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Well Inflow Performance

SISTEMAS DE PRODUCCION

INGENIERIA DE PETROLEOS

ESCUELA POLITECNICA NACIONAL


Well Performance

Two basic factors:


Inflow Performance - the capacity of a reservoir to pass
fluids against down-hole conditions
Vertical or Outflow Performance - the ability of the produced
fluids to flow through the well conduit to surface

The two factors are closely linked, because the


final condition of the inflow performance, is the
starting point of the vertical flow performance.

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Well Inflow Performance

Types of flow models


Radial flow
Productivity Index (PI)
Straight-line IPR
Vogels IPR
Fetkovich
Jones
Horizontal wells (Joshi, Babu)
The Skin Effect concept
Determination of Skin

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Flow Models for Stabilized Well Inflow

LINEAR

RADIAL

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Pressure drawdown in the Wellbore
Well re
rw
Pe


P
P
PDD
Pwf

Pwf

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Darcys Law

L
Area A

q q

p1 p p2
k dp kAdp
v q vA
dx dx
= fluid viscosity
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The Radial Diffusivity Equation

1 k p p
( r r ) c
r r t
pressure : radius : time

Homogeneous reservoir
Isotropic Permeability
Radial Flow

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Radial Flow

re
r
dr
h

pe pwf pe

h
rw re
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Flow Regimes
There are three flow regimes:
Steady-state flow
Unsteady-state flow
Pseudosteady-state flow
Steady-State Flow
The flow regime is identified as a steady-state flow if the
pressure at every location in the reservoir remains
constant, i.e., does not change with time.
Mathematically, this condition is expressed as:
Flow Regimes
The above equation states that the rate of change of pressure p with
respect to time t at any location i is zero. In reservoirs, the steady-
state flow condition can only occur when the reservoir is completely
recharged and supported by strong aquifer or pressure maintenance
operations.
Unsteady-State Flow
The unsteady-state flow (frequently called transient flow) is defined as
the fluid flowing condition at which the rate of change of pressure with
respect to time at any position in the reservoir is not zero or constant.
This definition suggests that the pressure derivative with respect to time
is essentially a function of both position i and time t, thus
Pseudosteady-State Flow

When the pressure at different locations in the reservoir is declining


linearly as a function of time, i.e., at a constant declining rate, the flowing
condition is characterized as the pseudosteady-state flow.
Mathematically, this definition states that the rate of change of pressure
with respect to time at every position is constant, or

It should be pointed out that the pseudosteady-state flow is commonly


referred to as semisteady-state flow and quasisteady-state flow.
Figure shows a schematic comparison of the pressure declines as a
function of time of the three flow regimes.
Different Flow Regimes
Different Flow Regimes

Transient flow Pseudo steady flow Steady flow

P
tpss

time

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Steady-State Flow (SS)

Pressure wave has reached the reservoir outer boundary, the outer
boundary pressure is constant, and the rate of fluid flow into the reservoir
at the outer boundary is equal to the well production rate. dp/dt = 0.
Pseudo-Steday-State Flow (PSS)

Pressure wave has reached the reservoir outer boundary,


there is no flow across the outer boundary. dp/dt = const.
Transient Flow

Pressure wave has not reached the reservoir boundary, reservoir


acts like infinite. dp/dt varies with r, t.
Solution for the Diffusivity Equation

Constant terminal rate solution (inner boundary)


(Well testing analysis)
Outer boundary
Infinite reservoir (Transient flow)
Bounded cylindrical reservoir
no-flow outer boundary (PSS)
constant-pressure outer boundary (SS)

Well treatment
Line source well (rw 0)
Cylindrical source well (rw 0)
Constant terminal pressure solution (inner boundary)
(Aquifer influx model)
Reservoir Well Flow Regimes
3 common conditions of flow

Transient state ( or the infinite acting radial flow period)


No outer boundary
Reservoir appear infinite acting
Pressure decline with time, changes
Solution in field units (w/zero Skin)

162.6qo Bo o
pi pwf {log t log c r 2 3.23}
k0

ko h o t w

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Reservoir Well Flow Regimes
3 common conditions of flow

