Titan 3.0

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Titan 3.0

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Compressible Flow Pipe System Modeling and

Optimization

Applied Flow

Technology

quickstart 1.doc

Information in this document is subject to change without notice. No part of this Quick

Start Guide may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or

mechanical, for any purpose, without the express written permission of Applied Flow

Technology.

Printed in the United States of America.

"AFT Titan", "AFT Arrow", "Applied Flow Technology", and the AFT logo are

trademarks of Applied Flow Technology Corporation.

Windows is a registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.

quickstart 1.doc

Contents

1. Introducing AFT Titan .................................................... 1

How AFT Titan works.............................................................................. 1

Analysis vs. design ................................................................................... 3

Analysis.............................................................................................. 3

Design ................................................................................................ 3

Cost-based optimization vs. cost estimating............................................. 4

AFT Titan design capabilities .................................................................. 4

Types of systems that can be optimized............................................ 4

Optimization parameters available..................................................... 5

Engineering assumptions in AFT Titan.................................................... 5

AFT Titan Primary Windows ................................................................... 5

Input windows.................................................................................... 6

Output windows ................................................................................. 6

Optimization terminology......................................................................... 7

Design variables ................................................................................. 7

Design constraints .............................................................................. 7

Objective function.............................................................................. 7

Continuous vs. discrete optimization ................................................. 8

Design variable linking ...................................................................... 8

Feasible and infeasible designs.......................................................... 8

Topics covered.......................................................................................... 9

Required knowledge ................................................................................. 9

Model files.............................................................................................. 10

Step 1. Create the model......................................................................... 10

Summary .......................................................................................... 10

A. Layout model............................................................................... 11

B. Specify solution method .............................................................. 11

C. Select fluid................................................................................... 12

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iv AFT Titan 3.0 Quick Start Guide

E. Enter control valve data............................................................... 14

F. Enter pipe data ............................................................................. 15

Step 2. Setup the optimization data ........................................................ 16

A. Create pipe size range set ............................................................ 16

B. Create a control valve constraint set ........................................... 19

Step 3. Apply optimization data ............................................................. 20

A. Apply optimization data to P1..................................................... 20

B. Apply optimization data to P2..................................................... 20

C. Apply optimization data to J2 (FCV) .......................................... 22

Step 4. Specify Optimization Control..................................................... 23

Step 5. Run the Optimization ................................................................. 24

Step 6. Review optimization results ....................................................... 25

Conclusions ............................................................................................ 26

Topics covered........................................................................................ 27

Required knowledge ............................................................................... 27

Model files.............................................................................................. 28

Optimization goals.................................................................................. 28

Getting started......................................................................................... 28

Review Optimization Control................................................................. 29

Review databases.................................................................................... 31

Review pipe optimization setup ............................................................. 32

Pipe size range sets .......................................................................... 33

Pipe constraint sets........................................................................... 34

Pipe linking ...................................................................................... 35

Creating pipe size range sets and constraint sets ............................. 35

Review junction optimization setup ....................................................... 37

Optimizing systems with compressor/fans....................................... 39

Junction costs ................................................................................... 40

Junction constraint sets .................................................................... 40

Creating junction constraint sets...................................................... 40

quickstart 1.doc

Table of Contents v

Running the scenarios and interpreting results....................................... 43

Scenario to minimize first cost......................................................... 43

Scenario to minimize life cycle cost for 5 years .............................. 45

Optimizing with compressor/fan curve data........................................... 48

Conclusions ............................................................................................ 49

Topics covered........................................................................................ 51

Required knowledge ............................................................................... 51

Model files.............................................................................................. 52

Optimization goals.................................................................................. 52

Getting started......................................................................................... 52

Review model ......................................................................................... 53

How the dependent design case was created ................................... 55

Run the optimization .............................................................................. 59

Consider the results ................................................................................ 61

Optimize for eight pipe sizes .................................................................. 62

Run the optimization .............................................................................. 63

Optimize with operating costs spread over multiple cases..................... 65

Vary recurring costs over time ............................................................... 65

Time value of money .............................................................................. 66

