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-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 4 -V-™„j 2010 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

P.Simhachalam, Bhimadolu frown upon = éÓ°æçûÓ îª÷úøôç/ ÅÆæ-´’tA Sudhir is only a


Q. Sir, stalking horse.
éÀçC¢√öÀE ûÁ©’-í∫’™ ÖüΔ- He frowned upon his son’s idea of
ûÁ©-°æúøç.
The real con-
£æ«-®Ωù©ûÓ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. marrying a girl of his choice.
The be-all and end-all; Where tender is Srinath =
perspicuous = Ææ’©-¶μºçí¬ Å®Ωn-´’ßË’u/ Ææ®Ω-∞¡-¢Á’i†
abouts; Ferrari; Brown nosing; ®ΩîªØ√ ¨ÎjL/ Ææç¶μ«-≠æù« ¨ÎjL.
Ææ’Dμ®˝ °jéÀ ´÷vûª¢Ë’
Stealth call; Break the bank; éπE-°œçîË §ÚöÃ-
The perspicuous writing made his books
Graduand; Formal ceremony; üΔ-®Ω’úø’. XØ√ü∑˛
very popular.
Drop the ball; Soap Grafting;
Å®·ûË Ñ ´÷ô Åçûª ¢√úø’-éπ™ ÅÆæ©’ §ÚöÃ-üΔ-®Ω’úø’.
Wither on the vine; Frown upon;
™‰ü¿’. (Å´-ûªL ´uéÀh ¨¡éÀhE Suma, Nirmal
Perspicuous; Two to tango; Nothing to write two to tango = È®çúø’ îËûª’©’ éπL-ÊÆhØË é¬F ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ XØ√ü∑˛ Ææ’Dμ-®˝†’ §ÚöÃéÀ Q. Sir, éÀçC ¢√é¬u©’ ¢√öÀ Ççí∫x ņ’-¢√ü¿ç éπÈ®-ÍédØ√?
home about; Hung upon; Yada yada yada; æp-ô’xç-úø´¤. (Åçõ‰ ïJT-†-üΔ-EéÀ Éü¿l®Ω÷ E©-¶„-ö«dúø’.) 1) †’´¤y §∂ÚØÓx á´-JûÓ ´÷ö«x-úø’-ûª’-Ø√o´¤?
Put a hex on someone; Go hay wire; 鬮Ω-ù-´’E.) vidiot = Electronic gadgets ûÓ ´·êuçí¬ = With whom you are talking on phone?
Impersonate; Scrimp and save; Shoulder Don’t blame me for our defeat. It takes two video ≤ƒ´’vTûÓ é¬©ç í∫úÕ-Ê°-¢√∞¡Ÿx. ÉC Éçé¬ 2) †’´¤y á´-JûÓ éπLÆœ £j«ü¿-®√-¶«-ü˛™ 
surfing; Stalking horse; Vidiot; Approval to tango = ãô-N’éÀ ††’o ´÷vûª¢Ë’ EçCç-îªèπ◊. standard English usage ™éÀ ®√™‰ü¿’. Öçô’-Ø√o´¤?
from corporate; Herding cats; Round up; ´’†ç Éü¿l®Ωç 鬮Ω-ù¢Ë’. (Éü¿lJ ûª°æ¤p© ´©x ãúÕ- approval from corporate = ÆæçÆæn †’ç*
= With whom you are living in
Get to; bucket list; Vitiate; Splitsville; Double §Úߪ÷ç.) Hyderabad?
§ÒçüË Ææ´’tA. 3)
entendre; Double whammy; Embark on; nothing to write home about = Éûª-®Ω’-©ûÓ
†’´¤y à é¬xÆˇ™ îªü¿’-´¤-ûª’-Ø√o´¤?
herding cats. Herding cats é¬ü¿’, herding = In which class you are studying?
Have a beef with someone (grudge); îÁ°æ¤p-éÓ-¢√-Lq-†çûª íÌ°æpí¬ ™‰éπ-§Ú-´úøç. cattle = °æ¨¡Ÿ-´¤-©†’ ´’çü¿í¬ îËJa ûÓ©’-Èé-∞¡}úøç. A. 1) With whom you are talking on the
Cahoots with; Fouled (sb) own nest.
phone? correct question form
– ÉC é¬ü¿’