Semi-steady State flow


No flow across outer boundary
Reservoir is finite
Pressure decline with time is constant
p
const, for rw r re
t

Solution in field units (w/zero skin)


141.2qo Bo o re 1
pe pwf [ln( ) ]
ko h rw 2
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Reservoir Well Flow Regimes
3 common conditions of flow

Steady State flow


flow in = flow out (at outer boundary)
reservoir is finite
constant pressure at all points in the drainage volume
p
0, for rw r re
t
solution in field units (w/zero skin)
141.2qo Bo o re
pe pwf ln( )
ko h rw
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Summary of Stabilized Inflow Equations

Semi-Steady State Steady State

General 141.2qB 141.2qB


p pwf
2
relationship p pwf {ln rr r 2 } {ln rr }
between
kh w 2re kh w

p and r

141.2qB 141.2qB r
Expressed in pe pwf
r
{ln re 12} pe pwf {ln re }
terms of: kh w kh w
p = pe at r = re

Expressed in 141.2qB re 3 p p 141.2qB re 1


terms of pR pwf {ln r 4} R wf {ln r
2}
kh w kh w
Average reservoir
pressure

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Darcys law for noncircular drainage area(1 )

(PSEUDO STEADY STATE FLOW)

k o h ( pr pwf )
qo
141 . 2 o B o ( ln(0,472X) s )
X is obtained from next slide for different shapes
and well positions in a drainage area.

(1) After Odeh,A.S.


Factor (X) for different shapes and positions in a
drainage area
SYSTEM X SYSTEM X
re/rw 1
0.966A1/2
rw
2
0.571A1/2 1.440A1/2
rw 1
rw
0.565A1/2 2

rw 2.206A1/2
1
rw
0.604A1/2 2

rw 1.925A1/2
1
rw
0.678A1/2 4
1/3 rw
1 6.590A1/2
1
0.668A1/2 1
rw
2 rw 4

1 1.368A1/2 9.360A1/2
1
4
rw rw
1
2.066A1/2 4

5 rw
0.610A1/2
0.884A1/2
60o rw
rw
1.485A1/2
r
Factor (X) for different shapes and positions in a
drainage area (cont.)

X
SYSTEM
1.724A1/2
rw

1.794A1/2
1
rw
2

4.072A1/2
1
rw
2

9.523A1/2
1
rw
2

10.135A1/2
rw
PRODUCTIVITY INDEX CONCEPT
BOTTOM HOLE FLOWING PRESSURE, Pwf

Pr
Q
Pwf = Pr - Q/J J=
Pr - Pwf
Slope = - 1/J
Intercepts: Pr y Qmax
0
Pr Pwf: DRAW-DOWN
0
FLOW RATE, Q Qmax
Straight-Line IPR Relationship

Valid for single phase liquid flow


pR (k, , Bo = constant)
p wf
p Pwf > Pb

pwf1

q omax

q1 q
qo1 qo1 qo max qo1 qo2
PI J tan
p p pwf 1 p pwf 2 pwf 1
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The Productivity Index (PI)

qo
pwf pR
J

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EXERCISE
APPLICATION OF PRODUCTIVITY INDEX CALCULATIONS

A well that is producing from a reservoir having an average pressure of 2085 psig
produced at a rate of 282 STB/D when bottomhole flowing pressure was 1765 psig.

Calculate:

1. The productivity index J.


2. The producing rate if Pwf is decreased to 1485 psig.
3. The bottomhole flowing pressure necessary to increase the producing rate
up to 400 STB/D.
4. The inflow rate if Pwf is reduced to zero (AOF: Absolute Open Flow Potential
or qomax).
Pr=2085
(1) J=Q/(Pr-Pwf)
1765
(2) Q=Jx(Pr-Pwf)

(3) Pwf = Pr- Q/J


Pwf

0
282
0
Q Qmax
Inflow Performance Relationship (Pwf < Pb)

