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# 3.2.1 3.2.

## Chapter 17 - Waves and Sound (p. 500)

Waves - any periodic disturbance in a material that travels from one region to another
These waves carry energy from one place to another
You can feel a water wave pick you up in a pool
2 Major Types:
1. Mechanical - travels through a material or medium (could be a solid, liquid, or gas)
i.e. waves on a rope or spring, water waves and sound waves
2. Electromagnetic - travels through a vacuum (empty space)
i.e. radio, TV, radar, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays, Gamma rays (in Chap 18)
Types of Mechanical Waves (p. 501-503):
1. Transverse Waves (p. 501) wave that causes the medium to vibrate at right angles to the
direction in which the wave travels
Examples: vibrated rope, throwing a blanket up and down to get the crumbs off
Crest highest point of a wave
Trough lowest point of a wave
http://www.surendranath.org/Applets/Waves/Twave01/Twave01Applet.html
http://id.mind.net/~zona/mstm/physics/waves/partsOfAWave/waveParts.htm

## These waves repeat at regular time intervals

Part of an ocean wave behaves like a transverse wave (ocean waves are surface waves)
2. Longitudinal Waves or Compressional Waves (p. 502) wave in which the material moves
back and forth, making compressed and expanded regions
Example: Sound waves, waves in springs
Compression-high pressure area; crowded molecules
Rarefaction-low pressure area; spread out molecules

## 17.2 Properties of Mechanical Waves (p. 504)

Wavelength - distance between two successive analogous (same) points on a wave
usually measured in meters
add wavelength label to pictures above
Wave Wavelength

## Transverse 2 consecutive points: crest to crest or trough to trough

Frequency - the number of wave crests that pass one place each second
Expressed in hertz (Hz)
1 Hz = 1 wave per second
Based on both its wavelength and speed
For example: if four water waves pass a buoy in one second, then the waves have a
frequency of 4 Hz

## Pitch = frequency of a sound wave as you perceive it (p. 515)

High frequency sounds = high pitch
Low frequency sounds = low pitch
Depends on other factors such as your age and the health of your ears

## Period - the mathematical inverse of frequency

# of seconds required for one wavelength to pass a given point
Or stated another way, the time required for one cycle (for example, crest to crest)
As frequency increases, period decreases
As the waves are closer together, it takes less time for 2 crests to pass
Wave Velocity describes how fast the wave moves forward
Velocity (v) = frequency (f) x wavelength ( vw = f
For example: 3 waves with wavelength of 2 meters pass a point in 1 second. What is the velocity of the
wave? V = (3 Hz)(2 m) = 6 m/s V = (3 1/s)(2 m) = 6 m/s

Amplitude - measure of the maximum displacement of a material from its rest position (p. 507)
Amplitude is related to the quantity of energy a wave carries with it
o i.e. a tall water wave can carry a surfer farther and faster (high amplitude = lots of
energy)
o dropping a pebble into a pond (low amplitude = not much energy)

