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Proceedings of the 19th IAHR-APD Congress 2014, Hanoi, Vietnam

ISBN 978604821338-1


(1)Water Resources University, Hanoi, Vietnam, email:
(2) Water Resources University, Hanoi, Vietnam, email:
(3) Water Resources University, Hanoi, Vietnam, email:
(4) Water Resources University, Hanoi, Vietnam,

With CaCO3 component made up to 95% (Davis T.A et al., 2000), oyster shells are similar in composition with limestone.
The objective of this research is to present the capability of oyster shells in treating acidic wastewater from Thanh Thuy
metal craft village. Based on jar test experiments to find the optimum conditions for the process including: dimension of
shells, calcination time, calcination temperature, volume of shells and exposure time. The experimental results were
demonstrated that: shells sized from 2 to 5 centimeters; calcinated in 6000C in 1 hour, brought up better efficiency to acidic
wastewater treatment. According to above conditions, researcher found the optimum shells volume, exposure time to
check the correctness of the experiments about increasing pH and reducing color, iron in wastewater. Oyster shells have
implications in environmental protection, treatment cost saving and contributing the diversity of natural resources.

Keywords:Oyster shells; pH; CaCO3; neutralizing.

1. INTRODUCTION emissions of SO2, NOx came from someindustries (Jung et

al., 2012). In Vietnam, a study by Bui Truong Tho: "Use of
Vietnam accompanied with many marine advantages
agricultural waste, wastewater treatment aquatic
including a coastline of over 3260 km. Besides that, there
activities" (Tho, Bui Truong), which use shredded coconut
are many lagoons which are suitable for aquaculture
combine clam shells, oyster shells in domestic wastewater
industry. The climate and terrain are also favorable for its
treatment by reducing the contaminants through the
development. These advantages are appropriate for
filtering process has showed satisfactory results.
aquaculture industry in general and bivalve mollusks in
particular. According to Vietnam association of seafood The objective of this research was to examine the usable
exporters and producers, aquaculture production statistic ability CaCO3 component in oyster shells for wastewater
of 2 pieces - mollusks in 2012 reached 26240 tons/year (an treatment in metal ware craft villages. Specifically, the
increase of 1.22 times in comparison with 2009). Amongst paper clarifies the ability of oyster shells in changing the
that, in 2012 oyster production tends to increase to 7347 pH value of acidic wastewater treatment through jar test
tons/year (Vietnam association of seafood exporters and experiments and to find out the optimum conditions for
producers). However, this also lead to an increase in the the process. Based on that, it was essential to determine
amount of waste oyster shells which were discarded into the relationship between pH values and color, iron content
the environment from industrial processing, bars, processing capabilities of the effluent from metal ware
restaurants.... In regard to a research of Marine Research craft village Thanh Thuy - Thanh Oai - Ha Noi.
Institution: "For each ton of oyster meat production, there
are 8 tons of shells are disposed, the volume of discarded 2. RESEARCH METHOD
shells in 2012 was 6531 tons/year (Research institute for
Marine fisheries). This waste which discarded into the Oyster shells on one hand are considered as left-over from
environment caused unpleasant smell due to the disposal the fishery industry; however, with CaCO3 component
of oyster meat leftover parts. The process of decomposing made up to 95%, oyster shellsare able to be recycled as a
oyster flesh created different types of gas including: source of water treatment process in metal ware craft
Amine, NH3, H2S which caused severe impact to village.
environment and human health. In regards to the findings from some previous science
In order to remedy this situation, many Korean researches on characteristics and natures of oyster shells, it
researchers used oyster shells as a sort of building was indicated that waste oyster shells are similar in
material (Yoon et al., 2003; Kristy Noel Kelley., 2009) composition with limestone (Jung et al., 2005):
experimental results demonstrate that the oyster shells are
effective and can be a replacement of sand for reducing
the intensity compression. For environmental remediation
purpose, oyster shells are effective in controlling
eutrophication (Kwon et al., 2004; Park et al., 2008). In
2012, South Korea conducted several projects which
concerned with the accessibility of oyster shells to handle