1. Gas saturation increase (decrease in Kro)


2. Oil viscosity increase
3. Oil formation volume factor
4. Formation damage or stimulation around
the wellbore. (changes in the skin factor, S)
5. Turbulence increase
Inflow Performance Relationship (Pwf < Pb)

pR
Straight Line IPR
Pressure

pb

Curved IPR

Flow Rate
Two-phase flow

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Different Methods when Pb > Pwf

the Vogel method;


the Wiggins method;
the Standing method;
the Fetkovich method;
the Klins and Clark method.
Vogels Method for Two-phase flow

qo pwf pwf 2
1 0. 2( ) 0. 8( )
qo(max) pR pR

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Vogels dimensionless IPR

1.00

0.80

p
wf 0.60
p
R
0.40

0.20

0
0 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00

q 1. 8 q
L
L

q L ( ) J p
max R

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EXERCISE
APPLICATION OF VOGEL METHOD
SATURATED RESERVOIR, ZERO SKIN

(Pr<Pb)
A well is producing from a reservoir having an average reservoir pressure
of 2085 psig. A stabilized production test gave 282 STB/D when the flowing
bottomhole pressure is 1765 psig. The bubble point pressure is 2100 psig.

Using Vogels method calculate:

1. The producing rate if Pwf is reduced to zero (qomax or AOF)


2. The producing rate if Pwf is reduced to 1485 psi.
3. The flowing bottomhole pressure to increase the producing rate to 400 BN/D.
4. Construct the IPR.
qo Pwf Pwf 2 1) From the test calculate qomax using
the VOGEL eq.
= 1 0.2 ( ) - 0.8 ( )
2) Calculate qo for several pwfs using
qomax Pr Pr the VOGELeq.
Pwf 3) Solving eq. for Pwf/Pr, one can calculate Pwf
= (1.266 1.25qo/qomax)0.5 0.125 for any rate
Pr
solution
PREDICTING PRESENT TIME IPRS FOR OIL WELLS
VOGEL METHOD

Undersaturated Reservoirs (Pr > Pb)


q-qb
= 1 0.2( Pwf ) 0.8( Pwf )2
q=J (PrPwf) qmax- qb Pb Pb
Pr

qb=J(Pr Pb)
dq
Pb J=
dpwf
Pwf

1.8( qmax- qb)


J=
Pb
Constant J Vogel
00 qb qmax

FLOW RATE
FETKOVICH METHOD FOR IPR DETERMINATION

qo = C(Pr2 Pwf2) n

qo = producing rate,
Pr = average reservoir pressure,
Pwf = bottom hole flowing pressure,
C = flow coefficient ,and
n = exponent depending on well characteristics.

At least two tests are required to evaluate C and n.

A plot of Pr2 Pwf2 versus qo on log log scales will result in straight line
having a slope of 1/n and an intercept of qo=C for Pr2 Pwf2 = 1.
PROCEDURE FOR APPLICATION OF FETKOVICH METHOD

EXAMPLE
log104 - log103 1. Plot values of Pr2-Pwf2/103 versus q on log-log
slope = scales, using the data from the multirate test.
log4000 log150
2. Draw the best straight line through the points.
3. Calculate the slope of the straight line, by
calculating the change in flow rate for one cycle
in the vertical log scale.
4. Calculate n=1/slope.
5. Calculate C by substituting a known value of q
and Pwf in the Fetkovich equation.
150 4000 6. Generate the IPR curve by assuming values
of Pwf and calculating the flow rate from the
Fetkovich equation.
FLOW RATE, STB/D
Fetkovich Method - EXAMPLE 2

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Fetkovich Method - EXAMPLE 2

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Fetkovich Method - EXAMPLE 2

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Fetkovich Method - EXAMPLE 2

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Vogels Practical Application by BEGGS

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Vogels Practical Application by BEGGS

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Vogels Practical Application by BEGGS

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Example - Results

Datos
3500
Presin promedio Reservorio Pr 3.000 psi

Presin dinmica Pwf 2.500 psi


3000
Presin de burbuja Pb 2.130 psi
Caudal de lquido qo 250 bbl/d
2500

Clculos Pb

Presin, [psi]
2000
Indice de productividad J 0,50 bpd/psi
Caudal a Pb qb 435 bbl/d
1500
Caudal Mximo qmax 1.027 bbl/d