H e br own noses and gets on


Question
éπüΔ? Subject
™ á°æ¤púø÷ ´·çü¿’
Verb Öçô’çC, ™‰èπ◊ç-õ‰ Helping verb èπ◊,
Main Verb èπ◊ ´’üμ¿u Subject Öçô’çC.
Verb
äéπ ™ È®çúø’ ´‚úø’ ´÷ô-©’çõ‰,
¢Á·ü¿öÀ ´÷ô†’ Helping Verb ÅF, N’í∫-û√
Shepherds spend time in the morn- Main Verb
A. É´Fo èπÿú≈ î√™« Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫-éπ-®Ω-¢Á’i†, ûª®Ω-îª’í¬ -´÷-ô-©†’ ÅF Åçö«ç. (O’
ing and the evening herding cattle = Sentence are talking verb.
¢√úË phrases. ™ Éçü¿’-™E
The be all and end all (of life) = @Nûª -Ççí∫x-¶μ«-≠æ-ù 605 °æ¨¡Ÿ-´¤-©†’ ´’çü¿í¬ îËJa ûÓ©’-Èé-∞¡Ÿûª÷ °æ¨¡Ÿ- ¢Á·ü¿öÀ´÷ô ‘are’, helping verb, ûª®√yA
´¤© 鬰æ®Ω’x 鬩ç í∫úø’-°æ¤-û√®Ω’. talking, Main Verb.)
´÷ô, correct
Åçü¿’-éπE
°æ®Ω-´÷-´Cμ. round up = í∫’ç°æ¤í¬ äéπ-îÓô îË®Ωaúøç/ question form- With whom are (helping
Eating and sleeping are not the be all and India’s game in the match against
end all of life, is it?
Åü¿’-°æ¤-™ éÀ BÆæ’-éÓ-´úøç- The police verb) you (subject) talking (Main Verb)
Zimbabwe has nothing to write
rounded up the gamblers- Wü¿-®Ω’-©ç-
= A†úøç, Evü¿-§Ú-´úøç @Nûª over (on the phone?
é¬ü¿’) correct
ÅØËC
°æ®Ω-´÷-´Cμ é¬ü¿’éπüΔ? home about = >綫-¶‰yûÓ ¶μ«®Ωû˝
M.SURESAN ü¿-JE §ÚMÆæ’©’ äéπöÀí¬ îË®√a®Ω’/ Åü¿’-°æ¤- question Å´¤-ûª’çC. Å®·ûË Modern
Most people think that amassing wealth is ÇúÕ† B®Ω’ îÁ°æ¤p-éÓ-¢√-Lq† íÌÊ°pç é¬ü¿’. ™éÀ BÆæ’-èπ◊-Ø√o®Ω’. English Whom
™ Who
•ü¿’©’ èπÿú≈ ¢√úø’-
the be all and end all of life. = hung up = phone °õ‰dÆ œ Ææç¶μ«-≠æù ÇÊ°-ߪ’úøç. get to. É™«çöÀ ‘phrase’ v°æûËu-éπçí¬ àO’-™‰ü¿’. preposition,
Ææç°æü¿ Ææ´’- ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’, Åçûªèπ◊´·çü¿’ç-úË
èπÿ-®Ω’a-éÓ-´-úø¢Ë’ @Nûª °æ®Ω-´÷-´Cμ ņ’-èπ◊ç-ö«®Ω’ He hung up when I asked him about the bucket list: Ñ ´÷ô standard English ¢√úø- to/ with verb ûª®√yûª ´Ææ’hçC. Å°æ¤púø’ ÆæÈ®j†
î√™«-´’çC. money = úø•’s í∫’Jç* Åúø-í¬_ØË §∂ÚØ˛ °õ‰d-¨»úø’. éπç-™éÀ ®√™‰ü¿’. Å®·ûË Ñ ´÷ô äéπ ÆœE´÷ question- Who are you talking to over the
where abouts = áéπ\úø/ à îÓô Ö†oC: Try yada yada yada = ´Èíj®√, ´Èíj®√, ´Èíj®√– à¢ÁjØ√ Ê°®Ω’í¬ ¢√ú≈®Ω’, äéπ ´uéÀh îªE-§Ú-ßË’-´·çü¿’ °æ‹Jh-îË- phone?
as it might, the US has no idea about the î√™« N≠æ-ߪ÷©’, ¢√öÀ™x éÌEo v§ƒ´·êuç ™‰E-¢ÁjûË, ߪ÷-©-†’-èπ◊ØË °æ†’© ñ«Gû√ ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ. 2) Ééπ\úø èπÿú≈, ÆæÈ®j†question- With whom
whereabouts of Bin Laden = ¢√öÀE îÁÊ°p ã°œ-éπ-™‰éπ yada, yada, yada Åçö«ç. are you living in Hyderabad? (Question
vitiate = To Spoil or reduce the effect of
áçûª v°æߪ’-
Aoç-*Ø√ Å¢Á’-J-é¬èπ◊ GØ˛-™«-úÁØ˛ áéπ\úø Ö†oD/ According to him, his favourite movie hero is some thing = §ƒúø’-îË-ߪ’-úøç, ÇPç-*† °∂æLûªç 鬕öÀd, Subject- you, helping verb ‘are’,
Çîª÷éà ûÁL-ߪ’úøç ™‰ü¿’. tall, handsome, bright, kind, yada yada ®√èπ◊çú≈ Åúø’f-éÓ-´úøç. Politics vitiate welfare main verb ‘living’ ´’-üμ¿u ®√¢√L.) Å®·ûË
ferrari = ÉC English °æü¿ç é¬ü¿’. î√™« v°æÆ œ-ü¿l¥- programmes. Whom Who
yada. Ééπ\úø èπÿú≈, •ü¿’©’ ¢√úÕ
¢Á’i† Í®Æˇ 鬮Ωx Ê°®Ω’. êK-üÁj† non racing car put a hex on someone = Éûª-®Ω’© O’ü¿ £æ…E- splits ville = ÉC èπÿú≈ standard English preposition 'with' Verb
†’ ûª®√yûª °-úÕ-ûË,
brand èπÿ-ú≈ -Öç-C. correct question- Who are you
brown nosing = ÅCμ-é¬-®Ωç™ Ö†o-¢√J ¢Á’°æ¤p-
éπ-®Ω-¢Á’i† ´’çvûª-¨¡-èπ◊h©’ v°æßÁ÷-Tç-îªúøç– In old sto- ´÷ô é¬ü¿’. Å®·ûË DEo ≤ƒüμΔ-®Ω-ùçí¬ ü¿ç°æ-ûª’©’ Å°æ¤púø’
living with in Hyderabad? Å´¤-ûª’çC.
ries we see magicians putting hex on oth- Nú≈-èπ◊©’ éÓ®Ω’-éÓ-´úøç ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ ¢√úø’-ûª’ç-ö«®Ω’.
Bucket list, Splitsville Åçü¿-Jéà ŮΩnç é¬éπ 3) correct form, In which class
ers.
§Òç-üËç-ü¿’èπ◊, ¢√J-°æôx ÅA ´’®√uü¿ îª÷°æúøç. Ééπ\úø èπÿú≈
He doesn’t know work, so he brown noses are you studying?
go hay wire = °æü∑¿-鬩’ v°æù«-R-éπ©’ Åü¿’°æ¤ -§Ú-´îª’a, Éçé¬ ¢√úø’-éπ-™éÀ ®√™‰ü¿’ 鬕öÀd.
the manager and gets on = Åûª-úÕéÀ °æE ûÁL- double entendre = DE pronunciation: Q. O’®Ω’ í∫ûªç™ Question tag ™ helping verb
Manager
ߪ’ü¿’. †’ é¬é¬ °æöÀd í∫úø’-°æ¤-éÌ-Ææ’h-Ø√oúø’. ûª°æpúøç/ ´’†ç ņ’-èπ◊-†oô’d ï®Ω-í∫-éπ-§Ú-´úøç. Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-î√-©E ûÁL-§ƒ®Ω’. äéπ ¢√éπuç™ àC
The company’s plans to open branches
úø•’™¸ Çö«vúø = ´÷´‚©’ Å®Ωnç-ûÓ-§ƒô’ •÷ûª’
stealth call = ®Ω£æ«-Ææuçí¬ §∂ÚØ˛ îËߪ’úøç/ ®Ω£æ«- helping verb ÅE ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-¢√L?
abroad went haywire because of the eco-
Å®Ωnç èπÿú≈ Ææ’p¥Jç-îË-ô’-´çöÀ °æü¿ç.
Ææuçí¬ á´-J-ØÁjØ√ éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´úøç. double whammy = È®öÀdç°æ¤ ¶«üμ¿/ ¶μ«®Ωç/ äéπ A. äéπ Verb ™ È®çúø’ ´‚úø’ ´÷ô-©’-†o-°æ¤púø’,
nomic recession there =
The Minister had a stealth call from the
Ç éπç°F NüË-¨»™x
¶«üμ¿èπ◊ ûÓúø’ ÉçéÓ ¶«üμ¿. ¢Á·ü¿öÀ ´÷ô, helping verb, N’í∫û√ ´÷ô©’
mafia leader =
ûª† ¨»ê©’ ûÁ®Ω-¢√-©-†’-èπ◊†o °æü∑¿éπç NüË-¨»-™xE Main Verb Å´¤-û√®·.
´’çvAE ´÷°∂œßª÷ Ø√ߪ’-èπ◊úø’ embark on = °ü¿l áûª’h† v§ƒ®Ωç-Gμç-îªúøç.
I am not going - Ééπ\úø Verb, am going.
ÇJn-éπ-´÷ç-ü¿uç-´©x Åü¿’°æ¤ ûª°œpçC/ N°∂æ-©-´’-®·çC.
The company has embarked on an ambi-
®Ω£æ«-Ææuçí¬ éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-Ø√oúø’/ ®Ω£æ«-Ææuçí¬ §∂ÚØ˛
impersonate = äéπ®Ω’ ÉçéÌ-éπ-®Ω’í¬ îª™«-´’ùÀ ¢Á·ü¿öÀ´÷ô, ‘am’, helping verb, ‘going’,
tious plan of expansion =
î˨»úø’.
break the bank = ¶«uçèπ◊†’ üÓ-éÓ-´úøç.
鬴úøç/ äéπ®Ω’ ÉçéÌéπ ¢Ë≠æ-¢Á’-ûªhúøç. Thieves Ç éπç°F NÆæh-®Ωù main verb Å´¤-ûª’çC.
impersonated as police and threatened the °æü∑¿-é¬-©†’ °ü¿l-á-ûª’h† v§ƒ®Ωç-Gμç-*çC.
She has been sleeping - Ééπ\úø has been
They broke the bank around 2 AM = §Òü¿’l†
villagers = have a beef with someone (grudge).
§ÚM-Ææ’© ®Ω÷°æç™ üÌçí∫©’ ´*a sleeping verb. ‘Has been’ helping verb,
Have a beef with someone- correct
È®çúø’ í∫çô-©èπ◊ ¢√∞¡Ÿx ¶«uçèπ◊†’ üÓ°œúÕ î˨»®Ω’.
sleeping - main verb.
ví¬´’-Ææ’n-©†’ ¶„C-Jç-î√®Ω’. ÉC
graduand: ÉC English ´÷ô-é¬ü¿’. expression Beef about something =
scrimp and save = Åûªu-´-Ææ-®Ω-¢Á’i-†N èπÿú≈ é¬ü¿’. Question tag ™ á°æ¤púø÷ helping verb/
formal ceremony = ≤ƒçíÓ-§ƒç-í∫çí¬ (ÅEo Complain about something = üËEí∫’Jç-îÁjØ√
™«çîμª-Ø√-©ûÓ) ïJÍí ¨¡Ÿ¶μº-鬮Ωuç/ ûªçûª’– ´÷†’-èπ◊E úø•’s èπÿúø-¶„-ôdúøç– Åûªuçûª §Òü¿’-°æ¤í¬ Åçü¿’-™E ¢Á·ü¿öÀ ´÷ô ´Ææ’hçC.
Öçúøôç. Å™« ´*a† úø•’sûÓ ÉçÍé-ü¿-®·Ø√ ÅÆæç-ûª%°œh ´uéπhç îËߪ’úøç. She is sleeping, isn’t she?
Ææçv°æüΔߪ’ •ü¿l¥çí¬ ïJÍí ¨¡Ÿ¶μº-é¬-®√u©’/ Ũ¡Ÿ-¶μº- I have a beef about the way he treats me =
é¬-®√u©’. îËÊÆç-ü¿’èπ◊/ ¶μºN-≠æuû˝ Å´-Ææ-®√© éÓÆæç °j≤ƒ °j≤ƒ Question tag: is (helping verb) + n’t + subject.

drop the ball: DEéÀ v°æûËu-éπ-¢Á’i† Å®Ωnç àD ™‰ü¿’.


