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EVALUATION

Individual Task

Abstract

This document presents you with a report that has been prepared for Mathematics Department as an evaluation of an existing

unit. It has been designed and taught for Year 9 students during my professional practicum. The evaluation of the unit is shown

by presenting a comparative table of changes from original program to implement in the reconstructed unit. The reconstructed

unit outline, scope and sequence, Concept Map and Assessment task are designed by using Understanding by Design (UbD)

framework to reflect the evidence based changes and also to ensure an inquiry based approach to teaching and learning.

Jaya Chilla

18508550

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION 3

CONCEPT MAP 11

EVALUATION REPORT 27

REFERENCES 32

2

Introduction

A report has been made for the faculty members in Mathematics Department at Eagle Vale High school after a thorough

evaluation on one of their designed units in mathematics. The evaluation is done in the light of consistent low achievement in

literacy and numeracy skills from several years. The evaluation of the unit focusses on letting the fellow staff members know

if there are any major areas of changes needed in uplifting the literacy and numeracy skills along with social and general

capabilities. The Properties of geometrical figures unit is taken from year 9 for evaluation. This unit is taught to year 9 class

comprising students with low ability, and a few students who are academically talented but have diverse needs. The students

in this class have behavioural issues, less motivation and family backgrounds that are disturbing. To accommodate students

needs and assist them with learning, a support teacher is assigned during the lessons along with the teacher. The students in

year 9 class had been assigned the stage 5.1 syllabus of mathematics out of the three available pathways. The stage 5.1

content is generally build on stage 4 content as students does not have complete grasp on it.

The school context of this assessment is a comprehensive, low socioeconomic high school located in the Campbelltown area

of Sydney. The school has a high reputation for social and cultural harmony. The school has five hundred and twenty-one

enrolled students out of which seven percent of students are Indigenous students and forty-five percent of students are form

Language Background Other than English. The school is said to have attractive grounds and committed to quality teaching

and learning. They take a holistic approach towards 21st century pedagogy and student centred learning. The school has kept

an emphasis on improving students literacy and numeracy skills from recent years, but the NAPLAN results of 2016 shows

that the school average is substantially below across these areas.

3

Comparative Table of Unit Alterations

AREA OF CONCERN IN UNIT SUGGESTED UNIT ALTERATION RESEARCH AND THEORY TO SUPPORT

ALTERATION

AREA OF IMPROVEMENT 1 SUGGESTED ALTERATION 1 RESEARCH AND THEORY TO SUPPORT

ALTERATION 1

The original unit outline is identified with The unit outline needs to include more Building effective unit outlines will lead to

issues of overall structure. The unit details that will assist in identifying more plan better lessons that will enhance

outline lacks the necessary scaffolding scaffolding for student learning. For students knowledge and improves

that is required for teachers to plan example, Incorporating the student outcomes in mathematics

student learning. For example, the unit Understanding by Design (UbD) (Posamenteir, Smith & Jay,

outline only contains the syllabus framework allows teachers to plan unit 2012).Incorporating UbD framework in

outcomes and some resources that can outlines much more effectively. Including three different stages into the unit

be used for teaching, learning and the big ideas, essential questions, outlines helps teacher to build enrichment

assessment. determining what students will know and units that will deepen student

students will be able to allows teachers to understanding (McTighe & Wiggins,

further scaffold lessons effectively. 2012).

AREA OF IMPROVEMENT 2 SUGGESTED ALTERATION 2 RESEARCH AND THEORY TO

SUPPORT ALTERATION 2

The Unit outline lacks sequence of By outlining lessons week by week for Designing the unit outline in a sequential

learning that will hinder students ability to the whole unit allows teachers to scaffold manner allows students to develop

understand the abstract concepts in for student learning more effectively. For conceptual understanding in mathematics

mathematics and also hinders them in example, By incorporating the , Ubd (Morales, Bang & Andre, 2013).

achieving the desired outcomes. framework and 5e instructional model, Incorporating the 5e instructional model

into the unit outline assists in developing into lesson plans assists in building

specific lesson plans that will assist in effective teaching practices that focusses

developing the threshold concept in on inquiry based learning environment

mathematics and enable students to and thereby deepen students conceptual

achieve the desired results . understanding (Ascli, Yacli & Turgut,

2011).

4

AREA OF IMPROVEMENT 3 SUGGESTED ALTERATION 3 RESEARCH AND THEORY TO

SUPPORT ALTERATION 3

The unit outline mentions learning Including a wide variety of tasks in the Traditional teaching methods of

activities very vaguely. It only gives a hint teaching program like investigation tasks, mathematics results in rote learning and

about the worksheets in the folder or hands on experience tasks, would give there by students fail to develop

using geoboards or geogebra chance for students to develop their conceptual understanding (Katz, 2014).

applications and it wouldnt give much conceptual understanding, problem Including wide variety of task enables for

scope for teachers to understand the solving skills and critical thinking skills. an inquiry based learning environment

necessary scaffolding required for Furthermore, enabling ICT based tasks where students can question, investigate

students to develop mathematical like quizzes or using many interactive and there by develop deep understanding

concepts effectively or even to measure applets for geometry enhances student of the concepts (Katz, 2014).

students outcomes effectively. engagement and motivation and there by Furthermore, it sets a stage for student

Furthermore, the unit outline gives an achieve desired outcomes. cantered learning where students can

emphasis that teachers are following develop meaningful learning to enhance

more traditional style of teaching by academic success (Spooner, 2015).

giving worksheets from a folder

AREA OF IMPROVEMENT 4 SUGGESTED ALTERATION 4 RESEARCH AND THEORY TO

SUPPORT ALTERATION 4

The unit outline lack emphasis on Inclusion of multimodal presentations Effective teaching practices includes

differentiated learning. There is no through technology or lessons caters for diversified instructions for student

evidence of how the learning is students with diverse learning needs. differences in the classroom

differentiated or how the activities or Including collaborative strategies like (Posamentier, Smith & Jay, 2012). In

instructions mentioned in the unit outline Think-Pair-Share allows students of addition, grouping children into

are differentiated. different abilities to learn from each other heterogeneous groups will assists

and in developing personal and social students in transferring their knowledge

capabilities. Furthermore, changes to the and making generalisations on their own

worksheets are suggested. For example, (Gillies, 2015).

the questions or problems in the

worksheet should be carefully designed

in such a way that all abilities of students

can be challenged.

