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PART I

1) THE GRAMMATICAL UNITS (HALLIDAY'S RANK): units of higher rank are


composed of units of lower rank.
1- the sentence: highest unit. It is a combination of words in a specific order with a
sense. It is composed of one or more clauses, the main clause (free and
independent), and the subordinated clause. In some cases these two may
coincide. The sentence starts with capital letter and ends with a final point. It is a
complete unit or thoughts and it may have a conjugated verb.

[(The inspector abandoned the investigation.)] (coincide)

MAIN CLAUSE

[He said (that the man was dead.)] (do not coincide)

SUBORDINATE CLAUSE

2- the clause: composed of one or more phrases (NP: noun phrase, VP: verb
phrase).
[( The inspector abandoned the investigation.)]
NP
NP VP
3- the phrase: refers to a constituent consisting either of one word o more than one
word.
[( The inspector) (abandoned the investigation.)]
[ (He) (did) ]
NP VP
4-the word: is composed of one or more morphemes.
5-the morpheme: the smallest unit. Minimum unit of form and meaning which may
be:
a. a whole word: forget
b. an inflection: -s, forgets
c. a word formation affix (prefix or suffix): un or ful, un+forget+ful.

NOTE: word and morpheme may coincide or not: BOY (coincide);


BOYS (do not coincide), BOY is the FREE MORPHEM, what means that it can
stand on its own; and -S is a BOUND MORPHEME, what means that it cannot
stand on its own.

The word BEDROOM is composed by two free morphemes (bed and room), that
stand on their own.
Grammar consists in two parts:

a) MORPHOLOGY: the study of how morphemes are combined together into


words. It deals with the internal form or structure of words.

b) SYNTAX: the study of how words are combined together to form sentences.

THE COMPONENTS PARTS OF A SENTENCE ARE CALLED CONSTITUENTS.


Not only are all the individual words constituents of the sentence but so too are the
phrases that are part of it.

Once we know what the basic syntactic units in the sentence are, we have first to
assign some grammatical label to each, that is, we have to state what
GRAMMATICAL CATEGORY it is (whether it is a noun phrase or verb phrase or
an adjectival phrase) and then what GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION it has (whether it
is the subject or object or predicative).

In conclusion: SYNTACTIC ANALYSIS INVOLVES THE TWO CLOSELY


RELATED TASK OF:

A) DETERMINING THE COMPONENT PARTS OF A SENTENCE AND

B) DESCRIBING THESE PARTS GRAMMATICALLY.


CONSTITUENCY TESTS: they are exams to discover the structure of sentences.
A. CLEFTING: it emphasizes elements in a sentence.
My father opened a box yesterday in order to add more books to it.

IT + VERB BE + EMPHASIZED ELEMENT + THAT+ THE REST OF THE


SENTENCE (in the tense of the sentence).

It was my father who opened a box yesterday in order to

B. PASSIVIZATION: change of a sentence which is in active voice into passive


voice. ONLY if the verb is a TRANSITIVE VERB (because thy need obligatory a
D.O which will be, in the sentence in passive voice, the subject of the sentence).
REASONS TO DO THE PASSIVIZATION!!
1. TO CONFIRM WHAT I BELIEVE TO BE THE D.O I THE D.O
2. TO CONFIRM THAT THE VERB IS TRANSITIVE

He opened the door. / The door was opened.

C. FRONTING: is the change of position of an adverbial adjunct ( constituent that


is not obligatory in the sentence, it only adds more information but for the structure
is not required. It is related to the verb. IT CAN BE FRONTED). This test is used
to check whether what I believe to be the adverbial adjunct is the adverbial adjunct.

D. WH- QUESTIONS: the constituents can be questioned by one word.


The inspector has abandoned the investigation.
WHAT DID HE DO?
Abandoned the investigation.
WHO ABANDONED THE INVESTIGATION?
The inspector (did).

