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MEC 211

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
CHAPTER 4
Bending Stresses (normal and
shear stresses) in Straight Beams

Lecturer:
Lim Jiunn Hsuh
Faculty Of Mechanical Engineering
UiTM Pulau Pinang
MEC 211
Chapter 4

Learning Outcomes

Upon completion of this chapter, the students will be


able to understand, explain and apply the following
concepts :
4.1 Shear and Moment Diagrams
4.2 The Flexure Formula Bending Stresses
4.3 The Shear Formula Shear Stresses
MEC 211
Shear and Moment Diagrams Chapter 4

Pure Bending

Pure Bending:
Prismatic members
subjected to equal
and opposite
couples acting in
the same
longitudinal plane
MEC 211
Shear and Moment Diagrams Chapter 4

Other Loading Types:

Eccentric Loading: Axial loading which


does not pass through section centroid
produces internal forces equivalent to an
axial force and a couple

Transverse Loading: Concentrated or


distributed transverse load produces
internal forces equivalent to a shear
force and a couple

Principle of Superposition: The normal


stress due to pure bending may be
combined with the normal stress due to
axial loading and shear stress due to
shear loading to find the complete state
of stress.
MEC 211
Shear and Moment Diagrams Chapter 4

Internal forces in any cross section are equivalent


to a couple. The moment of the couple is the
section bending moment.

From statics, a couple M consists of two equal


and opposite forces.
The sum of the components of the forces in any
direction is zero.
The moment is the same about any axis
perpendicular to the plane of the couple and
zero about any axis contained in the plane.

These requirements may be applied to the sums


of the components and moments of the statically
indeterminate elementary internal forces.
Fx = x dA = 0
M y = z x dA = 0
M z = y x dA = M
MEC 211
Shear and Moment Diagrams Chapter 4

Beam with a plane of symmetry in pure bending:


member remains symmetric

bends uniformly to form a circular arc

cross-sectional plane passes through arc center


and remains planar

length of top decreases and length of bottom


increases

a neutral surface must exist that is parallel to the


upper and lower surfaces and for which the length
does not change

stresses and strains are negative (compressive)


above the neutral plane and positive (tension)
below it
MEC 211
Shear and Moment Diagrams Chapter 4

Objective - Analysis and design of beams

Beams - structural members supporting loads at


various points along the member

Transverse loadings of beams are classified as


concentrated loads or distributed loads

Applied loads result in internal forces consisting of


a shear force (from the shear stress distribution)
and a bending couple (from the normal stress
distribution)

Normal stress is often the critical design criteria


My Mc M
x = m = =
I I S
Requires determination of the location and
magnitude of largest bending moment
MEC 211
Shear and Moment Diagrams Chapter 4

Classification of Beam Supports


MEC 211
Shear and Moment Diagrams Chapter 4

Determination of maximum normal and


shearing stresses requires identification of
maximum internal shear force and bending
couple.

Shear force and bending couple at a point are


determined by passing a section through the
beam and applying an equilibrium analysis on
the beam portions on either side of the
section.
Sign conventions for shear forces V and V
and bending couples M and M
MEC 211
Shear and Moment Diagrams Chapter 4

Sample Problem 4.1

SOLUTION:
Treating the entire beam as a rigid
body, determine the reaction forces

Section the beam at points near


supports and load application points.
Apply equilibrium analyses on
For the timber beam and loading resulting free-bodies to determine
shown, draw the shear and bend- internal shear forces and bending
moment diagrams and determine the couples
maximum normal stress due to
Identify the maximum shear and
bending.
bending-moment from plots of their
distributions.
Apply the elastic flexure formulas to
determine the corresponding
maximum normal stress.
MEC 211
Shear and Moment Diagrams Chapter 4

SOLUTION:
Treating the entire beam as a rigid body, determine
the reaction forces

from Fy = 0 = M B : RB = 46 kN RD = 14 kN
Section the beam and apply equilibrium analyses
on resulting free-bodies
Fy = 0 20 kN V1 = 0 V1 = 20 kN
M1 = 0 (20 kN )(0 m ) + M1 = 0 M1 = 0

Fy = 0 20 kN V2 = 0 V2 = 20 kN
M2 = 0 (20 kN )(2.5 m ) + M 2 = 0 M 2 = 50 kN m
V3 = +26 kN M 3 = 50 kN m
V4 = +26 kN M 4 = +28 kN m
V5 = 14 kN M 5 = +28 kN m
V6 = 14 kN M 6 = 0
MEC 211
Shear and Moment Diagrams Chapter 4

Identify the maximum shear and bending-


moment from plots of their distributions.

