Propaganda, simply put, is the manipulation of public opinion. It is generally carried out through media that is capable of reaching a large amount of people and effectively persuading them for or against a cause. The exact meaning of propaganda is constantly debated, however, and no specific definition is completely true. Some argue that any persuasive communication is propaganda, while others hold that propaganda specifically alters political opinions. However, it is doubtless that propaganda is material which is meant to persuade or change public opinion, and though it often varies in form and technique it always serves the same purpose. Propaganda is communication for the purpose of persuasion.(Reference No.1)

"Propaganda consists of the planned use of any form of public or mass-produced communication designed to affect the minds and emotions of a given group for a specific purpose, whether military, economic, or political." "Propaganda consists of the planned use of any form of communication designed to affect the minds, emotions, and action of a given group for a specific purpose." (Reference No.1)

TYPES OF PROPAGANDA White Propaganda Grey Propaganda Black Propaganda

White propaganda is issued from an acknowledged source... This type of propaganda is associated with overt psychological operations. Grey propaganda does not clearly identify any source. Black propaganda purports to emanate from a source other than the true one. This type of propaganda is associated with covert psychological operations. (Reference No.2)

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NAZI PROPAGANDA In 1933. Although it did not last long. Propaganda was then as now about convincing large numbers of people about the veracity of a given set of ideas. they did produce a list of seven propaganda methods that have become something of a standard. politics and religion. Name-calling: Denigrating opponents.BRIEF HISTORY OF PROPAGANDA RELIGIOUS PROPAGANDA The term 'propaganda' first appeared in 1622 when Pope Gregory XV established the Sacred Congregation for Propagating the Faith. propaganda is as old as people. y y y y Bandwagon: Pump up the value of 'joining the party'. they will pull every string they have to persuade everyone. Card-stacking: Build a highly-biased case for your position. Glittering generalities: Use power words to evoke emotions. Of course. Things have not changed and more recent wars have also had more than their fair share of propaganda. PROPAGANDA AND WAR Wars have always been a good reason for governments wanting to persuade populaces of the justness of their cause as well as hide the horrors and failures of the front line. University of Management and Technology Page 2 . Misinformation and disinformation are widely used to distract people from the truth and create new realities. Hitler realized the potential of propaganda and appointed Joseph Goebbels as Minister for Propaganda. Goebbels was remarkably effective and much of the propaganda literature discusses in detail the methods they used. People with ideas will always want to persuade others about them and. THE INSTITUTE OF PROPAGANDA ANALYSIA (IPA) In 1936 Boston merchant Edward Filene helped establish the short-lived Institute for Propaganda Analysis which sought to educate Americans to recognize propaganda techniques. if they have the power. Entry into the first world war was apparently accompanied with many stories of atrocities that were false.

y y y Plain folks: Making the leader seem ordinary increases trust and credibility. 3) MEDIUMS TO SET THE PROPAGANDA Propaganda. University of Management and Technology Page 3 . a form of propaganda much less risky and difficult than oral communication. propaganda was again bolstered by the invention of the radio. Advertising as well as political propaganda was rapidly accelerated for this new medium. The ability to visually communicate over long distances rapidly increased both the amount and the effectiveness of propaganda. Admittedly. Prior to this development. it became possible to quickly and easily produce posters and books. Although evidence of intentional propaganda can be traced back as far as ancient Greece. THE MODERN WORLD Propaganda and manipulation of reality continues to be used in large quantities in the modern world. Advertisers use the whole gamut of propagandist techniques. the advent of communication media on a larger scale has exponentially increased its usage. most people are taken in and see nothing of how they are manipulated. the beginning of radio also saw the beginning of advertising as we know it today. however. And although some people can see the reality (and some theorize about improbable conspiracies). More recently. direct communication through print was possible. Governments continue to tell their constituencies what they think they need to know. however. has grown immensely during the past few centuries. The ability to communicate orally with large amounts of people in a very small amount of time also helped the development of propaganda. but very few people actually read ads. The printing press enabled the propagandist to quickly produce mass amounts of posters with one intended effect. is the television. although it has existed almost indefinitely. Transfer: Associate the leader with trusted others. After the invention of the printing press. Also. The invention that has impacted propaganda the most. Before radio. it was almost impossible to communicate directly with many people in such a short amount of time. the majority of propaganda was spread by word of mouth. which is another form of propaganda. Radio opened up a whole new world of advertising. Testimonial: The testimony of an independent person is seen as more trustworthy. (Reference No.

