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Alveoli Tiny bronchioles dead end as these clusters of air sacs where gas
change occurs across the epithelia of these.
2. Arteries Carry blood away from the heart to organs
3. Arterioles Small vessels branched from arteries that ferry blood to capillaries
4. Atherosclerosis Accumulation of plaque, resulting in narrower artery bores.
5. Atria Chambers in the heart which receive returning blood
6. Atrioventricular Specialized cardiac muscle tissue responsible for delaying signals
node from the pacemaker so that the atria can empty.
7. Atrioventricular Valve between each atrium and ventricle that prevents blood from
valve flowing back into the atria.
8. Blood Circulatory fluid
9. Blood pressure Motive force of fluid movement in the circulatory system.
10. Blood Vessels Circulatory tubes through which fluids travel through the body
11. Bohr shift Drop in pH lowers the affinity of hemoglobin for O2
12. Breathing Process that ventilates lungs
13. Breathing control Automatic breathing mechanisms located in two regions of the
centers brain, the medulla oblongata and the pons.
14. Bronchi Two tubes which lead to either lung.
15. Bronchioles Bronchus branches into these finer tubes
16. Capillaries Microscopic vessels with thin, porous walls that reside in tissue.
17. Capillary beds Networks of tiny microscopic blood vessels that penetrate every
18. Cardiac cycle One complete sequence of pumping and filling of the heart.
19. Cardiac output The rate at which the left ventricle pumps blood to the systemic
20. Cardiovascular A disorder of the heart and/or blood vessels.
21. Cardiovascular Synonym for closed circulatory system.
22. Closed circulatory System in which blood is confined to vessels and distinct from
system interstitial fluid. The heart(s) pump blood into vessels that branch
into smaller ones that course through organs.
23. Countercurrent Process by which blood flows in the direction opposite to the
exchange movement of water against gills.
24. Diaphragm Lung volume increases thanks to contractions in rib muscles and
this muscle, located in the bottom wall of the chest cavity.
25. Diastole Relaxation of the heart between contractions
26. Diastolic pressure The lower (but still significant) pressure in the circulatory system
between contractions.
27. Dissociation curve Shows the amount of O2 bound to hemoglobin exposed to
solutions varying in oxygen levels.
28. Double circulation System in which blood is pumped to gas exchange organs and
then pumped again through the rest of the system.
29. Electrocardiogram Test by which electrodes detect electrical currents from the
pacemaker that travel through body fluids to the skin.
30. Endothelium Single layer of flattened cells that provides a smooth surface that
reduces friction on flowing blood.
31. Erythrocytes Alternate name for red blood cells
32. Erythropoietin Hormone secreted when tissues do not receive enough oxygen
that stimulates the production of red blood cells.
33. Fibrin Active form of fibrinogen, that forms a framework of threads for
a clot.
34. Fibrinogen Inactive form of sealant that plugs leaks in bloo vessels
35. Gas exchange Uptake of oxygen and discharge of carbon dioxide from and to
the environment (respectively)
36. Gill circulation Mechanism by which blood is routed to gills, where it is
37. Gills Outfoldings of body surface that are suspended in water.
Respiratory surface of many aquatic animals
38. Heart Muscular pump that drives the movement of fluids through the
circulatory system.
39. Heart attack Death of cardiac muscle tissue resulting from prolonged artery
40. Heart murmur Defect in one or more valves that causes blood to flow backward
through a valve.
41. Heart rate Beats per minute
42. Hemocyanin A respiratory pigment found in arthropods and many mollusks.
43. Hemolymph General body fluid found in open circulatory systems.
44. Hemophilia Genetic mutation that affects the clotting process. Causes
excessive bleeding from minor cuts and bruises.
45. High-density "good cholesterol" reduces the deposition of cholesterol.
46. Hypertension High blood pressure. Increases risk of heart attack and stroke, and
promotes atherosclerosis.
47. Larynx Moves upward and tips epiglottis over the flottis so that food goes
down the esophagus to the stomach.