5

AREA OF IMPROVEMENT 5 SUGGESTED ALTERATION 5 RESEARCH AND THEORY TO

SUPPORT ALTERATION 5

The original unit outline or scope and Inclusion of wide variety of assessment Determining appropriate Assessment

sequence does not specify much about tasks in the unit outline is suggested. For evidence is critical stage while planning

assessment activities. There is no example, to assess the prior knowledge the teaching and learning activities

evidence of how the teachers are going of students at the beginning of the Including appropriate assessment forms

to conduct formative or summative lesson, like concept maps or quizzes or during the planning process helps the

assessments. class discussion can be included. educators to assess their students

Investigation tasks, projects, case studies understandings (McTighe & Wiggins,

or Ict enabled interactive software could 2012). Including visual thinking routines

help assessing students learning as they like concept map acts a good diagnostic

go. Summative assessments can added tool for assessing students prior

at the of the topics . knowledge (Ritchart & Perkins,2008).

AREA OF IMPROVEMENT 6 SUGGESTED ALTERATION 6 RESEARCH AND THEORY TO

SUPPORT ALTERATION 6

The unit outline doesnt focus on general Identifying the key terminology that Vocabulary understanding is important in

capabilities, like literacy in mathematics. students have to be aware in every unit all content areas including mathematics.

of mathematics is suggested. In addition Understanding subject specific

to this teacher should emphasis the terminology in mathematics enhances

meaning of key vocabulary and focus on mathematics proficiency in students

including some literacy activities like (Katz, 2014). To develop meaningful

closed passages, crossword, puzzles to vocabulary a combined approach of

make sure students understand the key explicit teaching and meaningful context

vocabulary for working mathematically. should be followed (Monroe & Omre,

To further enhance literacy skills, 2012). Explicit vocabulary instruction

teachers can design activities where allows students to understand the

students have to write reports or importance of the new word and allows

justifications. them to connect with their prior

knowledge and use it next time more

meaningfully (Ricommi, Smith, Huges &

Fries, 2015).

6

Reconstructed Scope and Sequence (Stage 5.1)

Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 Week 9 Week 10

Units Algebraic Techniques Indices , Numbers of any Magnitude

Decimals and Percentages

MA4-4NA, MA4-5NA

Outcomes MA4-1,2,3WM MA4-17MG, MA4-1,2,3WM

MA4-1,2,3WM

Percentage, Denominator, Pronumeral, Constant, Variable, Product of prime, numbers, squared, cubed,

STAGE 5.1

Numerator, Integer, positive sum , difference, product, indices, power, base , Indices.

number, Negative number, quotient, Equivalent, Algebraic

Key Absolute Value, Ordered Pair, expressions

Terminology Coordinate plane, Origin,

Depreciation, Improper fraction,

mixed fraction, whole, tenth,

hundredth, thousandth, rounding

TERM 1

Assessment Diagnostic test at the beginning Diagnostic test at the beginning Diagnostic Test at the beginning of the

of the lessons which tests the of the lesson to check their prior unit.

basic numerical skills of the knowledge on the unit. Topic Test at the end of the unit.

units.

Practical Task: Students will Practical Task: Petes paving

design a virtual park using an Task that assess algebraic skills.

online website that would test Targeted skills: Problem solving,

their knowledge on concepts of critical thinking

integers, fractions, decimals and

percentages.

7

Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 Week 9 Week 10

Units Trigonometry

Geometrical Figures Inequations

MA4-4NA, MA4-5NA

MA4-10NA, MA4- MA5.1-10MG,MA5.1-

Outcomes MA4-1,2,3WM

1,2,3WM 1,2,3WM

Triangle, Linear equations, Adjacent,

STAGE 5.1

Acute, Right angle, equations, variables, Opposite, exact

Key equilateral, scalene, unknown, constant, answer, approximate

Terminology Isosceles, bisect, substitution, non- answer, horizontal,

diagonal, vertex, integer solutions vertical, reference

angle, symmetry angle,

NAPLAN Revision Half Early Exams

TERM 2

beginning of the the beginning of the the beginning of the

lesson. Students can lesson lesson, can be a

draw a mind map of QUIZ

the concepts they Topic Test at the

know about end of the lesson. Topic Test at the

classification of end of the lesson.

triangles and

quadrilaterals.

Hands on activity: To

investigate the

properties of

quadrilaterals.