Working with different currencies.......................................................... 66

Costs vs. size........................................................................................... 66

Optimizing rectangular duct systems...................................................... 66

Compare VFD vs. FCV optimized systems............................................ 66

Maximum cost groups ............................................................................ 67

Network databases.................................................................................. 67

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vi AFT Titan 3.0 Quick Start Guide

quickstart 1.doc

CHAPTER 1

compressible flow pipe system optimization tool. With AFT Titan you

can automatically size all pipes or ducts in your system to minimize

monetary cost, weight, volume, or surface area. In addition, you can

concurrently size the compressors or fans and pipes to obtain the

absolute lowest cost system that satisfies your design requirements.

Finally, by accounting for non-recurring and recurring costs, you can

optimize pipe and duct systems to minimize life cycle costs over some

specified duration.

AFT Titan consists of three basic elements: the Graphical Interface, the

Compressible Flow Solver, and the Optimization Engine (i.e., the

Optimizer). Figure 1.1 shows the relationship between the three.

quickstart 1.doc

2 AFT Titan 3.0 Quick Start Guide

Graphical Interface

Input Output

Yes

Solver on optimum?

Optim izer

specific pipe or duct system. The Optimizer then modifies the design,

and the Compressible Flow Solver evaluates the modified design. The

Optimizer continues this process until it is satisfied that no further

design improvements are possible. At this point, the Optimizer has

converged on a design, and the resulting optimized design is then sent

back to the Graphical Interface where it is displayed to the user.

The Compressible Flow Solver, which functions as the prime mover in

performing an engineering analysis (e.g., AFT Arrow), becomes a

subroutine called by the Optimizer. The Optimizer is the prime mover in

AFT Titan.

The Compressible Flow Solver in AFT Titan was derived from AFT

Arrow, a leading commercial compressible pipe flow analysis product

with many years of industrial use to its credit.

The optimization engine employed by AFT Titan uses state-of-the-art

optimization technology licensed from Vanderplaats Research and

Development, the leading company in optimization technology. VR&Ds

technology has been used for many years in engineering design, with

extensive use in structural finite element analysis.

quickstart 1.doc

Chapter 1 Introducing AFT Titan 3

Analysis

Traditional piping system engineering has employed pipe flow analysis.

Engineering analysis is the process of using accepted calculation

methods to predict the behavior of a given system. These calculation

methods may be manual or automated in a computer program.

The weakness of analytical methods is that they require the specification

of the system before the methods are applied. Specifically, the pipe or

ducts sizes, compressor, fan, valve and other equipment must be

specified in order to perform the calculation.

However, when a new pipe system is being designed, these parameters

are not known. To use the analytical methods, the engineer must guess at

the pipe sizes and required equipment, perform the analysis, then modify

his or her original selections as necessary.

The analytical methods are used iteratively to arrive at a final design.

Design

A design oriented approach to piping system engineering would allow

the selection parameters to be variables. Rather than specifying pipe

diameters, the engineer solves for pipe diameters by specifying the flows

and pressures (and other design requirements) and selecting the

appropriate pipes which minimize the overall system cost.

Within certain limits engineers do this with traditional analytical

methods, but the number of design tradeoffs that can be considered is

limited and the tradeoffs considered are indirectly tied to cost.

AFT Titan offers a true design-oriented approach to piping system

engineering by using advanced optimization methods to evaluate

competing designs vs. cost and selecting the optimum design. The

analysis method (i.e., the Compressible Flow Solver) is called repeatedly

by the Optimizer in an effort to identify design improvements (i.e.,

improvements that reduce cost).

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4 AFT Titan 3.0 Quick Start Guide

AFT Titan is not a cost estimating tool. Rather, it offers a rational and

automated approach for comparing potential pipe or duct system designs

using the common denominator of cost. It is the pipe or duct system

design that AFT Titan obtains that is of immense value, not the process

of cost estimating.

AFT Titan can be used to optimize a wide variety of engineering

systems.

