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Individual Task

This document presents you with a report that has been prepared for Mathematics Department as an evaluation of an existing
unit. It has been designed and taught for Year 9 students during my professional practicum. The evaluation of the unit is shown
by presenting a comparative table of changes from original program to implement in the reconstructed unit. The reconstructed
unit outline, scope and sequence, Concept Map and Assessment task are designed by using Understanding by Design (UbD)
framework to reflect the evidence based changes and also to ensure an inquiry based approach to teaching and learning.

Jaya Chilla
Table of Contents













A report has been made for the faculty members in Mathematics Department at Eagle Vale High school after a thorough
evaluation on one of their designed units in mathematics. The evaluation is done in the light of consistent low achievement in
literacy and numeracy skills from several years. The evaluation of the unit focusses on letting the fellow staff members know
if there are any major areas of changes needed in uplifting the literacy and numeracy skills along with social and general
capabilities. The Properties of geometrical figures unit is taken from year 9 for evaluation. This unit is taught to year 9 class
comprising students with low ability, and a few students who are academically talented but have diverse needs. The students
in this class have behavioural issues, less motivation and family backgrounds that are disturbing. To accommodate students
needs and assist them with learning, a support teacher is assigned during the lessons along with the teacher. The students in
year 9 class had been assigned the stage 5.1 syllabus of mathematics out of the three available pathways. The stage 5.1
content is generally build on stage 4 content as students does not have complete grasp on it.

The school context of this assessment is a comprehensive, low socioeconomic high school located in the Campbelltown area
of Sydney. The school has a high reputation for social and cultural harmony. The school has five hundred and twenty-one
enrolled students out of which seven percent of students are Indigenous students and forty-five percent of students are form
Language Background Other than English. The school is said to have attractive grounds and committed to quality teaching
and learning. They take a holistic approach towards 21st century pedagogy and student centred learning. The school has kept
an emphasis on improving students literacy and numeracy skills from recent years, but the NAPLAN results of 2016 shows
that the school average is substantially below across these areas.

Comparative Table of Unit Alterations
The original unit outline is identified with The unit outline needs to include more Building effective unit outlines will lead to
issues of overall structure. The unit details that will assist in identifying more plan better lessons that will enhance
outline lacks the necessary scaffolding scaffolding for student learning. For students knowledge and improves
that is required for teachers to plan example, Incorporating the student outcomes in mathematics
student learning. For example, the unit Understanding by Design (UbD) (Posamenteir, Smith & Jay,
outline only contains the syllabus framework allows teachers to plan unit 2012).Incorporating UbD framework in
outcomes and some resources that can outlines much more effectively. Including three different stages into the unit
be used for teaching, learning and the big ideas, essential questions, outlines helps teacher to build enrichment
assessment. determining what students will know and units that will deepen student
students will be able to allows teachers to understanding (McTighe & Wiggins,
further scaffold lessons effectively. 2012).
The Unit outline lacks sequence of By outlining lessons week by week for Designing the unit outline in a sequential
learning that will hinder students ability to the whole unit allows teachers to scaffold manner allows students to develop
understand the abstract concepts in for student learning more effectively. For conceptual understanding in mathematics
mathematics and also hinders them in example, By incorporating the , Ubd (Morales, Bang & Andre, 2013).
achieving the desired outcomes. framework and 5e instructional model, Incorporating the 5e instructional model
into the unit outline assists in developing into lesson plans assists in building
specific lesson plans that will assist in effective teaching practices that focusses
developing the threshold concept in on inquiry based learning environment
mathematics and enable students to and thereby deepen students conceptual
achieve the desired results . understanding (Ascli, Yacli & Turgut,

The unit outline mentions learning Including a wide variety of tasks in the Traditional teaching methods of
activities very vaguely. It only gives a hint teaching program like investigation tasks, mathematics results in rote learning and
about the worksheets in the folder or hands on experience tasks, would give there by students fail to develop
using geoboards or geogebra chance for students to develop their conceptual understanding (Katz, 2014).
applications and it wouldnt give much conceptual understanding, problem Including wide variety of task enables for
scope for teachers to understand the solving skills and critical thinking skills. an inquiry based learning environment
necessary scaffolding required for Furthermore, enabling ICT based tasks where students can question, investigate
students to develop mathematical like quizzes or using many interactive and there by develop deep understanding
concepts effectively or even to measure applets for geometry enhances student of the concepts (Katz, 2014).
students outcomes effectively. engagement and motivation and there by Furthermore, it sets a stage for student
Furthermore, the unit outline gives an achieve desired outcomes. cantered learning where students can
emphasis that teachers are following develop meaningful learning to enhance
more traditional style of teaching by academic success (Spooner, 2015).
giving worksheets from a folder
The unit outline lack emphasis on Inclusion of multimodal presentations Effective teaching practices includes
differentiated learning. There is no through technology or lessons caters for diversified instructions for student
evidence of how the learning is students with diverse learning needs. differences in the classroom
differentiated or how the activities or Including collaborative strategies like (Posamentier, Smith & Jay, 2012). In
instructions mentioned in the unit outline Think-Pair-Share allows students of addition, grouping children into
are differentiated. different abilities to learn from each other heterogeneous groups will assists
and in developing personal and social students in transferring their knowledge
capabilities. Furthermore, changes to the and making generalisations on their own
worksheets are suggested. For example, (Gillies, 2015).
the questions or problems in the
worksheet should be carefully designed
in such a way that all abilities of students
can be challenged.