8

Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 Week 9 Week 10

Units Financial Mathematics

Volume of prisms Single Variable Data Analysis

Outcomes MA5.1-4NA,MA4-6NA,MA5.1,2,3WM

MA4-12MG 1,2,3WM

STAGE 5.1

Area, Surface Area, Volume, Stem and leaf plots, histograms, Interest, compound interest, principal,

Depth, height, base, perimeter, bi-modal, symmetric, skewed, dividend, per annum, simple interest, rate,

Key

perpendicular height, parallel negatively skewed, dot plots, compounded annually, loan, debt

Terminology

sides, square meters, square distribution, data, parallel dot

centimetres plots

TERM 3

Diagnostic test at the beginning Practical Task: Diagnostic Tasks to assess students

of the lessons which tests the Investigating real life scenarios existing knowledge through classes

basic numerical skills of the like rainfall data or sports data discussions.

units. and plotting steam and leaf plots Practical Task: Money smart teaching online

Assessment Practical Task: Students will , dot plots and histograms. interactive mobile phone plans .

design a virtual house plan using

an online website that would

assess their knowledge on

concepts of the unit. Problem

9

Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 Week 9 Week 10

Outcomes

MA4-1,2,3WM MA4-21SP,MA5.1-1,2,3WM

STAGE 5.1

convex polygon, similar figures, Complementary events, frequency, relative

Key equiangular, angle sum, interior frequency, cumulative frequency,

Terminology angle sum, exterior angle sum simulation, simple events, compound

events.

Revision Half -Yearly Exams

TERM 4

prior knowledge of the students knowledge of the students

properties of congruent figures device to produce a specified relative

Assessment by using dynamic geometry frequency. (Problem Solving)

software.

10

Concept Map

11

Reconstructed Unit Outline

YEAR: 9 DURATION: 2 weeks (3 x 60 minute lessons per week)

UNIT DESCRIPTION

Through this unit students learn to develop deductive reasoning, THE BIG IDEA

geometric skills and problem solving skills as the focus moves from The big idea of this unit is to extend students understanding of

relationships to properties of geometrical reasoning. Students also geometrical figures. Students should be able to classify the triangles

develops the understanding of how geometry is linked with and quadrilaterals by using dynamic software through investigation

measurement and how it is very important in work life. Overall, the tasks and overcome the misconceptions. Furthermore, enhancing

unit shows how geometry is common in everyday situations and can reasoning skills to do the geometric proofs and find the unknown

be seen in nature, sports astronomy, construction ,etc. angles of the given figure.

SYLLABUS OUTCOMES

MA4-1WM communicates and connects mathematical ideas using appropriate terminology, diagrams and symbols

MA4-2WM applies appropriate mathematical techniques to solve problems

MA4-3WM recognises and explains mathematical relationships using reasoning

MA4-17MG classifies, describes and uses the properties of triangles and quadrilaterals, and determines congruent triangles to find

unknown side lengths and angles

Critical Thinking, Reasoning, Problem Solving, Hands on Experience, Sustainability

Communication

Information and communication technology capability

Literacy

Numeracy

12

ENDURING UNDERSTANDING ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS

Students will understand: How can students investigate the properties of the triangles and

The classification of triangles and quadrilaterals according to quadrilaterals?

their side and angle properties. Why does some of the quadrilaterals have special properties?

Investigate the Properties of Quadrilaterals

How are geometrical figures linked to real life applications?

How to find the unknown sides and angles embedded in

diagrams by using the properties. What are the common misconceptions that student might face in

this unit of learning.

KNOWLEDGE SKILLS

Students will: Students will be able to:

Classify the triangles and quadrilaterals based on their number Recognise that a given triangle may belong to more than one

of sides and angle properties. class

Investigate the properties of quadrilaterals Sketch and label triangles from a worded or verbal description

Classify special properties on the basis of their properties. Use techniques such as paper folding or measurement or

Demonstrate the angle sum of the quadrilateral using the angle dynamic software to investigate the properties.

sum of the triangle. Sketch and label quadrilaterals from a worded or verbal

Demonstrate that the angle sum of triangle and quadrilaterals description

can be used to find unknown side of the figure. Describe a quadrilateral in sufficient detail for it to be sketched

Use the angle sum results of triangles and quadrilaterals to find

unknown angles and sides in embedded figures.

Key Terminology

Triangle, Quadrilateral, Obtuse, Acute, Right angle, equilateral, scalene, Isosceles, bisect, diagonal, vertex, angle, symmetry, exterior angle,

interior angle, convex quadrilateral, kite, line symmetry, non-convex quadrilateral, parallelogram, properties, reflection, mirror image,

trapezium, rhombus,

Resources

Teacher Resources

Geometers

http://lrrpublic.cli.det.nsw.edu.au/lrrSecure/Sites/Web/geometer/

13

Geogebra

https://www.geogebra.org/graphing

Interactive Whiteboard Activities

Virtual pin board

http://www.crickweb.co.uk/ks2numeracy-shape-and-weight.html#vpinboard4

Student Resources

Illuminations angle sum

http://illuminations.nctm.org/Activity.aspx?id=3546

ASSESSMENT (as, of, for learning)

PERFORMANCE TASK

Puzzle on classifying the properties of quadrilaterals

Practical Task: Several investigation tasks.

Concept map

Worksheets to find unknown angles or sides of a triangle and quadrilateral.

Projects

Evaluation:

14

LEARNING PLAN WEEK 1

Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3

Syllabus Classify triangles according to the sides Analysing the properties of triangles Demonstrate that the angle sum in

Outcome(s) and angles triangles is equal to 180 degrees.

Key Concepts Using multimodal presentation to Using different triangles to analyse the Using geogebra software application

explain the concept of classification of properties of Triangles. students explore the properties of

triangles. Written communication of concepts triangle

Written communication of concepts Written communication of concepts

Learning Using the 5e instructional model Using the 5e instructional model . Using the 5e instructional model

Experiences Engage Engage Engage

Introduce the big idea of this topic Starter Activity: Students complete a Starter Activity: Students complete a

Brainstorm with class the purpose and worksheet where they can classify the worksheet which contains a word bank

need for geometry in real life. By figures. and students have to choose a word

asking open ended questions. Discuss the answers to the solutions that best describes the definition.