èπÿúø-¶„-ôdúøç. They scrimped and saved to ††’o Åûªúø’ îª÷Ææ’-éÓ-´-úøç™ ؈’ ÅÆæçûª%-°œhE Å®·ûË, sentence ™E verb, sleep Å®·ûË,
give their children a good education = °œ©x- ´uéπhç îËÆæ’h-Ø√o†’/ ††o-ûªúø’ îª÷ÊÆ Nüμ¿ç (ÅAC∑/ üΔEo do sleep í¬ BÆæ’èπ◊çö«ç.
≤ƒ-üμΔ®Ω-ù -Å®Ωnç-™ -•ç-A éÀç-ü¿ °æ-úË-ߪ’-úøç. ÊÆo£œ«-ûª’-úÕí¬) ÆæJí¬ ™‰ü¿’.
©†’ ´’ç* îªü¿’-´¤©’ îªC-Nç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊ °j≤ƒ °j≤ƒ They sleep well- Ééπ\úø question tag form
soap grafting = ¶«í¬ ÅJ-T-§Ú-®·-†-°æp-öÀéà cahoots with. To be in cahoots with =
§ƒÍ®-ߪ’-™‰E Ææ•’s ´·éπ\†’, éÌûªh Ææ•’sèπ◊ èπÿúø-¶„-ö«d®Ω’ ¢√∞¡Ÿx.
The forest guards are in
îËÊÆç-ü¿’èπ◊, sleep = do sleep. Å°æ¤púø÷, ques-
shoulder surfing: tion tag ™ don’t (do + not) ´Ææ’hçC.
™«©÷< °æúøôç.
ÅAéÀçîªúøç. Å®·ûË ÉC standard English cahoots with the timber smugglers = éπ©°æ
é¬ü¿’. Surfing = Ææ´·-vü¿-°æ¤-ô©© O’ü¿ ûË©’ûª÷ ÇúË Çô. They sleep well, don’t they? Å™«Íí, sleeps =
üÌçí∫-©ûÓ Åô-O-¨»-ê-¢√∞¡Ÿx ™«©÷< °æúø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’. does sleep; slept = did sleep. Question tags
wither on the vine - v§ƒ®Ωç¶μº ü¿¨¡-™ ØË shoulder surfing: Ææçü¿-®√s¥-Eo-•-öÀd-í¬F îÁ°æp™‰ç.
fouled (sb) own nest. foul somebody’s
stalking horse = ´’†-èπ◊†o ÅÆæ©’ ÖüËl¨¡ç doesn’t + subject, didn’t + subject
éÃ~ùÀç-îªúøç/ ÇT-§Ú-´úøç– The metro rail project own nest = Ruin oneself = ûª´’†’ û√¢Ë’
èπÿú≈,
´≤ƒh®·.
í¬
withered on the vine with the Satyams going ûÁL-ߪ’-èπ◊çú≈ ÖçúËç-ü¿’èπ◊ ´’†ç ¢√úø’-èπ◊ØË ´uèπ◊h©’. Ø√¨¡†ç îËÆæ’-éÓ-´úøç. She sleeps well, doesn’t she?
bankrupt = Ææûªuç éπç°F C¢√™« Bߪ’úøçûÓ ´·êuçí¬ ®√ï-éÃ-ߪ÷™x äéπ Ø√ߪ’-èπ◊úÕ Ææû√h By spending money recklessly he is fouling She slept well, didn’t she?
his own nest =
£j«ü¿-®√-¶«ü˛ ¢Á’vö È®j©’ v§ƒñ„èπ◊d ÇC-™ØË ÇT- ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ Åûª-úÕéÀ §ÚöÃí¬ E©-¶„õ‰d
v§ƒ´·êuç ™‰E ´uéÀh.
úø•’s Nîªa-©-N-úÕí¬ ê®Ω’a-°öÀd well won’t., shall
èπ◊, éÀ shan’t- É™« ´≤ƒh®·
§Ú-®·çC. ûª†-†’-û√ØË Ø√¨¡†ç îËÆæ’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√oúø’. question tags ™.
Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 11 -V-™„j 2010 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

E.Anil, T.N.Palem Shall, should, will, would, etc...°æéπ\† As a verb, ‘trav-


(Prakasam Dist.) el’ is more used
‘be’ í¬F, go, come, take, give ™«çöÀ than ‘journey’. For
Q. Sir,؈’ ûÁ©’-í∫’-O’-úÕ-ߪ’ç™ îªC- °æ†’-©†’ ûÁLÊ° °æüΔ-©’-í¬F ™‰èπ◊çú≈ ¢√úøç, example, ‘He trav-
¢√†’. É°æ¤p-úË¢Á÷ Class ™ îÁ°œp-†N short answers ™ ûª°æp.
elled to a number
•öÃd-°æöÀd ®√ߪ÷-©çõ‰ î√™« É•sç-Cí¬ eg: A: Will you do it?
of places’ is more
ÅE-°œ-≤ÚhçC. Sentence †’ Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’- B: Yes, I will - will will
frequent than ‘He
Ééπ\úø èπÿú≈ †’
èπ◊ç-ö«†’. é¬F, ®√ÊÆ-ô-°æ¤púø’ would, would be, do short shall,
journeyed to a
èπ◊ •ü¿’©’ í¬ ¢√úøû√ç. É™«Íí
should, should be, can, can be, could, should, can, could etc to be =
number of places’.
©èπ◊. Å™«Íí
could be, must, must be, to, to be to + action word (come, go etc.) = General awareness = °j¢√-öÀ
© ´’üμ¿u ûËú≈
D. Laxman, Suryapet.
Öçúøôç, í∫’-Jç-*
ûÁL-ߪ’-úøç-™‰ü¿’. OöÀ í∫’Jç* N´-J-≤ƒh®√? to come = ®√´úøç, to go = etc.
¢Á∞¡xúøç Å´-í¬-£æ«†– á°æp-öÀ-éπ-°æ¤púø’ éπLÍí °æJ-ù«-´÷-©ûÓ
A. Shall, should, will, would, can, could, may, Q. 1. Every sentence that he spoke was lis- Q. éÀçC-¢√-öÀéÀ Å®√n©’ ûÁ©-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
tened to with great attention.
Ææ£æ….
might, must, have to, has to, had to 1. Happiness is not pleasure. It is victory?
General knowledge = General awareness
¢√ôç-ûª-
ô¢Ë Verbs ‘be’
鬴¤. ¢√öÀ ûª®√yûª Å®·Ø√ ®√¢√L 2. All these proposals are good. 2. All are not stains, that go to Church? General aptitude - General aptitude
be forms actions
ÅØË
3. You are what you eat, and what you think.
(Å°æ¤p-úøN Å´¤-û√®·), ™‰èπ◊çõ‰ -O-öÀ í∫’-Jç-* N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
go, come, walk, talk, (shall go, will A. 1. Every sentence that he spoke was
†’ ûÁLÊ° ´÷ô ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’– DEéÀ Å®Ωnç ™‰ü¿’.
4. Life is not always easy, but it can be Aptitude = äéπ N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ ÇÆæ-éÀhûÓ èπÿúÕ†
come, should do etc) ™«çöÀ ´÷ô-©-®·Ø√ listened to with great attention = Åûªúø’
®√¢√L. ( Shall, should, will, would, etc...
©†’ îÁ°œp† v°æA ¢√éπuç î√™« v¨¡ü¿l¥ûÓ NØ√o®Ω’. rewarding. v°æA¶μº.
‘be’
´÷vûª¢Ë’ ¢√úøç ÅE Å®Ωnç.) OöÀE ûÓ ¢√úÕûË Ééπ\úø was listened to - passive voice. 5. If I know what love is, it is because of you. 2) Rate = Price per unit = ÉEo ´Ææ’h-´¤-©-èπ◊/-
(shall be, should be, will be, would be etc.) Å®Ωnç = Ç©-éÀç-îª-•-úÕçC ÅE (vÊ°´’çõ‰ àN’ö Ø√èπ◊ ûÁ©’Ææ’ é¬•öÀd Éçûª °æ-J´÷-ù«-EéÀ -Öç-úË üμ¿®Ω. Rs. 100 per
NNüμ¿ ®Ω鬩 Öçúøôç ÅØË Å®Ωnç ´Ææ’hçC. 2. Ñ v°æA-§ƒ-ü¿-†©Fo ´’ç*¢Ë. Åçü¿’-´©x ÉC FC? éπÈ®-ÍédØ√?) dozen. (úøï-†’èπ◊ 100 ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’© îÌ°æ¤p†);
Rs. 250 per meter (O’ô®Ω’èπ◊ ®Ω÷.250

