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MEC 211 Chap 4

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STRENGTH OF MATERIALS

CHAPTER 4

Bending Stresses (normal and

shear stresses) in Straight Beams

Lecturer:

Lim Jiunn Hsuh

Faculty Of Mechanical Engineering

UiTM Pulau Pinang

MEC 211

Chapter 4

Learning Outcomes

able to understand, explain and apply the following

concepts :

4.1 Shear and Moment Diagrams

4.2 The Flexure Formula Bending Stresses

4.3 The Shear Formula Shear Stresses

MEC 211

Shear and Moment Diagrams Chapter 4

Pure Bending

Pure Bending:

Prismatic members

subjected to equal

and opposite

couples acting in

the same

longitudinal plane

MEC 211

Shear and Moment Diagrams Chapter 4

does not pass through section centroid

produces internal forces equivalent to an

axial force and a couple

distributed transverse load produces

internal forces equivalent to a shear

force and a couple

stress due to pure bending may be

combined with the normal stress due to

axial loading and shear stress due to

shear loading to find the complete state

of stress.

MEC 211

Shear and Moment Diagrams Chapter 4

to a couple. The moment of the couple is the

section bending moment.

and opposite forces.

The sum of the components of the forces in any

direction is zero.

The moment is the same about any axis

perpendicular to the plane of the couple and

zero about any axis contained in the plane.

of the components and moments of the statically

indeterminate elementary internal forces.

Fx = x dA = 0

M y = z x dA = 0

M z = y x dA = M

MEC 211

Shear and Moment Diagrams Chapter 4

member remains symmetric

and remains planar

increases

upper and lower surfaces and for which the length

does not change

above the neutral plane and positive (tension)

below it

MEC 211

Shear and Moment Diagrams Chapter 4

various points along the member

concentrated loads or distributed loads

a shear force (from the shear stress distribution)

and a bending couple (from the normal stress

distribution)

My Mc M

x = m = =

I I S

Requires determination of the location and

magnitude of largest bending moment

MEC 211

Shear and Moment Diagrams Chapter 4

MEC 211

Shear and Moment Diagrams Chapter 4

shearing stresses requires identification of

maximum internal shear force and bending

couple.

determined by passing a section through the

beam and applying an equilibrium analysis on

the beam portions on either side of the

section.

Sign conventions for shear forces V and V

and bending couples M and M

MEC 211

Shear and Moment Diagrams Chapter 4

SOLUTION:

Treating the entire beam as a rigid

body, determine the reaction forces

supports and load application points.

Apply equilibrium analyses on

For the timber beam and loading resulting free-bodies to determine

shown, draw the shear and bend- internal shear forces and bending

moment diagrams and determine the couples

maximum normal stress due to

Identify the maximum shear and

bending.

bending-moment from plots of their

distributions.

Apply the elastic flexure formulas to

determine the corresponding

maximum normal stress.

MEC 211

Shear and Moment Diagrams Chapter 4

SOLUTION:

Treating the entire beam as a rigid body, determine

the reaction forces

from Fy = 0 = M B : RB = 46 kN RD = 14 kN

Section the beam and apply equilibrium analyses

on resulting free-bodies

Fy = 0 20 kN V1 = 0 V1 = 20 kN

M1 = 0 (20 kN )(0 m ) + M1 = 0 M1 = 0

Fy = 0 20 kN V2 = 0 V2 = 20 kN

M2 = 0 (20 kN )(2.5 m ) + M 2 = 0 M 2 = 50 kN m

V3 = +26 kN M 3 = 50 kN m

V4 = +26 kN M 4 = +28 kN m

V5 = 14 kN M 5 = +28 kN m

V6 = 14 kN M 6 = 0

MEC 211

Shear and Moment Diagrams Chapter 4

moment from plots of their distributions.

Vm = 26 kN M m = M B = 50 kN m

determine the corresponding

maximum normal stress.

S = 16 b h 2 = 16 (0.080 m )(0.250 m )2

= 833.33 10 6 m3

MB 50 103 N m

m = =

S 833.33 10 6 m3

m = 60.0 106 Pa

MEC 211

Shear and Moment Diagrams Chapter 4

Replace the 45 kN load with an

equivalent force-couple system at D.

Find the reactions at B by considering

the beam as a rigid body.

support and load application points.

Apply equilibrium analyses on

resulting free-bodies to determine

internal shear forces and bending

The structure shown is constructed of a couples.

W 250x167 rolled-steel beam. (a) Draw

the shear and bending-moment Apply the elastic flexure formulas to

diagrams for the beam and the given determine the maximum normal

loading. (b) determine normal stress in stress to the left and right of point D.

sections just to the right and left of point

D.

MEC 211

Shear and Moment Diagrams Chapter 4

SOLUTION:

Replace the 45 kN load with equivalent force-

couple system at D. Find reactions at B.

analyses on resulting free-bodies.

From A to C :

F = 0 45 x V = 0

y V = 45 x kN

M = 0 (45 x )( x ) + M = 0

1

1

2 M = 22.5 x 2 kNm

From C to D :

F = 0

y 108 V = 0 V = 108 kN

M = 0 2 108( x 1.2 ) + M = 0 M = (129.6 108 x ) kNm

From D to B :

V = 153 kN M = (305.1 153 x ) kNm

MEC 211

Shear and Moment Diagrams Chapter 4

determine the maximum normal stress to

the left and right of point D.

steel shape, S = 2.08x10-3 m3 about the X-

X axis.

