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SISTEMAS DE PRODUCCION

INGENIERIA DE PETROLEOS

Well Performance

Inflow Performance - the capacity of a reservoir to pass

fluids against down-hole conditions

Vertical or Outflow Performance - the ability of the produced

fluids to flow through the well conduit to surface

final condition of the inflow performance, is the

starting point of the vertical flow performance.

2

Well Inflow Performance

Radial flow

Productivity Index (PI)

Straight-line IPR

Vogels IPR

Fetkovich

Jones

Horizontal wells (Joshi, Babu)

The Skin Effect concept

Determination of Skin

3

Flow Models for Stabilized Well Inflow

LINEAR

RADIAL

4

Pressure drawdown in the Wellbore

Well re

rw

Pe

P

P

PDD

Pwf

Pwf

5

Darcys Law

L

Area A

q q

p1 p p2

k dp kAdp

v q vA

dx dx

= fluid viscosity

6

The Radial Diffusivity Equation

1 k p p

( r r ) c

r r t

pressure : radius : time

Homogeneous reservoir

Isotropic Permeability

Radial Flow

7

Radial Flow

re

r

dr

h

pe pwf pe

h

rw re

8

Flow Regimes

There are three flow regimes:

Steady-state flow

Unsteady-state flow

Pseudosteady-state flow

Steady-State Flow

The flow regime is identified as a steady-state flow if the

pressure at every location in the reservoir remains

constant, i.e., does not change with time.

Mathematically, this condition is expressed as:

Flow Regimes

The above equation states that the rate of change of pressure p with

respect to time t at any location i is zero. In reservoirs, the steady-

state flow condition can only occur when the reservoir is completely

recharged and supported by strong aquifer or pressure maintenance

operations.

Unsteady-State Flow

The unsteady-state flow (frequently called transient flow) is defined as

the fluid flowing condition at which the rate of change of pressure with

respect to time at any position in the reservoir is not zero or constant.

This definition suggests that the pressure derivative with respect to time

is essentially a function of both position i and time t, thus

Pseudosteady-State Flow

linearly as a function of time, i.e., at a constant declining rate, the flowing

condition is characterized as the pseudosteady-state flow.

Mathematically, this definition states that the rate of change of pressure

with respect to time at every position is constant, or

referred to as semisteady-state flow and quasisteady-state flow.

Figure shows a schematic comparison of the pressure declines as a

function of time of the three flow regimes.

Different Flow Regimes

Different Flow Regimes

P

tpss

time

13

Steady-State Flow (SS)

Pressure wave has reached the reservoir outer boundary, the outer

boundary pressure is constant, and the rate of fluid flow into the reservoir

at the outer boundary is equal to the well production rate. dp/dt = 0.

Pseudo-Steday-State Flow (PSS)

there is no flow across the outer boundary. dp/dt = const.

Transient Flow

acts like infinite. dp/dt varies with r, t.

Solution for the Diffusivity Equation

(Well testing analysis)

Outer boundary

Infinite reservoir (Transient flow)

Bounded cylindrical reservoir

no-flow outer boundary (PSS)

constant-pressure outer boundary (SS)

Well treatment

Line source well (rw 0)

Cylindrical source well (rw 0)

Constant terminal pressure solution (inner boundary)

(Aquifer influx model)

Reservoir Well Flow Regimes

3 common conditions of flow

No outer boundary

Reservoir appear infinite acting

Pressure decline with time, changes

Solution in field units (w/zero Skin)

162.6qo Bo o

pi pwf {log t log c r 2 3.23}

k0

ko h o t w

18

Reservoir Well Flow Regimes

3 common conditions of flow

No flow across outer boundary

Reservoir is finite

Pressure decline with time is constant

p

const, for rw r re

t

141.2qo Bo o re 1

pe pwf [ln( ) ]

ko h rw 2

19

Reservoir Well Flow Regimes

3 common conditions of flow

flow in = flow out (at outer boundary)

reservoir is finite

constant pressure at all points in the drainage volume

p

0, for rw r re

t

solution in field units (w/zero skin)

141.2qo Bo o re

pe pwf ln( )

ko h rw

20

Summary of Stabilized Inflow Equations

p pwf

2

relationship p pwf {ln rr r 2 } {ln rr }

between

kh w 2re kh w

p and r

141.2qB 141.2qB r

Expressed in pe pwf

r

{ln re 12} pe pwf {ln re }

terms of: kh w kh w

p = pe at r = re

terms of pR pwf {ln r 4} R wf {ln r

2}

kh w kh w

Average reservoir

pressure

21

Darcys law for noncircular drainage area(1 )

k o h ( pr pwf )

qo

141 . 2 o B o ( ln(0,472X) s )

X is obtained from next slide for different shapes

and well positions in a drainage area.