1000
Calcular caudal @ Pwf
Presin dinmica Pwf1 1.000 psi 500
Caudal @ Pwf1 867 bbl/d 867

0
0 500 1000 1500

caudal, q [bbl/d]

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Example for Pwf < Pb
Data from previous example

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Wiggins (1993) Method

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Wiggins (1993) Method

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Wiggins (1996) Method

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Wiggins (1996) Method

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The Klins-Clark Method

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The Klins-Clark Method

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Oil Well Performance

Computer-generated Inflow Performance Relationships


at various recovery percentage values for a solution
gas-drive reservoir
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Predicting Future IPRs

f f f

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Predicting Future IPRs

Fetkovich assumes no changes for n.

qo = C(Pr2 Pwf2) n
f f f

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Predicting Future IPRs

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Future IPR Prediction
Third Approximation Method - Fetkovich

Fetkovich assumes no changes for n.

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Future IPR Prediction

(1)

(2)

(3)

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Future IPR Prediction

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Future IPR - EXAMPLE

Draw IPR, Present and Future


Using Vogel and Standing

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EFFECT OF TURBULENCE
Jones, Blount and Glaze Method for IPR determination

Analyzes effects of turbulence or Non Darcy Flow on well performance

p r p wf
A B(qo )
qo
Coefficients:

r
141.2o * Bo * Ln 0.472* e S
rw
A
(ko *h)

2.310 14 * b * Bo * o VELOCITY COEFFICIENT


2
B
h2 *rw
POROSITY

: high velocity coefficient depending


on reservoir rock PERMEABILITY
Velocity Coefficient, b

1.88 10 10
b 1.47 0.53 Unconsolidated Sand
k

2.33 10 10
Consolidated Sand
b 1.201
k

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EFFECT OF TURBULENCE
Jones, Blount and Glaze Method for IPR determination

2.5

2.0
pr pwf
A B (qo )
pr pwf
qo

qo
1.5
B (slope)

Minimum two tests are required


1.0
A (intercept)

0.5 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
Qo, STB/day
EFFECT OF TURBULENCE
Jones, Blount and Glaze Method for IPR determination

A = A + BxAOF
AOF = Qo (Pwf = 0)
Jones, Blount and Glaze Method for IPR determination
INTERPRETATION OF VARIOUS WELL TESTS
Conclusions based on the plot

(1) if A is low -less than 0.05- no formation damage occurs in the well.
The degree of damage will increase with increasing values of A
(2) If the value of A/A is low -less than 2- little or not turbulence is
occurring in the well formation system
(3) If the values of A and A/A are low, the well has a good completion
(4)If the value of A is low and A/A is high (2-3), stimulation is not
recommended. The low productivity is caused by insufficient open
perforated area. Additional perforations would be recommended
(5) if the value of A is high and A/A is low, stimulation is recommended
Exercise

1.- Using the data from the four tests, find A, B and qo(max).
2.- Find the relationship A/A and made recommendations

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Solution

A = A + BxAOF
A = 2.45
A / A = 2.33

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Inflow Equations incorporating Skin

141.2qo Bo r
General (p, r ) relationship
p pwf (ln S )
koh rw
Semi-steady state flow
141.2q o Bo re 3
in terms of Average pR pwf (ln S )
reservoir pressure ko h rw 4

Steady state flow in 141.2q o Bo re 1


terms of Average p R pwf (ln S )
ko h rw 2
reservoir pressure

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The Skin effect (Hawkins thick Skin)

ra
S [kk 1]ln( r )
a e

rw
re

ra

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INFLOW PERFORMANCE IN HORIZONTAL WELLS

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APLICATION OF HORIZONTAL WELLS

EXPLOITATION OF THIN GAS AND OIL SANDS

REDUCE WATER OR GAS CONING

INTERCEPT NATURAL FRACTURES

IMPROVE HEAVY OIL RECOVERY (EG. SAGD)

