Laterally Loaded Pile 2911

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Laterally Loaded Pile 2911

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LINEAR SPRING APPROACH AND IS: 2911 (2010)

J.C. Shukla, L&T Sargent & Lundy Ltd. Vadodara, India. E mail: Jaykumar.Shukla@Lntsnl.com

P.J Shukla, App. Mech. Dept , K.J. Polytechnic, Bharuch, India. Pn_dave@rediffmail.com

D.L. Shah, Professor, App. Mech. Dept., M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara, India. dr_dlshah@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT: There are many approaches to estimate the lateral capacity of piles however, Beams on elastic

foundation still very popular in the practice. In present study relatively simple iterative procedure is adopted to

estimate the lateral load capacity of the piles using beams on elastic foundations. The instrumented pile history of

Mustang Island is selected to demonstrate the efficiency of the method and compared with the actual measured

response of the pile. In order to demonstrate the applicability in the Indian context, the results are also compared

with the lateral pile analysis recommendations given in IS:2911 Part 1 (2010). The approach uses the SAP2000

computer code for the estimation of the lateral response against the applied load. The comparison reveals that the

present approach is efficient and can be used for preliminary estimation of the lateral response of the piles. Case of

small loading and high loading are also incorporated in the present study to investigate its applicability. It is

observed that for both of the level of loading (high and low) the present approach is efficient compared to the

equivalent cantilever approach of IS: 2911. The estimated lateral displacement, shear force and bending moment

response are compared with the actual observed response at the end of the paper.

INTRODUCTION

Laterally loaded piles can readily be idealized and SPT N- values, California bearing ratios and

analyzed as beams on an elastic foundation using undrained shear strengths. Alternatively, they may

the Winkler soil model in order to obtain be estimated using empirical formulae that have

acceptable values of bending moment and shear been proved to be reasonably representative of the

force. This approach is relatively crude and is soil(s) under consideration.

obviously not as sophisticated as analyses based on Assessments or choices of kh for single piles, pile

elastic continuum theories. It does, however, groups and continuous sheet piling are

provide a useful means of carrying out preliminary understandably somewhat different. The software

designs. like SAP2000/STAAD allows user to model spring

Soil is an intrinsically variable material, even in the supports for subgrade reaction and can, therefore,

same location and at the same depth. Accordingly, be used to analyze each of these constructions

the idea of estimating the deformation using whatever variations of let, are considered

characteristics of the soil for analytical purposes appropriate by the designer(s). In the subsections

must be considered from a practical viewpoint, which follow, the generally accepted estimations of

with the intention of formulating a representative kh are described and used in the following

mathematical model. It must be understood that the illustrative examples, with kh set to allow tension.

Winkler soil model does not pretend to predict the .

real behavior of the soil as it does not allow for Single Piles

continuity within the soil mass. The sensitivity of Consider a single pile of width b (b is the diameter

the modulus of horizontal subgrade reaction (kh), of a circular pile or b is the width of a

the parameter central to the analysis, is not usually square/rectangular pile which is normal to the

great. It is always advisable, however, to carry out applied loading) with an embedded length of L

sensitivity analyses using a wide range of kh subjected to lateral loading as shown in Figure 1

values. Values of kh may be assessed by reference The assumed variation of the modulus of

to indirect parameters relating to soil stiffness, e.g.

Page 1 of 7

Shukla J. C., Shukla, P. J., and Shah D. L.

the soil type and site conditions (Fig. 1(b) and (c)). indicated that the values in Table 1 are very much

In general, the modulus of horizontal subgrade on the low side. Elson (1994) recommends that

reaction k, accounting for the width b of the pile, is Terzaghi (1955) values are used as a lower limit

given by k= kh*b and that values calculated from the following

where kh, is the modulus of horizontal subgrade relationship attributed to Reese et al. (1974) should

reaction for a pile of unit width, and b is the width be used as an initial upper limit for sands

of pile.(Units: k in kN/m2 , kh in kN/m2 /mm and b n ' h = 0.19 D 1.16

in mm) Where nh is the initial value of nh

The variation of kh shown in Figure 1 (b) can be

expressed as at small strain expressed in kN/m2/mm and D is the

z relative density of soil expressed as a percentage.

k h = nh ( ) ; where nh is the rate of increase of

b Some observed values of nh for normally

k), with depth z measured from ground level for a consolidated clays lie in the range of0-35 to 070

single pile (Units: nh in kN/m2/mm and z, bin kN/m2 /mm.

nun). In order to account for the non-linear behavior of

piles at higher loads, Garassino et al. (1976)

suggested the following relationship for sands and

normally consolidated clays

q

yg b

'

nh = n h y '

g

b

where nh is the modulus of horizontal subgrade

reaction for a pile of unit width (in kN/m2 /mm), yg

is the lateral deflection of the pile at ground level

(in mm), yg is the limiting value of lateral

deflection of the pile at ground level for which nh,

applies (in mm), and q is the dimensionless

exponent (in the range - 05 to -07). Typical

values of yg, expressed as a percentage, are given

in Table 2.