H e is no gr eat singer
îÌ°æ¤p†); Rs.20 per Kg (éÀ™èπ◊ ®Ω÷.20
îÌ°æ¤p†)– É´Fo rate. Éçûª éÌ©-ûªèπ◊/ °æ-J´÷-
ù«-EéÀ/ •®Ω’´¤èπ◊ Éçûª üμ¿®Ω Åçõ‰ ÅC rate.
I bought these mangoes at Rs. 200 per
dozen. (؈’ Ñ -´÷-N’-úÕ °æç-úøx†’ úøïØ˛èπ◊
shall
} A. Sentence 1 and 2 questions ®Ω÷. 200 -îÌ°æ¤p-† éÌØ√o†’– Ééπ\úø áEo °æç-úøx†’
be = future
鬴¤
will
™ Öçúøôç question é̆oD, áçûª ¢Á·ûªhç îÁLxç-*-çD ûÁ-L-ߪ’-úøç
-Ççí∫x-¶μ«-≠æ-ù 606
éπüΔ, ´’J ¢√öÀ*´®Ω
a) shall ™‰ü¿’)– 鬕öÀd ÉC rate.
will }
go = future ™ ¢Á∞¡xúøç marks
Å®√n©’:
áçü¿’èπ◊?
Price = ´’†ç é̆o ´Ææ’h-´¤/ -´-Ææ’h-´¤-©èπ◊
b) can be = É°æ¤púø’, future ™ Öçúø-í∫-©-í∫úøç.
S.Ananda Rao, 1. ÆæçûÓ≠æç Åçõ‰ Å®Ωnç, Ææ®ΩüΔ ÅE é¬ü¿’, îÁLxçîË ¢Á·ûªhç üμ¿®Ω.
She can be here in 10 minutes = Ç¢Á’ 10
MVK Varma, Uddandapuram Nïߪ’ç ÅE. éÀ™ ®Ω÷.20© v°æ鬮Ωç (ÉC rate) 3 éÀ™©’
EN’≥ƒ™x Ééπ\úø Öçúø-í∫-©ü¿’ (Ability) 2. Ñ sentence -™ stains é¬-ü¿’, ®Ω÷. 60©èπ◊ éÌØ√o†’ (ÉC price).
Q. Sir, I would like to know the use of M.SURESAN
She can do it = Ç¢Á’ ÅC îËߪ’-í∫-©ü¿’. Charges = ´Ææ’h-´¤-©èπ◊, ÊÆ´-©èπ◊, ¢√£æ«-Ø√©
‘no’ and ‘not’ in a sentence. saints. Correct form: All are not
c) could be = í∫ûªç™ (past) Öçúø-í∫-©-í∫úøç. saints that go to church = Church/
O’ü¿ v°æߪ÷-ù«-©èπÿ îÁLxçîË ®Ω’Ææ’´·.
A: Usually ‘no’ is used as a negative response í∫’úÕ-Èé-∞Ïx-
Fares = v°æߪ÷ù ê®Ω’a/ -öÀ-Èé\ö¸ üμ¿®Ω.
NTR could be the CM = NTR ´·êu-´’ç-vAí¬
at the beginning of a sentence and ‘not’ in ¢√-∞¡xç-ü¿®Ω÷ ®Ω’≠æfl-©’/- ¶μº-èπ◊h©’ é¬®Ω’.
3) Temporary = û√û√\-Léπ¢Á’i†
the middle of a sentence.
Öçúø-í∫-Lí¬úø’ (í∫ûªç™). 3. †’¢Áy-™«çöÀ ¢√úÕ¢Ó, †’´¤y AØË AçúÕE •öÀd,
NTR could act any role = NTR à §ƒvûª-ØÁjØ√ Adhoc = Å°æp-öÀ-éπ-°æ¤púø’ ï®Ω-í¬-Lq† °æE
eg: Is he a singer? F Ç™-îª-†-©†’ •öÃd Öçô’çC.
îËߪ’-í∫-L-Íí-¢√úø’. û√û√\-Léπçí¬ îËߪ’-úøç/- ´·ç-ü¿Ææ’h v°æù«-Réπ,
No, he is not a singer. 4. @Nûªç -Åç-ûª Ææ’©¶μºç é¬ü¿’, é¬F -Å-C Ææûªp¥-L-
d) May be = Öçúø-´îª’a, É°æ¤p-úÁjØ√ future ™ØÁjØ√. °æü∑¿éπç, àO’-™‰-èπ◊çú≈ Å°æp-öÀ-éπ-°æ¤púø’ Å´’-©’-îËÊÆ
Sometimes, ‘no’ is also used in the û√©-†’ -É-´yí∫-©-ü¿’.
He may be there = Åûª-úøéπ\úø ÖçúÌa.
°æJ-≥ƒ\-®Ωç/- à-®√pô’.
middle of a sentence for emphasis and in 5. Ø√èπ◊ vÊ°´’ Åçô÷ ûÁL-Æœç-ü¿çõ‰ ÅC F´©x.
Tentative = û√û√\-L-éπ-¢Á’i† – v°æù«-Réπ ûªßª÷-
He may go there = Åûª-úøéπ\-úÕéÀ ¢Á∞¡x-´îª’a. comparisons. Q. éÀçC-¢√-öÀéÀ ÉçTx≠ˇ °æüΔ©’, Å®√n©’ ûÁ©-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
e) Might be = í∫ûªç™ ÖçúÕ Öçúø-´îª’a
®Ω-ßË’-uç-ûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ îËÊÆ à®√pô’.
He is no singer like you/ He is no great 1. éÌMí˚q 2. 鬮Ós-ØË-õ„ú˛ ≤Úú≈ 3. ¢Ë™¸ Provisional = temporary = û√û√\-L-éπ-¢Á’i†.
She thought her husband might be there = singer. (Note the omission of ‘a’ before 4. Ç®Ω’\ö¸ 5. †÷uú˛ 6. ¶«xí˚
great singer. When you use ‘not’, ‘a’ has to 4) Portal = ´’†ç ÇÆæ-éÀh -éπ-†-•-®ΩîË N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo
Ç¢Á’ ûª† ¶μº®Ωh Åéπ\-úø’ç-úÌ-îªa-†’-èπ◊çC.
(business/ news/ science/ shopping
7. Åôd®˝ 8. É秃é˙d
Might go = í∫ûªç™ ¢Á∞¡Ÿxç-úÌa. be used before ‘great singer’)
A. É´Fo English °æüΔ™‰ éπüΔ? web-
Q. Can we change the voice of ... 1. Birds fly,
They might go there, I thought =
™«çöÀN) í∫’-Jç--* Ææ´÷-î√-®√Eo ûÁ-LÊ°
¢√∞¡x-éπ\-úÕéÀ 1) Colleagues = Ææ£æ«Ù-üÓu-í∫’©’/ (ã ÆæçÆæn™  site internet
2. He works, 3. You loves. ™éÀ üΔy®√ ´’†ç v°æ¢Ë-PçîË
Computer
¢Á∞Ôx-îªaE ؈-†’-èπ◊Ø√o. éπLÆœ °æE-îËÊÆ Æœ•sçC)
A. The verbs in sentences 1) and 2), ‘fly’ and
Ææ´÷-î√-®Ω-Íéçvü¿ç ( ™).
f) Should be 2) Carbon ¢√ߪ·´¤ éπL-°œ† ≤Úú≈

} ‘works’ have no objects. That is, you don’t Website = Internet üΔy®√ á´-È®jØ√ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-
must be 3) Vale = Valley = ™ߪ’
Öçú≈L (Çïc, Å´-Ææ®Ωç)
get answer to the questions, fly/ works... èπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ O©’í¬ ã Company/ ÆæçÆæn
have to be É°æ¤púø’, future ™
what? (What do they birds fly?/ What does 4) Orkut = email üΔy®√ Ææç¶μ«-≠œç--èπ◊çô÷ ûª†èπ◊ Ææç-•ç-Cμç-*-† Ææ´÷-î√®Ωç ¢Á·ûªhç
has to be
he work?) So they have no passive forms. -§∂Ò-ö-©’ ´÷JpúÕ îËÆæ’-èπ◊çô÷ äéπ-J-éÌéπ®Ω’ Computer ™ Åçü¿’-¶«-ô’™ ÖçîË -îÓô’.
He should be/ must be/ has to be there =
Sentence 3) ‘you loves’ is wrong. The ÆæEo-£œ«-ûª-´’ßË’u •%çü¿ç. (´’†ç Tata Company í∫’-Jç-* ûÁ©’-Ææ’-
correct sentence is ‘you love’. Even then 5) Nude = Cí∫ç-•-®Ω-¢Á’i†/ †í∫o-¢Á’i†
Åûª-úøéπ\úø Öçú≈L (Çïc/ Å´-Ææ®Ωç•öÀd Åûª-úø-éπ\úø éÓ-¢√-©-†’-éÓçúÕ. -Ç Ææ´÷-î√®Ωç ´’†èπ◊ Ç
Öçú≈L) the sentence is wrong because the meaning 6) Blog = ÉC èπÿú≈ Internet üΔy®√ Ææç¶μ«-≠œç-- Company website ™ Öçô’çC, internet
should go is incomplete.