48. Leukocytes Alternate name for white blood cells
49. Low-density "Bad cholesterol" that contributes to abnormal blood clotting by
lipoproteins accumulating in plaques that line the inner walls of arteries
50. Lungs Respiratory surface centralized in one location, common in many
terrestrial vertebrates.
51. Lymph Fluid in the lymphatic system.
52. Lymphatic system System that returns fluid and proteins lost from capillaries into
interstitial fluid to the blood.
53. Lymph nodes Filter lymph and attack viri and bacteria.
54. Myogenic heart Name used for the vertebrate heart, because the pacemaker is made
of specialized muscle tissues and is located within the heart.
55. Myoglobin Oxygen-storing protein found in muscles
56. Negative pressure Breathing system in which mammals create a vacuum in the lungs
breathing by pushing them open, and exhale by contracting their lungs.
57. Neurogenic heart Name given to arthropod hearts where the pacemakers are located
in motor nerves from outside the heart.
58. Open circulatory System in which blood bathes organs directly, and blood and
system interstitial fluid are one and the same.
59. Parabronchi Birds' alternatives to alveoli, non-dead ends through which air
flows in one direction
60. Partial pressure Diffusion of gas depends on this quantity
61. Peripheral resistance Mechanism by which arteries do not lose much pressure because
the heart contracts before enough blood can leave to the arterioles
to relieve pressure in arteries.
62. Plasma Liquid matrix in which blood cells are suspended
63. Platelets Fragments of cells in the plasma that help the clotting process.
64. Positive pressure Muscles lower the floor of the oral cavity to draw in air, then the
breathing mouth closes and the floor of the oral cavity rises, so that air is
forced downward into the lungs in this breathing system. Found in
65. Pulmocutaneous Circuit that leads to capillaries in gas exchange organs where blood
circuit picks up oxygen and releases CO2
66. Pulmonary circuit Circuit which carries oxygen-poor blood to the lungs.
67. Pulse Rhythmic stretching of arteries caused by pressure of blood driven
by contractions of ventricles.
68. Red blood cells Blood cells which transport oxygen
69. Residual volume Amount of air that remains in the lungs after exhaling.
70. Respiratory Source of O2 (air for terrestrial animals and water for aquatic
medium animals)
71. Respiratory Most animals transport O2 bound to these proteins instead of
pigments dissolved form.
72. Respiratory surface Part of animal's body where gases are exchanged with surrounding
73. Semilunar valves Valves at the two exits of the heart that are forced open by pressure
created by contraction of ventricles. Prevents blood from flowing
back into ventricles
74. Sinoatrial node (or Region of the heart that sets the rate and timing at which cardiac
pacemaker) muscles contract.
75. Sinuses Spaces surrounding organs into which hemolymph is pumped.
76. Stem cells Some of these are in the red marrow of bones, and help to create
new red and white blood cells, and platelets.
77. Stroke Death of nervous tissue in the brain as a result of rupture or
blockage of blood vessels in the brain.
78. Stroke volume Amount of blood pumped by left ventricle in each contraction
79. Systemic circuit Circuit that carries oxygen-rich blood through the rest of the body.
80. Systemic circulation Mechanism by which oxygen-rich blood is carried to all other parts
of the body.
81. Systole Contraction of the heart
82. Systolic pressure Higher blood pressure caused when heart contracts in ventricular
83. Thrombus Blood clots that accidentally form and block the flow of blood.
84. Tidal volume Volume of air a mammal can inhale and exhale in each breath.
85. Trachea Windpipe. Air passes from the larynx into this
86. Tracheal system Air tubes that branch throughout insects' bodies.
87. Veins Carry blood back to the heart
88. Ventilation Increases flow of respiratory medium across respiratory surface
89. Ventricles Chambers that pump blood out of the heart
90. Venules At the downstream end, capillaries converge into these, which
converge into veins
91. Vital capacity Maximum tidal volume
92. Vocal chords Exhaled air rushes by these, located in the larynx. These produce
sounds when muscles in the voice box are tensed.
93. White blood cells Blood cells which function in defense