Fig. 1 (a) single pile; (b) generally assumed

variation of horizontal subgrade reaction modulus Table 1 Terzaghi (1955) values of nh for sands in

for sands, normally consolidated days and variable kN/m2 /mm

over-consolidated clays (where the effect of local

yield at ground level and /or surface weathering are Relative density

significant); (c) assumed variation of horizontal Loose Medium Dense

subgrade reaction modulus for uniform over- dense

consolidated clays (where the effect if local yield at SPT (blows 4 to 10 10 to 30 30

ground level and /or surface weathering are not / 300 mm)

significant) Dry moist 3 6 17

sand

In the case of sands, Terzaghi (1955) has suggested Submerged 1 4 10

the values of nh given in Table 1. These are valid sand

for stresses up to one half of the ultimate soil

pressure and include an allowance for long term Note : The above values of nh may be modified to

movements. However, interpretations of in-situ allow for difference in the width b (mm) of the pile

Page 2 of 7

Comparison of lateral load capacity of pile using simplified linear spring approach and IS: 2911 (2010)

and the 305 mm square plate used in the tests to to derive the above values kh(modified)= kh(from Table) X

determine above values; nh(modified)= nh(from Table) X (b/305)-0.75

(b/305)-0.75

IS: 2911 Recommendations on values of k /h

Table 2 Typical values of lateral deflection of the (after

pile at ground level

Table 4 Values of constant for sand (h)

Soil Type y'g/b (%)

Sands 0.2 to 1.0 Types of Above Water Submerged in

Normally consolidated 0.2 to 0.5 soil Table (kPa/m) (kPa/m)

clays IS:29 Recom IS:29 Recomm

11 mended 11 ended by

A suitable value of yg/b is chosen by following the by Author

iterative procedure listed below. Author

1. Choose a trial value of yg/b Loose 2600 6790 1460 5430

2. Calculate nh using equation given by Sand

Garassino et al. (1976) Medium 7750 24430 5250 16300

3. Use any good analysis package /software Dense

(SAP 2000 / STAAD) to analyze the pile Sand

(beam supported on springs) to obtain a Dense 20750 61000 12450 33900

value of yg Sand

4. Calculate yg/b

If this calculated value of yg/b is significantly Table 5 Values of constant for Clay (k)

different (say 10%) from that the assumed, revise

the value of yg/b and go back to step 2. Unconfined Value in k= 67*Cu

In the case of stiff, over consolidated clays, the 2

compressive kg/cm (kPa) (Prakash and

value of the modulus of horizontal subgrade strength in Sharma )

reaction k (in kN/m2) for short term loading can be kg/cm 2

(kPa) (kPa)

assumed to be in the range 200 Cu k 400 Cu (Cu)

where Cu is the undrained shear strength of clay (in 0.2 to 0.4 (20 to 7.75 (775) 1340 to 2680

kN/m2). Moreover, for long term loading and for 40)

stresses up to 50 % of ultimate load, one third of 1 to 2 (100 to 48.80 (4880) 6700 to 13400

the above values may be appropriate. Terzaghi 200)

(1955) recommended values of modulus kh (k/b) 2 to 4 (200 to 97.75 (9775) 13400 to

for different values of Cu, are given in Table 3. 400) 26800

More than 4 195.50 >26800

Table 3 Terzaghi (1955) values of kh for clays in (400) (19550)

kN/m2/mm

Consistency of clay Example Problem

Firm to Stiff Very Hard The problem presented by Reese et al. (1974) for

stiff Stiff instrumented piles in Mustang Island is selected to

Cu 50 to 100 to 200 to >400 demonstrate the methodology and will be

(kN/m2) 100 200 400 compared with IS:2911 procedure and actual

*kh (305 15 27 54 >108 measurements.

mm plate)

Note: The above values of kh may be modified to

allow for the difference in the width of the pile b

(mm) and the 305 mm square plate used in the tests

Page 3 of 7

Shukla J. C., Shukla, P. J., and Shah D. L.

Summary of Results

displacem d

ent at Maximu

ground m

level bending

(mm) moment

(kN.m)

Actual/measur Initial 5 125

ed Reese et al. Loading

(1974) High 23 374

Loading

IS:2911, static Initial 2.74 156*

estimate using Loading

provisions in High 6.7 386*

code/procedure Loading

The two tests were carried out on the test piles s

STAAD with Initial 4.38 105.34

Lateral Moment spring constant Loading

force (kN) (kNm) for short term High 10.67 253.66

Initial Loading 89 23 loading as per Loading

by Reese et al.