Open and closed (recirculating) systems

Network systems that branch or loop, with no limit on the number of

loops

Pressure-driven systems

Compressor or fan-driven systems, including multiple

compressor/fans in parallel or in series

Compressor/fans with variable speed, controlled discharge pressure

and controlled flow

Systems with pressure and/or flow control valves

Systems with valves closed and compressor/fans turned off

Heat transfer analysis and system energy balance

Systems with non-ideal gases

Systems that experience sonic choking, including multiple sonic

choking points

Systems with non-reacting flow stream mixing and user-defined

mixtures (with optional Chempak)

Systems with elevation changes or rotation such as in

turbomachinery

quickstart 1.doc

Chapter 1 Introducing AFT Titan 5

Pipe size

Pipe velocity, pressure gradient, pressure, and flow

Compressor/fan pressure rise, proximity to BEP (Best Efficiency

Point), power, and others

Control valve pressure drop and open percentage

AFT Titan is based on the following fundamental fluid mechanics

assumptions:

Compressible flow

All gases are superheated

Steady-state conditions

One-dimensional flow

No chemical reactions

Supersonic flow does not exist in the system

AFT Titan has five subordinate windows that work in an integrated

fashion. You work exclusively from one of these windows at all times.

For this reason they are referred to as primary windows.

Of the five primary windows, two are input windows, two are output

windows, and one displays both input and output information. Figure 1.2

shows the relationship between the primary windows.

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6 AFT Titan 3.0 Quick Start Guide

Model Data

Visual Report

Workspace Output

Graph Results

Input windows

The two windows that function exclusively as input windows are the

Workspace window and the Model Data window. These two windows,

one graphical and the other text-based, work together to process model

input data with immense flexibility. The tools provided in these two

windows allow you to model a large variety of pipe networks.

The Visual Report window can function in support of both input and

output data. As an input window, it allows you to see the input data

superimposed on the pipe system schematic created on the Workspace.

Output windows

The two windows that function exclusively as output windows are the

Output window and the Graph Results window. The Output window is

text-based, while the Graph Results window is graphical. These two

windows offer a powerful and diverse range of features for reviewing

analysis results for modeling errors, gaining a deeper understanding of

the pipe system's flow behavior, and preparing the results for

documentation.

As an output window, Visual Report allows you to see the output results

superimposed on the pipe system schematic created on the Workspace.

The five primary windows form a tightly integrated, highly efficient

system for entering, processing, analyzing, and documenting

incompressible flow analyses of pipe networks.

quickstart 1.doc

Chapter 1 Introducing AFT Titan 7

Optimization terminology

General optimization terminology applied to pipe systems is as follows:

Design variables

The design variables in AFT Titan are the pipe sizes.

Design constraints

There are numerous design constraints in AFT Titan. Common

constraints are pipe velocity, control valve pressure drop and proximity

to compressor/fan BEP (Best Efficiency Point).

One constraint type is pipe velocity. One may set the maximum to 100

feet/sec, and the minimum to 10 feet/sec. If the final pipe velocity were

99 feet/sec, the maximum velocity constraint would be active because

the final value of the velocity is at or near the maximum velocity. On the

other hand, the 99 feet/sec pipe velocity is far away from the 10 feet/sec

minimum. If we remove the minimum velocity constraint, the result will

still be an actual pipe velocity of 99 feet/sec. Thus the minimum velocity

constraint is inactive and does not influence the pipe size selected by the

optimizer.

On the other hand, if one removed the 100 feet/sec maximum velocity

constraint, the actual velocity would probably increase above 100

feet/sec, thus resulting in a different pipe size. The maximum velocity is

active in that if we change or remove the constraint the selected

optimum would change. Changing or removing inactive constraints have

no effect on the selected optimum.

Objective function

This is the cost of the system. The cost can be monetary or can be based

on weight, volume or some other parameter. As AFT Titan varies the

pipe sizes, the cost of the pipes and associated equipment varies. The

optimization engine searches for combinations of pipe sizes that

minimizes the objective function (i.e., cost).

