕ ∂ϕ δϕ +w· +b· = ∂t ∂x ∂w δt with Q and integrate over all w. we deﬁne the average or macroscopic corresponding quantity Q as ρQ = W ϕQ dW. when we have a certain microscopic quantity Q. The ﬁrst term gives Q W ∂ϕ dW = ∂t W ∂ (ϕQ)dW − ∂t ϕ W ∂Q ∂ dW = (ρ Q ) − ρ ∂t ∂t ∂Q ∂t . we deﬁne the average velocity v as ρv = ρ w = W ϕ w dW. if Q = w and Q = v. such as velocity or energy. In more general terms. if we put Q = 1 and get Q = 1. with zero average.

nor with inﬁnite or very large velocities.Table of contents 159 For the second term we ﬁnd W Qw · ∂ϕ dW = ∂x = W ∂ · (w Qϕ)dW − ∂x W ϕw · . we put Q = w′ so that Q = 0. The last term. vanishes because it is assumed that the interactions between the particles do not aﬀect their numbers or masses. The idea of the conservation of mass is thus incorporated into the theory of kinetic equations. For the case that Q = 1 we ﬁnd for some of the 2 expressions that w Q = v.3 Macroscopic equations To recover the continuity equations. meaning simply that there are no particles at inﬁnite or very large distances. Hence ∂ ∂ (ρ Q ) + · (ρ w Q ) = ρ b · ∂t ∂x becomes the equation of continuity. w′ and 1 w′ 2 . ∆Q = 0. ∂Q ∂w = 0. ∂w ϕ W W ∂ · (b Q)dW ∂w Collecting all the results one ﬁnds ∂ ∂ (ρ Q ) + · (ρ w Q ) = ρ ∂t ∂x ∂Q ∂ ∂Q +w· + · (b Q) + ∆Q ∂t ∂x ∂w 8. we will successively put Q equal to 1. ∆Q. and compute that 1 w Q = ww′ = w′ w′ + vw′ = w′ w′ = − T. ρ ∂Q ∂w + ∆Q . the equations of motion and the energy balance. Qb · ∂ϕ dW = ∂w ∂ · (b Qϕ)dW − W ∂w ∂ = −ρ · (b Q) . ∂Q dW ∂x ∂ ∂Q · (ρ w Q ) − ρ w · ∂x ∂x For the last term we will explicitly use the fact that the distribution function vanishes at the boundaries in phase space. ∂ ∂ ρ+ · (ρ v) = 0 ∂t ∂x For the equation of motion.

We have also used the fact that the velocity dependent forces are essentially restricted to the Lorentz term. whereas for the right hand side we get wQ = ∂Q ∂t w· = ∂Q ∂x 1 2 = ∂ ′2 w ∂t 1 2 = w· 1 2 = w′ · ∂ ′ w ∂t = − w′ · ∂ ′ w ∂x ∂ v = 0. m for which ∂ ·b=0 ∂w is valid. 2 2 2 for the terms on the left hand side of the moment equation. ∂t ∂x ∂w ∂t ∂x If in addition the interaction between any two particles conserves their total momentum. as in the case of elastic collisions between like particles. . ∂w ∂w ∂w = Here T is the stress tensor. deﬁned as T = −ρ w′ w′ = − W ∂Q ∂t ϕ(w − v)(w − v)dW. Substitution of all this ﬁnally gives the desired equation of motion ∂ 1 ∂ ∂v +v· v= b + ·T ∂t ∂x ρ ∂x 1 Finally. q b = (w × B). ∂t = − w′ w : ∂ 1 ∂ v= T: v. ∆ w vanishes. ∂t ∂t ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂Q (w − v) = − w · v = −v· v. we put Q equal to 2 w′ 2 and compute 1 1 1 2 2 2 w w ′ = v w ′ + w′ w ′ . and it is worth noting that in this derivation the stress tensor is symmetric by deﬁnition. ∂x ρ ∂x ∂ ′2 w ∂x b· = w′ w : = ∂ · (bQ) ∂w ∂ ′2 w ∂w w′ b : ∂ w′ ∂w = w′ b : 1 = w′ · b = 0.Table of contents 160 for the terms on the left hand side of the moment equation governing the averages. whereas for the right hand side we need ∂ ∂v (w − v) = − . = w· w· ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂ ∂ ∂ · (bQ) = · b(w − u) = b · w = b·1 = b . All this leads to the intermediate result that ∂Q ∂Q ∂ ∂v ∂ +w· + · (b Q) = − −v· v+ b .

if the interactions between any two particles conserve their total (kinetic) energy. since w′ · b = q q q w′ · (w × B) = w′ · (w′ × B) + w′ · (v × B) = 0.Table of contents 161 The last step is evident for velocity independent forces. we have 1 ′2 w 2 ∂ 1 ∂ ∂ ∂ρ + · (ρ v) + ρ +v· ∂t ∂x 2 ∂t ∂x w′ 2 + 1 ∂ ∂ 2 (ρ w′ w′ ) = T : v. but also holds for the magnetic part of the Lorentz force. There only remains 1 ∂ 1 d 2 2 ρ w′ = T : D − · (ρ w′ w′ ). it is seen that as soon as the distribution function is known. 2 ∂x ∂x and some terms are found to cancel due to the continuity equation. the stress and even the internal energy density or the heat ﬂow) can be computed explicitly. because then ∆Q would no longer be zero for Q taken 1 as 2 w′ 2 . 1 ∆w′ 2 vanishes and we get 2 1∂ 1 ∂ ∂ 2 2 2 (ρ w′ ) + · (ρ v w′ + ρ w′ w′ ) = T : v. ρε = T : D − ˙ Throughout the above derivations of the continuity equation. m m m Again. But as said already before. If this energy balance is compared to the previous form ρε = ρν − ∇ · q + T : D. 2 dt 2 ∂x where D is the symmetric part of (∂/∂x)v. 2 ∂t 2 ∂x ∂x Upon expansion of this equation. this requires the solution of the corresponding kinetic equation and that is quite another mathematical problem! . ˙ the internal energy ε is found as ε= and the heat ﬂow q as 1 1 2 q = ρ w′ w ′ = 2 2 The energy balance is thus ϕ(w − v)2 (w − v) dW. all the averages (the mean velocity. the equation of motion and the energy balance by suitable averaging of the kinetic equation. 1 1 ′2 w = 2 2ρ ϕ(w − v)2 dW W W ∂ · q. ∂x Heat sources are not included here.

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- INTRODUCTION TO CONTINUUM MECHANICS
- 3-RubinNaghdi1995-ContinuumMechanics
- Continuum Biomechanics
- Nonlinear Continuum Mechanics
- Fluid Mechanics Notes
- gr
- Damage Effective Str
- Conventions, Definitions, Identities, and Other Useful Formulae
- Vector and Tensor Analysis
- Numerical Modelling in Large Strain Plasticity With Application to Tube Collapse Analysis
- 03-23
- Newman–Penrose formalism
- ed-2-5-new
- Lecture 5
- Relativity
- Cosmology
- Class 02 Handout
- Mmc Problems
- Paper-2 Generalised Nearly P-sasakian Manifold
- Electrodynamics of Massless Charged Particles
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- Gfm General Relativity Lecture3
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- Paper-1 Generalised Lorentzian Special Para-Sasakian Manifolds
- LectureNotes_RG
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- Tensor Primer
- Paper 45
- Cont Med Toc

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