The original unit outline or scope and Inclusion of wide variety of assessment Determining appropriate Assessment
sequence does not specify much about tasks in the unit outline is suggested. For evidence is critical stage while planning
assessment activities. There is no example, to assess the prior knowledge the teaching and learning activities
evidence of how the teachers are going of students at the beginning of the Including appropriate assessment forms
to conduct formative or summative lesson, like concept maps or quizzes or during the planning process helps the
assessments. class discussion can be included. educators to assess their students
Investigation tasks, projects, case studies understandings (McTighe & Wiggins,
or Ict enabled interactive software could 2012). Including visual thinking routines
help assessing students learning as they like concept map acts a good diagnostic
go. Summative assessments can added tool for assessing students prior
at the of the topics . knowledge (Ritchart & Perkins,2008).
The unit outline doesnt focus on general Identifying the key terminology that Vocabulary understanding is important in
capabilities, like literacy in mathematics. students have to be aware in every unit all content areas including mathematics.
of mathematics is suggested. In addition Understanding subject specific
to this teacher should emphasis the terminology in mathematics enhances
meaning of key vocabulary and focus on mathematics proficiency in students
including some literacy activities like (Katz, 2014). To develop meaningful
closed passages, crossword, puzzles to vocabulary a combined approach of
make sure students understand the key explicit teaching and meaningful context
vocabulary for working mathematically. should be followed (Monroe & Omre,
To further enhance literacy skills, 2012). Explicit vocabulary instruction
teachers can design activities where allows students to understand the
students have to write reports or importance of the new word and allows
justifications. them to connect with their prior
knowledge and use it next time more
meaningfully (Ricommi, Smith, Huges &
Fries, 2015).

Reconstructed Scope and Sequence (Stage 5.1)

Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 Week 9 Week 10

Review Integers, Fractions,

Units Algebraic Techniques Indices , Numbers of any Magnitude
Decimals and Percentages
MA4-4NA, MA4-5NA
Outcomes MA4-1,2,3WM MA4-17MG, MA4-1,2,3WM
Percentage, Denominator, Pronumeral, Constant, Variable, Product of prime, numbers, squared, cubed,

Numerator, Integer, positive sum , difference, product, indices, power, base , Indices.
number, Negative number, quotient, Equivalent, Algebraic
Key Absolute Value, Ordered Pair, expressions
Terminology Coordinate plane, Origin,
Depreciation, Improper fraction,
mixed fraction, whole, tenth,
hundredth, thousandth, rounding

Assessment Diagnostic test at the beginning Diagnostic test at the beginning Diagnostic Test at the beginning of the
of the lessons which tests the of the lesson to check their prior unit.
basic numerical skills of the knowledge on the unit. Topic Test at the end of the unit.
Practical Task: Students will Practical Task: Petes paving
design a virtual park using an Task that assess algebraic skills.
online website that would test Targeted skills: Problem solving,
their knowledge on concepts of critical thinking
integers, fractions, decimals and

Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 Week 9 Week 10

Properties of Equations and

Units Trigonometry
Geometrical Figures Inequations

MA4-4NA, MA4-5NA
MA4-10NA, MA4- MA5.1-10MG,MA5.1-
Outcomes MA4-1,2,3WM
1,2,3WM 1,2,3WM
Triangle, Linear equations, Adjacent,

Quadrilateral, Obtuse, simultaneous Hypotenuse,

Acute, Right angle, equations, variables, Opposite, exact
Key equilateral, scalene, unknown, constant, answer, approximate
Terminology Isosceles, bisect, substitution, non- answer, horizontal,
diagonal, vertex, integer solutions vertical, reference
angle, symmetry angle,
NAPLAN Revision Half Early Exams

Assessment Diagnostic test at the Diagnostic Test at Diagnostic Test at

beginning of the the beginning of the the beginning of the
lesson. Students can lesson lesson, can be a
draw a mind map of QUIZ
the concepts they Topic Test at the
know about end of the lesson. Topic Test at the
classification of end of the lesson.
triangles and
Hands on activity: To
investigate the
properties of

Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 Week 9 Week 10

Area and Surface area &

Units Financial Mathematics
Volume of prisms Single Variable Data Analysis

MA5.1-8MG, MA4-14MG MA5.1-12SP,MA4-20SP,MA5.1-

Outcomes MA5.1-4NA,MA4-6NA,MA5.1,2,3WM
MA4-12MG 1,2,3WM

Area, Surface Area, Volume, Stem and leaf plots, histograms, Interest, compound interest, principal,
Depth, height, base, perimeter, bi-modal, symmetric, skewed, dividend, per annum, simple interest, rate,
perpendicular height, parallel negatively skewed, dot plots, compounded annually, loan, debt
sides, square meters, square distribution, data, parallel dot
centimetres plots

Diagnostic test at the beginning Practical Task: Diagnostic Tasks to assess students
of the lessons which tests the Investigating real life scenarios existing knowledge through classes
basic numerical skills of the like rainfall data or sports data discussions.
units. and plotting steam and leaf plots Practical Task: Money smart teaching online
Assessment Practical Task: Students will , dot plots and histograms. interactive mobile phone plans .
design a virtual house plan using
an online website that would
assess their knowledge on
concepts of the unit. Problem

Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 Week 9 Week 10

Units Congruency Probability

MA4-4NA, MA4-5NA MA5.1-13SP,

MA4-1,2,3WM MA4-21SP,MA5.1-1,2,3WM

Congruent, inscribed polygons, Probability, chance, likely, unlikely, event,

convex polygon, similar figures, Complementary events, frequency, relative
Key equiangular, angle sum, interior frequency, cumulative frequency,
Terminology angle sum, exterior angle sum simulation, simple events, compound
Revision Half -Yearly Exams