}
èπ◊çô÷ Ææ´÷-î√®Ω v°æÆæ-®Ω-ù- îË-ߪ’úøç. üΔy®√)
must go - You love... what?/ whom? 7) Utter = °æ‹Jhí¬. Google- Google Company ¢√®Ω’ ´’†Íé
¢Á∞«xL (Çïc/ Å´-Ææ®Ωç)
have to go suppose the answer is: There was utter confusion at the meet- Ææ´÷-î√®Ωç 鬢√-©Ø√o ûÁ-LÊ° website. -É-C
has to go äéπ search engine.
You love your parents.. ing = Ç Ææ¶μº™ °æ‹Jh í∫çü¿-®Ω-íÓ∞¡ç ØÁ©-éÌçC.
They should go/ must go/ have to go there Then you have the passive form: Twitter = Internet üΔy®√ ´’† ÆæEo-£œ«-ûª’-©ûÓ,
8) Impact =
=
v°æ¶μ«´ç
Your parents are loved by you.
¢√∞¡x-éπ\-úÕéÀ ¢Á∞«xL (Çïc, ¢√∞¡x Å´-Ææ®Ωç•öÀd
The streets were flooded because of the éÌûªh °æJ-îª-ߪ’-Ææ’h-©ûÓ Ææç¶μ«-≠œçîË à®√pô’.
Q. As, Since... Is there any difference in usage Yahoo- Internet üΔy®√ Éûª-®Ω’-©ûÓ Ææç¶μ«-
îËߪ÷L Ç °æE).
impact of the cyclone =
g) had to be = (í∫ûªç™) Öçú≈Lq ®√´úøç (Çïc,
ûª’§ƒ†’ v°æ¶μ«´ç
of the above words? ´©x Oüμ¿’-©Fo ï©-´’-ߪ’-´’-ߪ÷u®·. ≠œç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊, letter ®√-ߪ’-ú≈-EéÀ O©’-éπ-LpçîË
Å´-Ææ-®√Eo •öÀd) A. As and since have more than one meaning company -™‰-üΔ service provider -©™
had to go = ¢Á∞«xLq ´*açC (Çïc, Å´-Ææ-®√Eo G. Ashok, Godhur (Karimnagar Dist.) äéπöÀ. É™«ç-öÀ¢Ë, Hotmail, Gmail, etc.
each.
•öÀd). As = 1) because, 2) like Q. Sir, what is the difference among these Web = Website
He had to be here at 10 = Åûªúø’ °æCç-öÀéÀ words?
Since = 1) because, 2) from some time in Blog = á´-È®jØ√ ûª´’èπ◊ Ææç-•ç-Cμç-*-† Ææ´÷-
1. General Knowledge, General Awareness,
Ééπ\-úø -Öç-ú≈-Lq ´*açC. the past. With the meaning of ‘because’
General Aptitude.
î√-®√Eo Éûª-®Ω’-©èπ◊ Internet üΔy®√ ûÁ-LÊ°
He had to go at 10 = Åûªúø’ °æCç-öÀéÀ ¢Á∞«xLq there is no difference in their use. °æü¿l¥A.
2. Rates, Prices, Charges, Fares.
´*açC. As/ since he is tall he can bowl well. Browsing = Ææ´÷-î √®Ωç éÓÆæç, Internet ™
3. Temporary, Adhoc, Tentative, Provisional
äéπõ‰ í∫’®Ω’hç--éÓçúÕ. Q. What is the difference between ‘Journey -
4. Portal, Website, Google, Twitter, Yahoo,
¢Áü¿-éπ-úøç/-îª-ü¿-´-úøç.
shall, should, will, would °æéπ\† ‘be’ Travelling’? Web, Blog, Browsing, Online, Data base. Online = Ææ´ ÷-î √®Ωç É*a-°æ¤-îª ’a-èπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊
´÷vûª¢Ë’ ´ÊÆh °j† ûÁL-°œ† ü¿¨¡™x Öçúøôç ÅØË A. The difference is in the use of the words, A. 1) General knowledge = ≤ƒüμΔ-®Ωù Nñ«c†ç– internet ¢√úøôç.
Å®Ωnç; Å™«é¬èπ◊çú≈ ¢√öÀ °æéπ\† °æ†’-©†’ ûÁLÊ° but not in their meaning. We say safe/ ¶μ˜íÓ-Réπ, î√J-vûªéπ, ≤ƒçÍé-Aéπ, ¨»Æ‘Yߪ’, ®√ï-éÃߪ’ Database = äéπ N≠æ-ߪ÷EéÀ Ææç-•ç-Cμç-*
°æüΔ©’ (go, come, sing, walk, etc) ´ÊÆh happy/ long, etc. Journey; We don’t use N≠æ-ߪ÷© °æJ-ñ«c†ç, É°æ¤púø’ ï®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’†o Computer ™ E-©y-îËÆ œ† ¢Á·ûªhç Ææ´÷-î √®Ωç.
Çߪ÷ ü¿¨¡™x îËÊÆ °æ†’-©E Å®Ωnç ´Ææ’hçC. these words with travel. v°æ´·ê¢Á’i† Ææç°∂æ’-ô-†-©ûÓ Ææ£æ….
Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/chaduvu/chaduvuinner.asp?qry=spokenenglish
-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 18 -V-™„j 2010 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

E. Anil, Singarayakonda Q. Please give the explanation about use of It is used in the
Q. ≤ƒüμΔ-®Ω-ùçí¬ English News 'do', 'are', 'does' in questions. manufacturing
papers ™ passive voice †’ A. Do- ÉC, go, sing, walk, talk verbs™«çöÀ industry =ÅC °æJ-
Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-T-≤ƒh®Ω’. Be form + PP (present simple tense for I, we, you and v¨¡-´’™x ¢√úø-•-úø’-
Öçô’ç-C-í¬F Passive voice ™ they ûÓ) †’, not ûÓ í¬F,question ™ í¬F ûª’çC = üΔEo °æJ-v¨¡-
objectèπ◊ ´·çü¿’ byÖçú≈L éπüΔ? ¢√úøû√ç. ´’™x ¢√úø-û√®Ω’
By E áçü¿’èπ◊ ¢√úø®Ω’? ÅC pas- We go there every day X (Regular action)
sive voice ™ Ö†oö«x? ™‰†ö«x? We do not go there every day The oranges
A. Passive voice ™ á´®√ °æE-îË-¨»®Ω’ Å--E-í¬F, (go 'not' ûÓ ¢√úÕ-†-°æ¤púø’) are imported into c) They have been dismissed (have been +
á´J´©x Ç °æE ïJ-Tç-ü¿Eí¬F ûÁ-L-ߪ’-†-°æ¤púø÷, Do you go there every day? (go, ques- Britain = Ç éπ´’-™«-°æç-úøx†’ vGôØ˛èπ◊ Cí∫’-´’A PP) from service = ¢√∞¡Ÿx ÖüÓuí∫ç †’ç*
ûÁLÆ‘ îÁ°æp-™‰E Ææçü¿-®Ωs¥ç-™†÷, îÁ°æp-†-´-Ææ-®Ωç-™‰E tions ™) îËÆæ’-èπ◊ç-ö«®Ω’ (´÷´‚-©’í¬/ Regular í¬ ïJÍí ûÌ©-Tç-ú≈f®Ω’– á°æ¤púø’ -Å-ØË-C éπ*aûªçí¬
Ææçü¿-®√s¥-™x†÷, by + object ¢√úøç. 'Does'- goes, sings, walks, talks,
ÉC, °æE. éπ´’-™«©’ vGô-Ø˛™ °æçúø´¤, ¢√öÀE •ßª’-öÀ- ûÁL-ߪ’-úøç-™‰ü¿’)
eg: The road was repaired last week (pv) = verbs (Present simple tense for he,
™«çöÀ †’ç* Cí∫’-´’A îËÆæ’-èπ◊ç-ö«®Ω’ ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ) d) They were dismissed (were + PP) last
®Óú˛ véÀûªç -¢√®Ωç repair îËߪ’-•-úÕçC. Ééπ\úø she and it not question Have been/ has been = éÌçûª-鬩ç véÀûªç
ûÓ) -†’ -ûÓ í¬F ™ week. ¢√∞¡Ÿx véÀûªç ¢√®Ωç ûÌ©-Tç-îª-•-ú≈f®Ω’– véÀûªç
á´®Ω’ ®Óú˛ JÊ°®˝î˨»®Ω’ ÅØËC îÁ°æp™‰çéπüΔ? (îÁÊ°h, í¬F ¢√úøû√ç. †’ç* É°æp-öÀ-´-®Ωèπÿ/ Éçé¬ Ö†o N≠æߪ’ç. ¢√®Ωç– ÅE ûÁ©’≤ÚhçC.
municipality ÅØÓ PWD ÅØÓ îÁ§ƒpL – ÉC She goes there every day X Rosaiah has been the CM since YSR's
Have been/ has been + PP = É°æ¤púÕ°æ¤púË
ņ-´-Ææ®Ωç/ Åçûª correct í¬ ûÁ-L-ߪ’-E N≠æߪ’ç She does not go there death = ¢Áj.á-Æˇ.-Ç®˝. îªE-§Ú-®·-†-°æp-öÀ-†’ç* (Just now) °æ‹®Ωh-®·† °æEéÀ ¢√úøû√ç.
éπüΔ? Åçü¿’-éπE Ééπ\úø by + obj ´C-™‰-≤ƒh®Ω’. (goes + not = does not go) (í∫ûªç™ äéπ Ææ´’-ߪ’ç-†’ç* É°æp-öÀ-´-®Ωèπÿ/ Éçé¬)
The shop has just been opened (Shop
The child was kidnapped last night (pv) (E†o Does she go there every day? (go, ques- ®Ó¨¡ßª’u ´·êu-´’ç-vAí¬ ÖØ√o®Ω’.
I have been in Vijayawada for the past ten
É°æ¤púË ûÁ®Ω-´-•-úÕçC)
tion
The books have just been bought =
®√vA Ç Gúøf éÀú≈o°ˇ îËߪ’-•-úÕçC.) (Ééπ\úø ™)
years =
éÀú≈o°ˇ îËÆœçC á´®Ó ûÁ-L-ߪ’†-°æp¤úø’, by + object Ç
Did- ÉC Past tense form: went, sang, í∫ûª °æüË∞¡Ÿxí¬ (°æüË∞¡x véÀûªç-†’ç* É°æp-öÀ-
°æ¤Ææh鬩’ É°æ¤púø’ é̆-•-ú≈f®·.
¢√úø™‰ç éπüΔ?) walked, talked verbs not ´-®Ωèπ◊/ Éçé¬) ؈’ Nï-ߪ’-¢√-úø™ Öçô’-Ø√o†’.
just/ just now
™«çöÀ †’ ûÓ í¬F Å®·ûË É™«çöÀ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x,
´·êuç.