E. PRONOMINALIZATION (or noun): constituents can be replaced by pronouns.


The inspector abandoned the investigation
He
Constituents can be replaced by one word:
He did

F. PSEUDO-CLEFT SENTENCES: used to emphasize the verb.


She watched a movie.
What she watched was a movie.
2) THE SIMPLE SENTENCES

They have only one finite or conjugated verb, and they are made up of only one
clause, a main clause (remember that main clause and sentence itself may
coincide). It is divided into two major parts, a SUBJECT and a PREDICATE.

S P
[Julie buys her vegetables in the market.]

Subject and predicate are FUNCTIONS; a function is a relation between two


elements. Functions are defined on the basis of:
1. Position (word order)
2. Optionality (whether a constituent can be omitted or not)
3. Mobility (whether a constituent may vary its position or not)

We can also say that sentences are made up of a NOUN PHRASE (NP) and a
VERB PHRASE (VP). These two are CATEGORIES. We are now classifying two
constituents according to their form or internal structure.

3) SYNTACTIC AND MORPHOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF VERBS

From syntactic point of view (because it has to do with the elements that combine
with the verb to form sentences, it is a horizontal relationship), verbs can be
classified in:
1. INTRANSITIVE VERBS OF COMPLETE PREDICATION (IVCP): verbs that
combine with only one nominal or noun phrase (the subject).
Examples: laugh, rose, stumble, sneeze, swim, sleep, work.

2. INTRANSITIVE VERBS OF INCOMPLETE PREDICATION (IVIP): also


called COPULAR VERBS OR LINKING VERBS. verbs that are INTRANSITIVE
because they are not followed by an object (we cannot turn them into passive
voice); of INCOMPLETE PREDICATION because they are followed by an
obligatory element that tell us something about the subject (this element is called
COMPLEMENT because it is essential to the completion of the sentence and it is
called SUBJUNCTIVE complement because it refers to the subject. It is
PREDICATIVE because we are predicating something about the subject; we can
predicate:
1_ an essence: Sugar is sweet.
2_ an accident or temporary state: John is tired.
3_ a class of objects: This is a book.
4_ identity: That is John.
5_ a location: He is in the room.

The typical is THE VERB TO BE. Examples: seem, look, turn, become.
3. (MONO)TRANSITIVE VERBS OF COMPLETE PREDICATION (MTVCP):
verbs that require two nominals or noun phrases for the sentence to be
grammatical (the subject and the object). Examples: see, cut, need, break, enjoy.

4. (BI)TRANSITIVE VERBS OF COMPLETE PREDICATION (BTVCP): verbs


that require three nominals (a subject, and two objects). There are two important
groups :
1. VERBS OF GIVING: they express an action which causes an object to
move from one place to another. At the semantic level the IO is like a place
towards which the object moves. It is the person who receives something.
That something is the DO and the person is the recipient or dative.
Examples: give, hand, pass, deal, grant, pay, sell, send, post, deliver, lend,
owe, throw, offer, show.
2. VERBS OF COMMUNICATION: with these verbs we have three
participants: a sender of a message (the subject), the message itself (the
DO), and the receiver of the message (the IO). There is metaphorical
movement. Examples: tell, warn, remind, teach, inform, advise, recommend.

5. TRANSITIVE VERBS OF INCOMPLETE PREDICATION (TVIP): also


called COMPLEX TRANSITIVE VERBS, they are TRANSITIVE because they take
an object (if we turn the sentence into the passive voice the DO becomes the
subject), and of INCOMPLETE PREDICATION because apart from the object they
take another element (which may or may not be obligatory) which tells us
something about the object. This element is called OBJECTIVE COMPLEMENT.
Examples: consider.

From a morphological point of view verbs can be classified as:


1. REGULAR: they form their past and past participle by the addition of -ed. If
we know the base form (the dictionary entry form) we can predict all its other
forms by rule. Examples: look, clean, open, etc.
2. IRREGULAR: their past and past participle form cannot be predicted by
general rule from the base. Examples: break, broke, broken.
3. FINITE: conjugated.
4. NON-FINITE: not conjugated. The non-finite forms of the verbs are:
a) The infinitive: To see her is to love her.
b) The gerund: I love riding.
c) The present participle: I was reading.
d) The past participle: I have broken my leg.
4) CLAUSE STRUCTURE