Vm = 26 kN M m = M B = 50 kN m

Apply the elastic flexure formulas to


determine the corresponding
maximum normal stress.

S = 16 b h 2 = 16 (0.080 m )(0.250 m )2

= 833.33 10 6 m3

MB 50 103 N m
m = =
S 833.33 10 6 m3

m = 60.0 106 Pa
MEC 211
Shear and Moment Diagrams Chapter 4

Sample Problem 4.2 SOLUTION:


Replace the 45 kN load with an
equivalent force-couple system at D.
Find the reactions at B by considering
the beam as a rigid body.

Section the beam at points near the


support and load application points.
Apply equilibrium analyses on
resulting free-bodies to determine
internal shear forces and bending
The structure shown is constructed of a couples.
W 250x167 rolled-steel beam. (a) Draw
the shear and bending-moment Apply the elastic flexure formulas to
diagrams for the beam and the given determine the maximum normal
loading. (b) determine normal stress in stress to the left and right of point D.
sections just to the right and left of point
D.
MEC 211
Shear and Moment Diagrams Chapter 4

SOLUTION:
Replace the 45 kN load with equivalent force-
couple system at D. Find reactions at B.

Section the beam and apply equilibrium


analyses on resulting free-bodies.

From A to C :
F = 0 45 x V = 0
y V = 45 x kN
M = 0 (45 x )( x ) + M = 0
1
1
2 M = 22.5 x 2 kNm

From C to D :
F = 0
y 108 V = 0 V = 108 kN
M = 0 2 108( x 1.2 ) + M = 0 M = (129.6 108 x ) kNm

From D to B :
V = 153 kN M = (305.1 153 x ) kNm
MEC 211
Shear and Moment Diagrams Chapter 4

Apply the elastic flexure formulas to


determine the maximum normal stress to
the left and right of point D.

From Appendix C for a W250x167 rolled


steel shape, S = 2.08x10-3 m3 about the X-
X axis.

To the left of D :
M 226.8 103 Nm
m = = m = 109 MPa
S 2.08 10-3 m 3
To the right of D :
M 199.8 103 Nm
m = = m = 96 MPa
S 2.08 10-3 m 3
MEC 211
The Flexure Formula Bending Stresses Chapter 4

For a linearly elastic material,


y
x = E x = E m
c
y
= m (stress varies linearly)
c

For static equilibrium,


For static equilibrium,
y
Fx = 0 = x dA = m dA
y
c M = ( y x dA) = ( y ) m dA
c
0 = m y dA I
c M = m y 2 dA = m
c c
First moment with respect to neutral
Mc M
plane is zero. Therefore, the neutral m = =
surface must pass through the I S
y
section centroid. Substituting x = m
c
My
x =
I
MEC 211
The Flexure Formula Bending Stresses Chapter 4

The maximum normal stress due to bending,


Mc M
m = =
I S
I = section moment of inertia
I
S = = section modulus
c
A beam section with a larger section modulus
will have a lower maximum stress

Consider a rectangular beam cross section,


1 3
I 12 bh
S= = = 16 bh3 = 16 Ah
c h2
Between two beams with the same cross
sectional area, the beam with the greater
depth will be more effective in resisting
bending.
Structural steel beams are designed to have a
large section modulus.
MEC 211
The Flexure Formula Bending Stresses Chapter 4

Deformation due to bending moment M is


quantified by the curvature of the neutral surface
1 1 Mc
= m = m =
c Ec Ec I
M
=
EI

Although cross sectional planes remain planar


when subjected to bending moments, in-plane
deformations are nonzero,
y y
y = x = z = x =

Expansion above the neutral surface and
contraction below it cause an in-plane curvature,
1
= = anticlastic curvature

MEC 211
The Flexure Formula Bending Stresses Chapter 4

Sample Problem 4.2


SOLUTION:
Based on the cross section geometry,
calculate the location of the section
centroid and moment of inertia.