Class discussion Continue posing and lead the class to the lessons Discuss the starter activity and lead

more questions about what they know agenda. into the lesson agenda.

about Triangles. For example what is a Explain Class Discussion Brainstorm the

triangle? Class Discussion- discuss some of the class about how you can find the angle

what are the different types of triangles properties that they know about each sum of the triangles with the

they know? triangle. Give some examples. knowledge that they know.

Explain: Explore Explain

Introduce the different types of triangles Investigation Task sheet: handover the Scaffolding: Teacher can give hint

and explain what are they? task sheet with embedded figures in it about that all angles are equal in an

Watch video: and ask students to come up with as equilateral triangle which can lead to

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mL many properties as they can come up students thinking.

eNaZcy-hE with and write them up on their sheets. Explore

Introduce the topic of classification of They can use protractors and rulers to Investigate: Use geogebra an

triangles and pose them what does the measure the figures and label the application software and draw

word classification means? figures. Students work in pair sketching of different triangles and find

Explicit instructions: give examples of Note: The worksheets can be scaffolded to out what can be the sum of the angles

how classification looks in different tell students what they can measure by in a given triangle and verify whether

context so student get idea giving hints.

15

Explore: the sum of angles in all triangles is the

Hands on activity (Think/pair/share) Elaborate and Evaluate same.

Investigate the information they already Report: From each group students Elaborate

know about the triangles and inform can come up and write the Report: Students justify their answers

students to classify. They can use geo properties for each figure on smart in written report.

boards or sketch the figures in their board and gives their reason. Evaluate

notebooks to classify. Class Discussion- summarise the Class Discussion: Discuss the

Elaborate concepts to avoid any justification that students came up

Mind map: ask students to draw a mind misconceptions. with.

map of their classifications and give Conclude the lesson by summarising

justification. all the ideas that students have found

Evaluate to inform that angle sum of a triangle is

Class Discussion -about what students equal to 180 degrees.

came up with.

Conclude the class with summarising

of what they have learned in this

lesson.

Evidence of Contributing to class discussion Contribution to class learning Contribution to class discussion

Learning Drawing conclusions from Completion of scaffolded worksheet Completion of Interactive activity

investigations Geogebra

Mind maps Report

Written justification- literacy skills Sketches

Resources PowerPoint Presentation PowerPoint Presentations. PowerPoint Presentations.

Video clip: Whiteboard & Markers. Whiteboard & Markers.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mL Worksheets Computers

eNaZcy-hEGeoboards. Differentiation: scaffold the worksheets Geogebra application

Notebooks, enough to give hints to complete the Differentiation: scaffold the instructions

Rulers and Pencils. task. Pair up students in heterogeneous step by step for lower ability students

Smart Board and markers groups to get peer assisted learning. on how to use geogebra.

16

LEARNING PLAN WEEK 2

Syllabus Find the unknown angles and sides of a Classification of the quadrilaterals. Demonstrating the angle sum of the

Outcome(s) triangle quadrilateral

Key Concepts Using multimodal video to explain how . Identify, describe and classify Analyse the quadrilaterals to find the

to find an unknown angle or a side of a quadrilaterals in as many ways as angle sum.

triangle possible. Communicating ideas both written

Enables critical thinking and verbal

Higher order thinking and problem

solving

Experiences Engage Brainstorming about what Starter Activity - Worksheet to choose

Engage Brainstorming - How can we does quadrilateral mean and what the right word from the word bank to fit

find the unknown angle of a triangle? shapes come under quadrilaterals. the definition.

What property is helpful? Explain the students what does the Engage - Discuss the solutions:

Explain Show example of an term quadrilateral mean and how Brainstorm how to find the angle sum

equilateral triangle that can lead them different shapes are quadrilaterals of quadrilaterals?

into understanding which property they Engage Brainstorm what does some Explain - By giving an example of

can use. of the key terms mean like bisect, rectangle and square to say that sum

Explain the process of formulation to parallel, symmetry vertex and diagonal of the angle in quadrilateral is

calculate and find the unknown angle. mean. 360degrees.

Elaborate Students can work through Explain The key vocabulary to Explore- Investigate how to find the

the worksheet to do some sample students and give examples. sum of angles where quadrilaterals do

problems. Explore- Hands on Task/Investigation: not have all four angles equal.

Engage: Brainstorm how can they Pass some different shapes for the Scaffolding: Can give a hint that they

find the unknown length of side of a students to analyse the shapes and can use angle sum of triangle.

triangle? come up with as many properties as Elaborate-Report: students show the

Explain Show example of an they can. proof for all different quadrilateral that

equilateral triangle that can lead them

17

into understanding which property they Explain-Class Discussion-Teacher angle sum is equal to 360 degrees and

can use. Give Examples. Classifies the properties and plays a justify them by drawing sketches.

Elaborate Students can work through video from mathantics for further Summarise the proof with the video of

the worksheet to do some sample understanding Mathantic

problems. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aE https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aE

Class Discussion: Teacher clarifies YTcq1n9z0 YTcq1n9z0

concepts for students learning Evaluate - students evaluate their work

in the task.

Evidence of Contributing to class discussion Contribution to class discussion Contribution to class discussion

Learning Completion of worksheet Investigation task Written proofs for the angle sum of

quadrilaterals

Multimodal video Whiteboard & Markers YTcq1n9z0

Worksheets Investigation Task Power point presentations

calculators Differentiation: scaffolding is provided

Differentiation: worksheets can be for students who need help in finding

designed with questions for all abilities. the properties

18

LEARNING PLAN WEEK 3

Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3

Syllabus Finding the unknown angles of a Classifying the quadrilaterals and triangle Evaluation of student understanding of all

Outcome(s) quadrilateral and finding their unknown sides and concepts.

angles values

Key Concepts Explain how to find the unknown angle Review of the whole unit Evaluating the concepts of the whole

in a quadrilateral by using multimodal Flipped classroom learning of the unit

video. whole unit. Communicating ideas both written

Make connections to previous and verbal

knowledge on how to find unknown

angles in a triangle.