## Low Amplitude = low-energy High Amplitude = high-energy

In a sound wave (compressional), the material actually moves back and forth, so the
amplitude is measured by the movement of what generates the wave
o i.e. how many millimeters did the speaker move in or out from rest to produce the
sound???
Wave velocity problems: v = f velocity = frequency x wavelength)
1. A wave is generated in a wave pool at a water amusement park. The wavelength is 4.5 m.
The frequency of the wave is 0.75 Hz. What is the velocity of the wave? .75 x 4.5 = 3.38m/s
2. A wave moving along a rope has a wavelength of 1.2 m and a frequency of 4.5 Hz. How fast
is the wave traveling along the rope? 4.5 x 1.2 = 5.4m/s
3. An ocean wave has a length of 10.0 m. The frequency is 2.0 Hz. What is the velocity of the
wave? 2.0 x 10.0 = 20.0m/s
4. A wave moving along a rope has a wavelength of 3.7 m. The frequency is 3.5 Hz. What is
the velocity of the wave?
3.5 x 3.7 = 13.0m/s
5. An ocean wave has a length of 7.5 m and a frequency of 1.5 Hz. What is the velocity of the
wave? 1.5 x 7.5 = 11.3m/s
Chapter 17.4 Sound and Hearing (p. 514)
Sound waves - longitudinal or compression waves that travel through a medium
Properties of Sound Waves:
1. Speed
Takes time for sound to travel from place to place
Sounds waves travel fastest in solids, slower in liquids and slowest in gases
2. Intensity and Loudness
Intensity rate at which a waves energy flows through a given area
Depends on both the waves amplitude and distance from the sound source
Decibel unit that compares the intensity of different sounds
For every 10-decibel increase, the sound intensity increases tenfold
Intensity Level Intensity Level
Sound (decibels) Sound (decibels)
Threshold of human hearing 0 Inside a bus 90-100
Whisper 15-20 Rock concert 110-120
Normal conversation 40-50 Threshold of pain 120
Street noise 60-70 Jet plane taking off 120-160
Loudness physical response to the intensity of sound
As intensity increases, loudness increases
3. Frequency and Pitch
frequency depends on how fast the source of sound is vibrating
pitch frequency of a sound as you perceive it
High frequency sounds have high pitch
Low frequency sounds have low pitch

## Chapter 18.1 Electromagnetic Waves (p. 532)

Electromagnetic waves - transverse waves that transfer energy by radiation
Vary in length
Do not need a medium to travel through
Can travel through a vacuum(empty space) or through matter
Can move at the speed of light a maximum speed of 300,000,000 meters/second or 186,000
miles/second in empty space
Moves more slowly through glass, water or other materials
Electromagnetic spectrum: decreasing wavelength = increasing frequency
Radio waves- long wavelengths and low frequencies
Visible radiation- only part of the spectrum that you can see
Gamma rays- highest frequency and shortest wavelength, most penetrating
Remember: longer, lower, lower ; shorter, higher, higher Fix this on your sheet!

## Electromagnetic spectrum-how electromagnetic waves are classified

Decreasing wavelength = increasing frequency
Radio waves- have long wavelengths and low frequencies (i.e. AM, FM, and shortwave radio,
microwave, radar, and TV)
Infrared radiation- wavelength slightly longer than visible light (i.e. indicates the presence of heat,
warmth from sun)
Visible radiation- only part of the spectrum that you can see
Ultraviolet radiation- higher frequency than visible light (i.e. exposure enables skin cells to produce Vit
D; tanning is your skins protection against UV radiation; overexposure = kills healthy cells/burning of
skin; skin cancer)
X Rays- shorter wavelength and higher frequency than UV radiation (i.e. penetrating power; when it
travels through skin it will hit the denser material-bone or teeth-and it is absorbed)
Gamma rays-highest frequency; most penetrating; emitted from the nuclei of radioactive atoms;
destructive to human cells; used to treat cancer cells

Summary:
Two main types of wave: mechanical (longitudinal and transverse) and electromagnetic.
Mechanical waves need a medium to transfer energy. Longitudinal are also known as compressional waves.
Sound waves are longitudinal waves. There is no sound in space b/c mechanical waves need a medium!
http://ww2.unime.it/dipart/i_fismed/wbt/mirror/ntnujava/waveType/waveType.html
http://einstein.byu.edu/~masong/HTMstuff/WaveTrans.html
Transverse wave: particles of the medium move perpendicular to the direction of the wave (up and down)
1. Crest: high point
2. Trough: low point
3. Amplitude: height from rest to crest or rest to trough, indicates amount of energy
4. Wavelength: crest to crest or trough to trough

Longitudinal wave:
1. compression: compressed area w/in the coil
2. rarefaction: the spread apart area w/in the coil
3. amplitude: difference b/w the pressures of the compressions and the undisturbed air. The greater the amplitude,
the louder the sound.
4. Wavelength: compression to compression or rarefaction to rarefaction