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8 AFT Titan 3.0 Quick Start Guide

Most commercial pipe comes in discrete sizes (e.g., 1 inch, 2 inch, 3

inch, etc.). When dealing with discrete data, AFT Titan evaluates the

best combination of discrete pipe sizes. If, on the other hand, it is

possible to obtain the pipe in any size, the pipe sizes are continuous.

AFT Titan can find continuous optimums in addition to discrete

optimums. The continuous optimum will typically provide a better

design than the discrete, and it is much easier (and faster) for the

optimization engine to identify.

The optimization process takes longer as the number of pipes of

potentially different size increases. Frequently there are groups of pipes

in your system which either you want to be of the same size for design

purposes, or must be the same size by virtue of their location in the

system. To minimize the calculation time, it is best to link pipes. When

one links pipes, one is saying that the linked group of pipes all must have

the same pipe size, and be the same material and schedule, class, or type.

A linked group thus collapses the individual pipes that are part of that

group to a single design variable for that group. There can be multiple

linked groups in a model.

A feasible design is one which satisfies all constraints, while an

infeasible design does not satisfy one or more constraints. There are

many ways you can create a model that has no feasible solution. For

example: Connect a pipe to an assigned pressure junction set to 200 psig,

then place a constraint on the pipe that it must have a pressure less than

100 psig. Since the pipe is connected to an assigned pressure junction at

200 psig, there is no way for it to satisfy the 100 psig constraint. Thus,

no feasible solution exists.

quickstart 1.doc

CHAPTER 2

Summary

parameter optimization on a system. Engineering parameter

optimization involves minimizing some quantity such as the total pipe

weight or volume. Pipe weight or volume frequently relates closely to

the actual pipe cost, and is easier to setup than cost based optimization.

This example demonstrates minimizing the pipe weight in a system.

The example is for a steam transfer system that feeds steam from a

pressurized tank to a lower pressure tank at a specified flow rate. A

control valve is used to control the flow rate.

Topics covered

Engineering parameter (pipe weight) optimization

Pipe linking options

Control Valve constraints

Required knowledge

No prior knowledge is required for this example.

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10 AFT Titan 3.0 Quick Start Guide

Model files

This example uses the following file, which is installed in the Examples

folder as part of the AFT Titan installation:

Control Valve.ttn - AFT Titan model file

Summary

Create a model as shown in Figure 2.1 with the following specifications:

Steam

Inlet tank at 250 psia and 600 deg. F and discharge tank at 200 psia

and 600 deg. F

Desired flow is 10,000 lbm/hr

Control valve must have a pressure drop of at least 20 psid

Total pipe length is 250 feet

Pipes are Schedule 40 from 1 to 10 inch, excluding 3 1-2 inch and 5

inch pipe.

quickstart 1.doc

Chapter 2 Weight Optimization Example 11

A. Layout model

Create a model as shown in Figure 2.1.

1. The three junctions, J1, J2 and J3, can be dragged from the Toolbox

at the left and dropped on the Workspace.

2. The two pipes, P1 and P2, can be drawn on the Workspace by

clicking the Pipe Drawing Tool at the upper right of the Toolbox and

then drawing lines on the Workspace. Make sure the directional

arrows point from J1 to J2 and then J2 to J3. (The flow direction can

be reversed by use of the Reverse Direction tool on the Arrange

menu.)

Models run more accurately with the default Solution Control methods,

but more quickly with Lumped methods.

1. Open Solution Control from the Analysis menu

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12 AFT Titan 3.0 Quick Start Guide

2. Select the Lumped Adiabatic method (Figure 2.2)

3. Click OK

C. Select fluid

1. Open the System Properties window from the Analysis menu (see

Figure 2.3)

2. In the upper left select the "AFT Standard" option

3. In the "Fluids Available in Database" list, select "Steam"

4. Click the "Add to Model" button

5. Click the OK button to close the window and accept the fluid data

for the model

quickstart 1.doc

Chapter 2 Weight Optimization Example 13

fluid.

As shown in Figure 2.1, the J1 (Inlet Tank) junction is a Tank junction.

