Professor Z Ghassemlooy
Signals
Modulation Why?
Types of Modulation Techniques
BER Performance
Advance Modulation Techniques
Signals
0 0
t t
T
f = 1/T
1
g(t) = c + an sin(2nft) + bn cos(2nft)
2 n=1 n=1
DC AC components
Signal  Representation
A [V]
A [V]
Frequency domain
f [Hz]
Q = M sin
phase state diagram
(amplitude M and phase
I = M cos
in polar coordinates)
Noise
Noise
Analog
baseband
signal Digital
Analog Decision
data
demodulation circuit
101101001
Radio
carrier
Receiver
Analogue Modulation
Multilevels Schemes
ASK
Data m(t) 1 0 1
Ac
The most basic and simple
Low bandwidth t
Ssusceptible to interference
Bit duration
Carrier frequency Tb
Ac cos( 2f c t ) m( nTb ) = 1
s(t ) ASK = m(t ) Ac cos( 2f c t ) =
0 m( nTb ) = 0
Information
ASK  Vector & Constellation Diagrams
A
Vector diagram
0
cos ct
A Constellation diagram:
I The x axis is a reference for symbol
0
that are inphase (I) with the carrier,
The y axis is the quadrature (Q) carrier
Components (i.e. sin ct)
PSK
Data m(t) 1 0 1
Ac
Bit duration
Tb
Ac cos( 2f c t ) m( nTb ) = 1
s(t ) PSK = Ac m(t ) cos( 2f c t ) =
Ac cos( 2f c t + ) m( nTb ) = 1
PSK  Implementation
Basic
Carrier
(cos ct) PSK
Inverter Data
Advanced
Carrier
(cos ct)
PSK  Constellation Diagrams
cos ct A
I
A cos ct
{
S BPSK = Re ( Acm(t )e jc
)e 2 f ct
}
Complex envelope
The power spectral density of the complex envelope is:
2
2 sin fTb
Pce BPSK ( f ) = Ac
fTb
PSK  Spectrum  contd.
2
Ac sin ( f f c )Tb sin ( f f c )Tb
2 2
PBPSK ( f ) = +
4 ( f f c )Tb ( f f c )Tb
Power spectral density
P. M. Shankar
FSK
t
S FSK (t ) = Ac cos [c + ()m(t )] dt
0
Data
FSK contd.
Data 1 0 1 1
FSK
Data
Acc cos (2fc1
c1t)
FSK
Acc cos (2fc2
c2t)
Voltage
Input FSK
Controlled
data
oscillator
FSK  Spectrum
f f
Amplitude
fc1 3Rb fc1 fc1 +3Rb fc fc2 3Rb fc2 fc2 +3Rb
Frequency
FSK bandwidth = 2f
FSK  Demodulation  Noncoherent
BPF Envelope
@fc1
c1
detector
+
S FSK(t) + n(t) Decision Data
output
threshold

BPF Envelope
@fc2
c2
detector
FSK  Demodulation  Coherent
LPF
VCO
@fc2
c2
Bit Error Rate (BER)  ASK/PSK
Channel
N(t) nTb
Tb 1 or 0
s(t) +
N
0
r(nTb)+N(nTb)
cos(2fct)
Receiver
E STb
Or in terms of signal to noise ratio (SNR) =
No No
E S
Bit rate R = 1/Tb, thus =
No No R
BER ASK/PSK contd.
2E
S ASK (t ) = cos( 2f c t ) for i = 1, 2, ..
Tb
2E
cos( 2f c t ) for biary "1"
Tb
S PSK (t ) = 0 < t < Tb }
2 E cos( 2f t ) for biary "0"
T c
b
BER ASK
Coherent
E
Ps CASK = 0.5 erfc
2 No
NonCoherent
E
Ps NCASK = 0.5 e ( E / 4 N )
0.5 erfc
2No
Coherent
E
Ps CPSK (t ) = 0 .5erfc cos
No
Differential
E
Ps DPSK (t ) = 0.5e N0
BER Vs. Signal toNoise Ratio
NCASK
CASK
E/No (dB)
CPSK BER Vs. SignaltoNoise Ratio
P. M. Shankar
BER  FSK
E
E 1
Pe CFSK = Q
Pe NCFSK = e 2 No
2No 2
Noncoherent
Coherent
BER FSK, ASK, and PSK
Equal E
NCASK
NCFSK
E/No (dB)
MARY Modulation Schemes
n = 4 bits = 1 symbol
0011 and 0001 have the same phase, but different
amplitude.
0000 and 1000 have different phase, but same
amplitude.
Q 0010
0001
0011
0000
I
1000
Bit 0 : sin t
Bit 1 :  sin t
Basic PSK
Low spectral efficiency
Robust, used in satellite communication systems
1
I
0
Quadrature PSK (QPSK)
10 Q 11
00 01
Relative, rather than the absolute phase shift could also be used:
Differential QPSK
Quadrature PSK (QPSK)
The two QPSK constellations. Note that they differ by /4. When going from
(1,1) to (1, 1), the phase is shifted by . When going from (1, 1) to (1,1), the
phase shifts by /2. Thus, depending on the incoming symbol, transitions
from (1,1) can occur to (1,1), (1,1), (1, 1),
or (1, 1) or vice versa, leading to phase shifts of 0, /2, or in QPSK. I
and Q represent the inphase and quadrature bits, respectively. Arrows show
all possible transitions.
Main Points