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nutrition food being taken in, taken apart, and taken up

essential nutrients materials that an animal's cells require but cannot synthesize; include
minerals and preassembled organic molecules--amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, minerals
complete proteins in animal products are _________ amino acids, meaning they provide
all essentials in proper proportions
incomplete proteins in plants are ___________ amino acids, meaning they are missing one
or more essentials
essential fatty acids _______________ are unsaturated and often found in seeds, grains, and
vegetables
vitamins organic molecules with diverse functions that are required in small amounts;
can be water soluble or fat soluble
water soluble vitamins B complex and vitamin C are what classification of vitamins?
fat soluble vitamins Vitamins A, K, and D are what classification of vitamins?
minerals inorganic nutrients, such as zinc and potassium, which are needed in small
amounts from 1 mg to 2500 mg per day
undernourishment the result of a diet that consistently supplies less chemical energy
than the body requires
malnourishment the long term absence from the diet of one or more essential nutrients
ingestion the act of eating
suspension feeders animals that sift small food particles from water
substrate feeders animals that live in or on their food source
fluid feeders animals that suck nutrient rich fluid from a living host
bulk feeders animals that eat relatively large pieces of food
digestion when food is broken down into molecules small enough for the body to
absorb
enzymatic hydrolysis the splitting process that catalyzes digestion
mechanical digestion the process that breaks food into smaller pieces, increasing
surface area to make it available for chemical processes
absorption this occurs when an animal's cells take up small molecules, such as amino
acids and sugars
elimination this occurs when undigested material passes out of the digestive system
intracellular digestion the hydrolysis of food inside vacuoles that begins after a cell
engulfs food
extracellular digestion the breakdown of food in compartments that are continuous
with the outside of the animal's body
gastrovacular cavity this functions in digestion as well as in the distribution of nutrients
throughout the body; found in animals with a simple body plan
alimentary canal a digestive tube with two openings, a mouth and an anus, both of
which are further compartmentalized
peristalsis alternating waves of contraction and relaxation in the smooth muscles lining
the alimentary canal that move food along; enables digestion while lying down
sphincters ringlike valves formed by muscular layers at junctions between specialized
compartments that regulate the passage of material
oral cavity the mouth; where ingestion and the initial steps of digestion occur; presence
of food stimulates a nervous reflex that causes salivary glands to deliver saliva
salivary glands stimulated by presence of food to deliver saliva through ducts to the
oral cavity; initiate chemical digestion and protect oral cavity
amylase an enzyme in saliva that hydrolyzes starch and glycogen into smaller
polysaccharides and the disaccharide maltose
bolus a ball of partly digested food selected by the tongue that moves from the back of the
mouth to the pharynx for further digestion
pharynx the throat region that opens to two passageways: 1) esophagus, 2) trachea
esophagus this connects the pharynx to the stomach; contains striated muscle at the top
and smooth muscle further down to help peristalsis
stomach the organ that is located just below the diaphragm in the upper abdominal
cavity; primarily stores food and continues digestion, though it does absorb a few nutrients
into the bloodstream; can stretch to accommodate 2L of food and liquid; secretes gastric
juices
chyme a mixture of gastric juices and partly digested food; its HCl denatures proteins
protease a gastric juice that contains pepsin
pepsin a protein-digesting enzyme that breaks proteins into polypeptides
parietal cells the cells that release gastric juices by secreting H+ and Cl- ions at high
concentrations
chief cells the cells that release pepsin in its inactive form in the stomach lumen
pepsinogen the inactive form of pepsin which is converted by HCl into active pepsin by
clipping off a portion of it to expose the active site
mucus a viscous and slippery material containing glycoproteins, cells, salts, and water that
lines the stomach that protects against self-digestion;
small intestine the primary station of enzymatic hydrolysis of macromolecules; 6
meters long
duodenum the first 25 centimeters of the small intestine that serves as a major
crossroad in digestion; chyme from stomach mixes with digestive juices of pancreas, liver,
and gallbladder; controls digestive secretions into alimentary canal
pancreas an organ that aids chemical digestion by producing an alkaline solution rich
in bicarbonate and the enzymes trypsin and chymotripsyn
bile a mixture of substances that act as detergents that aid in the absorption of lipids;
stored and concentrated in gallbladder, but made in liver
liver this organ breaks down toxins, balances nutrients, breaks down dysfunctional red
blood cells, and makes bile
gallbladder an organ that stores bile
hepatic portal vein the convergence of veins that carry blood away from the villi and to
the liver, heart, and other organs; allows the liver to regulate distribution of nutrients
large intestine the organ at the end of the alimentary canal; includes the colon,
cecum, and rectum; joins the small intestine with a T-junction sphincter
colon an organ in the large intestine that leads to the rectum and anus; recovers water
that entered the alimentary canal through osmosis
cecum a pouch connected to the large intestine that is important for fermenting ingested
material such as cellulose
appendix a fingerlike projection of the cecum that has a minor and dispensable role in
immunity
feces wastes of the digestive system that become increasingly solid as they are moved
along the colon by peristalsis; it takes 12-24 hours for material to travel the length of the
colon
rectum the terminal portion of the large intestine in which feces are stored until they
can be eliminated; consists of two sphincters: one voluntary and one involuntary
carnivores these animals generally have pointed incisors and canines that can be used to
kill prey and rip or cut away pieces of flesh; jagged molars crush and shred food
herbivores these animals usually have teeth with broad, ridged surfaces that grind tough
plant material; incisors and canines are modified for biting off pieces of vegetation
omnivores these animals have unspecialized teeth--there are combinations of traits
found in both carnivorous and herbivorous dentition
overnourishment the consumption of more calories than the body needs for normal
metabolism; can cause obesity, the excessive accumulation of fat that contributes to type 2
diabetes, some types of cancer, and cardiovascular disease
stomach proteins are digested here into polypeptides by pepsin
lumen of small intestine digested here: polysaccharides, maltose, polypeptides, amino
acids, DNA, RNA, nucleotides, fat globules, fat droplets, glyercol, fatty acids, monoglycerides
amylase primary enzyme for the digestion of carbohydrates
pepsin enzyme for digestion of proteins in stomach
chymotrypsin & trypsin enzymes (in alphabetical order) for digestion of proteins in
lumen of small intestine
nuclease enzymes generally used in the digestion of nucleic acids
lipase enzymes generally used in the digestion of fats
insulin an appetite-regulating hormone that is secreted after a rise in blood sugar