Learning Example problems of how to find Students work on a mixed set of Assessment evaluate students

Experiences unknown angles just like in triangles. questions which is designed for the understanding by conducting a topic

discuss and combine their answers. entire unit to evaluate their test

Students work on their given worksheet understanding.

to finding the missing pronumeral in Flipped classroom learning students

each of the embedded figures demonstrate their whole understanding

of the unit by demonstrating in groups

in the form of concept map.

Learning Completion of worksheet problems Flipped classroom learning.

Resources PowerPoint Presentation Review Worksheets Assessment task

Multimodal video Whiteboard & Markers Whiteboard markers

Calculators Calculators Calculators

19

Reconstructed Assessment Task Stage 5.1

Properties of Geometrical Figures

Marks 25 marks

Date Conducted Term 2 : Week 3 Lesson 9

Outcomes addressed:

MA4-1WM communicates and connects mathematical ideas using appropriate terminology, diagrams and symbols

MA4-2WM applies appropriate mathematical techniques to solve problems

MA4-3WM recognises and explains mathematical relationships using reasoning

MA4-17MG classifies, describes and uses the properties of triangles and quadrilaterals, and determines congruent triangles to find

unknown side lengths and angles

Resources

Addition plain paper , stationary

Instructions

Students should show valid mathematical working in order to score marks.

20

Section 1: Multiple choice questions

3. A quadrilateral that has two pairs of consecutive congruent sides, but opposite sides are not congruent.

21

4. A quadrilateral whose opposite sides are both parallel and equal in length

22

Section 2:

Identifying the shape through its properties and draw them.

6. A quadrilateral with four sides that are equal and has all 90 degrees angles?

23

Section 3: Find the unknown angles of the following figures.

11.

12.

13.

70

40

24

14.

90 50

5

15.

Section 3:

16.List 2 real life applications where geometry can be used and describing how they are used?

25

Marking Criteria

Section 1 (5 marks) 1 mark for each right answer

Multiple choice questions

Identifying the shape through

its properties and sketching out

Section 3 (10 marks) I mark for each question

Finding the missing angles in

the embedded figures

Section 4 (4 marks) 1 mark for each example.

Listing 2 real life applications 1 mark for describing its use.

where they can use geometry

and describing the use.

Total marks Overall Outcome:

/25

26

Evaluation Report

The evaluation of the Stage 5 (Year 9) Maths unit Properties of Geometry has been identified with some areas of concern. It became

apparent that some significant modifications need to be made for the unit outline and for the scope and sequence for implementing

effective teaching practices that enhances students learning. Some of the areas which need to be modified are, the overall structure

of the unit outline, scope and sequence, learning sequence of the program, differentiated Learning, inquiry based learning, literacy

skills in mathematics and assessment. Modifications are supported through evidence based research and by following the backward

designing of the Understand by Design framework and are evident in the reconstructed unit outline and reconstructed scope and

sequence.

The overall structure of the unit outline and scope and sequence

Firstly, the original Properties of geometrical figures unit outline of 2016 currently lacks overall structure. The unit outline mapped

only the syllabus outcomes that have to be achieved for the unit. There is no evidence of the summary of the whole unit or what is

the big idea of the unit that the educators want students to learn by end of the unit. This is a great disadvantage for teachers and

students as it makes it harder to develop appropriate scaffolding for planning effective lessons that focus on student learning and in

developing deep conceptual understanding of the content (McTighe & Wiggins, 2012). The reconstructed unit outline followed the

backward designing of The UbD framework to scaffold better lessons and to give a clear understanding of the goals (McTighe &

Wiggins, 2012). The UbD frame work is a three stage process and first stage asks for clearly identifying the goals, the second stage

for designing an assessment that assess these goals and the third stage for identifying what learning activities are required. Therefore,

to improve the structure of the unit outline, Big ideas, and essential questions are added to clearly identify what the teachers want

students to learn by the end of the unit. Inclusion of big ideas into programs especially in mathematics would provide cohesive learning

27

opportunities for students and allows them to learn mathematical concepts in depth (Posamenteir, Smith & Jay, 2012). Furthermore,

it provides opportunities for students to make connections between concepts and for teachers in professional development

(Manglesdorf, 2013). Essential questions are base of the UbD framework, inclusion of these in teaching program will enable higher

order thinking in students and towards transferable ideas (McTighe & Wiggins, 2005).

Secondly, the original scope and sequence of year 9 includes the sequence of learning, and outcomes. However, the scope sequence

mapped the subject content for all three pathways 5.1, 5.2 and 5.3 in Stage 5 together with outcomes, which makes it harder for

teachers to understand. Each pathway of stage 5 syllabus has different learning sequences and different outcomes so it would be

beneficial for teachers in understanding the learning sequence if they are designed separately. Furthermore, the original scope and

sequence lacks the sequencing of assessments for the whole teaching program. It is a great disadvantage for educators as they

cannot plan effectively for the assessments and identify the goals (McTighe & Wiggins, 2012). A reconstructed scope and sequence

is designed specifically for Stage 5.1(Year 9) which outlines, the title, sequence, duration, outcomes and subject specific details by

following the advice of NSW educational standards (NESA, 2012a).

The original unit outline does not have any evidence of having learning sequences and thereby it affects the ability of teachers to

plan lessons effectively and scaffold learning. Inclusion of learning sequences in sequential manner would allow teachers to scaffold

the necessary content and thereby facilitate student learning (Morales et al., 2013). The reconstructed unit outline is developed to

provide a clear sequence by breaking down the program into week by week and then into lesson by lesson would assist students in

28

knowledge acquisition, evaluation and transfer (Jonassen & Land, 2012). Furthermore, sequencing the learning program will allow

teachers to differentiate the learning experiences and instructions for the students (McTighe & Wiggins, 2005).