The books have just been bought Anil, T.N.Palem


Q. Sir, i) contrast - difference; ii) indulge -
mischief; iii) while - during; iv) which - that.
°j °æüΔ©èπ◊Oxford Dictionary ™ üΔüΔ°æ¤ äÍé
Ration cards were distributed to the (pv) vil- Å®√n-©†’ Ê°®Ì\-Ø√o®Ω’. ¢√öÀ-´’üμ¿u ÖçúË Ææy©p
lagers ( cards
ví¬´’-Ææ’h-©èπ◊ Í®≠æØ˛ É´y-•-ú≈f®·.) I, we, you and they
(ûÁ©’Ææ’ éπüΔ?
-Ççí∫x-¶μ«-≠æ-ù 607 have been, he, she, it
ûËú≈-©†’ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’?
by + object ûÓ ûÓ Å®·ûË A. Difference- È®çúø’ Åçûª-éπçõ‰ áèπ◊\´ ¢√öÀ
á´-J-ûÓ-ØÓ -ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ü¿’. Åçü¿’-éπE ®√ü¿’.
Q. O’®Ω’ -É-C-´®Ω-™  äéπ ¢√éπuç É™« -îÁ-§ƒp®Ω’. I would has been ¢√úøû√ç ÅE) ´’üμ¿u ûËú≈.
like to have some coffee. Ééπ\úø have Have been + past participle/ has
question ™ í¬F ¢√úÕ-†-°æ¤púø’, did There is a difference between Cell
ûª®Ω’-¢√ûª PP Öçú≈L éπüΔ? have ûª®Ω’-¢√ûª been + past participle -
Phones and land phones = Cell Phones
´Ææ’hçC. í∫ûªç™ èπÿ
some coffee ÖçC áçü¿’èπ◊? She went there yesterday X
v§ƒ®Ωç¶μº¢Á’i É°æp-öÀ-´-®Ωèπ◊/ Éçé¬ ï®Ω’-í∫’- land phones èπÿ ûËú≈ ÖçC.
A. Have ûª®√yûª ÅEoîÓö«x PP ®√¢√-©E áéπ\-úø’çC? M.SURESAN
She did not go there yesterday ûª’†o °æE. Contrast = Opposite/ ¢Áj®Ω’üμ¿uç/ ´uA-Í®-éπûª.
I would like to have some coffee ™ have èπ◊ (went not
†’ ûÓ ¢√úÕ-†-°æ¤púø’) My brothers (they) have lived (have + White is the contrast of black = ûÁ©’°æ¤
Å®Ωnç (ǣ慮Ωç/ §ƒF-ߪ÷-™«xç-öÀN) BÆæ’éÓ-´-úøç. Did she go there yesterday? past participle of live) in Hyderabad for the †©’°æ¤ ®Ωçí∫’èπ◊ ¢Áj®Ω’üμ¿uç/ ´uA-Í®éπç.
É™«çöÀ Å®ΩnçûÓ have °æéπ\† PP ®√ü¿’. have (went, question ™) last 20 years/ since 1990 = í∫ûª 20 à∞¡Ÿxí¬/ There is contrast between him and his
verb form ™ ¶μ«í∫çí¬ ¢√úÕ-†-°æ¤púø’ (Å°æ¤púø’, ´’JEo N´-®√-©èπ◊, spoken English ¢Á·ü¿öÀ 1990 †’ç* (Å°æ¤púø’ v§ƒ®Ωç-¶μº¢Á’i É°æp-öÀ-´-®Ωèπ◊/ brother. He is tall whereas his brother is
have èπ◊ BÆæ’éÓ-´úøç, éπL-T Öçúøôç ÅØË Å®√n- lessons ™ îª÷úøçúÕ. Éçé¬) ´÷ ÅØ√o ûª´·túø’ £j«ü¿-®√-¶«-ü˛™ ÖØ√o®Ω’ short = Åûª-úÕéà ÅûªúÕ ûª´·t-úÕéà ¢Áj®Ω’üμ¿uç (°æ‹Jh
©’ç-úø´¤) ´÷vûª¢Ë’, have + PP ¢√-úø-û√ç.
Manoj
(E´-Æœ-Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’) ûËú≈– N®Óüμ¿ç é¬ü¿’) ÖçC. Åûªúø’ §Òúø’í∫’, ÅûªúÕ
I have coffee in the mornings = ؈’ Tendulkar has played (has + pp of play) ûª´·túø’ §ÒöÀd.
§Òü¿’l† coffee BÆæ’èπ◊ç-ö«†’. Q. Sir, The work is done cricket since 1989/ for the past 21 years = tall and short

}
Åçõ‰ °æE °æ‹®Ωh-®·çC ÅE
I have taken (have + PP of take) a cup of Å®Ωn´÷, °æE °æ‹®Ωh-´¤-ûª’çC ÅE Å®Ωn´÷? black and white
Contrast
õ„çúø÷-©\®˝ 1989 †’ç*/ í∫ûª 21 à∞¡Ÿxí¬ véÀÈéö¸
coffee = have taken (have + PP) The solution is passed into thistle Åçõ‰
Ééπ\úø ™ Çú≈úø’/ Çúø’-ûª’-Ø√oúø’. fat and lean
have, verb solution pass Å®·-†ô’x Å®Ωn´÷? (¢Áj®Ω’üμ¿uç)
™ ¶μ«í∫¢Ë’. DEéÀ BÆæ’éÓ-´-úøç/ éπL-T Have been + pp/ has been + pp - ÉC bright and dark
Öçúøôç ÅØË Å®Ωnç ®√ü¿’. É™«çöÀîÓôx ´÷vûª¢Ë’ éÌEo-≤ƒ®Ω’x It is used in the manufacturing have + pp/ has + pp éÀ passive voice. Åçõ‰ sweet and bitter (îËü¿’)
have/ has/ had °æéπ\† PP ´Ææ’hçC. industry Åçö«®Ω’. Åçõ‰ Ééπ\úø Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-T-≤ƒh-®ΩE
í∫ûª éÌçûª-鬩çí¬ äéπ °æE îËߪ’-•-úø’ûª÷ ÖçC ÅØË Indulge- §ƒ©p-úøôç (îÁúø’ °æ†’©’ îËߪ’úøç/
Q. Passive voice †’ News papers ™ áèπ◊\-´í¬ Å®Ωn´÷?
´uÆæ-Ø√-©’ç-úøôç).
Has, been + v3/ have been + v3 í∫’Jç*
Å®ΩnçûÓ.
Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-T-≤ƒh®Ω’. áçü¿’èπ◊? Would + PP ´÷CJ a) Cricket has been played in India since Mischief = Å©xJ/ ü¿’®√t®Ω_ç
question passive voice ™ Öçô’çüΔ? èπ◊x°æhçí¬ ûÁ©-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
the British days = He indulges in mischief = Åûªúø’ Å©xJ/
N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. The Oranges are imported into Britain vGöÀ≠ˇ §ƒ©† ®ÓV© †’ç*
import ¶μ«®Ω-ûª-üË-¨¡ç™ véÀÈéö¸ Çúø•úø’ûª÷ ÖçC (Å°æp-öÀ- ü¿’®√t-®√_-EéÀ §ƒ©p-úø-û√úø’.
A. News papers ™ passive áèπ◊\´ ¢√-úø-ö«EéÀ
Åçõ‰ Å®·-†ö«x? ™‰üΔ Å´¤-û√-ߪ’E
Å®Ωn´÷? †’ç* É°æp-öÀ-´-®Ωèπ◊/ Éçé¬) While = ÅC ï®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’-†o-°æ¤púø’.
While he was studying = Åûªúø’ îªü¿’-´¤-
鬮Ω-ù«©’, O’ ¢Á·ü¿öÀ v°æ¨¡oéÀ*a† Ææ´÷-üμΔ†ç™ØË
Passive voice ™ Ö†o ¢√é¬u-©†’ ᙫ Å®Ωnç b) They have been taught English for the
ÖçC éπüΔ?
past ten weeks =
îËÆæ’-éÓ-¢√L? O’®Ω’ Ñ Å稻-©Â°j ®√Æœ† °æ¤Ææh-éπ-¢Ë’- ûª’-†o-°æ¤púø’
He said (that) it would be done (would be í∫ûª °æC ¢√®√©’í¬
During = Ç Ææ´’-ߪ’ç™
+ PP) immediately =
üÁjØ√ Öçõ‰ ûÁ©-°æçúÕ. ¢√-R}-éπ\úø -Ççí∫xç -¶-Cμç--úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’.
During his school days = Åûªúø’ Ææ÷\™x
ÅC ¢ÁçôØË îËߪ’-•-úø’- A. The work is done - DEéÀ Å®Ωnç Ææçü¿-®√s¥-Eo-•öÀd
ûª’ç-ü¿E Åûª-úø’ îÁ§ƒpúø’. have been + PP/ has been + PP E í∫ûªç™
Öçô’çC. îªü¿’-´¤-ûª’†o ®ÓV™x.
'Will it be done?' he said. indirect °∂晫Ø√ time ™ ÅE îÁ°æpèπ◊çú≈ Å®·-§Ú-®·† During her stay here = Ç¢Á’ Ééπ\-úø’†o
The work is done - äéπ Å®Ωnç– °æE °æ‹Jh-
DEo
speech ™,He asked if it would be done. °æEE ûÁ©’-°æ¤-ûª’çC. Ææ´’-ߪ’ç™.
îË-ߪ’-•-úÕçC – Åçõ‰ Ééπ\úø °æE í∫’Jç*– ÅC
Would be done? question The road has been repaired. During the elections = áEo-éπ™ x.
ÅØË ¢√úø-´îª’a. °æ‹®Ωh-®·çCí¬ ÖçC – Ñ Å®ΩnçûÓ ÉC, The work
C. Sumanth, Adilabad has been done ûÓ Ææ´÷†ç. (has been + PP of repair) = ®Óú˛ JÊ°®Ω’ Which = àC/ à?
The work is done - ÉçéÓ Å®Ωnç, véπ´’ç That = ÅC.
Q. Sir, please tell the meanings of these
îËߪ’-•-úÕçC (í∫ûªç™ JÊ°®˝ Å®·çC, é¬E
sentences
ûª°æpèπ◊çú≈ ÅC îËߪ’-•-úø’-ûª’çC. (v°æA-®ÓW/ éπ*aûªçí¬ á°æ¤púø’ ÅE îÁ°æpúøç ™‰ü¿’) Which book is yours? = FüË-°æ¤-Ææhéπç?/
Two students have been sent out of class
®ÓW äéπ Ææ´’-ߪ÷-EéÀ ÅE) Ééπ\-úø’†o °æ¤Ææh-鬙x FüËC?
1. Do you read the news paper?
The work is done mostly in the mornings Which/ that = OöÀE È®çúø’ clauses
2. Are you read the news paper? = Éü¿l®Ω’ °œ©x©’ ûª®Ω-í∫A™ç* •ßª’-öÀéÀ °æç°æ-•-ú≈f®Ω’.
Ñ °æE áèπ◊\´í¬ Öü¿ßª’ç îËߪ’-•-úø’-ûª’çC éπL-Ê°ç-ü¿’èπ◊ ¢√úøû√ç.
A. Do you read the newspaper? - correct (Regular action)
(•ßª’-öÀéÀ °æç°œçC í∫ûªç™, Å®·ûË í∫ûªç™
The book which/ that I bought is very use-
ÉC
question form. The College is closed = College
éπ*aûªçí¬ á°æ¤púø’ ÅE ûÁ©-°æ-úøç-™‰ü¿’)
ful = à °æ¤Ææh-éπ-¢Á’iûË Øˆ’ éÌØ√oØÓ (´÷´‚©’
Are you read the newspaper?- ÉC ÆæJ- ´‚ߪ’-•-úÕçC. (= The College has been Compare: The house has been sold =
ûÁ©’í∫’; ؈’ é̆o °æ¤Ææhéπç) î√™« Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫-éπ®Ωçí¬
'are read'
é¬ü¿’. Ééπ\úø verbs (are (be
™«çöÀ closed) É©’x Å´’t-•-úÕçC – á°æ¤púø’ éπ*a-ûªçí¬ ÅØËC ÖçC.
form) + read (1st Regular doing word) ) The College is closed for summer every ûÁL-ߪ’-úøç-™‰ü¿’. É™«çöÀ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x Which éÀ that éà ûËú≈
Öçúø´¤. Spoken English lessons
¢Á·ü¿öÀ May and June = May, June
v°æA College ™ It was sold last week = ÅC í∫ûª ¢√®Ωç Åçûª °æöÀdç--éÓ-†-éπ\-®Ω-™‰ü¿’.
îª÷úøçúÕ. Åçü¿’™ six forms of the verb- ´‚ߪ’-•-úø’-ûª’çC. (´÷´‚©’ ûÁ©’í∫’: (í∫ûªç™ ã Ææ´’-ߪ÷† Å´’t-•-úÕçC)
í∫’Jç* N´Jçî√ç.) ´‚ÊÆ-≤ƒh®Ω’)
Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/chaduvu/chaduvuinner.asp?qry=spokenenglish
-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 25 -V-™„j 2010 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