To the left of D :

M 226.8 103 Nm

m = = m = 109 MPa

S 2.08 10-3 m 3

To the right of D :

M 199.8 103 Nm

m = = m = 96 MPa

S 2.08 10-3 m 3

MEC 211

The Flexure Formula Bending Stresses Chapter 4

y

x = E x = E m

c

y

= m (stress varies linearly)

c

For static equilibrium,

y

Fx = 0 = x dA = m dA

y

c M = ( y x dA) = ( y ) m dA

c

0 = m y dA I

c M = m y 2 dA = m

c c

First moment with respect to neutral

Mc M

plane is zero. Therefore, the neutral m = =

surface must pass through the I S

y

section centroid. Substituting x = m

c

My

x =

I

MEC 211

The Flexure Formula Bending Stresses Chapter 4

Mc M

m = =

I S

I = section moment of inertia

I

S = = section modulus

c

A beam section with a larger section modulus

will have a lower maximum stress

1 3

I 12 bh

S= = = 16 bh3 = 16 Ah

c h2

Between two beams with the same cross

sectional area, the beam with the greater

depth will be more effective in resisting

bending.

Structural steel beams are designed to have a

large section modulus.

MEC 211

The Flexure Formula Bending Stresses Chapter 4

quantified by the curvature of the neutral surface

1 1 Mc

= m = m =

c Ec Ec I

M

=

EI

when subjected to bending moments, in-plane

deformations are nonzero,

y y

y = x = z = x =

Expansion above the neutral surface and

contraction below it cause an in-plane curvature,

1

= = anticlastic curvature

MEC 211

The Flexure Formula Bending Stresses Chapter 4

SOLUTION:

Based on the cross section geometry,

calculate the location of the section

centroid and moment of inertia.

Y =

yA

A

(

I x = I + A d 2 )

Apply the elastic flexural formula to

find the maximum tensile and

compressive stresses.

Mc

m =

I

A cast-iron machine part is acted upon Calculate the curvature

by a 3 kN-m couple. Knowing E = 165

1 M

GPa and neglecting the effects of fillets, =

determine (a) the maximum tensile and EI

compressive stresses, (b) the radius of

curvature.

MEC 211

The Flexure Formula Bending Stresses Chapter 4

SOLUTION:

Based on the cross section geometry, calculate

the location of the section centroid and

moment of inertia.

Area, mm 2 y , mm yA, mm3

1 20 90 = 1800 50 90 103

2 40 30 = 1200 20 24 103

3

A = 3000 yA = 114 10

3

yA 114 10

Y = = = 38 mm

A 3000

( ) (121 bh3 + A d 2 )

I x = I + A d 2 =

= (12

1 90 203 + 1800 122 ) + ( 1 30 403 + 1200 182 )

12

I = 868 103 mm 4 = 868 10-9 m 4

MEC 211

The Flexure Formula Bending Stresses Chapter 4

maximum tensile and compressive stresses.

Mc

m =

I

M c A 3 kN m 0.022 m A = +76.0 MPa

A = =

I 868 10 m 9 4

B = = 9 4

B

I 868 10 m

1 M

=

EI 1

3 kN m = 20.95 103 m -1

(165 GPa )(868 10 )

= -9 4

m = 47.7 m

MEC 211

The Shear Formula Shear Stresses Chapter 4

Fx = 0 = H + ( D C )dA

A

M D MC

H = y dA

I A

Note,

Q = y dA

A

dM

M D MC = x = V x

dx

Substituting,

VQ

H = x

I

H VQ

q= = = shear flow

x I

MEC 211

The Shear Formula Shear Stresses Chapter 4

Element H VQ

q= = = shear flow

x I

where

Q = y dA

A

= first moment of area above y1

2

I= y dA

A + A'

= second moment of full cross section

H VQ

q = = = q

x I

Q + Q = 0

= first moment with respect

to neutral axis

H = H

MEC 211

The Shear Formula Shear Stresses Chapter 4

Example

SOLUTION:

Determine the horizontal force per unit

length or shear flow q on the lower

surface of the upper plank.

force in each nail.

nailed together. Knowing that the

spacing between nails is 25 mm and

that the vertical shear in the beam is

V = 500 N, determine the shear force

in each nail.

MEC 211

The Shear Formula Shear Stresses Chapter 4

SOLUTION:

Determine the horizontal force per unit

length or shear flow q on the lower

surface of the upper plank.

q= =

I 16.20 10-6 m 4

Q = Ay

= 3704 N

= (0.020 m 0.100 m )(0.060 m ) m

= 120 106 m3

Calculate the corresponding shear force

1 (0.020 m )(0.100 m )

I = 12 3

in each nail for a nail spacing of 25

1 (0.100 m )(0.020 m )3

mm.

+ 2[12

F = (0.025 m)q = (0.025 m)(3704 N m

+ (0.020 m 0.100 m )(0.060 m )2 ]

6 4 F = 92.6 N

= 16.20 10 m

MEC 211

The Shear Formula Shear Stresses Chapter 4

face of the element is obtained by dividing the

shearing force on the element by the area of

the face.

H q x VQ x

ave = = =

A A I t x

VQ

=

It

On the upper and lower surfaces of the beam,

yx= 0. It follows that xy= 0 on the upper and

lower edges of the transverse sections.

relative to its depth, the shearing stresses at D1

and D2 are significantly higher than at D.

MEC 211

The Shear Formula Shear Stresses Chapter 4

VQ 3 V y 2

xy = = 1

Ib 2 A c 2

3V

max =

2A

and wide-flange (W-beam) beams

VQ

ave =

It

V

max =

Aweb

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