Factor (X) for different shapes and positions in a

drainage area

SYSTEM X SYSTEM X

re/rw 1

0.966A1/2

rw

2

0.571A1/2 1.440A1/2

rw 1

rw

0.565A1/2 2

rw 2.206A1/2

1

rw

0.604A1/2 2

rw 1.925A1/2

1

rw

0.678A1/2 4

1/3 rw

1 6.590A1/2

1

0.668A1/2 1

rw

2 rw 4

1 1.368A1/2 9.360A1/2

1

4

rw rw

1

2.066A1/2 4

5 rw

0.610A1/2

0.884A1/2

60o rw

rw

1.485A1/2

r

Factor (X) for different shapes and positions in a

drainage area (cont.)

X

SYSTEM

1.724A1/2

rw

1.794A1/2

1

rw

2

4.072A1/2

1

rw

2

9.523A1/2

1

rw

2

10.135A1/2

rw

PRODUCTIVITY INDEX CONCEPT

BOTTOM HOLE FLOWING PRESSURE, Pwf

Pr

Q

Pwf = Pr - Q/J J=

Pr - Pwf

Slope = - 1/J

Intercepts: Pr y Qmax

0

Pr Pwf: DRAW-DOWN

0

FLOW RATE, Q Qmax

Straight-Line IPR Relationship

pR (k, , Bo = constant)

p wf

p Pwf > Pb

pwf1

q omax

q1 q

qo1 qo1 qo max qo1 qo2

PI J tan

p p pwf 1 p pwf 2 pwf 1

26

The Productivity Index (PI)

qo

pwf pR

J

27

EXERCISE

APPLICATION OF PRODUCTIVITY INDEX CALCULATIONS

A well that is producing from a reservoir having an average pressure of 2085 psig

produced at a rate of 282 STB/D when bottomhole flowing pressure was 1765 psig.

Calculate:

2. The producing rate if Pwf is decreased to 1485 psig.

3. The bottomhole flowing pressure necessary to increase the producing rate

up to 400 STB/D.

4. The inflow rate if Pwf is reduced to zero (AOF: Absolute Open Flow Potential

or qomax).

Pr=2085

(1) J=Q/(Pr-Pwf)

1765

(2) Q=Jx(Pr-Pwf)

Pwf

0

282

0

Q Qmax

Inflow Performance Relationship (Pwf < Pb)

2. Oil viscosity increase

3. Oil formation volume factor

4. Formation damage or stimulation around

the wellbore. (changes in the skin factor, S)

5. Turbulence increase

Inflow Performance Relationship (Pwf < Pb)

pR

Straight Line IPR

Pressure

pb

Curved IPR

Flow Rate

Two-phase flow

30

Different Methods when Pb > Pwf

the Wiggins method;

the Standing method;

the Fetkovich method;

the Klins and Clark method.

Vogels Method for Two-phase flow

qo pwf pwf 2

1 0. 2( ) 0. 8( )

qo(max) pR pR

32

Vogels dimensionless IPR

1.00

0.80

p

wf 0.60

p

R

0.40

0.20

0

0 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00

q 1. 8 q

L

L

q L ( ) J p

max R

33

EXERCISE

APPLICATION OF VOGEL METHOD

SATURATED RESERVOIR, ZERO SKIN

(Pr<Pb)

A well is producing from a reservoir having an average reservoir pressure

of 2085 psig. A stabilized production test gave 282 STB/D when the flowing

bottomhole pressure is 1765 psig. The bubble point pressure is 2100 psig.

2. The producing rate if Pwf is reduced to 1485 psi.

3. The flowing bottomhole pressure to increase the producing rate to 400 BN/D.

4. Construct the IPR.

qo Pwf Pwf 2 1) From the test calculate qomax using

the VOGEL eq.

= 1 0.2 ( ) - 0.8 ( )

2) Calculate qo for several pwfs using

qomax Pr Pr the VOGELeq.