Diagnostic Task to assess the Diagnostic Task to assess the existing

prior knowledge of the students knowledge of the students

Investigation task to identify the Hands on Task where students design a

properties of congruent figures device to produce a specified relative
Assessment by using dynamic geometry frequency. (Problem Solving)

Concept Map

Reconstructed Unit Outline

STAGE 5.1 Mathematics UNIT 2017 Properties of Geometrical Figures

YEAR: 9 DURATION: 2 weeks (3 x 60 minute lessons per week)
Through this unit students learn to develop deductive reasoning, THE BIG IDEA
geometric skills and problem solving skills as the focus moves from The big idea of this unit is to extend students understanding of
relationships to properties of geometrical reasoning. Students also geometrical figures. Students should be able to classify the triangles
develops the understanding of how geometry is linked with and quadrilaterals by using dynamic software through investigation
measurement and how it is very important in work life. Overall, the tasks and overcome the misconceptions. Furthermore, enhancing
unit shows how geometry is common in everyday situations and can reasoning skills to do the geometric proofs and find the unknown
be seen in nature, sports astronomy, construction ,etc. angles of the given figure.

MA4-1WM communicates and connects mathematical ideas using appropriate terminology, diagrams and symbols
MA4-2WM applies appropriate mathematical techniques to solve problems
MA4-3WM recognises and explains mathematical relationships using reasoning
MA4-17MG classifies, describes and uses the properties of triangles and quadrilaterals, and determines congruent triangles to find
unknown side lengths and angles


Critical Thinking, Reasoning, Problem Solving, Hands on Experience, Sustainability
Information and communication technology capability

Students will understand: How can students investigate the properties of the triangles and
The classification of triangles and quadrilaterals according to quadrilaterals?
their side and angle properties. Why does some of the quadrilaterals have special properties?
Investigate the Properties of Quadrilaterals
How are geometrical figures linked to real life applications?
How to find the unknown sides and angles embedded in
diagrams by using the properties. What are the common misconceptions that student might face in
this unit of learning.
Students will: Students will be able to:
Classify the triangles and quadrilaterals based on their number Recognise that a given triangle may belong to more than one
of sides and angle properties. class
Investigate the properties of quadrilaterals Sketch and label triangles from a worded or verbal description
Classify special properties on the basis of their properties. Use techniques such as paper folding or measurement or
Demonstrate the angle sum of the quadrilateral using the angle dynamic software to investigate the properties.
sum of the triangle. Sketch and label quadrilaterals from a worded or verbal
Demonstrate that the angle sum of triangle and quadrilaterals description
can be used to find unknown side of the figure. Describe a quadrilateral in sufficient detail for it to be sketched
Use the angle sum results of triangles and quadrilaterals to find
unknown angles and sides in embedded figures.
Key Terminology
Triangle, Quadrilateral, Obtuse, Acute, Right angle, equilateral, scalene, Isosceles, bisect, diagonal, vertex, angle, symmetry, exterior angle,
interior angle, convex quadrilateral, kite, line symmetry, non-convex quadrilateral, parallelogram, properties, reflection, mirror image,
trapezium, rhombus,
Teacher Resources

Interactive Whiteboard Activities
Virtual pin board

Student Resources
Illuminations angle sum
ASSESSMENT (as, of, for learning)
Puzzle on classifying the properties of quadrilaterals
Practical Task: Several investigation tasks.
Concept map
Worksheets to find unknown angles or sides of a triangle and quadrilateral.

Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3
Syllabus Classify triangles according to the sides Analysing the properties of triangles Demonstrate that the angle sum in
Outcome(s) and angles triangles is equal to 180 degrees.
Key Concepts Using multimodal presentation to Using different triangles to analyse the Using geogebra software application
explain the concept of classification of properties of Triangles. students explore the properties of
triangles. Written communication of concepts triangle
Written communication of concepts Written communication of concepts
Learning Using the 5e instructional model Using the 5e instructional model . Using the 5e instructional model
Experiences Engage Engage Engage
Introduce the big idea of this topic Starter Activity: Students complete a Starter Activity: Students complete a
Brainstorm with class the purpose and worksheet where they can classify the worksheet which contains a word bank
need for geometry in real life. By figures. and students have to choose a word
asking open ended questions. Discuss the answers to the solutions that best describes the definition.
Class discussion Continue posing and lead the class to the lessons Discuss the starter activity and lead
more questions about what they know agenda. into the lesson agenda.
about Triangles. For example what is a Explain Class Discussion Brainstorm the
triangle? Class Discussion- discuss some of the class about how you can find the angle
what are the different types of triangles properties that they know about each sum of the triangles with the
they know? triangle. Give some examples. knowledge that they know.
Explain: Explore Explain
Introduce the different types of triangles Investigation Task sheet: handover the Scaffolding: Teacher can give hint
and explain what are they? task sheet with embedded figures in it about that all angles are equal in an
Watch video: and ask students to come up with as equilateral triangle which can lead to many properties as they can come up students thinking.
eNaZcy-hE with and write them up on their sheets. Explore
Introduce the topic of classification of They can use protractors and rulers to Investigate: Use geogebra an
triangles and pose them what does the measure the figures and label the application software and draw
word classification means? figures. Students work in pair sketching of different triangles and find
Explicit instructions: give examples of Note: The worksheets can be scaffolded to out what can be the sum of the angles
how classification looks in different tell students what they can measure by in a given triangle and verify whether
context so student get idea giving hints.