(The material under medium and propaganda is purely based on our thoughts) PURPOSE OF PROPAGANDA Propaganda is being set to give a specific direction of thinking. in more recent years. thus. a debate (of what is really aspects of the actual. propaganda is often presented in a way that attempts to deliberately evoke a strong emotion." As one can see. Propaganda can be transmitted as the presupposition or presuppositions within an ostensibly fair and balanced debate or argument. establishing it as an accepted fact about the given issue. and reductive arguments like these are often referred to as sound bites. the actual validity of the war is not discussed and is never in contention. especially by suggesting illogical (or non-intuitive) relationships between concepts. "In war things seldom go smoothly and we must not let setbacks affect our determination". (Reference No. What separates propaganda from "normal" communication is in the subtle. For instance. more obvious a propaganda method than utilized by some other less overt and perhaps even more insidious forms. "setbacks are setbacks. argument worthy issue) in which the debaters argue from the same basic assumptions. and the dove says. genuine. "The war is a disaster and a failure". In giving the appearance of representing opposing positions and view points. "we must stay the course". ways that the message attempts to shape opinion. to which the hawk responds. perhaps. but failures are failures. An appeal to one's emotions is. often insidious.Also. propaganda might be used to garner either support or disapproval of a certain position. implicitly inculcates the presupposition(s) as sacrosanct truth. 4) University of Management and Technology Page 4 . For example. In an age where we are increasingly bombarded by propaganda from a variety of media. the dove retorts. succinct. For example. Brief. the introduction of the Internet and long-distance communication as enabled further increases in propaganda. propaganda may be transmitted implicitly. it is increasingly important to recognize and understand propaganda and its effects. Here is an example of a hypothetical situation in which the opposing view points are supposedly represented: the hawk (see: hawkish) says. rather than to simply present the position. This can be done to great effect in conjunction with a broadcast news format.

Originally the term was not intended to refer to misleading information.conveys a sense of "that which ought to be spread". Propaganda techniques were first codified and applied in a scientific manner by journalist Walter Lippman and psychologist Edward Bernays (nephew of Sigmund Freud) early in the 20th century. Propaganda has been a human activity as far back as reliable recorded evidence exists. Therefore. University of Management and Technology Page 5 . propaganda fide). Pope Gregory XV founded the Congregatio de Propaganda Fide ("Congregation for Propagating the Faith"). For the first half of the 20th century Bernays and Lippman themselves ran a very successful public relations firm. the department of the pontifical administration charged with the spread of Catholicism and with the regulation of ecclesiastical affairs in non-Catholic countries (mission territory). among others) with the potential of large-scale propaganda to control public opinion. important concepts in practical propaganda work. The current public relations industry is a direct outgrowth of Lippman's and Bernays' work and is still used extensively by the United States government. briefly. During World War I. Lippman and Bernays were hired by then United States President. Bernays coined the terms "group mind" and "engineering consent". a committee of Cardinals with the duty of overseeing the propagation of Christianity by missionaries sent to non-Christian countries. and was not originally pejorative. the term itself originates with this Roman Catholic Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith (sacra congregatio christiano nomini propagando or. The actual Latin stem propagand. on the side of Britain. shortly after the start of the Thirty Years' War. The war propaganda campaign of Lippman and Bernays produced within six months such an intense anti-German hysteria as to permanently impress American business (and Adolf Hitler. In 1622. Woodrow Wilson. to participate in the Creel Commission. The modern political sense dates from World War I. The writings of Romans like Livy are considered masterpieces of pro-Roman statist propaganda. the mission of which was to sway popular opinion in favor of entering the war. propaganda meant "things to be propagated".PROPAGANDAS AT INTERNATIONAL LEVEL In late Latin.