1. Double-click the J1 junction icon to open the Tank Specifications

window (see Figure 2.4)

2. Enter a Pressure of 250 psia

3. Enter a Temperature of 600 psia

4. Enter an Elevation zero feet

5. Click the OK button

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14 AFT Titan 3.0 Quick Start Guide

Repeat this process for junction J3 (Discharge Tank), but use a Pressure

of 200 psia.

The J2 junction is a Control Valve junction. We will use this as a flow

control valve (FCV).

1. Double-click the J2 junction icon to open the Control Valve

Specifications window (see Figure 2.5)

2. Enter an elevation of 0 feet.

3. In the "Valve Type" area select "Flow Control (FCV)"

4. In the "Control Setting" area enter a "Flow Setting" of 10,000

lbm/hr.

5. Click the OK button

quickstart 1.doc

Chapter 2 Weight Optimization Example 15

1. Double-click on the pipe P1 to open the Pipe Specifications window

(see Figure 2.6)

2. In the "Size" area choose the "Pipe Material" as "Steel"

3. Choose the Size and Type as "6 inch" and "Schedule 40"

4. Specify the length as 125 feet

5. Click the OK button

6. Enter the same data for pipe P2 as pipe P1.

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16 AFT Titan 3.0 Quick Start Guide

In order to select an optimal pipe size, AFT Titan needs to know what

pipe materials and/or sizes should be considered. This is specified

through pipe size range sets.

1. Open the Pipe Optimization Parameters window by selecting "Pipe

Parameters" from the Optimization menu (see Figure 2.7)

2. Click the "Create Set" button and name the set "Steel Sch 40"

3. In the "Range Set Definition" area select the material as "Steel"

4. Click the "Select Pipe Sizes" button to open to open the Select Pipe

Sizes window

5. In the Sort area at the lower left select "Type, Schedule, Class" (see

Figure 2.8)

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Chapter 2 Weight Optimization Example 17

6. In the "Available Material Sizes and Types" list at the left expand

the "Schedule 40" listing

7. Add all sizes from 1 inch to 10 inch, except for 3 1-2 and 5 inch, by

selecting from the list on the left and then clicking the "Add >>"

button to add each one to the "Use These Sizes" list on the right

(again, see Figure 2.8)

8. Click the OK button

9. The Pipe Optimization Parameters window should now look like that

in Figure 2.9

10. Click the OK button

At this point, we have merely created a size range set. The size range set

will have no effect on the optimization process until we actually apply it

to specific pipes in the model. We will do this in Step 3.

create size range sets and constraint sets

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18 AFT Titan 3.0 Quick Start Guide

Figure 2.8 The Select Pipe Sizes window allows specify the

specific pipe sizes to be included in the size range set

Figure 2.9 The "Steel Sch 40" size range set when completed

quickstart 1.doc

Chapter 2 Weight Optimization Example 19

The flow control valve has two design requirements. First is that it

control the flow to 4000 scfm. Second, that it operate with at least 20

psid pressure drop. The flow requirement is met by specifying the valve

as an FCV with flow control of 4000 scfm. We did this already (see

Figure 2.5).

To obtain the 20 psid pressure drop we must apply a constraint to the

control valve.

1. Open the Control Valve Optimization Parameters window by

selecting "Control Valve Parameters" from the Optimization menu

(see Figure 2.10)

2. Click the "Create Set" button and name the set "Pressure Drop Min"

3. In the grid at the bottom, select the Apply checkbox for "Pressure

Drop Static Minimum"

4. Enter a "Value" of 20 psid

5. Click the OK button

Valve Optimization Parameters window

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20 AFT Titan 3.0 Quick Start Guide

Similar to the pipe size range set we created, the control valve constraint

has been created but not applied. It thus will have no effect on the

optimization until we actually apply it to the J2 control valve. We will

do this in Step 3.

To make use of pipe size range sets and constraint sets, they must be

applied to the relevant pipes and junctions.