Explore: the sum of angles in all triangles is the
Hands on activity (Think/pair/share) Elaborate and Evaluate same.
Investigate the information they already Report: From each group students Elaborate
know about the triangles and inform can come up and write the Report: Students justify their answers
students to classify. They can use geo properties for each figure on smart in written report.
boards or sketch the figures in their board and gives their reason. Evaluate
notebooks to classify. Class Discussion- summarise the Class Discussion: Discuss the
Elaborate concepts to avoid any justification that students came up
Mind map: ask students to draw a mind misconceptions. with.
map of their classifications and give Conclude the lesson by summarising
justification. all the ideas that students have found
Evaluate to inform that angle sum of a triangle is
Class Discussion -about what students equal to 180 degrees.
came up with.
Conclude the class with summarising
of what they have learned in this
Evidence of Contributing to class discussion Contribution to class learning Contribution to class discussion
Learning Drawing conclusions from Completion of scaffolded worksheet Completion of Interactive activity
investigations Geogebra
Mind maps Report
Written justification- literacy skills Sketches
Resources PowerPoint Presentation PowerPoint Presentations. PowerPoint Presentations.
Video clip: Whiteboard & Markers. Whiteboard & Markers. Worksheets Computers
eNaZcy-hEGeoboards. Differentiation: scaffold the worksheets Geogebra application
Notebooks, enough to give hints to complete the Differentiation: scaffold the instructions
Rulers and Pencils. task. Pair up students in heterogeneous step by step for lower ability students
Smart Board and markers groups to get peer assisted learning. on how to use geogebra.


Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3

Syllabus Find the unknown angles and sides of a Classification of the quadrilaterals. Demonstrating the angle sum of the
Outcome(s) triangle quadrilateral
Key Concepts Using multimodal video to explain how . Identify, describe and classify Analyse the quadrilaterals to find the
to find an unknown angle or a side of a quadrilaterals in as many ways as angle sum.
triangle possible. Communicating ideas both written
Enables critical thinking and verbal
Higher order thinking and problem

Learning Using the 5e Instructional Model:

Experiences Engage Brainstorming about what Starter Activity - Worksheet to choose
Engage Brainstorming - How can we does quadrilateral mean and what the right word from the word bank to fit
find the unknown angle of a triangle? shapes come under quadrilaterals. the definition.
What property is helpful? Explain the students what does the Engage - Discuss the solutions:
Explain Show example of an term quadrilateral mean and how Brainstorm how to find the angle sum
equilateral triangle that can lead them different shapes are quadrilaterals of quadrilaterals?
into understanding which property they Engage Brainstorm what does some Explain - By giving an example of
can use. of the key terms mean like bisect, rectangle and square to say that sum
Explain the process of formulation to parallel, symmetry vertex and diagonal of the angle in quadrilateral is
calculate and find the unknown angle. mean. 360degrees.
Elaborate Students can work through Explain The key vocabulary to Explore- Investigate how to find the
the worksheet to do some sample students and give examples. sum of angles where quadrilaterals do
problems. Explore- Hands on Task/Investigation: not have all four angles equal.
Engage: Brainstorm how can they Pass some different shapes for the Scaffolding: Can give a hint that they
find the unknown length of side of a students to analyse the shapes and can use angle sum of triangle.
triangle? come up with as many properties as Elaborate-Report: students show the
Explain Show example of an they can. proof for all different quadrilateral that
equilateral triangle that can lead them

into understanding which property they Explain-Class Discussion-Teacher angle sum is equal to 360 degrees and
can use. Give Examples. Classifies the properties and plays a justify them by drawing sketches.
Elaborate Students can work through video from mathantics for further Summarise the proof with the video of
the worksheet to do some sample understanding Mathantic
Class Discussion: Teacher clarifies YTcq1n9z0 YTcq1n9z0
concepts for students learning Evaluate - students evaluate their work
in the task.

Evidence of Contributing to class discussion Contribution to class discussion Contribution to class discussion
Learning Completion of worksheet Investigation task Written proofs for the angle sum of

Resources PowerPoint Presentation PowerPoint Presentations.

Multimodal video Whiteboard & Markers YTcq1n9z0
Worksheets Investigation Task Power point presentations
calculators Differentiation: scaffolding is provided
Differentiation: worksheets can be for students who need help in finding
designed with questions for all abilities. the properties

Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3
Syllabus Finding the unknown angles of a Classifying the quadrilaterals and triangle Evaluation of student understanding of all
Outcome(s) quadrilateral and finding their unknown sides and concepts.
angles values
Key Concepts Explain how to find the unknown angle Review of the whole unit Evaluating the concepts of the whole
in a quadrilateral by using multimodal Flipped classroom learning of the unit
video. whole unit. Communicating ideas both written
Make connections to previous and verbal
knowledge on how to find unknown
angles in a triangle.
Learning Example problems of how to find Students work on a mixed set of Assessment evaluate students
Experiences unknown angles just like in triangles. questions which is designed for the understanding by conducting a topic
discuss and combine their answers. entire unit to evaluate their test
Students work on their given worksheet understanding.
to finding the missing pronumeral in Flipped classroom learning students
each of the embedded figures demonstrate their whole understanding
of the unit by demonstrating in groups
in the form of concept map.