% Vv is always fixed, Vr is directly proportional to V
60 Furthermore, calcining kiln which was used in the
subsequent experiments was not the spinning type, so it
40 Al2O3 was critical to use larger shells size for calcinating. If the
Fe2O3 shells sizes weresmall, the material would fill all voids,
20 then they would be separated from the heat which could
CaO make the calcining-shells well done or rare.
0 MgO
In the other hand, from 1 unit volume of bulk density, the
Waste oyster Ignition Loss dimension of oyster shells is inversely proportional to the
shells Jungsun
limestone interface and material weight. The interface between solid
and liquid counts base on one unit of weight, often noted
by m2/g, and it affect to the reaction
Figure 1: Composition of waste oyster shells and Jungsun
In the scope of this report, the research object was to use
oyster shells as instrument in treating acidic waste water.
The water treating experiment was conducted by using
neutralize method with oyster shells. The preliminary
treatment process for oyster shells in order were: wash,
dry, heat. Samples from the process were gathered and
distinguished by lattice screen, which divided into three
types based on size: (type 1: from 1-2 cm, noted as L1; type
2: from 2-5 cm, noted as L2; type 3: original size (>5 cm),
noted as L3). Afterwards,oyster shells were calcinated in
kiln, then allocated in dry-cabinet and cooling to reach
room temperature. Figure 2: Dimensions affect to the interface

Based on the method of neutralizing, acidic waste water

had to be neutralized in order to bring pH to about 6.5 to Temperature and timing of calcination process
8.5, before discharging into receiving resources or After choosing the size, it was essential to treat the shells
technology used for further processing. Wastewater by heat to form the activation properties of oyster shells.
neutralization could be achieved in which acidic water The changes of temperature and calcination timing were
was purified by using materials which were capable of important, which determined the raising of pH index by
neutralization. using oyster shells.
The contents of this report demonstrate the ability of The calcination process was conducted as:
oyster shells to increase pH in wastewater treatment for
metal ware craft villages. Through Jartest experiments, the CaCO3 CaO + CO2
optimum results for the following conditions were The calcination process is endothermic reaction with main
established: size shells, burning time, burning component is CaCO3. The activation energy for this
temperature, shells volume, exposure time to improve reaction is calculated by the following equation, (Jung et
processing efficiency. al., 2012):


= (1 ) (2)
Dimension of shells

The dimension of oyster shells is highly correlated to the = ( ) (3)
ability of increasing pH. From 3 grain sizes collected after
( )
= (1 ) (4)
screening (L1, L2, L3), it is essential to choose the optimum
type for using oyster shells in treating wastewater as Where: x = mass of waste oyster shells and limestone,
saving the energy cost for calcining process.
k = reaction rate,
The grain size is correlated to the void ratio. Void ratio
X = conversion,
from the material is directly proportional to capability of
diffusing oxygen into water which contributes the n = reaction order,
treatment process. Void ratio (%): the void volume
contained in one unit volume of material. If Vr is A = pre-exponential factor,
considered as void volume and Vv is considered as Ea = activation energy,
materials volume then:
R = gas constant,
v r (Lu, Phung Van., 2008) T = absolute temperature.
Vv The higher the temperature, the greater amount of heat
Where: Vr = Vv V collected, and the amount of CaO, CO2 had increased.
While CO2 had been escaping, the material became light
V: the materials volume in state of totally solid (liter) and forming voids. The voids contributed to increasing
the interface area between CaO and wastewater, thereby

the neutralizing reaction carried out acidic waste sources. appropriate to choose the timing as 1h for energy cost
However, if the calcination temperature was too high, saving.
shells would crack, then the small pieceswould easily
The capability of increasing pH by the sample in different pH
points calcination temperature, with calcination time 1h 8
and 1.5h was shown in figure 3; 4. 7
pH 5
8 3 1,5h
7 T=300 C 2
6 1
T=450 C
5 0 minutes
4 T=600 C 10 20 30 40 50 60
T=750 C
2 Figure 5: pH values at 6000C calcination temperature in 1 hour
1 T=850 C and 1.5 hours timing.
0 Application for finding the optimum volume in
10 20 30 40 50 60
wastewater treatment at Thanh Thuy craft village
Wastewater samples were taken from 4 villages: Rua Ha,
Figure 3: pH values at different temperatures with 1 hour Gia Vinh, Rua Thuong, Tu Am. The analysis in
calcination characteristics of samples was shown in the following
Table 1: Analysis of wastewater input parameters
7 T=300 C
T=450 C Standards
Parameters Unit M1 M2 M3 M4 (40:2011
4 T=600 C
T=750 C B)
1 T=850 C
0 Temperature
10 20 30 40 50 60
minutes 0C 28 27 26 26 400C