Pwf 3) Solving eq. for Pwf/Pr, one can calculate Pwf

= (1.266 1.25qo/qomax)0.5 0.125 for any rate

Pr

solution

PREDICTING PRESENT TIME IPRS FOR OIL WELLS

VOGEL METHOD

q-qb

= 1 0.2( Pwf ) 0.8( Pwf )2

q=J (PrPwf) qmax- qb Pb Pb

Pr

qb=J(Pr Pb)

dq

Pb J=

dpwf

Pwf

J=

Pb

Constant J Vogel

00 qb qmax

FLOW RATE

FETKOVICH METHOD FOR IPR DETERMINATION

qo = C(Pr2 Pwf2) n

qo = producing rate,

Pr = average reservoir pressure,

Pwf = bottom hole flowing pressure,

C = flow coefficient ,and

n = exponent depending on well characteristics.

A plot of Pr2 Pwf2 versus qo on log log scales will result in straight line

having a slope of 1/n and an intercept of qo=C for Pr2 Pwf2 = 1.

PROCEDURE FOR APPLICATION OF FETKOVICH METHOD

EXAMPLE

log104 - log103 1. Plot values of Pr2-Pwf2/103 versus q on log-log

slope = scales, using the data from the multirate test.

log4000 log150

2. Draw the best straight line through the points.

3. Calculate the slope of the straight line, by

calculating the change in flow rate for one cycle

in the vertical log scale.

4. Calculate n=1/slope.

5. Calculate C by substituting a known value of q

and Pwf in the Fetkovich equation.

150 4000 6. Generate the IPR curve by assuming values

of Pwf and calculating the flow rate from the

Fetkovich equation.

FLOW RATE, STB/D

Fetkovich Method - EXAMPLE 2

38

Fetkovich Method - EXAMPLE 2

39

Fetkovich Method - EXAMPLE 2

40

Fetkovich Method - EXAMPLE 2

41

Vogels Practical Application by BEGGS

42

Vogels Practical Application by BEGGS

43

Vogels Practical Application by BEGGS

44

Example - Results

Datos

3500

Presin promedio Reservorio Pr 3.000 psi

3000

Presin de burbuja Pb 2.130 psi

Caudal de lquido qo 250 bbl/d

2500

Clculos Pb

Presin, [psi]

2000

Indice de productividad J 0,50 bpd/psi

Caudal a Pb qb 435 bbl/d

1500

Caudal Mximo qmax 1.027 bbl/d

1000

Calcular caudal @ Pwf

Presin dinmica Pwf1 1.000 psi 500

Caudal @ Pwf1 867 bbl/d 867

0

0 500 1000 1500

caudal, q [bbl/d]

45

Example for Pwf < Pb

Data from previous example

46

Wiggins (1993) Method

47

Wiggins (1993) Method

48

Wiggins (1996) Method

49

Wiggins (1996) Method

50

The Klins-Clark Method

51

The Klins-Clark Method

52

Oil Well Performance

at various recovery percentage values for a solution

gas-drive reservoir

53

Predicting Future IPRs

f f f

54

Predicting Future IPRs

qo = C(Pr2 Pwf2) n

f f f

55

Predicting Future IPRs

56

Future IPR Prediction

Third Approximation Method - Fetkovich

57

Future IPR Prediction

(1)

(2)

(3)

58

Future IPR Prediction

59

Future IPR - EXAMPLE

Using Vogel and Standing

60

EFFECT OF TURBULENCE

Jones, Blount and Glaze Method for IPR determination

p r p wf

A B(qo )

qo

Coefficients:

r

141.2o * Bo * Ln 0.472* e S

rw

A

(ko *h)

2

B

h2 *rw

POROSITY

on reservoir rock PERMEABILITY

Velocity Coefficient, b

1.88 10 10

b 1.47 0.53 Unconsolidated Sand

k

2.33 10 10

Consolidated Sand

b 1.201

k

62

EFFECT OF TURBULENCE

Jones, Blount and Glaze Method for IPR determination

2.5

2.0

pr pwf

A B (qo )

pr pwf

qo

qo

1.5

B (slope)

1.0

A (intercept)

0.5 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

Qo, STB/day

EFFECT OF TURBULENCE

Jones, Blount and Glaze Method for IPR determination

A = A + BxAOF

AOF = Qo (Pwf = 0)

Jones, Blount and Glaze Method for IPR determination

INTERPRETATION OF VARIOUS WELL TESTS

Conclusions based on the plot

(1) if A is low -less than 0.05- no formation damage occurs in the well.