Y =
yA
A
(
I x = I + A d 2 )
Apply the elastic flexural formula to
find the maximum tensile and
compressive stresses.
Mc
m =
I
A cast-iron machine part is acted upon Calculate the curvature
by a 3 kN-m couple. Knowing E = 165
1 M
GPa and neglecting the effects of fillets, =
determine (a) the maximum tensile and EI
compressive stresses, (b) the radius of
curvature.
MEC 211
The Flexure Formula Bending Stresses Chapter 4

SOLUTION:
Based on the cross section geometry, calculate
the location of the section centroid and
moment of inertia.
Area, mm 2 y , mm yA, mm3
1 20 90 = 1800 50 90 103
2 40 30 = 1200 20 24 103
3
A = 3000 yA = 114 10

3
yA 114 10
Y = = = 38 mm
A 3000

( ) (121 bh3 + A d 2 )
I x = I + A d 2 =
= (12
1 90 203 + 1800 122 ) + ( 1 30 403 + 1200 182 )
12
I = 868 103 mm 4 = 868 10-9 m 4
MEC 211
The Flexure Formula Bending Stresses Chapter 4

Apply the elastic flexural formula to find the


maximum tensile and compressive stresses.
Mc
m =
I
M c A 3 kN m 0.022 m A = +76.0 MPa
A = =
I 868 10 m 9 4

M cB 3 kN m 0.038 m = 131.3 MPa


B = = 9 4
B
I 868 10 m

Calculate the curvature


1 M
=
EI 1
3 kN m = 20.95 103 m -1

(165 GPa )(868 10 )
= -9 4
m = 47.7 m
MEC 211
The Shear Formula Shear Stresses Chapter 4

Consider prismatic beam

For equilibrium of beam element


Fx = 0 = H + ( D C )dA
A
M D MC
H = y dA
I A
Note,
Q = y dA
A
dM
M D MC = x = V x
dx
Substituting,
VQ
H = x
I
H VQ
q= = = shear flow
x I
MEC 211
The Shear Formula Shear Stresses Chapter 4

Shear on the Horizontal Face of a Beam Shear flow,


Element H VQ
q= = = shear flow
x I
where
Q = y dA
A
= first moment of area above y1
2
I= y dA
A + A'
= second moment of full cross section

Same result found for lower area


H VQ
q = = = q
x I
Q + Q = 0
= first moment with respect
to neutral axis
H = H
MEC 211
The Shear Formula Shear Stresses Chapter 4

Example

SOLUTION:
Determine the horizontal force per unit
length or shear flow q on the lower
surface of the upper plank.

Calculate the corresponding shear


force in each nail.

A beam is made of three planks,


nailed together. Knowing that the
spacing between nails is 25 mm and
that the vertical shear in the beam is
V = 500 N, determine the shear force
in each nail.
MEC 211
The Shear Formula Shear Stresses Chapter 4

SOLUTION:
Determine the horizontal force per unit
length or shear flow q on the lower
surface of the upper plank.

VQ (500 N )(120 106 m3 )


q= =
I 16.20 10-6 m 4
Q = Ay
= 3704 N
= (0.020 m 0.100 m )(0.060 m ) m

= 120 106 m3
Calculate the corresponding shear force
1 (0.020 m )(0.100 m )
I = 12 3
in each nail for a nail spacing of 25
1 (0.100 m )(0.020 m )3
mm.
+ 2[12
F = (0.025 m)q = (0.025 m)(3704 N m
+ (0.020 m 0.100 m )(0.060 m )2 ]
6 4 F = 92.6 N
= 16.20 10 m
MEC 211
The Shear Formula Shear Stresses Chapter 4

Determination of the Shearing Stress in a Beam

The average shearing stress on the horizontal


face of the element is obtained by dividing the
shearing force on the element by the area of
the face.
H q x VQ x
ave = = =
A A I t x
VQ
=
It
On the upper and lower surfaces of the beam,
yx= 0. It follows that xy= 0 on the upper and
lower edges of the transverse sections.

If the width of the beam is comparable or large


relative to its depth, the shearing stresses at D1
and D2 are significantly higher than at D.
MEC 211
The Shear Formula Shear Stresses Chapter 4

For a narrow rectangular beam,

VQ 3 V y 2
xy = = 1

Ib 2 A c 2
3V
max =
2A

For American Standard (S-beam)


and wide-flange (W-beam) beams

VQ
ave =
It
V
max =
Aweb