Evidence of The multimodal video. Review worksheets The assessment task

Learning Completion of worksheet problems Flipped classroom learning.
Resources PowerPoint Presentation Review Worksheets Assessment task
Multimodal video Whiteboard & Markers Whiteboard markers
Calculators Calculators Calculators

Reconstructed Assessment Task Stage 5.1
Properties of Geometrical Figures

Task Name: Reviewing geometrical Figures

Marks 25 marks
Date Conducted Term 2 : Week 3 Lesson 9

Outcomes addressed:

MA4-1WM communicates and connects mathematical ideas using appropriate terminology, diagrams and symbols
MA4-2WM applies appropriate mathematical techniques to solve problems
MA4-3WM recognises and explains mathematical relationships using reasoning
MA4-17MG classifies, describes and uses the properties of triangles and quadrilaterals, and determines congruent triangles to find
unknown side lengths and angles

Addition plain paper , stationary
Students should show valid mathematical working in order to score marks.

Section 1: Multiple choice questions

1. A triangle with one right angle

A. right triangle B. obtuse triangle C. acute triangle D. rectangle

2. A quadrilateral with exactly one pair of parallel sides

A. square B. trapezoid C. kite D. rhombus

3. A quadrilateral that has two pairs of consecutive congruent sides, but opposite sides are not congruent.

A. rhombus B. kite C. square D. rectangle

4. A quadrilateral whose opposite sides are both parallel and equal in length

A. quadrilateral B. trapezoid C. rectangle D. parallelogram

5. A triangle in which at least 2 sides are congruent

A. scalene triangle B. obtuse triangle C. isosceles triangle

Section 2:
Identifying the shape through its properties and draw them.
6. A quadrilateral with four sides that are equal and has all 90 degrees angles?

7.A triangle with three congruent sides?

8.A parallelogram with four right angles?

9. A triangle with no congruent sides?

10. A quadrilateral with only one pair of parallel lines?

Section 3: Find the unknown angles of the following figures.







90 50


Section 3:

16.List 2 real life applications where geometry can be used and describing how they are used?

Marking Criteria

Criteria Marks Awarded Marks Received Comments

Section 1 (5 marks) 1 mark for each right answer
Multiple choice questions

Section 2 (6 marks) 1 mark for each correct diagram

Identifying the shape through
its properties and sketching out
Section 3 (10 marks) I mark for each question
Finding the missing angles in
the embedded figures
Section 4 (4 marks) 1 mark for each example.
Listing 2 real life applications 1 mark for describing its use.
where they can use geometry
and describing the use.
Total marks Overall Outcome:

Evaluation Report
The evaluation of the Stage 5 (Year 9) Maths unit Properties of Geometry has been identified with some areas of concern. It became
apparent that some significant modifications need to be made for the unit outline and for the scope and sequence for implementing
effective teaching practices that enhances students learning. Some of the areas which need to be modified are, the overall structure
of the unit outline, scope and sequence, learning sequence of the program, differentiated Learning, inquiry based learning, literacy
skills in mathematics and assessment. Modifications are supported through evidence based research and by following the backward
designing of the Understand by Design framework and are evident in the reconstructed unit outline and reconstructed scope and

The overall structure of the unit outline and scope and sequence

Firstly, the original Properties of geometrical figures unit outline of 2016 currently lacks overall structure. The unit outline mapped
only the syllabus outcomes that have to be achieved for the unit. There is no evidence of the summary of the whole unit or what is
the big idea of the unit that the educators want students to learn by end of the unit. This is a great disadvantage for teachers and
students as it makes it harder to develop appropriate scaffolding for planning effective lessons that focus on student learning and in
developing deep conceptual understanding of the content (McTighe & Wiggins, 2012). The reconstructed unit outline followed the
backward designing of The UbD framework to scaffold better lessons and to give a clear understanding of the goals (McTighe &
Wiggins, 2012). The UbD frame work is a three stage process and first stage asks for clearly identifying the goals, the second stage
for designing an assessment that assess these goals and the third stage for identifying what learning activities are required. Therefore,
to improve the structure of the unit outline, Big ideas, and essential questions are added to clearly identify what the teachers want
students to learn by the end of the unit. Inclusion of big ideas into programs especially in mathematics would provide cohesive learning

opportunities for students and allows them to learn mathematical concepts in depth (Posamenteir, Smith & Jay, 2012). Furthermore,
it provides opportunities for students to make connections between concepts and for teachers in professional development
(Manglesdorf, 2013). Essential questions are base of the UbD framework, inclusion of these in teaching program will enable higher
order thinking in students and towards transferable ideas (McTighe & Wiggins, 2005).

Secondly, the original scope and sequence of year 9 includes the sequence of learning, and outcomes. However, the scope sequence
mapped the subject content for all three pathways 5.1, 5.2 and 5.3 in Stage 5 together with outcomes, which makes it harder for
teachers to understand. Each pathway of stage 5 syllabus has different learning sequences and different outcomes so it would be
beneficial for teachers in understanding the learning sequence if they are designed separately. Furthermore, the original scope and
sequence lacks the sequencing of assessments for the whole teaching program. It is a great disadvantage for educators as they
cannot plan effectively for the assessments and identify the goals (McTighe & Wiggins, 2012). A reconstructed scope and sequence
is designed specifically for Stage 5.1(Year 9) which outlines, the title, sequence, duration, outcomes and subject specific details by
following the advice of NSW educational standards (NESA, 2012a).

Learning sequence of the program

The original unit outline does not have any evidence of having learning sequences and thereby it affects the ability of teachers to
plan lessons effectively and scaffold learning. Inclusion of learning sequences in sequential manner would allow teachers to scaffold
the necessary content and thereby facilitate student learning (Morales et al., 2013). The reconstructed unit outline is developed to
provide a clear sequence by breaking down the program into week by week and then into lesson by lesson would assist students in

knowledge acquisition, evaluation and transfer (Jonassen & Land, 2012). Furthermore, sequencing the learning program will allow
teachers to differentiate the learning experiences and instructions for the students (McTighe & Wiggins, 2005).