The degree of damage will increase with increasing values of A

(2) If the value of A/A is low -less than 2- little or not turbulence is

occurring in the well formation system

(3) If the values of A and A/A are low, the well has a good completion

(4)If the value of A is low and A/A is high (2-3), stimulation is not

recommended. The low productivity is caused by insufficient open

perforated area. Additional perforations would be recommended

(5) if the value of A is high and A/A is low, stimulation is recommended

Exercise

1.- Using the data from the four tests, find A, B and qo(max).

2.- Find the relationship A/A and made recommendations

67

Solution

A = A + BxAOF

A = 2.45

A / A = 2.33

68

Inflow Equations incorporating Skin

141.2qo Bo r

General (p, r ) relationship

p pwf (ln S )

koh rw

Semi-steady state flow

141.2q o Bo re 3

in terms of Average pR pwf (ln S )

reservoir pressure ko h rw 4

terms of Average p R pwf (ln S )

ko h rw 2

reservoir pressure

69

The Skin effect (Hawkins thick Skin)

ra

S [kk 1]ln( r )

a e

rw

re

ra

70

INFLOW PERFORMANCE IN HORIZONTAL WELLS

71

APLICATION OF HORIZONTAL WELLS

Kv>>>Kh

RECOVERY PROJECTS

72

METHODS TO DETETRMINE IPR IN HORIZONTAL WELLS

Mathematical Models

Borisov

Giger-Reiss-Jourdan

Joshi

Renard-Dupuy

Babu

Un,erical Simulations

Empirical Correlations

Bendakhlia y Aziz

Fetkovich

Cheng

73

Drainage Area of a Horizontal Well

METHOD 1 (JOSHI)

A) Longitudinal View

a

kv

Assumption: The drainage h

area is represented by two kh

half circles in each end of L

the horizontal section

which radius is b

(equivalent to the radius of

a vertical well, rev ) plus a B) Plant View

rectangle with dimensions

Lx2b.

b L

2b

a

74

Drainage Area of a Horizontal Well

METHOD 1 (JOSHI)

L: Length of Horizontal section, feet

b: half minor axe of an ellipse, feet

Plant View

b L

2b

75

Drainage Area of a Horizontal Well

METHOD 2 (JOSHI)

L: Length of Horizontal section, feet

b: Half minor axe of an ellipse, feet

A: Half major axe of an ellipse, feet

b = rev = drainage radius of a vertical well, feet

Plant View

b

a b

76

Drainage Area Comparison between both Methods

the drainage area, therefore, Joshi

suggests to take an average of both

values.

(1) (2)

b

b L

2b a

L

77

EQUVALENT DRAINAGE RADIUS FOR A HORIZONTAL WELL

reh: Horizontal drainage radius, feet

78

IPR in Horizontal wells

JOSHI

DRAINAGE PATTERN OF A

HORIZONTAL WELL AFTER JOSHI

79

IPR in Horizontal wells

JOSHI

Where

and

80

IPR in Horizontal wells

JOSHI

where

and

81

IPR in Horizontal wells

BABU-ODEH METHOD

Problem was analyzed in the same way as a vertical well with partial penetration,

assuming pseudosteady state flow.

0.00708 (Lx ) k y k z (o Bo )

Jhh

PI

( )

ln Ly h rw ln(CH ) 0.75 S R

CH Shape factor which depends on the

position of the well in the reservoir

82

IPR in Horizontal wells

BABU-ODEH METHOD

Ly k z 1 y w y w

2

ln(CH ) 6.28

h k y 3 Ly Ly

o z w Ly k

ln sin180 0.5 ln z

1.088

h h k y

83

Exercise

section drains an estimated area of 120 Acres

The resevoir has the following data:

method

sol

84

Formation damage in horizontal wells

(Economides)

k 1 4 aH,max aH,max

2

seq - 1 ln 2 1

ks (Iani 1) 3 rvw rvw

Iani

85

IPR in Horizontal wells

Empirical Correlations

Bendakhlia y Aziz

Fetkovich

Cheng

86

IPR in Horizontal wells

BENDAKHLIA Y AZIZ

q Pwf Pwf n

= 1V( ) - (1-V) ( )2

qomax Pr Pr

87

IPR in Horizontal wells

FETKOVICH

qo = C(Pr2 Pwf2) n

88

IPR in Horizontal wells

CHENG

(Pr<Pb)

89

Performance Improvement Factor (PIF)

PIhor Lhor kv

PIF

PIvert Lvert kh

where:

PI Productivity Index

Lhor Net pay zone of horizontal section

Lvert Net pay zone of vertical section

Kv Vertical Permeability

Kh Horizontal Permeability

90

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