Elements that need to be distinguished to describe the structure of sentences are:


1. SUBJECT (S)
2. PREDICATE (P)
3. VERB (V)
4. DIRECT OBJECT (DO)
5. INDIRECT OBJECT (IO)
6. SUBJECTIVE COMPLEMENT (SC)
7. OBJECTIVE COMPLEMENT (OC)
8. QUASI-PREDICATE (QP)
9. ADVERBIAL (A) or ADVERBIAL ADJUNCT (AA)

The VERB element or predicator is the most central element, is the HEAD of the
VERB PHRASE. It is important because:
a) Its position is normally medial rather than initial or final
b) It is normally obligatory
c) It cannot normally be moved to a different position in the sentence or clause
d) IT HELPS TO DETERMINE WHAT OTHER ELEMENTS MUST OCCUR.

It is normally preceded by the SUBJECT (every verb MUST HAVE a subject


implicit or explicit).

Following the verb there may be:


A. No obligatory elements, just optional adverbials: IVCP.

S P
[(Someone was laughing (loudly) (in the next room) )]
V A A

B. One object, normally a DO and optional adverbs: MTVCP.

S P
[(My mother (usually) enjoys parties (very much) )]
A V DO A

C. Two objects, an IO and a DO; there may be optional adverbials: BTVCP.

S P
[( Mary gave the visitor a glass of milk (yesterday) )] (verb of giving)
V IO DO A
S P
[( She told us a story (after dinner) )] (verb of communication)
V IO DO A

D. A subjunctive complement or predicative and with optional adverbials:


IVIP or COPULAR VERBS or LINKING VERBS.

P S P
[( In 1945 the country became totally independent )]
A V SC

E. A DO and an OC, with or without adverbials: TVIP or COMPLEX


TRANSITIVE VERBS.

S P
[( You must put all the toys upstairs (immediately) )]
V DO OC A

F. Adverbials: they are the most peripheral because:


a) Their position is most frequently final
b) They are usually optional
c) They are mostly mobile
d) They do not determine what other elements occur
5) THE GRAMMATICAL SUBJECT : is the noun or noun equivalent that
immediately precedes the finite or conjugated verb in a declarative sentence and
which agrees with it.

(a) FORM (category or type of unit): is normally a noun or noun equivalent


(nominal function). The categories that can function as subject are:
1- A NOUN PHRASE: The car is white.
John studies English.
Someone is singing.
2- A GERUNDIAL PHRASE: Smoking is bad for your lungs.
Meeting you here has been just splendid.
Working in these conditions is a pleasure.
3- AN INFINITIVAL PHRASE: To smoke cigarettes is very bad.
To see you is always a great pleasure.
To act like that is foolish.
4- A NOUN CLAUSE: What he said is right.
That he came yesterday is true.
How the prisoner escaped is a complete mystery.

(b) POSITION: the subject normally occurs:


1- before the verb phrase in declarative sentences:

S
The man was laughing.
VP
2- after the auxiliary in yes-no questions or interrogative sentences:

S
Was the man laughing?
VP VP

The switch of the subject noun phrase and the first auxiliary element is called
SUBJECT AUXILIARY INVERSION (SAI).

3- in wh-interrogative sentences, SAI also occurs except where the wh-element is


itself the subject:

S
What have you seen today?
VP VP

S
Who came yesterday?
VP
Spanish has a flexible word order, but not English in which word order is fixed.

(C) SYNTACTIC FUNCTION:


1-
Obligatory subject: English sentences that have a conjugated or finite
verb).
S P
John arrived yesterday.
Normally absent or implied: English imperative sentences.
P
Come here. (you)
Spanish is a highly inflected language and it is this inflection of the verb (yo vine, t
viniste, el vino, nosotros vinimos,etc) that allows the subject to be omitted because
the verb itself tell us the subject. But in English the verb has very few inflection (I
came, you came, he came,we came, etc) and this is what disallows for the subject
to be unexpressed.

2- In finite clauses the subject determines the number and person of the verb.
There is very little overt (explicit) agreement or concord in English because the
verb has very few inflections.
He goes. V. I/You/We/They go.
He has gone. V. I/You/We/They have gone.
He is going. V. You/We/They are going. V. I am going.
He/I was going. V. You/We/They were going.