The airplane could be disassembled and transported by railroad if needed. printing and leaflet-dropping machinery. and artists were required to register with one of the Ministry's subordinate chambers for the press. music. library. Goebbels would then meet with senior Ministry officials and pass down the official Party line on world events. The Nazis believed in propaganda as a vital tool in achieving their goals. Joseph Goebbels was placed in charge of this ministry shortly after Hitler took power in 1933. Tupolev ANT-20. the United States government developed and freely distributed a video game known as America's Army. Named after the famous Soviet writer Maxim Gorky who recently returned from capitalist fascist Italy.Expanding dimensions of state propaganda. film. Joseph Stalin's regime built the largest airplane of the 1930s. In addition Adolf Hitler and some other powerful high ranking Nazis like Reinhard Heydrich had no moral qualms about spreading University of Management and Technology Page 6 . literature. or radio. both by Hitler's propagandist Joseph Goebbels and the British Political Warfare Executive.S. etc. World War II saw continued use of propaganda as a weapon of war. Army. The giant aircraft set a number of world records. Nazi Germany Most propaganda in Germany was produced by the Ministry for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda (Propagandaministerium. 30% of young people who had a positive view of the military said that they had developed that view by playing the game. theater. photographic laboratory. In the early 2000s. or "Promi" (German abbreviation)). it was equipped with a powerful radio set called "Voice from the sky". The stated intention of the game is to encourage players to become interested in joining the U. exclusively for this purpose. film projector with sound for showing movies in flight. According to a poll by I for I Research. Hitler would meet nearly every day with Goebbels to discuss the news and Goebbels would obtain Hitler's thoughts on the subject. Broadcasters and journalists required prior approval before their works were disseminated. All journalists. was impressed by the power of Allied propaganda during World War I and believed that it had been a primary cause of the collapse of morale and revolts in the German home front and Navy in 1918 (see also: Dolchstoßlegende). fine arts. Adolf Hitler. Germany's Führer. radiostations. writers.

The guests enjoyed the performance of a children's opera. Theresienstadt was a transit camp for Jews en route to extermination camps. but in a sophisticated propaganda effort. and both these Western belligerents from the Soviets. and indeed spreading deliberately false information was part of a doctrine known as the Big Lie. British and Allied fliers were depicted as cowardly murderers. and Americans in particular as gangsters in the style of Al Capone. but that their governments were trying to start a war with Germany. y Until the Battle of Stalingrad's conclusion on February 4. the main theme changed to Germany as the sole defender of what they called "Western European culture" against the "Bolshevist hordes". In reality. y All audiences were reminded of the greatness of German cultural. and military achievements. y Potential enemies. the Nazis permitted the Red Cross to visit concentration camp Theresienstadt in order to dispel rumours about the Final Solution to the Jewish question. were told that Germany had no quarrel with the people of the country. the Soviet Union. University of Management and Technology Page 7 . scientific. On June 23. The introduction of the V-1 and V-2 "vengeance weapons" was emphasized to convince Britons of the hopelessness of defeating Germany. After Stalingrad. y Ethnic Germans in countries such as Czechoslovakia.propaganda which they themselves knew to be false. German propaganda sought to alienate Americans and British from each other. At the same time. especially Jews. such as France and Britain. In contrast. Nazi propaganda before the start of World War II had several distinct audiences: y German audiences were continually reminded of the struggle of the Nazi Party and Germany against foreign enemies and internal enemies. 1944. 1943. fake shops and cafés were erected to imply that the Jews lived in relative comfort. Poland. German propaganda emphasized the prowess of German arms and the supposed "humanity" German soldiers had shown to the peoples of occupied territories (the existence of the Holocaust was virtually unknown at this point). and the Baltic states were told that blood ties to Germany were stronger than their allegiance to their new countries.

written by inmate Hans Krása. COLD WAR PROPAGANDA The United States and the Soviet Union both used propaganda extensively during the Cold War. broadcast original programming. Britain's Foreign Office created the IRD (Information Research Department) which took over from wartime and slightly post-war departments such as the Ministry of Information and dispensed propaganda via various media such as the BBC and publishing. In 1948. The United States Information Agency operated the Voice of America as an official government station. After the shooting. provided grey propaganda in news and entertainment programs to Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union respectively. broadcast white propaganda. it was meant to show how well the Jews lived under the "benevolent" protection of the Third Reich. Hans Fritzsche. each other. were deported to Auschwitz. 1944. was tried and acquitted by the Nuremberg war crimes tribunal. while Radio Peace and Freedom broadcast grey propaganda. Cuba served as a major source and a target of propaganda from both black and white stations operated by the CIA and Cuban exile groups. most of the cast. 1945. Both sides used film. Radio Moscow. and even the filmmaker himself.Brundibar. The ideological and border dispute between the Soviet Union and People's Republic of China resulted in a number of cross-border operations. and broadcast The Voice of Vietnam as well as alleged confessions from the crew of the USS Pueblo. and radio programming to influence their own citizens. Records are listed here (external link) and reports here (external link). in turn. Radio Habana Cuba. Directed by Kurt Gerron. Goebbels committed suicide shortly after Hitler on April 30. University of Management and Technology Page 8 . which were in part supported by the Central Intelligence Agency. Shooting of the film began on February 26. and Third World nations. The hoax was so successful for the Nazis that they went on to make a propaganda film at Theresienstadt. television. In his stead. relayed Radio Moscow. One technique developed during this period was the "backwards transmission. Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. who had been head of the Radio Chamber." in which the radio program was recorded and played backwards over the air. In the Americas. Both sides also broadcast black propaganda programs in periods of special crises. The Soviet Union's official government station.