Samples:
1. What kind of waves transmit energy from the sun to Earth?
A. mechanical B. electromagnetic
C. longitudinal D. sound

## 2. Use the diagram to the right. Which sequence of letters indicates

the rest position? ___________

3. Use the diagram to the right. Which letters indicate the trough of a
wave? _________
4. Use the diagram to the right. Which letters indicate the crest of a wave? _________

5. A wave is propagating from left to right. The particles of the medium are moving back and forth from left to
right. What is this type of wave know as?
A. mechanical B. longitudinal C. transverse D. electromagnetic
6. Which best describes the interaction of a longitudinal sound wave and matter?
A. Sound waves can only transfer energy through open space or a vacuum.
B. Sound waves transfer energy by pushing matter parallel to the direction of the wave.
C. Sound waves transfer energy through matter, but the medium in not moved.
D. Sound waves can travel through a vacuum and are slowed down by matter.

7. Which is correct?
A. Sound waves cannot move through the vacuum of space, but light waves do not need a medium.
B. Sound waves are transverse waves that cannot move through the vacuum of space, but light waves can.
C. Light & sound waves have identical properties, regardless of whether they are compression waves or transverse
waves.
D. Sound and light can both travel through a vacuum, but those sound waves are never able to reach Earth.

## 8. What are mechanical waves?

A. the means by which energy moves through a medium B. photons of energy transported through space
C. anything that moves energy from one place to another D. the way matter moves

9. Identify the property of electromagnetic waves that is NOT also a property of mechanical waves.
A. can be reflected B. can cause matter to vibrate
C. can travel through a vacuum. D. can transfer energy but not matter

## 10. Which is true:

A. Electromagnetic waves require a medium to travel through.
B. Electromagnetic waves are produced by vibrating matter.
C. Electromagnetic waves travel through matter as compression waves.
D. Electromagnetic waves travel faster through a vacuum than through matter.

## 11. What characteristics do all waves share?

A. All waves move matter. B. All waves transfer energy
C. All waves can move through a vacuum D. All waves travel at the speed of light.

## 12. Sound waves are examples of what category of wave?

A. longitudinal B. transverse C. mechanical D. A&C

Summary:
Period: time for a complete cycle (a wavelength) to pass a particular point, measured in s
Frequency: # of wavelengths per second, wave/second = hertz so frequency is measured in Hz
Frequency and period are inversely related so when one increases, the other decreases and vice versa.
If frequency = 2Hz then period = second. If period = second, then frequency = 4Hz.
(Velocity) Speed of sound varies as it travels through different media.
In general, sound waves travel faster in solids and liquids than in gases.
vw = f vw = wave velocity measured in m/s f = frequency measured in Hz = wavelength measured in m

## Remember v = d/t v = velocity measured in m/s d = distance measured in m t = time measured in s

Samples:
1. Light travels at the speed of light 3 x 108 m/s. What is the frequency of a light wave w/ a wavelength of 5 x 10 -9
m?
a. 15 x 10-1 Hz b. 0.6 x 1016 Hz c. 1.67 x 1017 Hz d. 6.0 x 1016 Hz
2. How long does it take a wave to travel 1200m w/ a speed of 3 x 10 8 m/s?
a. 4.0 x 106 s b. 400s c. .04 x 10-8 s d. 4.0 x 10-6 s

3. What is the frequency of a wave that has a wavelength of 350m and a speed of 4830m/s?
A. 4830Hz B. 350Hz C. 13.8 Hz D. 0.072Hz

## 4. How many complete wave cycles are illustrated in

the wave to the left? ________

## 5. Thomas strikes a bass drum and sends out 100

vibrations in 5 seconds. What is the frequency of its
sound waves in Hz?
A. 20Hz B. 100Hz
C. 105Hz D. 500Hz