3- If a pronoun replaces the subject, the pronoun will normally have the
NOMINATIVE or SUBJECTIVE form (he, she, they, etc.) NOT the OBJECTIVE
FORM (him, her, them, etc.).

He was laughing.
*Him was laughing.
HE will be described as a PERSONAL PRONOUN IN THE NOMINATIVE OR
SUBJUNCTIVE CASE.

These three characteristics can be used to identify the subject of a finite clause. Its
identity can also be tested in a declarative sentence through a wh-question with
WHO or WHAT. The subject is the element that can be replaced IN ITS NORMAL
POSITION by the w-item:

S
John wants a piece of cake.

S
Who wants a piece of cake?
S
The bright light is disturbing Percy.

S
What is disturbing Percy?

Other clause elements require FRONTING and SAI:

John wants a piece of cake.


John wants what?
What does John want? (fronting)

(d) FROM A SEMANTIC POINT OF VIEW:


1- The subject is typically the theme or topic of the clause.
2- It typically refers to information that is regarded by the speaker as GIVEN
information, OLD information or SHARED information.
3- In an active sentence the subject has the agentive role, it is the DOER of the
action, the agent, if the agentive role is expressed in the sentence.
6) OBJECT: DIRECT AND INDIRECT

(a) FORM: categories that can function as DO and IO are:

DO (same as subject) IO

NOUN PHRASE: He has lit a NOUN PHRASE: I bought myself a


cigarette. cinema ticket.

GERUNDIAL PHRASE: I like GERUNDIAL PHRASE: Why don't


reading poetry. you give studying a bit a chance?

INFINITIVAL PHRASE: I want to


go away.

NOUN CLAUSE: I will remind you NOUN CLAUSE (generally only


what I want you to do. nominal relative clauses): Give
whoever comes my new address.
(b) POSITION: S+V+OBJECT
if both are present = S+V+IO+DO I gave him my address.
IO DO

if the IO is too long = S+V+DO+IO


Gave my address to the boy I met at the dance last night.
DO IO

(c) SYNTACTIC FUNCTION:


1- The pronoun that functions as DO or IO must be in the OBJECTIVE CASE or
FORM: They amuse me.
2- If an object has the same reference with the subject, it usually requires a
reflexive pronoun which agrees with the subject in person and, where relevant in
number and gender: He shaved himself.
3- The object of an active sentence may generally become the subject of the
passive sentence. If both objects are present, it is often possible to make either the
subject in a corresponding passive sentence. The OBJECT that is kept in the
predicate is called RETAINED OBJECT. We have RETAINED DIRECT OBJECT
(RDO) or RETAINED INDIRECT OBJECT (RIO). Example:
Active:
We sent Jack a copy of the letter.
IO DO
Passive:
Jack was sent a copy of the letter.
RDO
A copy of the letter was sent Jack.
RIO
A copy of the letter was sent to Jack. (more usual)
RIO

4- If DO+IO then IO will be introduced by a PREPOSITION: TO or FOR.

I will send Charles another copy.


IO DO
I will send another copy to Charles.
DO IO

Pour me a drink.
IO DO
Pour a drink for me.
DO IO

5- The IO can generally be omitted without affecting the semantic relations


between the other elements. With a few verbs (normally bi transitive), the IO may
be retained and the DO omitted. In that case the only object present is the IO.
You can pay me instead.
IO

(d) SEMANTIC PROPERTIES:


1- The DO typically refers to an entity that is AFFECTED by the action denoted in
the clause. Norman smashed the window.
2- The IO typically refers to an ANIMATE BEING that is the RECIPIENT OF
SOMETHING: the recipient of the object if the verb is a verb of giving; and the
recipient of a message if the verb is a verb of communication.

IO with TO:
1) DO + IO= TO is obligatory when: we want to emphasize the IO:
I wrote a letter to my cousin.

the DO is objective pronoun It or Them:


I gave it to them.

the IO is long:
He sold his car to a man from Leeds.

