Don Savage Headquarters, Washington, DC (Phone: 202/358-1547


July 28, 1995

Tammy Jones Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (Phone: 301/286-5566) Ray Villard Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (Phone: 410/338-4514) RELEASE: 95-127 HUBBLE DISCOVERS NEW MOONS ORBITING SATURN Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have announced the discovery of at least two, and possibly as many as four, new moons orbiting the giant planet Saturn. Their discovery is based upon images taken on May 22, 1995, when Saturn's rings were tilted edge-on to Earth. Amanda S. Bosh, of Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff AZ, and Andrew S. Rivkin, also of Lowell Observatory, and the University of Arizona/Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, reported the discovery in the July 27 International Astronomical Union telegram (Circular No. 6192). "We were excited to see new satellites in the Hubble pictures. This was not a primary goal of our observations, so we were quite surprised," said Bosh. Two of the satellites seen by Hubble are in orbits similar to those of a pair of moons, called Atlas and Prometheus, discovered in 1980 by the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. "If these two satellites are the same seen by Voyager, then their orbital longitudes are different from what we expected," said Bosh. Additional Hubble observation of Saturn, taken when the Earth again crosses the ring plane on Aug. 10, will provide more images that will be used to determine whether two of the four satellites detected by Hubble are truly new or not. If all four satellites are new, then the total

number of known moons orbiting Saturn will grow from 18 to 22.

- more -2Two of the new moons (called S/1995 S1 and S2) lie inside Saturn's thin, eccentric "F" ring; a third moon (S3) lies just outside the F ring; and the fourth moon (S4) is 3,700 miles beyond the F ring. The moons are no bigger than about 45 miles across. Hubble's sharp view is ideal for detecting faint new satellites that have previously gone unseen. The astronomers identified the new moons by first processing the Hubble pictures to remove a residual light from the ring edge, and noting the locations of Saturn's known satellites. After this was done, the researchers saw four objects moving from frame to frame that did not correspond with any of the known satellites. "With the exception of S4, which we're having trouble finding in a few frames, we can follow the other three satellites for 10 hours as they go around the planet," said Bosh. Saturn ring plane crossings happen only once every 15 years and historically have given astronomers an opportunity to discover new satellites that are normally lost in the glare of the planet's bright ring system. Astronomers discovered 13 of Saturn's moons during ring-plane crossings from 1655 to 1980. Other satellites were identified during the Voyager spacecraft flybys of Saturn in the early 1980s. After the upcoming Aug. 10 ring plane crossing, the next such event that will be visible from Earth will be in the year 2038. Saturn will be edge-on in 2009 and 2025, but will be too close to the Sun, as seen from Earth, to be observed.

The Space Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. for NASA, under contract with the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency. - end EDITOR'S NOTE: An image accompanying this release is available by calling the Space Telescope Science Institute at 410/338-4562. Also, the image is available electronically on the internet at the following address: ftp: /pub/levay WWW: The GIF file is S1995S3.gif and also a JPEG S1995S3.jpg (faster transmission). The image is gray only, so a TIFF is not needed. NASA press releases and other information are available automatically by sending an Internet electronic mail message to In the body of the message (not the subject line) users should type the words "subscribe pressrelease" (no quotes). The system will reply with a confirmation via E-mail of each subscription. A second automatic message will include additional information on the service. Questions should be directed to (202) 358-4043.