Differentiated Learning

The teaching program has completely no evidence of how the teaching and learning is differentiated or what learning activities are
scaffolded for them. The unit outline gives a little hint of using worksheets from the folders or suggesting to use geogebra or geoboard
applications for geometry. This is particularly alarming because the year 9 class of students have diverse needs and it wouldnt give
much scope for teachers to develop the required scaffolding. Furthermore, the unit outline gives an emphasis that teachers are
following more traditional style of teaching by giving worksheets from a folder without much planning or differentiation. Development
of wide variety of learning tasks is crucial for student learning and, especially for this year 9 class, as there are students with diverse
needs in the classroom (Cavanagh & Prescott, 2014). The reconstructed teaching program includes a wide variety of learning
activities like investigation tasks , hands on experience tasks, projects and puzzles for developing a learning environment where
students can question, investigate and there by develop deep understanding of the concepts (Jonathan, 2014).Furthermore, it sets
a stage for student centred learning where students are motivated and engaged to develop meaningful learning and produce
successful outcomes (Spooner,2015).The reconstructed unit outline also includes multimodal presentations, to cater for different
learning styles in the classroom alongside with Think-pair-share strategies to build collaborative environments. Establishing
Collaborative learning environments is an inclusive approach where students learn to interact socially, learn from one another and
develop social and personal capabilities (Posamentier, Smith & Jay, 2012).

Inquiry Based Learning

The original unit outline is outlined with only syllabus content and has no evidence of enquiry based learning. Inquiry based learning
is a crucial tool for conceptual development in students. Through Inquiry based learning, students can develop critical thinking,
problem solving and reasoning skills in mathematics (Acisli, Yaclin & Turgust, 2011). Pedastle et al., (2015) states that inquiry based
learning is comprised of five stages, being orientation, conceptualisation, investigation, conclusion and lastly discussion. This aligns
with the 5e instructional model where the 5es stand for engagement, explanation, exploration, elaboration and evaluation.
Incorporating the 5e models in teaching programs allows students to adopt an inquiry based learning approaching and overcome the
threshold concepts in mathematics (Acisli, Yaclin & Turgust, 2011). Therefore, in the reconstructed unit outline, the 5e model is
implemented in the learning sequences, to scaffold effective lessons through which students can overcome misconceptions and
develop deep content knowledge.

Literacy in mathematics

The background knowledge of the school context informs that the school literacy skills are below average and this emphasizes the
importance of including literacy skills in the teaching program. But the original teaching program has no evidence of mentioning it
anywhere. It is crucial to teach literacy skills across all curriculum areas and especially in mathematics. Understanding subject specific
terminology in mathematics enhances mathematics proficiency in students (Monroe & Omre, 2012). To develop meaningful
vocabulary a combined approach of explicit teaching and meaningful context should be followed (Monroe & Omre, 2010). Explicit
vocabulary instruction allows students to understand the importance of the new word and allows them to connect with their prior
knowledge and use it next time more meaningfully (Ricommi, Smith, Huges & Fries, 2015). The reconstructed unit outline and scope

and sequence includes the key terminology that students have to be aware in every unit of mathematics. In addition, some literacy
activities like closed passages, crosswords, puzzles, reports and justifications are scaffolded for students learning in the learning
sequences to make sure students understand the key vocabulary and develop literacy skills.

The role of Assessment

The original unit outline lacks the evidence of formative assessment or summative assessment. Developing effective assessments
tasks that are coherent, comprehensive and continuous is central for effective teaching practices (Treagust, 2012). Assessment is a
process of collecting evidence of students learning through which the effectiveness of teachers instruction is known and student
outcomes are measured (Cavanagh & Prescott, 2014). Furthermore, the assessment process assists in improving the teachers
pedagogical practice when evaluation and reflection takes place (Cavanagh & Prescott, 2014). Assessments can be of many forms,
they can be formal, informal or summative. The reconstructed unit outline includes informal and formal assessments. Informal
assessments are conducted throughout the lessons by asking effective questions, through concept maps, quiz, investigation tasks.
Concept maps and questioning is designed in the unit outline as they can be great tools for measuring the prior knowledge of students
(Ritchart & Perkins, 2008). Assessing prior knowledge of students is crucial as it allows teachers to understand what the student
already knows within the unit including the misconception and make adjustments to the teaching content accordingly or even to
understand the level of differentiation needed (McTighe & Wiggins, 2012). The reconstructed unit also includes topic test at the end
of the unit as a summative assessment to gather evidence for reporting purposes.

Overall, the evaluation of the unit outline and scope and sequence has suggested some significant changes across different areas.
The main reason behind this evaluation is to encourage teachers in building effective teaching practice that can uplift students
literacy, numeracy skills, and to develop deep conceptual knowledge in mathematics.


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issues. Procedia - Social and Behavioural Sciences, 15, 2459-2462 DOI: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.04.128

Board of Studies New South Wales. (2012). Science K-10 (incorporating science and technology k-6) syllabus. Retrieved from

Cavanagh, M., & Prescott, A, E. (2014). Your professional experience handbook: A guide for preservice teachers.

Gillies, R. M. (2015). Collaborative Learning. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc. Retrieved from

Jonassesn, D., & Land, S. (Eds.). (2012). Theoretical foundations of learning environments.

Katz, J. (2014). Developing mathematical thinking: A guide to rethinking the mathematics classroom.