2) With verbs of LATIN ORIGIN, independently of what the word order is:
admit, communicate, affirm, announce, ascribe, attribute, confess, convey, deliver,
describe, devote, dictate, exclaim, expose, indicate, propose, pove, refer, reveal,
suggest, swear, transmit.

3) With the verb to say : I have something to say to you.


Sometimes the DO is omitted and the IO is also introduced by to : I have written to
him. However, in colloquial style : Have you written him?

DO + IO (ACTUAL RECIPIENT)= TO
DO + IO (INTENDED RECIPIENT) = FOR
The intended recipient is the person that will eventually receive the object;
examples of verbs that take IIO are: find, make, choose, get, reach, save, order,
buy, grow, spell, build, gather and prepare. Intended is because there is intention.
She made a doll for her daughter.
Actual recipient is the person that actually received the object. She gave a doll to
her daughter.
7) SUBJECTIVE COMPLEMENT OR PREDICATIVE

The SC relates to the subject and the verb is COPULAR (IVIP): My glass is empty.
SC

(a) FORM: It i partly a nominal function and partly an adjectival function. The
categories that can function as SC are:
1- NOUN PHRASE: This is a book.
2- A GERUNDIAL PHRASE: This is cheating. The gerund is a NOUN
EQUIVALENT.
3- AN INFINITIVAL PHRASE: To see her is to love her.
4- A NOUN CLAUSE: That is what I want.
5- AN ADJECTIVAL PHRASE: She is very pretty.
6- AN ADJECTIVAL PRESENT OR PAST PARTICIPLE: That is (very) interesting.
Tom was (very) tired. Most of them can be premodified by the adverb VERY and
can be used in the comparative and superlative form.
7- AN ORDINARY PAST PARTICIPLE: The door is closed.
8- A PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE: He is at home. It is near London. It must be for
somebody else.
9- AN ADVERBIAL PHRASE: He is right here. He is out.
WHEN THEY GIVE US INFORMATION CONCERNING PLACE, TIME, MANNER,
DURATION, ETC. OF AN ACTIVITY THEY DO NOT FUNCTION AS SC. SEE
LATER.

(b) POSITION: it normally follows the subject and the verb.

(c) SYNTACTIC FUNCTION:


1) If it is a NP = SC concords with the S
Their daughter has become an accountant.
Their daughters have become accountants.

2) If it is a Reflexive Pronoun = SC concords in number, person and gender


(sometimes) with the S: She is not herself today.

3) The SC cannot become the S of a Corresponding passive clause.

4) SC a pronoun more formal: This is he.

(d) SEMANTIC PROPERTIES: to identify or characterise.


Kevin is my brother.
Martha was a good student.
Type of verbs that are followed by a SC:
1- IVIP (copular verbs)
a. Stative verbs: be, appear, seem, lie, stand, rest, remain, keep; verbs of
perception: look, sound, taste, smell, feel.
b. Inchoative Verbs or Process Verbs (dynamic): become, come, get, go, grow,
fall, run, turn. These verbs denote a change of state taking place over a
period.
2- TVIP in the passive.

NOTE OF CAUTION:
Following Wekker and Haegeman, a PREDICATIVE COMPLEMENT is a NON-
OMISSIBLE constituent that express a property or attribute of the subject. It
applies to NOUN PHRASES, ADJECTIVAL PHRASES and PREPOSITIONAL
PHRASES. They are COMPLEMENTS because they are obligatory and they are
PREDICATIVE because they predicate something about the subject.
Jane seemed a good student. (NP)
John looked foolish. (AP)
Bill was in a filthy mood. (PP)
BUT there are some constituents that are still COMPLEMENTS but the DO NOT
ASSIGN A PROPERTY OR ATTRIBUTE TO THE SUBJECT. Instead they
SPECIFY THE PLACE OF BEING, OR THE TIME OF BEING, ETC. As these
complements give us more information about the place, time, manner, etc they are
said to have an ADVERBIAL FUNCTION. So, they are given the name
ADVERBIAL COMPLEMENTS (adverbial because they have an adverbial meaning
and complements because they are obligatory constituents).
He is in London. His birthday is next Saturday.