High Loading 220 56

(1974)

STAAD with Initial 7.66 118.95

IS : 2911 Procedure :

spring constant Loading

As per Table 4, selecting h = 12.45 MN/m3

for high High 18.77 287.18

EI = 163000 kN.m2

loading as per Loading

EI

T =5 = 1.672 Garassino et al.

nh (1976)

Considering load application on ground (L1=0.305 STAAD with Initial 7.79 119.32

m), referring the Figure 2 of Appendix C of spring constant Loading

IS:2911 (Part 1), for L1/T =0.18, Lf/T = 2.1 for selected from High 19.02 288.10

fixed end condition IS:2911 Loading

Hence depth of fixity below ground level = Lf = LPILE analysis Initial 5.34 136.501

2.1 * T = 3.512 m ( 5.75 D). Loading

Total Horizontal force on Pile (Q) High 22.67 398.08

= 89 kN + 26/3.512 = 96.40 (for Initial loading) Loading

= 220 kN + 15.95 = 235.95 (for High Loading)

Knowing the total horizontal load on pile and Observations and recommendations:

length of the equivalent cantilever (length of 1. The idealization of spring supports using

fixity), the pile had deflection shall be computed theory of beams on elastic foundations

using the equation given in IS: 2911 (Winkler Model) is useful approach for

Q( L1 + L f ) 3 preliminary / approximate analysis of the

Y= for fixed head condition laterally loaded piles.

12 EI 2. There are wide variations in the

Y = 2.74 mm (for Initial loading) recommendations for modulus of subgrade

Y=6.7 mm (for high loading) reaction values (k) for soils. Since the k-

Page 4 of 7

Comparison of lateral load capacity of pile using simplified linear spring approach and IS: 2911 (2010)

value is not fundamental soil property, its 7. It is also observed that IS: 2911 may predict

evaluation requires geotechnical expertise the load very close to the actual values

and engineering judgment for appropriate (especially for long term loading based on

solutions of the problem. the formulae specified in IS:2911) however,

3. The uncoupled spring idealization of soil it will under predict the displacement which

supporting a pile is useful approach. may cause serviceability problem. In such

However, sensitivity of the spring value case of long term loading, the present

must be attempted in order to get the better methodology using the value of modulus of

solution of the laterally loaded pile problem subgrade reaction can be used to predict the

especially for particular loading conditions displacement.

i.e. Short term/ Long term / Cyclic. The 8. LPILE results are in very good agreement

problem can be extended by bilinear with the actual measured values which

approximation of the spring value and further indicate that the later pile analysis

considering different spring value using p-y curve approach is better

respective to soil layering which may compared to other methods in all the

increase computing effort to get more loading cases. Figure 3 and 4 gives

precise solutions (Fig. 2a and 2b). STADD Pro and L Pile output for lateral

4. It is also advisable to consider the analysis respectively.

construction method, consolidation, long

term settlement etc. as influencing factor References:

for such analysis since they will in fact 1. Terzaghi K., (1955). Evaluation of

modify the in situ soil properties thereby coefficient of subgrade reaction.

modulus of subgrade reaction. Geotechnique, 5(4), 297-326.

5. The soil stiffness thereby modulus of 2. Reese L. C., Cox W.R. and Koop F.D.,

subgrade reaction value of soil may degrade (1974). Analysis of laterally loaded piles in

under the action of cyclic loading. Some stiff clay. Proc. 7th offshore Tech. Conf.,

gapping phenomena have been observed Houston, Texas, 473-483.

worldwide especially in clay soil which 3. Garassino A., Jamilokowski M. and

may not be possible to model using present Pasqualini E., (1976). Soil modulus for

approach and some specialized computer laterally loaded piles in sand and NC clays.

codes like LPILE, OPILE, FLPIER should Proc. 6th Europ. Conf. on Soil Mech. and

be used. Found. Engng, Vienna, 1.2, 429-434.

6. It is observed that the modulus of subgrade 4. Ramasamy G., Gopal Ranjan and Jain

reaction specified in IS:2911 are lower N.K., (1987). Modification to Indian

bound values and for short term loading Standard code procedure on lateral capacity

higher values may be selected. of piles. Indian Geotechnical Journal, 17(3),

249-258.

Page 5 of 7

Shukla J. C., Shukla, P. J., and Shah D. L.

Page 6 of 7

Comparison of lateral load capacity of pile using simplified linear spring approach and IS: 2911 (2010)

Page 7 of 7

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