K.V. Rao, Visakhapatnam 6. Trigger = spark off = cause. E. Anil T.N. Palem
Q. Sir, éÀçC-¢√-öÀéÀ Å®√n™x ûËú≈-©†’ 7. A good night's sleep (Not good night Q. Sir, Would, Could,
N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. Dictionaries refer sleep) = Good sleep all the night Should, must
îËÆœ-Ø√ Å®Ωnç 鬙‰ü¿’. Sound sleep = Good sleep (Any time of É´Fo ¢√úø’-éπ†’,
1. Behave yourself - Conduct yourself the day/ night) would be + PP,
2. Pending - Put on hold 8. Solve = find a way of dealing with a prob- could be + PP,
3. Give oneself - Take oneself - Find oneself
lem. (äéπ Ææ´’-Ææuèπ◊ °æJ-≥ƒ\®Ωç éπ†’-éÓ\-´úøç)/ must be + PP,
4. Right - Prerogative
should be + PP, to
5. Dole out (something) - Dish out (some-
°æJ-≠æ \-Jç-îªúøç Should = must = have to (I, We, you & then)/
thing) The government hasn't yet solved the be + PP ©†’ ᙫ Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-éÓ-¢√™, áéπ\úø has to (He, she or it) - Orders, duty and
6. Trigger (a debate) - Spark off ( a debate) Maoist problem = ´÷¢Ó®·Ææ’d Ææ´’-Ææu†’ Ö°æßÁ÷-Tç-î√™ ûÁL-ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’-í∫-©®Ω’. necessity E ûÁ©’-°æ¤-û√®·.
7. Good night sleep - Sound sleep A. Would: Would †’ í∫ûªç †’ç* (from
v°æ¶μº’ûªyç Éçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ °æJ-≠æ \-Jç-îª-™‰ü¿’. You should do it = you must do it = you have
8. Solve (an issue) - Resolve (an issue) Resolve = N¢√-üΔ©’/ N¶μ‰-üΔ©’/ Ææ´’-Ææu-©†’ the past) ¶μºN-≠æuû˝ í∫’Jç* îÁÊ°pç-ü¿’èπ◊ ¢√úøû√ç. to do it = (order)
†’´yC îËߪ÷L
A. 1. Behave yourself = Telling somebody to He said (í∫ûªç™ ÅØ√oúø’) that he would buy
(´·êuçí¬ ¢√üÓ-°æ-¢√-üΔ©’ Ö†o-îÓô) I should start now or I'll miss the train =
behave properly on an occasion. eg: This °æJ≠æ \Jç-îªúøç (settle). a car (é¬®Ω’ éÌçö«-†E – í∫ûªç™ç* future) DEûÓ train
ØËE°æ¤púø’ •ßª’-™‰l-®√L, ™‰èπ◊çõ‰ ûª°œp-§Ú-ûª’çC
is a serious occasion. Behave yourself =
The border dispute has been resolved = §Ú©açúÕ: must, have to, has to). We should
(Å´-Ææ®Ωç – -
be at office from 10 to 5 =
Ææçü¿®Ωs¥ç î√™« í∫çHμ-®Ωçí¬ ÖçC. ÆæJí¬ v°æ´- He is saying (É°æ¤p-úøç-ô’-Ø√oúø’) that he will 10 †’ç* 5 ´®Ωèπ◊
Jhç. Conduct yourself = Behave in a ÆæJ-£æ«ü¿’l N¢√ü¿ç °æJ-≥ƒ\®Ωç/ B®√t†ç
office (Duty- I've must be/ should
buy (éÌçö«-†E É°æpöÀ †’ç* – from the pre- ™ Öçú≈L.
certain way. I am happy you conducted Å®·çC.
A problem is solved: A dispute/ an issue is sent) a car. be/ have to be - É´Fo äéπõ‰)
yourself well on the occasion = I am
resolved.  Would - past habit. i) Would be+ PP - passive voice - would
happy you behaved well on the occasion.
°j
Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬-©ûÓ.
He told her that it would be done (PV)