Following Quirk et al these complements are EQUIVALENT TO ADVERBIALS IN


MEANING ANSWERING THE QUESTIONS WHEN? OR WHERE?. So, they
are said to be OBLIGATORY ADVERBIAL.

TO SUM UP
If we have to analyse:
She is an actress.
We can say that an actress functions as:
1- a SUBJECTIVE COMPLEMENT or PREDICATIVE
2- a PREDICATIVE COMPLEMENT, following W&H.

If we have to analyse:
John is in London.
We can say that in London is:
1- a SUBJECTIVE COMPLEMENT or PREDICATIVE
2- an OBLIGATORY ADVERBIAL, following Quirk at al
3- an ADVERBIAL COMPLEMENT, following W&H.
8) OBJECTIVE COMPLEMENT:

The OC relates to the DO. The implied relationship between the DO and the OC is
one of:

1- S- be/become - SC
We find them very pleasant. -------- They are very pleasant.
DO OC S V SC

2- or one of S- V
I saw the thief running away. -------- The thief was running away.
DO OC S V

(a) FORM: the categories that can function as OC are:


1- NOUN PHRASE: They made Newton President for the Royal Society.
2- A GERUNDIAL PHRASE: I call that cheating.
3- AN INFINITIVAL PHRASE:
A FULL INFINITIVAL PHRASE: I do not want anyone to know.
A BARE INFINITIVAL PHRASE ( is an infinitive without TO): They
made me do it.
4- A NOUN CLAUSE: We have made him what he is.
5- AN ADJECTIVAL PHRASE: I found the box empty.
6- AN ADJECTIVAL PRESENT OR PAST PARTICIPIAL PHRASE: I found the
film very interesting.
7- AN ORDINARY PRESENT OR PAST PARTICIPIAL PHRASE:
A PRESENT PARTICIPIAL PHRASE:
With verbs of perception: I saw the thief running away.
(see, hear, smell, listen).
With causative verbs: Keep the ball rolling.
(get, keep, have, make)
With other verbs: I found him working at his desk.
(catch)
A PAST PARTICIPIAL PHRASE:
With verbs of perception: I heard my name called.
With causative verbs: I must get my hair cut.
With other verbs: I want this work finished quickly.
8- A PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE: We left her in tears.
9- AN ADVERBIAL PHRASE: Put all those things right here.

(b) POSITION: The OC normally follows the DO, but this word order may
change if the DO is too long.
(c) SYNTACTIC FUNCTION:
1) If it is a NP the OC normally concords in number with the DO:
Carol made Joshua and Peter her assistants.
DO OC
Carol made Peter her assistant.
DO OC

2) With S V DO OC type, only the DO can become the S in the passive. The
OC becomes the SC:

His friends called him Ted.


DO OC
S
He is called Ted by his friends.
SC

Types of verbs that could be followed by a SC:


1) IVIP
2) TVIP (in the passive): followed by a DO and OC.
A- Verbs of calling and naming: appoint, baptize, call, choose, christen, crown,
designate, dub (=nickname), elect, name, nickname, nominate.
B- Verbs that take an adjective as OC which expresses result: push, fling, break,
kick, set, hammer, beat, turn, boil, drive, make, slit, keep, open, pack, raise, shout,
paint, sleep.
C- Verbs that express feelings or emotional states or volition: like, want, wish,
prefer, love, hate.
D- Verbs that express mental states or perception or cognition: know, expect,
believe, consider, find, imagine, think, suppose, guess, judge, regard.
E- Causative: have, make, get.
F- Verbs of perception and attention: see, look at, watch, notice, hear, listen to,
smell, feel, observe, perceive.
G- Verbs such as: advise, encourage, entreat, implore, instruct, press (=urge),
request, tempt, warn, allow, permit, let, cause, command, compel, force, lead
(=cause), oblige, order, challenge, dare.
Help
Mean, intend
Trouble.
H- find, leave, catch, get, keep, set, start.
9) QUASI-PREDICATIVE

It is something like a predicative but the verb is not a linking verb and it has its
ordinary full force. We find QP both with TRANSITIVE and INTRANSITIVE VERBS
OF COMPLETE PREDICATION.