Differentiated Learning

The teaching program has completely no evidence of how the teaching and learning is differentiated or what learning activities are

scaffolded for them. The unit outline gives a little hint of using worksheets from the folders or suggesting to use geogebra or geoboard

applications for geometry. This is particularly alarming because the year 9 class of students have diverse needs and it wouldnt give

much scope for teachers to develop the required scaffolding. Furthermore, the unit outline gives an emphasis that teachers are

following more traditional style of teaching by giving worksheets from a folder without much planning or differentiation. Development

of wide variety of learning tasks is crucial for student learning and, especially for this year 9 class, as there are students with diverse

needs in the classroom (Cavanagh & Prescott, 2014). The reconstructed teaching program includes a wide variety of learning

activities like investigation tasks , hands on experience tasks, projects and puzzles for developing a learning environment where

students can question, investigate and there by develop deep understanding of the concepts (Jonathan, 2014).Furthermore, it sets

a stage for student centred learning where students are motivated and engaged to develop meaningful learning and produce

successful outcomes (Spooner,2015).The reconstructed unit outline also includes multimodal presentations, to cater for different

learning styles in the classroom alongside with Think-pair-share strategies to build collaborative environments. Establishing

Collaborative learning environments is an inclusive approach where students learn to interact socially, learn from one another and

develop social and personal capabilities (Posamentier, Smith & Jay, 2012).

29

Inquiry Based Learning

The original unit outline is outlined with only syllabus content and has no evidence of enquiry based learning. Inquiry based learning

is a crucial tool for conceptual development in students. Through Inquiry based learning, students can develop critical thinking,

problem solving and reasoning skills in mathematics (Acisli, Yaclin & Turgust, 2011). Pedastle et al., (2015) states that inquiry based

learning is comprised of five stages, being orientation, conceptualisation, investigation, conclusion and lastly discussion. This aligns

with the 5e instructional model where the 5es stand for engagement, explanation, exploration, elaboration and evaluation.

Incorporating the 5e models in teaching programs allows students to adopt an inquiry based learning approaching and overcome the

threshold concepts in mathematics (Acisli, Yaclin & Turgust, 2011). Therefore, in the reconstructed unit outline, the 5e model is

implemented in the learning sequences, to scaffold effective lessons through which students can overcome misconceptions and

develop deep content knowledge.

Literacy in mathematics

The background knowledge of the school context informs that the school literacy skills are below average and this emphasizes the

importance of including literacy skills in the teaching program. But the original teaching program has no evidence of mentioning it

anywhere. It is crucial to teach literacy skills across all curriculum areas and especially in mathematics. Understanding subject specific

terminology in mathematics enhances mathematics proficiency in students (Monroe & Omre, 2012). To develop meaningful

vocabulary a combined approach of explicit teaching and meaningful context should be followed (Monroe & Omre, 2010). Explicit

vocabulary instruction allows students to understand the importance of the new word and allows them to connect with their prior

knowledge and use it next time more meaningfully (Ricommi, Smith, Huges & Fries, 2015). The reconstructed unit outline and scope

30

and sequence includes the key terminology that students have to be aware in every unit of mathematics. In addition, some literacy

activities like closed passages, crosswords, puzzles, reports and justifications are scaffolded for students learning in the learning

sequences to make sure students understand the key vocabulary and develop literacy skills.

The original unit outline lacks the evidence of formative assessment or summative assessment. Developing effective assessments

tasks that are coherent, comprehensive and continuous is central for effective teaching practices (Treagust, 2012). Assessment is a

process of collecting evidence of students learning through which the effectiveness of teachers instruction is known and student

outcomes are measured (Cavanagh & Prescott, 2014). Furthermore, the assessment process assists in improving the teachers

pedagogical practice when evaluation and reflection takes place (Cavanagh & Prescott, 2014). Assessments can be of many forms,

they can be formal, informal or summative. The reconstructed unit outline includes informal and formal assessments. Informal

assessments are conducted throughout the lessons by asking effective questions, through concept maps, quiz, investigation tasks.

Concept maps and questioning is designed in the unit outline as they can be great tools for measuring the prior knowledge of students

(Ritchart & Perkins, 2008). Assessing prior knowledge of students is crucial as it allows teachers to understand what the student

already knows within the unit including the misconception and make adjustments to the teaching content accordingly or even to

understand the level of differentiation needed (McTighe & Wiggins, 2012). The reconstructed unit also includes topic test at the end

of the unit as a summative assessment to gather evidence for reporting purposes.

Overall, the evaluation of the unit outline and scope and sequence has suggested some significant changes across different areas.

The main reason behind this evaluation is to encourage teachers in building effective teaching practice that can uplift students

literacy, numeracy skills, and to develop deep conceptual knowledge in mathematics.

31

References

Acisli, Yalcin, & Turgut. (2011). Effects of the 5E learning model on students academic achievements in movement and force

issues. Procedia - Social and Behavioural Sciences, 15, 2459-2462 DOI: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.04.128

Board of Studies New South Wales. (2012). Science K-10 (incorporating science and technology k-6) syllabus. Retrieved from

http://syllabus.nesa.nsw.edu.au/download/

Cavanagh, M., & Prescott, A, E. (2014). Your professional experience handbook: A guide for preservice teachers.

Gillies, R. M. (2015). Collaborative Learning. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc. Retrieved from

http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/uwsau/detail.action?docID=2130694

Jonassesn, D., & Land, S. (Eds.). (2012). Theoretical foundations of learning environments.