The nation is watching it all with apathy


=
ÅC îËߪ’-•-úø’-ûª’ç-ü¿E Åûªúø’ Ç¢Á’ûÓ îÁ§ƒpúø’.
ii) Would be+ PP, used after wish. I wish it
would be completed before 10 = °æC-™Ê°
Could
ÉC °æ‹®Ωh-¢√-©E éÓ®Ω’-èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√o. Å™«Íí
Observe that conduct means behave, be+PP, should be/ must/ have to be/ has
Those days he would take long
but conduct is always followed by a to be+ PP should/ must/ have to/ has
ÅFo
walks in the mornings =
-Ççí∫x-¶μ«-≠æ-ù 608 to + sing, give, take etc. Passive
Ç ®ÓV™x
reflexive (yourself/ himself/ herself/ them- ©èπ◊
selves, etc.)
Åûªúø’ î√™«-ü¿÷®Ωç †úÕîË¢√úø’. (í∫ûªç Voice.
Q. Would
Å©-¢√ô’)
He behaved well = He conducted himself Q.
E Å©¢√ôxèπ◊ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-T-≤ƒh-®ΩE í∫ûªç™ ûÁL-
éÀçC ¢√é¬u-©†’ ņ’-´-Cç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. When he was young he would get
well. Behave = conduct oneself. §ƒ®Ω’. é¬F, í∫ûªç-™E Å©-¢√-ôx†’ ûÁL-Ê°ç-ü¿’èπ◊
1. ؈’ ÆœE-´÷-©Â°j ´’èπ◊\´ °ç-èπ◊-Ø√o†’. up very early and do pooja = ÅûªúÕ used to Ö°æßÁ÷-T-≤ƒh®Ω’ éπ-üΔ? NüΔu-®Ω’n©’ É™«çöÀ
Behaviour = conduct (é¬Ø˛fé˙d) 2. ñ«A ©’ EÍ®y-ü¿çûÓ °æJ-éÀ-Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’. M.SURESAN *†o-ûª-†ç™ (í∫ûªç) §Òü¿’lØËo ™‰* °æ‹ï usage ü¿í∫_Í® í∫çü¿®Ω-íÓ-∞«-EéÀ í∫’®Ω-´¤-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’. -
2. Pending = waiting for a decision to be
taken
3. v°æ¶μº’-û√y-EéÀ <´’-èπ◊-öÀd-†-ôx-®·Ø√ ™‰ü¿’. îËÊÆ¢√úø’ DEo N´-Jç-îª-í∫©®Ω’.
4. áEo-éπ© véπûª’-´¤ äéπ éÌLéÀ\ -´*açC.  'Would' in the question form is used for A. í∫ûªç™ Å©-¢√-ôxèπ◊ would ¢√úÕ-†-°æ¤púø’ ÅC used
Pending file = a file on which a decision is
A. 1. I have developed a liking for movie. formal requests. to äéπõ‰.
yet to be taken.
2. The nation is watching it all with apathy. Would you help me? = O’®Ω’ Ø√èπ◊ é¬Ææh ≤ƒßª’ç He would smoke 20 cigarettes a day those
If a matter is pending, people are still
3. The government doesn't feel a bit îË≤ƒh®√? (Ŷμºu-®Ωn†– request). days.
thinking about it; only, a decision has to
about it.  'Would' in the question form is also used for = He used to smoke 20 cigarettes a day
be taken.
asking for permission. those days.
On the other hand, when something is put 4. The electoral process has reached a
(È®çúø÷ äéπõ‰)
on hold, it is stopped for the time being; it decisive stage Would you mind my using your phone? = Vijaya, Yellandu.
has been postponed; it will be taken up Q. 1. Classic example Classic Phone
Q. Sir,
Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ? í¬ Øˆ’ O’ ¢√úøôç O’éπ¶μºuç-ûª-®Ω´÷? éÀçC- ¢√-é¬u-™x -à-N ÆæÈ®j-†-¢Ó -N-´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
again sometime later  'Would' in the question form is used for
üËEo °æJ-í∫-ùÀç-î√L? 1) It is of two types; It is two types
The project is pending = The project work 2. It is time to reflect on the progress making offer.
2) He is very weak to go; He is so weak to
is continuing but it has not been complet- women and do some introspection. Would you like some coffee? =
go; He is much weak to go
é¬Ææh 鬰∂‘
ed/ settled.
3. Poised on the edge. BÆæ’èπ◊ç-ö«®√? A. 1) It is of two types. It is two types -
The project has been put on hold = The  Used after 'Wish' - I wish he would help me.
È®çúø÷
4. The girl is jovial, fun-loving, liberal in val- correct. Modern usage, 'It is two types.'
work on/ proposals about the project
ues, playful and outgoing.  Used for an imagined event. 2) He is very weak to go, He is so weak to
have been stopped (temporarily) and will
A. 1. Classic example = He'd (would) look more handsome in white go He is much weak to go
be taken up later.
ÆæJí¬_ ÆæJ-§ÚßË’ ÖüΔ- È®çúø÷ ÆæJ-鬴¤.
clothes = He is very week/ so weak,
3. Give yourself/ Take yourself/ Find your-
£æ«-®Ωù ûÁ©xöÀ ü¿’Ææ’h™x ÅûªúÕçé¬ Åçü¿çí¬ èπÿú≈ ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’.
self - These expressions are not phrasal The achievement of Indian Independence Öçö«úø’. (white clothes ™ Ü£œ«ç-- so he cannot go.
verbs, and have no special meaning. is a classic example of the victory of èπ◊†o°æ¤púø’.) Q. õ„j©®˝ ü¿í∫_®Ω èπ◊öÀdç-î√†’. (Ñ ¢√é¬uEo ÉçTx-≠ˇ™
Give yourself = provide for yourself
peace = ¶μ«®Ωûª ≤ƒyûªç-vûªu ≤ƒ-üμ¿-† ¨»çA  I'd (would) rather walk than - go by bus - ûÁ©-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.)
Take yourself - no special meaning.
Nïߪ÷-EéÀ íÌ°æp/ ÆæJí¬_ ÆæJ-§ÚßË’ ÖüΔ-£æ«-®Ωù. bus ™ ¢Á∞¡x-úøç-éπçõ‰ †úø-´ôç É≠ædç Ø√èπ◊. A. I had these clothes/ got these clothes
Find yourself = If you are not hard work-
2. Reflect on = äéπ N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo í∫’Jç* ™ûª’í¬  Used after love, hate, prefer, etc. stitched by the tailor.
ing, you will find yourself a failure in life = ÅEo éÓù«-©-†’ç* Ç™-*ç-îªúøç. Could - Used as the past form of can - í∫ûªç™ Q. Commence Ñ °æüΔ-EéÀ (vi) (vt) - ÅE stan-
†’´¤y ÆæÈ®j† éπ%≠œ îËߪ’-èπ◊çõ‰ @N-ûªç™ N°∂æ-©-¢Á’i- Introspection = Çûªt-°æ-J-Q-©† ≤ƒ´’-®√n uEo ûÁL-Ê°ç-ü¿’èπ◊ -¢√-úø-û√ç. dard Dictionary ™ Éî√a®Ω’. Å®·ûË verb tran-
†ô’x í∫´’-E-≤ƒh´¤. Æ‘Y v°æí∫-AE í∫’Jç* EP-ûªçí¬ Ç™-*ç*, Çûªt- I thought (؈-†’-èπ◊-Ø√o†’ – í∫ûªç™) that he sitive & intransitive í¬ á™« Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫-°æúø’-ûª’çüÓ
4. Right = Moral/ legal claim to do some- °æ-J-Q-©† îËÆæ’-éÓ-¢√-Lq† Æ洒ߪ’ç ´*açC. could do it. Åûªúø’ îËߪ’-í∫-©’-í∫’-û√-úøE ؈-†’- ûÁ©-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
thing. 3. Poised on the edge = Åç† E¨¡a-©çí¬ èπ◊Ø√o†’. Ramarao could be a CM because A. The class commenced exactly at 10 = class
Prerogative = a special right or a special Ö†o-°æp-öÀéÃ, à éπ~ù«-ØÁj oØ√ éÀçü¿-°æ-úÕ-§ÚßË’ ÆœnA. he was a film actor = ®√´÷-®√´¤ Æœ-F†ô’--úÕí¬ ÆæJí¬_ °æCç-öÀÍé v§ƒ®Ωç-¶μº-¢Á’içC. Éçü¿’™
advantage a person/ a group has. The World is poised on the edge of a ÖçúË-¢√úø’ 鬕öÀd, ´·êu-´’ç-vAí¬ Öçúø-í∫-L-í¬úø’. Commence, Intransitive
In Britain the eldest born has the prerog- nuclear war = Åù’-ߪ·-ü¿l¥°æ¤ Åç† v°æ°æçîªç  Could †’ '≤ƒüμ¿u-¢Ë’¢Á÷– ÖçúÌa— ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ They Commenced the show exactly at 10 =
ative of becoming the king. ¢Á·ûªhç EL* ÖçC (à éπ~ù«-ØÁj oØ√ Åù’-ߪ·ü¿l¥ èπÿú≈ ¢√úøû√ç– Present ™ ÆæJí¬_ 10 éÀ ¢√∞¡Ÿx v°æü¿-®Ωz† v§ƒ®Ωç-Gμç-î√®Ω’.
(It is the special right of the eldest born to v°æ´÷-ü¿ç™ °æúÕ-§Ú-´îª’a). Be careful with him. He could be dangerous Commence = Ç®Ωç¶μºç 鬴úøç - Intransitive
be the king. The other children do nor 4. Jovial = Making and enjoying jokes. Commence = v§ƒ®Ωç-Gμç-îªúøç - Transitive
= ÅûªúÕûÓ ñ«ví∫ûªh. Åûª-úø’ v°æ´÷-ü¿-éπ-®Ωçí¬
have this right) Fun loving = loving anything that makes ÖçúÌa. Q. Sir, once you said in a lesson that 'person' in
5. Dole out = Give something (money, food, us laugh. a singular word but another day you used
Carry an umbrella. It could rain = íÌúø’í∫’
clothes, etc.) to a group of people, one by liberal in values = Ææçèπ◊-*ûª ¶μ«¢√©’ ™‰E/ BÆæ’èπ◊-¢Á∞¡Ÿx. ´®Ω{ç ®√´îª’a. (= May rain) 'persons' - please clarify.
one, most often as charity (´·≠œd) N¨»© ¶μ«¢√©’†o  Could in the question form expresses the A. Person - Singular – éπÈ®Íéd ´uéÀh ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ.
Dish out = to distribute something to a
Playful = merry = Ææ®Ω-üΔí¬ ÖçúË politest request. Å°æ¤púø’ '´uèπ◊h©’— ÅØËç-ü¿’èπ◊, Plural, persons
large number of people. On the day of the (Åûªuçûª ´’®√u-ü¿-éπ-®Ω-¢Á’i†)
festival, the devotees dished out lemon
outgoing = †©’-í∫’-JûÓ éπL-Æ œ-§ÚßË’/ Åçü¿-JûÓ Could you lend me your look for a Week? = ¢√ú≈-LqçüË éπüΔ. Person èπ◊ Plural ™‰ü¿E
rice and curd rice to hundreds of people
’-´¤í¬ ÖçúË. ¢√®Ω秃ô’ O’ °æ¤Ææhéπç Ø√èπ◊ -É≤ƒh®√? ØËØÁ°æ¤púø÷ ņ-™‰üË.

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