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Mobile Communication Systems

Part 5- Modulation Techniques

Professor Z Ghassemlooy

Electronics & IT Division

Scholl of Engineering, Sheffield Hallam University
U.K.
www.shu.ac.uk/ocr
Contents

Signals
Modulation Why?
Types of Modulation Techniques
BER Performance
Signals

Signals can be:

Deterministic: value at any instant can be
expressed exactly with a mathematic
formula (eg. Sine wave)
Probabilistic: future values can be
estimated, based on past values
Random: a probabilistic function where all values
within a range are equally likely to occur
Most telecom signals are probabilistic:
Estimation of a sample value is the best we
can do.
Signals

Is physical representation of information (voice, data,..)

Is function of time and location
Has parameters, which represent the value of
information
Types: Time Value
Continuous Analogue signal
Discrete Digital signal
Disc
eret

Sine wave as special periodic signal used as a Carrier:

s(t) = A sin(2 f t + )
Peak amplitude frequency Phase
Signal - Periodical

ideal periodic signal Harmonic components

1 1

0 0
t t
T

f = 1/T

1
g(t) = c + an sin(2nft) + bn cos(2nft)
2 n=1 n=1

DC AC components
Signal - Representation

A [V]

Amplitude domain t[s]

A [V]

Frequency domain
f [Hz]

Q = M sin
phase state diagram
(amplitude M and phase
I = M cos
in polar coordinates)
Noise

White noise: all frequencies at equal power

Many sources (thermal noise, combination sources)
Not possible in practical circuits, so we get

Band-limited white noise: constant power

spectral density over a finite range of frequencies
Corrupts digital signals when decision thresholds are
crossed
Modulation - Why?

Smaller antennas (e.g., /4)

Multiplexing
Ability to manipulate the signal
To fully utilise the medium characteristics
Improve the performance
.
System Block Diagram
Analogue
base-band Aerial
Digital Digital signal Analog
data modulation modulation
101101001 Modulated
fm RF signal

carrier

Noise
Analog
base-band
signal Digital
Analog Decision
data
demodulation circuit
101101001

carrier
Analogue Modulation

Where the center frequency of base-band signal

shifted up to the radio carrier frequency by means
of:
Amplitude modulation (AM)
Frequency modulation (FM)
Phase modulation (PM)
Digital Modulation

Digital data is translated into an analogue

carrier signal by means of Passband Digital
Modulation (typically bits encoded in amplitude)

Passband digital modulation has form

s(t ) = A (t ) cos(2f t +
n =
n c n (t ))

Bits encoded in amplitude An, phase n, or frequency

n=2p(fn-fc)t, which are constant over a bit time Tb.
Digital Modulation - Types

Frequency Shift Keying (FSK)
Phase Shift Keying (PSK)

Multi-levels Schemes

Data m(t) 1 0 1
Ac
The most basic and simple
Low bandwidth t
Ssusceptible to interference

Bit duration
Carrier frequency Tb

Ac cos( 2f c t ) m( nTb ) = 1
s(t ) ASK = m(t ) Ac cos( 2f c t ) =
0 m( nTb ) = 0

Information
ASK - Vector & Constellation Diagrams

A
Vector diagram
0
cos ct

A Constellation diagram:
I The x axis is a reference for symbol
0
that are in-phase (I) with the carrier,
The y axis is the quadrature (Q) carrier
Components (i.e. sin ct)
PSK
Data m(t) 1 0 1
Ac

Bit duration
Tb
Ac cos( 2f c t ) m( nTb ) = 1
s(t ) PSK = Ac m(t ) cos( 2f c t ) =
Ac cos( 2f c t + ) m( nTb ) = 1
PSK - Implementation
Basic
Carrier
(cos ct) PSK

Inverter Data

Input Pulse shaping

X PSK
data filter

Carrier
(cos ct)
PSK - Constellation Diagrams

cos ct A
I
-A cos ct

It display antipodal signalling. I.e. symbols are equal and

Opposite to each other, unlike ASK.
PSK - Spectrum

BPSK represented in a complex envelope form:

{
S BPSK = Re ( Acm(t )e jc
)e 2 f ct
}
Complex envelope
The power spectral density of the complex envelope is:

2
2 sin fTb
Pce BPSK ( f ) = Ac
fTb
PSK - Spectrum - contd.

2
Ac sin ( f f c )Tb sin ( f f c )Tb
2 2

PBPSK ( f ) = +
4 ( f f c )Tb ( f f c )Tb

Power spectral density

fc-Rb fc+Rb

Similar to AM but only requires to choose between

one of two values
Decision Device
nTb r1
Tb 1 or 0
s(t) r(nTb)

( ) dt
0 N
Sampler r0
cos(2fct)

Decision device determines which of r0 or r1 that

r(iTb) is closest to
Noise immunity N is half the distance between r0 and r1
Bit errors occur when noise exceeds this immunity
A coherent demodulator for BPSK

P. M. Shankar
FSK

The instantaneous frequency of the carrier signal is

switched between two (or more) values by the
modulating digital data signal.