values. These novels were used for explicit propaganda. and culture of other countries. for example. whose novels Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four are virtual textbooks on the use of propaganda. Through propaganda.One of the most insightful authors of the Cold War was George Orwell. AFGHANISTAN In the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan. DIPLOMACAY AND INTERNATIONAL PULIC OPINION The Cold War inaugurated a paradigm shift in the U. Developments in University of Management and Technology Page 9 . their characters live under totalitarian regimes in which language is constantly corrupted for political purposes. PROPAGANDA. beliefs. Foreign affairs personnel not only observed and reported. portraying Americans as friends of Afghanistan and emphasizing various negative aspects of the Taliban. policy initiatives. Though not set in the Soviet Union. politics. and covert action. offering rewards for Osama bin Laden and other individuals. Leaflets were also dropped throughout Afghanistan. The old maxim that one government does not interfere in the internal affairs of another had been swept aside. secretly commissioned an animated film adaptation of Animal Farm in the 1950s with small changes to the original story to suit their needs. At least six EC-130E Commando Solo aircraft were used to jam local radio transmissions and transmit replacement propaganda messages. when diplomacy was the exclusive province of professional diplomats who used (often secret) negotiations to reach accords based on power and interest. The pattern of international relations was further transformed by the electronic communications revolution and the emergence of popular opinion as a significant force in foreign affairs. Another shows a picture of Mohammed Omar in a set of crosshairs with the words ³We are watching´. opinions. they also participated in events or tried to influence the way that they happened. psychological operations tactics (PsyOps) were employed to demoralize the Taliban and to win the sympathies of the Afghan population.S. government acted directly to influence the ideas. actions. Foreign policy could no longer be pursued as it had during the nineteenth century. agents of the U. practice of diplomacy that reflected changes in the nature of diplomatic activity worldwide. The CIA.S.

On another level. promoted capitalism and democracy. policies. used separately. or in conjunction. the awareness that international public opinion had become a major factor in the conduct of diplomacy meant that propaganda considerations intruded on the policymaking process itself. A report published by the House Foreign Relations Committee in 1964. Throughout the Cold War. if not more so. by appealing over the heads of governments directly to public opinion.mass communication and the increased attentiveness to domestic audiences abroad to foreign affairs meant that the target of diplomacy had now widened to include popular opinion as much.S. and advertised the American way of life in order to win the Cold War. Certain foreign policy objectives can be pursued by dealing directly with the people of foreign countries. effective propaganda and other measures would encourage popular opinion to support U. defended U.S.S. in the coordination and timing of operations. They still serve that function but the recent increase in influence of the masses of the people over government. pressures on their government. to influence their attitudes.S. American policymakers were increasingly aware that international public opinion had to be an ingredient in policy formulation at all levels: in the planning and policy formulation stage. These groups. and other mechanisms. propaganda as it is conventionally understood (the utilization of communication techniques to influence beliefs and actions) was employed as a distinct instrument of U. are capable of exerting noticeable. Through the United States Information Agency. foreign policies. rather than with their governments. foreign policy. Ideological Offensive. entitled "Winning the Cold War: The U. and University of Management and Technology Page 10 . At the most obvious level. which would in turn exert pressure on government policymakers. together with greater awareness on the part of the leaders of the aspirations of people«has created a new dimension of foreign policy operations. Central Intelligence Agency. than traditional diplomatic activities. the United States waged a war of words and of ideas that attacked communism." captured this sentiment well: For many years military and economic power. and at times perhaps even to motivate them to a particular course of action. Through the use of modern instruments and techniques of communications it is possible today to reach large or influential segments of national populations²to inform them. even decisive. propaganda and diplomacy operated on multiple levels. in turn. have served as the pillars of diplomacy. In other words.