Figure 4: pH values at different temperatures with 1.5 hours

pH 2,10 2,09 2,15 2,05 5,5 9

Based on the testing experiment, the aptitude of refreshing

Color Pt-
acidic wastewater of oyster shells increased along with 682 894 778 822 150
increase in calcination temperature and timing. This result Co
was apposite with the concept which cited above.
Specifically, pH in both figure were directly proportional Iron mg/l 580,46 670,12 594,89 621,25 5
to the heat while calcination. However, when reached to
the definite temperature (from 6000C), pH value in
wastewater was stable, only slightly increased. For 750 0C
and 8500C, pH reached its highest value. However, the With the input parameters above, if wastewater from craft
change in pH value was only 8% while compared to villages was directly discharge to the environment, it
6000C, the change was very significant - 30%. would lead to heavy pollution. This is due to the fact that
Furthermore, the stability of shells shape was very low all the above parameters were excess the allowed
when temperature reached 7500C and 8500C, it had many standards for environment-discharging wastewater. Thus,
disruption lines, and created many small pieces which in order to vindicate the effectiveness of oyster shells, it
were difficult to collect. On the other hand, the shells was essential to find the optimal volume of shells as well
shape was relatively stable at 3000C, 4500C, however, the as the optimal exposure time based on changes in pH.
pH value was very small in changes. The above
weaknesses were solved at temperature of 600 0C, with the Optimal volume of shells
ability to increase pH value to 6.25 in 1 hour (pH equals Within the same volume of wastewater, the greater the
6.75 in 1.5 hours) and limited the lime sediment. In amount of shells, the faster the reaction takes place.
conclusion, it was optimal to choose the calcination However, it is not ideal if using too many oyster shells.
temperature of 6000C. This would lead to the waste of resources and increase the
For 6000C, the ability to increasing pH value in 1.5 hours cost of operation. The optimal results of oyster shells
(pH equals 6.75) was not different comparing to amount for 1 liter of village's wastewater are shown in
calcinating in 1 hour (pH equals 6.25). Thus, it was Figure 6.

pH 66%). After that, in the period from 30 to 60 minutes, this
7 performance had just slightly improved (from 66% to
6 6.07 67%). The last period (from 60 to 70 minutes) had
5 5.8 6.05 observed that the pH growth performance increased
4 4.21 inconsiderably. Therefore, it was specifically to say that
pH the optimal exposure duration was 60 minutes.
2 Assessing the effects of iron treating
From the optimal conditions of material: Shells size was
125 250 500 750 1000 grams from 2 to 5 centimeters,calcination temperature equals
6000C, calcination timing was 1 hour, exposure time was
Figure 6: pH values for 125, 250, 500, 750, 1000 grams 60 minutes and the input parameter:
With input pH value equals 2, pH value changed after + pH = 2
exposure to increasing amounts of oyster shells from 125g-
500g. At 125g, pH after about 60 minutes exposure time + Color: 786 Pt Co
reaches 4.21; while at 500g, pH value reached 5.80; the
+ Iron content: 597,54mg/l
difference between two values was 1.59. Meanwhile, with
the same period of exposure time the volume which had Researcher use 3000g of the material to treat 4000
the highest pH value reached was 1000g. However, the milliliters acidic wastewater.
difference in pH value at the shells weight value of 500g,
750g, and 1000g were relatively small. In particular, the As waste water was taken from the metal ware craft
pH value at 750g oyster shells was larger than 0.25 village, the iron value in the samples accounted was high
compare to pH value at 500g, also similar to the difference component account for a large amount. The iron ions had
of only 0.02 with 750g and 1000g. The difference between existed as Fe2+, therefore the color of wastewater was
the two intervals of pH value above was 12.5 times, which green. But according to the experiment, color of
suggested that an increase in the shells volume of 250g wastewater samples was turned into yellow, which could
would not lead to the same efficiency. Therefore, it was respond by the change of iron ion into Fe3+. The reaction
critical to say that the optimal parameter of usable shells took place according to the formula:
volume for 1 liter of wastewater was 750g. 4Fe2++ O2 + 2H2O + 4Ca(OH)2 4Fe(OH)3 + 4Ca2+
Exposure time The iron ion Fe3+ easily settled to the bottom, and the
samples turned to yellow. But the reaction above had
The testing result showed that pH value tended to rise conditions to completely happen, one of those was pH.
along with the rise in exposure duration. The reaction was bidirectional, while pH value was high,
that formula above would happen more easily.
Vtb mol / ls (Khuong, Nguyen., 2002) Furthermore, in regards to researches by
t ChayapatTabtong, SinsuphaJuiJuijermin 2009; Md.
Where: 2008; Woo-SeokShin, KuKang,
Young-KeeKimin 2014,
Vtb: the average speed (mol/ls) oystershellshadaptitudeforironionabsorption.
C C1 C2 Iron ion absorption capacity of oyster shells was
: concentration variability (mol/l)
determined by the formula:
C1: initial concentration (mol/l)
V .(Ci Ce )
C2: equilibrium concentration (mol/l) Qe .103 , mg / g (Davis T.A., 2000)
t : time (s) Where:
The equation above showed that exposure time related to V: volume of solution (l)
velocity and variety of concentrations.
Ci: initial concentration (mg/l)
Ce: equilibrium concentration (mg/l)
m : amount of adsorbent (g)
According to the theories above, the experiment had
shown the capability of oyster shells in treating iron
through figure 8 and 9:

Figure 7: Performance of increasing pH in periods of time

In the period from 10 to 30 minutes early, the performance

of pH growth had increased exceedingly (from 60% to

pH Ci Ce (Park, Polprasert., 2008)
RE .100%
6 Where:
5 Initial pH values Ci: initial concentration, mg/l
Ce: equilibrium concentration, mg/l
3 pH values after
2 exposure
0 Conclusion
5 15 30 60 The study aimed to provide the optimum conditions in
order to raise the pH value of acidic wastewater from craft
Figure 8: pH values through exposure periods villages. These conditions including: metal temperature,
calcination time, the dimensions of the shells, the volume
600 70 % and duration of exposure. Based on that, we evaluated the
ability to handle the iron content, the true color in
500 wastewater samples by using oyster shells. In general, the
research group came up with several conclusions:
+ Shells size from 2 - 5 cm was optimal for scalability of
iron content (mg/l)

30 iron content + 6000C calcination temperature in 1 hour was the
200 optimum time to keep the oyster shells shape during
100 10 processor
+ Optimal exposure time (processing time) was 60
0 0
5 15 30 60 minutes Research showed that oyster shells were usable in
wastewater treatment in craft villages. The activation of
oyster shells after firing sewage treatment is a new
Figure 9: Iron contents and performances method in recycling solid waste, creating beneficial
products for production, lessens environmental problems
According to these charts, while pH value reached to 5.05,
caused by aquaculture along with cost savings and avoids
iron treating performance was just 10%, comparing to 60%
environmental impacts during extraction of natural
while pH value reached to 6.09. This experiment indicated
resources such as limestone.
the relative between pH and iron content, moreover,
including oxygen diffusion into water and the exposure Recommendations
Due to limited testing and laboratory conditions,
Assessing the effects of color treating assessing the ability to handle pH and color, metallic iron
content of oyster shells as well as the factors affecting
Due to the color variation during the experiment, the color
treatment efficiency are not in the scope of this paper .
values were measured after 60 minutes exposure time.
The experiment was carried out after filtering. The result Areas of this study and applications of oyster shells in
was shown in figure 10. wastewater treatment were a new field in Vietnam. To be
able to deploy the applicable results in real environment,
further researches are required, as well as researches must
be conducted in a larger scale. The researchers should
600 70 further issues: the institution, policy, technology, human
resources, finance and public awareness for recycling
500 60
oyster shells can be used more commonly to save natural
50 resources which are increasingly depleted.
40 During the study, analyzing the parameters had shown

300 Color
the property affecting the processor efficiency is porosity
materials. However, due to the lack of time, it was
200 unavailable to introduce the concept of a new group,
formula. Hopefully in the future if all conditions are met,
100 10 performan
ce color the project can be expanding to focus more with optimum
0 0 temperature for broken oyster shells and chemical
5 15 30 60 minutes adsorption as well as research by surface adsorption
handling of hazardous materials for reuses cost savings
Figure 10: Color values and performances in removal color and effective treatment of CO2 released from the kiln.

At 60 minutes exposure time, the performance reached

to over 60%, which was the peak of the line. The
performance was calculated by the formula:

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