Katz, J. (2014). Developing mathematical thinking: A guide to rethinking the mathematics classroom.

32

Mangelsdorf, N., (2013). Understanding by Design. TLN Journal, 20(1), 38-39. Retrieved from

http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=302937402730691;res=IELHSS

McTighe, J., & Wiggins, G. (2005). Understanding by Design, Expanded 2nd Edition. ASCD. Retrieved from

http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/uwsau/detail.action?docID=280441

McTighe, J., & Wiggins, G. (2012). Understanding by design framework. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Retrieved from

http://www.ascd.org/ASCD/pf/siteASCD/publications/UbD_WhitePaper0312.pdf

Morales, T.M., Bang, E., & Andre, T. (2013). A one-year case study: Understanding the rich potential of project based Learning in

a virtual reality class for high school students. Journal of science education and Technology, 22(5), 791-806.

Monroe, E., & Orme, M. (2012). Developing Mathematical Vocabulary. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children

NSW Education Standards Authority. (2012a). Advice on scope and sequence. Retrieved from

http://syllabus.nesa.nsw.edu.au/support-materials/scope-and-sequence-plans/

33

Pedaste, M., Maetos, M., Siiman, L., De Jong, T., VanRissen, S. A., Kamp, E. T., & Tsourlidaki, E. (2015). Phases of inquiry-based

learning: Definitions and the inquiry cycle. Educational research review, 14, 47-61

Posamentier, A., Smith, Beverly S, & Stepelman, Jay. (2012). Teaching secondary mathematics: Techniques and enrichment

Riccomini, P., Smith, G., Hughes, E., & Fries, K. (2015). The Language of Mathematics: The Importance of Teaching and Learning

Ritchhart, R., & Perkins, D. (2008). Making Thinking Visible. Educational Leadership 65 (5), 57-61.

Spooner, E. (2015). Interactive Student Centered Learning. Blue Ridge Summit: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers

Treagust, D.F. (2012, October). Diagnostic assessment in science as a means to improving teaching, learning and retention. In

proceedings of the Australian Conference on Science and Mathematics Education (formerly UniServe Science Conference).

34

Appendices of Original Documents

35

Original Scope and Sequence

Year 9 Mathematics Scope and Sequence

TERM 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Decimals and Percentages Algebraic Techniques MA5.3-6NA, MA5.2-7NA

MA4-4NA, MA4-5NA MA5.3-5NA,MA5.2-6NA, MA5.3-1WM Numbers of any Magnitude

STAGE

5.3

MA4-1,2,3WM MA5.1 9MG, MA5.3-1,2,3WM

Decimals and Percentages MA5.2-6NA,MA5.2-1,2,3WM Magnitude

STAGE

5.2 MA4-4NA, MA4-5NA MA5.1-9MG,MA5.1-1,2,3WM

MA4-1,2,3WM

Decimals and Percentages MA4-1,2,3WM Magnitude

MA4-4NA, MA4-5NA MA4-17MG, MA4-1,2,3WM

STAGE MA4-1,2,3WM

5.1

36

TERM 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Revision Half early exams Equations and

Properties of Geometrical Figures Inequations Trigonometry

MA5.1-11MG,

MA5.3-1,2,3WM, MA5.2-14MG, MA5.3-7NA, MA5.3-15MG,

STAGE MA5.3-16MG MA5.2-8NA, MA5.2-13MG,

5.3 MA5.3-1,2,3WM MA5.1-10MG,

MA5.3-1,2,3, WM

MA5.1-11MG, Equations and Trigonometry

STAGE MA5.3-1,2,3WM, MA5.2-14MG, Inequations MA5.2-13MG,

5.2 MA5.3-16MG MA5.2-8NA, MA5.1-10MG,

MA4-10NA MA5.2-1,2WM

MA5.2-1,2,3 WM

Properties of geometrical figures Revision Half Yearly Exams

MA4-1WM, MA4-2WM, Equations and Trigonometry

STAGE MA4-3WM, MA4-17MG Inequations MA5.1-10MG,

5.1 MA4-10NA, MA5.1-1,2,3WM

MA4-1,2,3WM

37

TERM 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

STAGE Area & Surface area and Volume of MA5.3-18SP,MA5.2-15sp- MA5.1-4NA,MA4-6NA,MA5.3,2,3WM

5.3 Prisms ,MA5.3-1,2,3WM

MA5.3-14MG, MA5.2-12MG

Area and Surface area & Volume of Single Variable Data Analysis Financial Mathematics

STAGE prisms MA5.2-15SP, ,MA5.2-1,2,3WM, MA5.1-4NA,MA4-6NA,MA5.2-

5.2 MA5.1-8MG, MA4-14MG MA5.1-12SP 1,2,3WM

MA4-12MG

Area and Surface area & Volume of Single Variable Data Analysis Financial Mathematics

prisms MA5.1-12SP,MA4-20SP,MA5.1- MA5.1-4NA,MA4-6NA,MA5.1,2,3WM

MA5.1-8MG, MA4-14MG 1,2,3WM

STAGE MA4-12MG

5.1

38

TERM 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Revision YEARLY EXAMS

MA5.3-16MG,MA5.2- MA5.2-17SP, MA5.1-13SP, MA5.3-

STAGE 5.3 14MG,MA5.1-11MG,MA5.3- 1,2,3WM

1,2,3WM

Congruency and Similarity MA5.2-17SP, MA5.1-13SP, MA5.2-

STAGE 5.2 MA5.2-14MG, MA5.1- 1,2,3WM

11MG,MA5.2-1,2,3WM

MA4-4NA, MA4-5NA MA5.1-13SP, MA4-21SP, MA5.1-

MA4-1,2,3WM 1,2,3WM

STAGE

5.1

39

Original Unit Outline

Summary Duration

Stage 5.1 Review stage 4 content, Classify and determine Term 2

properties of triangles and quadrilaterals. Find unknown sides 3 weeks

and angles. Details: 9 periods

Stage 5.2- Congruency proofs, Properties of triangles and

quadrilaterals, Polygon angles

Stage 5.2- Prove properties of triangles and quads using

congruent triangles, Numeric and Non numeric exercises

Stage 5.1

Ongoing assessment for learning and as learning incorporated

MA4-1WM communicates and connects mathematical ideas into lessons.