## 6. If a wave has a velocity of 1.26m/s and its

wavelength is exactly 0.7m, what is the frequency of
the wave? A. 0.25Hz B. 0.56Hz
C. 1.8Hz D. 1.96Hz

## 7. A vibrating tuning fork produces a sound wave that measures

470Hz. The speed of sound in air is 330m/s. What is the
wavelength of the sound wave?
A. 0.7m B. 1.4m C. 7m D. 140m

8. Using the diagram to the left, which wave has the highest
frequency? Top one or Bottom one?

## 9. Increasing the frequency of a sound wave has which effect?

A. increases wavelength B. increases amplitude
C. increases pitch D. increases decibel level

## 10. Tyler fills a shallow baking pan w/ water. Waves were

produced on the waters surface w/ a small stick. The faster the stick moved, the more waves were produced per
second. Which statement about wave frequency is true?
A. Frequency and wavelength are never related.
B. Wavelength is directly proportional to amplitude.
C. Frequency and period are not related.
D. Frequency and period are inversely related.

11. What determines the volume of a sound? A. amplitude B. frequency C. Doppler effect D. wavelength

## 12. The wave shown in the diagram has a velocity of 33m/s.

What is the frequency of the wave?
A. 33Hz B. 16.5Hz C. 8.25Hz D. 4.125Hz
Summary:
Electromagnetic spectrum: use
reference table!

## Longer wavelength = lower

energy = lower frequency
Remember: LLL

## Shorter wavelength = higher

energy = higher frequency
Remember: Shh

## Gamma rays are dangerous!

Samples:
1. Which correctly orders the various electromagnetic radiation waves in order from highest to lowest
frequency?
a. x-rays, gamma rays, visible light, microwaves, radiation
b. microwaves, infrared radiation, ultraviolet, gamma rays
c. gamma rays, ultraviolet, visible light, microwaves, radio waves
d. radio waves, visible light, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays

2. Which correctly orders the colors of the visible light spectrum from lowest to highest frequency?
a. blue, violet, yellow, green orange, red b. red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet
c. red, orange, green, yellow, violet, blue d. violet, blue, green, yellow, orange, red

3. Which statement describes the relationships b/w frequency, wavelength, and energy?
a. The shorter the wavelength, the greater the frequency, and the lower the energy.
b. The greater the frequency, the longer the wavelength, and the greater the energy.
c. The lower the frequency, the longer the wavelength, and the greater the energy.
d. The longer the wavelength, the lower the frequency, and the lower the energy.

## 4. Which statement is true?

A. Visible light has the longest wavelengths compared to all other waves.
B. All waves of the electromagnetic spectrum are visible.
C. Radio waves and microwaves have wavelengths that are the same length.
D. Only a small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is visible to humans.

## 5. Which type of electromagnetic radiation has the lowest energy?

A. ultraviolet radiation B. radio waves C. visible light D. microwaves

## 6. Which statement regarding frequent exposure to X-rays is true?

A. It can make you stronger. B. It can increase the risk of developing cancer.
C. It can lead to vitamin deficiencies. D. It will not affect living things.

## 7. How are microwaves different from gamma waves?

A. gamma rays have a higher frequency. B. Gamma rays have a higher amplitude.
C. gamma rays have a longer wavelength. D. gamma rays are electromagnetic, but microwaves are mechanical.

## 8. Which of the following color groups correctly show increasing wavelength?

A. green, blue, red B. blue, yellow, violet C. yellow, orange, red D. orange, yellow, green
9. What is the most likely reason why gamma rays are used in internal medicine?
A. b/c they carry little energy & wont hurt anything.
B. b/c they have long wavelengths and low frequencies.
C. b/c they can explode in the body.
D. b/c they have short wavelengths & can be aimed specific distances.

## 10. Which lists electromagnetic radiations from lowest to highest energies?

a. radio waves, microwaves, ultraviolet radiation, visible light
b. microwaves, radio waves, visible light, ultraviolet radiation