Mangelsdorf, N., (2013). Understanding by Design. TLN Journal, 20(1), 38-39. Retrieved from;dn=302937402730691;res=IELHSS

McTighe, J., & Wiggins, G. (2005). Understanding by Design, Expanded 2nd Edition. ASCD. Retrieved from

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Morales, T.M., Bang, E., & Andre, T. (2013). A one-year case study: Understanding the rich potential of project based Learning in

a virtual reality class for high school students. Journal of science education and Technology, 22(5), 791-806.

Monroe, E., & Orme, M. (2012). Developing Mathematical Vocabulary. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children

and Youth, 46(3), 139-142.

NSW Education Standards Authority. (2012a). Advice on scope and sequence. Retrieved from

Pedaste, M., Maetos, M., Siiman, L., De Jong, T., VanRissen, S. A., Kamp, E. T., & Tsourlidaki, E. (2015). Phases of inquiry-based

learning: Definitions and the inquiry cycle. Educational research review, 14, 47-61

Posamentier, A., Smith, Beverly S, & Stepelman, Jay. (2012). Teaching secondary mathematics: Techniques and enrichment

units (8th ed.). Boston: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.

Riccomini, P., Smith, G., Hughes, E., & Fries, K. (2015). The Language of Mathematics: The Importance of Teaching and Learning

Mathematical Vocabulary. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 31(3), 235-252.

Ritchhart, R., & Perkins, D. (2008). Making Thinking Visible. Educational Leadership 65 (5), 57-61.

Spooner, E. (2015). Interactive Student Centered Learning. Blue Ridge Summit: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers

Treagust, D.F. (2012, October). Diagnostic assessment in science as a means to improving teaching, learning and retention. In

proceedings of the Australian Conference on Science and Mathematics Education (formerly UniServe Science Conference).

Appendices of Original Documents

Original Scope and Sequence
Year 9 Mathematics Scope and Sequence

TERM 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Review Integers, Fractions, Indices and Surds,

Decimals and Percentages Algebraic Techniques MA5.3-6NA, MA5.2-7NA
MA4-4NA, MA4-5NA MA5.3-5NA,MA5.2-6NA, MA5.3-1WM Numbers of any Magnitude
MA4-1,2,3WM MA5.1 9MG, MA5.3-1,2,3WM

Review Integers, Fractions, Algebraic Techniques Indices, Numbers of any

Decimals and Percentages MA5.2-6NA,MA5.2-1,2,3WM Magnitude
5.2 MA4-4NA, MA4-5NA MA5.1-9MG,MA5.1-1,2,3WM

Review Integers, Fractions, Algebraic Techniques Indices, Numbers of any

Decimals and Percentages MA4-1,2,3WM Magnitude
MA4-4NA, MA4-5NA MA4-17MG, MA4-1,2,3WM

TERM 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Revision Half early exams Equations and
Properties of Geometrical Figures Inequations Trigonometry
MA5.3-1,2,3WM, MA5.2-14MG, MA5.3-7NA, MA5.3-15MG,
STAGE MA5.3-16MG MA5.2-8NA, MA5.2-13MG,
5.3 MA5.3-1,2,3WM MA5.1-10MG,
MA5.3-1,2,3, WM

Properties of Geometrical Figures Revision Half early exams

MA5.1-11MG, Equations and Trigonometry
STAGE MA5.3-1,2,3WM, MA5.2-14MG, Inequations MA5.2-13MG,
5.2 MA5.3-16MG MA5.2-8NA, MA5.1-10MG,
MA4-10NA MA5.2-1,2WM
MA5.2-1,2,3 WM
Properties of geometrical figures Revision Half Yearly Exams
MA4-1WM, MA4-2WM, Equations and Trigonometry
STAGE MA4-3WM, MA4-17MG Inequations MA5.1-10MG,
5.1 MA4-10NA, MA5.1-1,2,3WM

TERM 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Single Variable Data Analysis Financial Mathematics

STAGE Area & Surface area and Volume of MA5.3-18SP,MA5.2-15sp- MA5.1-4NA,MA4-6NA,MA5.3,2,3WM
5.3 Prisms ,MA5.3-1,2,3WM
MA5.3-14MG, MA5.2-12MG

Area and Surface area & Volume of Single Variable Data Analysis Financial Mathematics
STAGE prisms MA5.2-15SP, ,MA5.2-1,2,3WM, MA5.1-4NA,MA4-6NA,MA5.2-
5.2 MA5.1-8MG, MA4-14MG MA5.1-12SP 1,2,3WM
Area and Surface area & Volume of Single Variable Data Analysis Financial Mathematics
prisms MA5.1-12SP,MA4-20SP,MA5.1- MA5.1-4NA,MA4-6NA,MA5.1,2,3WM
MA5.1-8MG, MA4-14MG 1,2,3WM

TERM 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Congruency and Similarity Probability

MA5.3-16MG,MA5.2- MA5.2-17SP, MA5.1-13SP, MA5.3-
STAGE 5.3 14MG,MA5.1-11MG,MA5.3- 1,2,3WM

Revision YEARLY EXAMS Probability

Congruency and Similarity MA5.2-17SP, MA5.1-13SP, MA5.2-
STAGE 5.2 MA5.2-14MG, MA5.1- 1,2,3WM