Kv>>>Kh

INCREASE SWEEP EFFICIENCY IN SECONDARY OIL


RECOVERY PROJECTS

CONECT DISCONTINUOUS ZONES

DRILL GEOLOGICALLY OPTIMIZED WELLS

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METHODS TO DETETRMINE IPR IN HORIZONTAL WELLS

Mathematical Models

Borisov
Giger-Reiss-Jourdan
Joshi
Renard-Dupuy
Babu
Un,erical Simulations

Empirical Correlations

Bendakhlia y Aziz
Fetkovich
Cheng
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Drainage Area of a Horizontal Well
METHOD 1 (JOSHI)
A) Longitudinal View

a
kv
Assumption: The drainage h
area is represented by two kh
half circles in each end of L
the horizontal section
which radius is b
(equivalent to the radius of
a vertical well, rev ) plus a B) Plant View
rectangle with dimensions
Lx2b.

b L
2b

a
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Drainage Area of a Horizontal Well
METHOD 1 (JOSHI)

A: Drainage area, Acres


L: Length of Horizontal section, feet
b: half minor axe of an ellipse, feet

Plant View

b L
2b

A1 = b2/2 A2 = L (2b) A3 = b2/2


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Drainage Area of a Horizontal Well
METHOD 2 (JOSHI)

A: Drainage Area, Acres


L: Length of Horizontal section, feet
b: Half minor axe of an ellipse, feet
A: Half major axe of an ellipse, feet
b = rev = drainage radius of a vertical well, feet

Plant View

b
a b

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Drainage Area Comparison between both Methods

Both methods give different results for


the drainage area, therefore, Joshi
suggests to take an average of both
values.
(1) (2)

b
b L
2b a
L

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EQUVALENT DRAINAGE RADIUS FOR A HORIZONTAL WELL

A: Drainage Area, Acres


reh: Horizontal drainage radius, feet

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IPR in Horizontal wells
JOSHI

DRAINAGE PATTERN OF A
HORIZONTAL WELL AFTER JOSHI

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IPR in Horizontal wells
JOSHI

Assumptions: Steady Flow and Isotropic Reservoir ( ( )

Where

and

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IPR in Horizontal wells
JOSHI

To take into account the reservoir Anisotropy

where

and

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IPR in Horizontal wells
BABU-ODEH METHOD
Problem was analyzed in the same way as a vertical well with partial penetration,
assuming pseudosteady state flow.

0.00708 (Lx ) k y k z (o Bo )
Jhh
PI
( )
ln Ly h rw ln(CH ) 0.75 S R
CH Shape factor which depends on the
position of the well in the reservoir

SR Skin factor due to partial penetration

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IPR in Horizontal wells
BABU-ODEH METHOD

Correlation for CH calculation

Ly k z 1 y w y w
2

ln(CH ) 6.28
h k y 3 Ly Ly

o z w Ly k
ln sin180 0.5 ln z
1.088
h h k y

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Exercise

A horizontal well with 2000 feet of horizontal


section drains an estimated area of 120 Acres
The resevoir has the following data:

Calculate the oil production using Joshis


method

sol
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Formation damage in horizontal wells
(Economides)

k 1 4 aH,max aH,max
2

seq - 1 ln 2 1
ks (Iani 1) 3 rvw rvw

Iani

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IPR in Horizontal wells

Empirical Correlations

Bendakhlia y Aziz
Fetkovich
Cheng

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IPR in Horizontal wells
BENDAKHLIA Y AZIZ

q Pwf Pwf n
= 1V( ) - (1-V) ( )2
qomax Pr Pr

Three production tests are needed to calculate qomax, V and exponent n.

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IPR in Horizontal wells
FETKOVICH

qo = C(Pr2 Pwf2) n

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IPR in Horizontal wells
CHENG

(Pr<Pb)

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Performance Improvement Factor (PIF)

PIhor Lhor kv
PIF
PIvert Lvert kh
where:

PI Productivity Index
Lhor Net pay zone of horizontal section
Lvert Net pay zone of vertical section
Kv Vertical Permeability
Kh Horizontal Permeability

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