We parted the best of friends. (IVCP)


They died poor. (IVCP)
He passed unnoticed. (IVCP)
The snow was falling pretty thick. (IVCP)
The man stood up dazed. (IVCP)
She looked at me ashamed. (TVCP)
She was born poor. (TVCP in the passive)

These sentences can be analysed as derived from a main clause and an adverbial
clause of time or reason where we use the verb to be as the main verb of the
sentence, the QP becomes the SC and what was the main verb becomes the verb
of the subordinated clause of time or reason:

[ ( We parted the best of friends. ) ]


IVCP QP

[ ( We were the best of friends <when we parted> ) ]


IVCP SC AATIME

[ ( The fire has burnt very low. ) ]


IVCP QP
[ ( The fire is very low <because it has burnt> ) ]
IVCP SC AAREASON

10) VERB TO BE

A- As a main verb: IVIP + SC. Anna is tall.


B- As an auxiliary verb:
1) Be + ing: AUXILIARY FOR THE PROGRESSIVE ASPECT (present or past
continuous, followed by a present participle, an -ing form of the verb, a
non-finite or not conjugated form of the verb). The children are playing.
2) Be + en: AUXILIARY FOR THE PASSIVE VOICE (followed by a past
participle , a non- finite or not conjugated form of the verb which is
conventionally represented by means of -en). My watch was made in Japan.
3) Be + to-infinitive: MODAL AUXILIARY (expressing either obligation, an
arrangement that is the result of a command or request made by a third
person, an arrangement made as the result of orders ( He is to leave at 8
oclock this evening.) or plan or arrangement ( We are to be married in
June).
11) AUXILIARIES

DO/DOES: AUXILIARIES to form the negative, interrogative and emphatic


affirmative of the simple present tense.

DID: AUXILIARY to form the negative, interrogative and emphatic affirmative of the
simple past.

HAVE/HAS/HAD: AUXILIARIES FOR THE PERFECTIVE ASPECT.

BE + ING: AUXILIARY FOR THE PROGRESSIVE ASPECT.

BE/GET: AUXILIARIES FOR THE PASSIVE VOICE.

CAN/COULD; MAY/MIGHT; WILL/WOULD; SHALL/SHOULD; MUST; HAVE TO;


OUGHT TO; NEEDN'T; DARE; BE + TO INF; THE GOING TO FORM: MODAL
AUXILIARIES.

12) MIDDLE VERBS


Are transitive verbs that cannot be turned into the passive voice: resemble, have
(possession), fit (suit), lack, hold, become, marry (enter to marriage).

13) WH- QUESTIONS

They are introduced by WH- WORDS. They can be:


1) INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS: WHO, WHOM, WHOSE, WHAT and
WHICH. They have NOMINAL FUNCTIONS: SUBJECT, DO, IO, OBJ. TO
PREP. , SC, OC.
2) INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES: WHOSE, WHAT and WHICH. They have
ADJECTIVAL FUNCTION.
3) INTERROGATIVE ADVERBS: WHERE, WHEN, WHY and HOW. They
have ADVERBIAL FUNCTIONS: WHERE functions as an A. A. OF PLACE;
WHEN functions as an A. A. OF TIME; WHY functions as an A. A. OF
REASON and it is usually answered by BECAUSE= SUBORDINATED
CONJUNCTION and introduces an ADVERBIAL CLAUSE OF REASON;
HOW can sometimes functions as an A. A. OF MANNER. Can be also used
with ADJECTIVES, ADVERBS and with MUCH or MANY ( are traditionally
considered adjectives because they premodify nouns; how functions as an
adverb modifying an adjective.

NOTE:
What + Be.like? Request for a description; can be used for people
(appearance or character) or things.
What does he/it look like? Concerns appearance ONLY and can also mean
What does he/It resemble?
14) ADJUNCTS VS. COMPLEMENTS

ADJUNCTS COMPLEMENTS

Are optional. They merely add further Are OBLIGATORY constituents which
information. are needed to complete the VP. They
are selected by the lexical verb. They
are lexical requirements of the verb.