using appropriate terminology, diagrams and symbols An assessment of learning may be done at the end of the topic

MA4-2WM applies appropriate mathematical techniques to with the classroom teacher

solve problems

MA4-3WM recognises and explains mathematical

relationships using reasoning

MA4-17MG classifies, describes and uses the properties of

triangles and quadrilaterals, and determines congruent

triangles to find unknown side lengths and angles

40

Stage 5.2

Assessment

MA5.1-11MG describes and applies the properties of similar

figures and scale drawings Ongoing assessment for learning and as learning incorporated

MA5.2-1WM selects appropriate notations and conventions into lessons.

to communicate mathematical ideas and solutions An assessment of learning may be done at the end of the topic

with the classroom teacher

MA5.2-2WM interprets mathematical or real-life situations,

systematically applying appropriate strategies to solve

problems

MA5.2-3WM constructs arguments to prove and justify

results

MA5.2-14MG calculates the angle sum of any polygon and

uses minimum conditions to prove triangles are congruent or

similar

Stage 5.3

MA5.3-1WM uses and interprets formal definitions and

generalisations when explaining solutions and/or conjectures Assessment

MA5.3-2WM generalizes mathematical ideas and techniques

Ongoing assessment for learning and as learning incorporated

to analyze and solve problems efficiently

into lessons.

MA5.3-3WM uses deductive reasoning in presenting An assessment of learning may be done at the end of the topic

arguments and formal proofs with the classroom teacher

MA5.3-16MG proves triangles are similar, and uses formal

geometric reasoning to establish properties of triangles and

quadrilaterals

41

Content Teaching, Learning and Assessment

Stage 5.1- Properties of Geometrical Figures 1

Students: Dynamic geometry software can be used in this topic such as

Classify triangles according to their side and angle properties geogebra.

and describe quadrilaterals (ACMMG165) The internet is full of animations and applets that demonstrate

the properties of triangles, quadrilaterals and polygons.

use the angle sum of a triangle to establish that the angle

The resource folder contains worksheets, PowerPoints and

sum of a quadrilateral is 360

geogebra activities

use the angle sum results for triangles and quadrilaterals

to determine unknown angles in triangles and

quadrilaterals, giving reasons

Use the properties of special triangles and quadrilaterals to

solve simple numerical problems with appropriate reasoning

find unknown sides and angles embedded in diagrams,

using the properties of special triangles and quadrilaterals,

giving reasons

recognise special types of triangles and quadrilaterals

embedded in composite figures or drawn in various orientations

(Reasoning)

Stage 5.2 - Properties of Geometrical Figures

apply geometrical facts, properties and relationships to

find the sizes of unknown sides and angles of plane

shapes in diagrams, providing appropriate reasons

recognise that more than one method of solution is

possible (Reasoning)

42

compare different solutions for the same problem to

determine the most efficient method (Communicating,

Reasoning)

apply simple deductive reasoning to prove results for

plane shapes

define the exterior angle of a convex polygon

establish that the sum of the exterior angles of any convex

polygon is 360

use dynamic geometry software to investigate the

constancy of the exterior angle sum of polygons for

different polygons (Reasoning)

apply the result for the interior angle sum of a triangle to

find, by dissection, the interior angle sum of polygons with

more than three sides

use dynamic geometry software to investigate the

interior angle sum of different polygons (Reasoning)

polygon with n sides, eg

(Communicating)

apply interior and exterior angle sum results for polygons to find

the sizes of unknown angles

43

Formulate proofs involving congruent triangles and angle

properties (ACMMG243)

construct and write geometrical arguments to prove a

general geometrical result, giving reasons at each step of

the argument, eg prove that the angle in a semicircle is a

right angle

of congruence and similarity, to proofs and numerical exercises

involving plane shapes (ACMMG244)

write formal proofs of the similarity of triangles in the

standard four- or five-line format, preserving the matching

order of vertices, identifying the scale factor when

appropriate, and drawing relevant conclusions from this

similarity

prove that the interval joining the midpoints of two sides

of a triangle is parallel to the third side and half its

length, and the converse (Communicating, Problem

Solving)

establish and apply for two similar figures with

similarity ratio the following:

solve problems involving similarity ratios and areas and

volumes (Problem Solving)

state a definition as the minimum amount of information

needed to identify a particular figure

44

prove properties of isosceles and equilateral triangles and

special quadrilaterals from the formal definitions of the

shapes:

use dynamic geometry software to investigate and test

conjectures about geometrical figures (Problem Solving,

Reasoning)

prove and apply theorems and properties related to

triangles and quadrilaterals:

the diagonals of a rectangle are equal

recognise that any result proven for a parallelogram

would also hold for a rectangle (Reasoning)

give reasons why a square is a rhombus, but a rhombus

is not necessarily a square (Communicating, Reasoning)

relationships between different quadrilaterals

(Communicating)

prove and apply tests for quadrilaterals:

solve numerical and non-numerical problems in Euclidean

geometry based on known assumptions and proven

theorems

state possible converses of known results, and examine

whether or not they are also true (Communicating,

Reasoning)

Evaluation

45

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