presidents and vice presidents. commitment to peace and disarmament without making costly concessions or entering into protracted negotiations. for example. As Robert McMahon has argued. The extensive and instantaneous media coverage that accompanied diplomatic conferences meant that negotiations needed to be conducted on two levels: on the diplomatic level between governments. Taiwan Strait (QuemoyMatsu) (1954±1955). reasoning that popular opinion would exert more of an impact on government officials than vice versa.finally in the last phase of explanation and interpretation by government officials and information programs. On a more routine basis. It also was reflected in the marked increase in the foreign travel of U. Arms control proposals in particular were not infrequently tabled predominantly to satisfy the demands of public opinion for progress in disarmament. they were sounding boards for public opinion and forums for propaganda. were sophisticated propaganda exercises designed to put the Soviet Union on the defensive and establish the U. consideration of international public opinion simply involved the careful selection of words and phrases to describe the objectives of American foreign policy²including the process of creating what came to be known as a "sound bite." Even within the State Department²an institution wedded to traditional diplomacy and wary of popular opinion²the Policy Planning Staff began to argue in the mid-1950s that convincing foreign officials was often less important than carrying issues over their heads to public opinion.S. throughout the postwar period American leaders invoked the principle of credibility to explain and justify a wide range of diplomatic and military decisions. and Vietnam (1954±1973) were driven by a perceived University of Management and Technology Page 11 . Lebanon (1958). This attitude played itself out most visibly in the United Nations. American actions in such disparate crises as Korea (1950±1953). Diplomatic conferences were no longer merely opportunities for resolving international disputes. and on the popular level to win international public support for policies. President Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace and Open Skies initiatives. which became one of the most important arenas for Cold War propaganda. The psychological dimension of postwar American diplomacy also included a preoccupation with American prestige and credibility²concepts that connoted the reliability of American commitments and served as code words for America's image and reputation. an important device for generating news coverage and for reaching international audiences directly.S.

educational.S. The high stakes of all-out war in an age of nuclear devastation meant that the United States and Soviet Union channeled the competition into symbolic modes of combat. In these and other cases. Spectacular feats in outer-space exploration were at once symbolic of the scientific. Nothing better illustrates this than the space race. Paralleling a broader development in international politics. largely because of what they symbolized to people around the world. and military achievements of the superpowers. economic. American actions were driven as much if not more by calculations of how the U. foreign policy continued to be swayed by images transmitted instantly around the globe. involving such techniques as staged media events. but the science of propaganda has simply evolved into less overt forms of image making and media manipulation. Despite the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War's propaganda battles. where symbols and images loom large as critical components of political power. The days of brazenly propagandistic posters and radio broadcasts may have faded into history. University of Management and Technology Page 12 . and.need to demonstrate the resolve. The communication techniques that camouflage modern propaganda have obscured the basic fact that the end of the Cold War has brought about more propaganda. Concerns about the maintenance of American prestige and credibility were undoubtedly magnified by the presence of nuclear weapons. The infusion of psychological considerations and propaganda tactics into the practice of diplomacy is one of the Cold War's most important legacies. determination²in a word. the phenomenon of posturing for public opinion has become increasingly sophisticated. and carefully scripted sound bites. which became the preeminent propaganda contest of the Cold War. would be perceived abroad than by narrowly focused calculations of national interest. generated news. credibility²of the United States. The successful Soviet launch of Sputnik I in 1957 and the American moon landing in 1969 were two of the most significant events of the Cold War. The space race also allowed the United States and the Soviet Union to demonstrate their military prowess²and thus reinforce the credibility of their deterrent capabilities²without appearing warlike. will. orchestrated public appearances. but given the revolution in communication technologies of the late twentieth century it was perhaps inevitable that the ancient art of diplomacy would become affected by the techniques of propaganda and public persuasion. technological. not less.

propaganda itself is not necessarily bad. Propaganda is an attempt to change opinions by persuasively presenting new (Reference No.5): http://www.htm (Reference page 44 University of Management and Technology Page 13 .spiritus-temporis.3): http://changingminds.7): http://www. Washington (p.6): http://en.html (Reference No. By understanding the purpose of the propaganda and the method being used. REFERENCES: (Reference No. but more importantly to influence your decisions.CONCLUSION Although the word propaganda has a negative connotation.2): Linebarger.1): (Reference No. one can go a long way toward making effective independent decisions. 1954. The propagandist attempts to alter the opinions of his subjects or viewers by convincing them of the validity of their own.wikipedia. 39) (Reference No. Psychological (Reference No. It is important to recognize these techniques and examine the purpose of the propaganda before making decisions based on it.8):http://www.9): From Psychological (Reference No.htm (Reference No. he or she uses a variety of methods and techniques. Combat Forces Press. The purpose of propaganda is to change opinions. Paul Myron Anthony. 4): http://www. In order of accomplish this.

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