Ac cos mc t 0 < t < Tb For '1'

S FSK (t ) =
Ac cos nc t 0 < t < Tb For '0'

t
S FSK (t ) = Ac cos [c + ()m(t )] dt
0
Data
FSK contd.

Data 1 0 1 1

FSK

Data
Acc cos (2fc1
c1t)
FSK
Acc cos (2fc2
c2t)

Voltage
Input FSK
Controlled
data
oscillator
FSK - Spectrum

f f
Amplitude

fc1 -Rb fc1 +Rb fc2 -Rb fc2 +Rb

fc1 -3Rb fc1 fc1 +3Rb fc fc2 -3Rb fc2 fc2 +3Rb
Frequency

f = Frequency deviation = (fc2 - fc1)/2

FSK bandwidth = 2f
FSK - Demodulation - Non-coherent

BPF Envelope
@fc1
c1
detector
+
S FSK(t) + n(t) Decision Data
output
threshold
-
BPF Envelope
@fc2
c2
detector
FSK - Demodulation - Coherent

LPF

SFSK(t) + n(t) VCO

+
@fc1 Decision Data
c1
output
threshold
-
LPF

VCO
@fc2
c2
Bit Error Rate (BER) - ASK/PSK

Channel
N(t) nTb
Tb 1 or 0

s(t) +
N
0
r(nTb)+N(nTb)
cos(2fct)

Probability of bit error: Pb=p(|N(nTb)|>N)

N(nTb) is a Gaussian RV

The expression for BER (or probability of error) normally

contains the energy-to-noise ratio (E/No)
The unit energy is:
E = ST Energy/bit

S = Signal power = Ac2/2, Assume R = 1 Ohm

E STb
Or in terms of signal to noise ratio (SNR) =
No No

E S
Bit rate R = 1/Tb, thus =
No No R

ASK & PSK can be represented as:

2E
S ASK (t ) = cos( 2f c t ) for i = 1, 2, ..
Tb

2E
cos( 2f c t ) for biary "1"
Tb
S PSK (t ) = 0 < t < Tb }
2 E cos( 2f t ) for biary "0"
T c
b

Coherent
E

2 No

Non-Coherent
E
Ps NCASK = 0.5 e ( E / 4 N )
0.5 erfc

2No

erfc = Complementary error function, and one needs to use a

standard table.
BER PSK

Coherent

E
Ps CPSK (t ) = 0 .5erfc cos
No

Differential
E

Ps DPSK (t ) = 0.5e N0
BER Vs. Signal -to-Noise Ratio

E/No (dB)
CPSK BER Vs. Signal-to-Noise Ratio

P. M. Shankar
BER - FSK

The average energy / bit is given as:

Tb Tb 2
Ac
E = S FSK (t ) dt = Ac sin (c t ) dt =
2 2 2
Tb
0 0
2

E
E 1
Pe CFSK = Q
Pe NCFSK = e 2 No

2No 2
Non-coherent
Coherent

Equal E

NC-FSK

E/No (dB)
M-ARY Modulation Schemes

In ASK, PSK, and FSK each modulated carrier is

capable of transmitting one bit of information.
To increase the bit transmission rate one could
allow each carrier signal to transmit more than
one bit of information. This is called M-ARY
Modulation Schemes.
For example M = 4, there are four basic symbols
(or carriers). Therefore a sequence of two binary
bits can be transmitted by just 4-ary symbols.
M-Ary Modulation

M = 2l level M-level modulated

Binary data Digital-to- multi-level output
Rb bits/sec digital signal
analogue
Modulator
converter Rs =Rb/l
(l -bits)
(QAM)
Combines amplitude and phase modulation
One symbol is used to represent n bits using one
symbol
BER increases with n,
Offers improved BER compared to comparable
PSK schemes
QAM Example : 16 - QAM

n = 4 bits = 1 symbol
0011 and 0001 have the same phase, but different
amplitude.
0000 and 1000 have different phase, but same
amplitude.

Q 0010
0001
0011
0000

I
1000

Used in standard 9600 bit/s modems

Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK)

Bit 0 : sin t
Bit 1 : - sin t
Basic PSK
Low spectral efficiency
Robust, used in satellite communication systems

1
I
0

2 bits coded as one symbol

Symbol shift of sine wave
Less bandwidth then BPSK
More complex

10 Q 11

00 01

Relative, rather than the absolute phase shift could also be used:
Differential QPSK

The two QPSK constellations. Note that they differ by /4. When going from
(1,1) to (-1, -1), the phase is shifted by . When going from (1, -1) to (1,1), the
phase shifts by /2. Thus, depending on the incoming symbol, transitions
from (1,1) can occur to (1,1), (1,-1), (-1, 1),
or (-1, -1) or vice versa, leading to phase shifts of 0, /2, or in QPSK. I
and Q represent the in-phase and quadrature bits, respectively. Arrows show
all possible transitions.
Main Points

Most information today is in bits

Digital baseband modulation uses simple techniques to encode
bits into baseband analog signal.

Digital passband modulation encodes binary bits into the

amplitude, phase, or frequency of the carrier.

was sent.