Congruency Revision YEARLY EXAMS Probability

MA4-4NA, MA4-5NA MA5.1-13SP, MA4-21SP, MA5.1-
MA4-1,2,3WM 1,2,3WM

Original Unit Outline

Properties of Geometrical Figures | Stage 5 | YEAR 9 | Mathematics

Summary Duration
Stage 5.1 Review stage 4 content, Classify and determine Term 2
properties of triangles and quadrilaterals. Find unknown sides 3 weeks
and angles. Details: 9 periods
Stage 5.2- Congruency proofs, Properties of triangles and
quadrilaterals, Polygon angles
Stage 5.2- Prove properties of triangles and quads using
congruent triangles, Numeric and Non numeric exercises

Outcomes Assessment Overview

Stage 5.1
Ongoing assessment for learning and as learning incorporated
MA4-1WM communicates and connects mathematical ideas into lessons.
using appropriate terminology, diagrams and symbols An assessment of learning may be done at the end of the topic
MA4-2WM applies appropriate mathematical techniques to with the classroom teacher
solve problems
MA4-3WM recognises and explains mathematical
relationships using reasoning
MA4-17MG classifies, describes and uses the properties of
triangles and quadrilaterals, and determines congruent
triangles to find unknown side lengths and angles

Stage 5.2
MA5.1-11MG describes and applies the properties of similar
figures and scale drawings Ongoing assessment for learning and as learning incorporated
MA5.2-1WM selects appropriate notations and conventions into lessons.
to communicate mathematical ideas and solutions An assessment of learning may be done at the end of the topic
with the classroom teacher
MA5.2-2WM interprets mathematical or real-life situations,
systematically applying appropriate strategies to solve
MA5.2-3WM constructs arguments to prove and justify
MA5.2-14MG calculates the angle sum of any polygon and
uses minimum conditions to prove triangles are congruent or

Stage 5.3
MA5.3-1WM uses and interprets formal definitions and
generalisations when explaining solutions and/or conjectures Assessment
MA5.3-2WM generalizes mathematical ideas and techniques
Ongoing assessment for learning and as learning incorporated
to analyze and solve problems efficiently
into lessons.
MA5.3-3WM uses deductive reasoning in presenting An assessment of learning may be done at the end of the topic
arguments and formal proofs with the classroom teacher
MA5.3-16MG proves triangles are similar, and uses formal
geometric reasoning to establish properties of triangles and

Content Teaching, Learning and Assessment
Stage 5.1- Properties of Geometrical Figures 1
Students: Dynamic geometry software can be used in this topic such as
Classify triangles according to their side and angle properties geogebra.
and describe quadrilaterals (ACMMG165) The internet is full of animations and applets that demonstrate
the properties of triangles, quadrilaterals and polygons.
use the angle sum of a triangle to establish that the angle
The resource folder contains worksheets, PowerPoints and
sum of a quadrilateral is 360
geogebra activities
use the angle sum results for triangles and quadrilaterals
to determine unknown angles in triangles and
quadrilaterals, giving reasons
Use the properties of special triangles and quadrilaterals to
solve simple numerical problems with appropriate reasoning
find unknown sides and angles embedded in diagrams,
using the properties of special triangles and quadrilaterals,
giving reasons
recognise special types of triangles and quadrilaterals
embedded in composite figures or drawn in various orientations
Stage 5.2 - Properties of Geometrical Figures
apply geometrical facts, properties and relationships to
find the sizes of unknown sides and angles of plane
shapes in diagrams, providing appropriate reasons
recognise that more than one method of solution is
possible (Reasoning)

compare different solutions for the same problem to
determine the most efficient method (Communicating,
apply simple deductive reasoning to prove results for
plane shapes
define the exterior angle of a convex polygon
establish that the sum of the exterior angles of any convex
polygon is 360
use dynamic geometry software to investigate the
constancy of the exterior angle sum of polygons for
different polygons (Reasoning)
apply the result for the interior angle sum of a triangle to
find, by dissection, the interior angle sum of polygons with
more than three sides
use dynamic geometry software to investigate the
interior angle sum of different polygons (Reasoning)

express in algebraic terms the interior angle sum of a

polygon with n sides, eg
apply interior and exterior angle sum results for polygons to find
the sizes of unknown angles

Formulate proofs involving congruent triangles and angle
properties (ACMMG243)
construct and write geometrical arguments to prove a
general geometrical result, giving reasons at each step of
the argument, eg prove that the angle in a semicircle is a
right angle

Stage5.3 Apply logical reasoning, including the use

of congruence and similarity, to proofs and numerical exercises
involving plane shapes (ACMMG244)
write formal proofs of the similarity of triangles in the
standard four- or five-line format, preserving the matching
order of vertices, identifying the scale factor when
appropriate, and drawing relevant conclusions from this
prove that the interval joining the midpoints of two sides
of a triangle is parallel to the third side and half its
length, and the converse (Communicating, Problem
establish and apply for two similar figures with
similarity ratio the following:
solve problems involving similarity ratios and areas and
volumes (Problem Solving)
state a definition as the minimum amount of information
needed to identify a particular figure

prove properties of isosceles and equilateral triangles and
special quadrilaterals from the formal definitions of the
use dynamic geometry software to investigate and test
conjectures about geometrical figures (Problem Solving,
prove and apply theorems and properties related to
triangles and quadrilaterals:
the diagonals of a rectangle are equal
recognise that any result proven for a parallelogram
would also hold for a rectangle (Reasoning)
give reasons why a square is a rhombus, but a rhombus
is not necessarily a square (Communicating, Reasoning)

use a flow chart or other diagram to show the

relationships between different quadrilaterals
prove and apply tests for quadrilaterals:
solve numerical and non-numerical problems in Euclidean
geometry based on known assumptions and proven
state possible converses of known results, and examine
whether or not they are also true (Communicating,