Criteria for deciding that a constituent cannot be omitted in the VP:


1) Whether the remaining part of the sentence is still grammatical.
2) Whether the meaning of the lexical verb changes drastically as a result of
omitting that particular constituent.

VERBS:
1) IVCP: take NO complements. He sneezed.
2) IVIP: take ONE complement. The story was very interesting.
3) MTVCP: take ONE complement. He broke a window.
4) BTVCP: take TWO complements. He gave me some books.
5) TVIP: take TWO complements. He put the book on the table.

PREPOSITIONS: P + COMPLEMENT TO THE PREPOSITION (most cases)


COMPLEMENT TO PREPOSITION + P

ADJECTIVES:
Some can occur on their own (tall, fat). Some other resemble verbs in that they
require some sort of complementation ( if Im sure, I'm always sure about
something). It may be obligatory ( All sales are subject to tax), or optional ( The
boat was ready (for departure)).

They often take complementation that are MODALITY ADJECTIVES and they
express:
A- cognition: sure, aware, certain, right, wrong.
B- volition: happy, glad, sorry, fond.

Categories of the Adj. Compl.:


1- A prepositional phrase: He is fond of music.
2- A noun clause: I am sure that he is here now.
3- An infinitival phrase: Bob is sorry to hear it.
4- An -ing form of the verb: Margery is busy writing letters.
5- A than clause (only with different): She is quite a different girl than she was
five years ago.

NOUNS: also have complements. (later)


15) MULTI- WORD VERBS

PHRASAL VERBS: VERB + AN ADVERBIAL PARTICLE. Two types.

1- Type I or INTRANSITIVE PHRASAL VERBS: touch down, play around, get by,
get on, take off, catch on, break down, turn up, give in, blow up, go astray, reel
back, fall out.
THE PARTICLE USUALLY CANNOT BE SEPARATED FROM ITS LEXICAL
VERB.

2- Type II or TRANSITIVE PHRASAL VERBS: set up, put away, find out, bring
up, turn on, call off, live down, make out, look up, hand in, blow up, give in.
WHEN THE DO IS A NOUN PHRASE CAN BE INSERTED BETWEEN THE VERB
AND THE PARTICLE. THIS IS A TEST CALLED DO INSERTION AND IT IS
USED TO CHECK IF THE PHRASE IS A PHRASAL VERB OR A
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE (THIS LAST CANNOT BE SEPARATED FROM ITS
PARTICLE).
WHEN THE OBJECT IS A PERSONAL PRONOUN THE PARTICLE MUST
ALWAYS FOLLOW THE OBJECT. THE PARTICLE TENDS TO PRECEDE THE
OBJECT IF THE OBJECT IS TOO LONG OR IF THE INTENTION IS THAT THE
OBJECT SHOULD RECEIVE END-FOCUS.

Give in (sometimes, with a substantial difference in meaning) and blow up


(no difference) can be both.

PREPOSITIONAL VERBS: LEXICAL VERB + PREPOSITION WITH WHICH IT IS


A SEMANTICALLY AND/OR SYNTACTICALLY ASSOCIATED. The preposition
is followed by its complement. CANNOT BE SEPARATED, THEY ARE STUCKED.
THERE IS NO DO INSERTION. THEY ARE ALWAYS TRANSITIVE WHICH
MEANS THEY ALWAYS NEED AN OBJECT. Look at, care for, go into, cope with,
approve of, call on.

T.V + DO + COMPLEMENT (PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE) = NOT


PREPOSITIONAL VERB.

NOTE OF CAUTION: TV + DO + (P+ NP). EXAMPLES: rob of- deprive of- ply
with- confine to- protect from- thank for- remind of- provide with- accuse of-
blame for.

PHRASAL-PREPOSITIONAL VERBS: VERB + AN ADVERB + A PREPOSITION.


ALWAYS TRANSITIVE. THE MEANING OF THE WHOLE PHRASE IS
DIFFERENT FROM THE MEANING OF THE VERB ITSELF. Look forward to, put
up with, look in on, get away with.