1. Double-click pipe P1 to open the Pipe Specifications window once

again

2. Select the Optimization tab (see Figure 2.11)

quickstart 1.doc

Chapter 2 Weight Optimization Example 21

3. In the Optimization area select the "Optimize" option (this

automatically forces selection of the "Include Cost in Cost Report

and Objective" option)

4. In the Linking area (at the lower left) select the "Use as a Link Basis

Pipe" option

5. In the "Size Range" list (at the lower right) select the "Steel Sch 40"

size range set we created previously (Figure 2.9)

6. Click the OK button

1. Double-click pipe P2 to open the Pipe Specifications window

2. Select the Optimization tab (see Figure 2.12)

3. In the Optimization area select the "Optimize" option (this

automatically forces selection of the "Include Cost in Cost Report

and Objective" option)

4. In the Linking area (at the lower left) select the "Link to Pipe"

option, with pipe P1 as the link (this dropdown list is a list of all link

basis pipes one in our case)

5. The "Size Range" list (at the lower right) will automatically select

the size range set of the link basis pipe, which for pipe P1 was "Steel

Sch 40". This list is grayed out to indicate it is not an option for pipe

P2 because it is a linked pipe.

6. Click the OK button

By linking pipe P2 to P1, we are saying that we want AFT Titan to select

the same size pipe for each. If we did not link them, the two sizes would

be selected independently, and may or may not end up being the same

size.

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22 AFT Titan 3.0 Quick Start Guide

1. Double-click junction J2 to open the Control Valve Specifications

window

2. Select the Optimization tab (see Figure 2.13)

3. In the Constraint Sets area select the "Pressure Drop Min" constraint

set

4. Click the OK button

quickstart 1.doc

Chapter 2 Weight Optimization Example 23

1. Open the Optimization Control window from the Analysis menu (see

Figure 2.14)

2. In the "Optimization Type" area (at the upper left) select the

"Perform Discrete Optimization" option

3. In the Objective area (at the upper right) select "Engineering

Parameter" in the dropdown list at the top

4. Select the "Minimize" option

5. Select the "Pipe Weight" option in the list of four engineering

parameters

6. Click the OK button

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24 AFT Titan 3.0 Quick Start Guide

specification for how to optimize the pipe system

We are now in a position to run the optimization. Before doing so, take a

moment to consider what this model is trying to accomplish. The pipe P1

and P2 sizes will be selected from the "Steel Sch 40" size range set as

the same size, such that their weight is minimized while obtaining a

minimum 20 psid pressure drop across the control valve.

1. To run the optimization, select Run from the Analysis menu. This

will start the Solution Progress window (see Figure 2.15). The

optimum for this small system is quickly found. It is 1,894 lbm. It

required 30 calls to the Compressible Flow Solver to find the

optimum.

2. Click the "View Results" button

3. The Output window will display, where the optimization results can

be viewed

quickstart 1.doc

Chapter 2 Weight Optimization Example 25

the Compressible Flow Solver and Optimizer

1. The Cost Report tab (see Figure 2.16) shows a total weight of 1,894

lbm. This should be and is consistent with the weight shown in the

Solution Progress window (in Figure 2.15). Each pipe weighs 947

lbm, which is consistent with the fact they are the same length and

linked to optimize for the same diameter.

2. The Optimization tab shows the optimal pipe size chosen was 3 inch.

The 3 inch pipe over 250 feet of length corresponds to a weight of

1894 lbm.

3. The CV Constraints tab shows that the 20 psid minimum pressure

drop is satisfied in that the pressure drop for 3 inch pipe was 35 psid.

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26 AFT Titan 3.0 Quick Start Guide

results of the optimized system, plus the optimal

system size results

Conclusions

This example demonstrates AFT Titan's optimization capabilities for a

simple system with a single constraint. Engineering parameter

optimization for weight is fast and easy to implement.

quickstart 1.doc

CHAPTER 3

Example

optimize an air distribution system for cost.

Topics covered

This example will cover the following topics:

Engineering and Cost Databases - How to connect and use

Linking Pipes - How to limit the number of independent variables

Size range sets and constraint sets - How to set requirements on the

system

Optimization Control - How to optimize for initial or life cycle cost

Optimization output - How to understand the optimization results

Required knowledge

This example assumes that the user has some familiarity with AFT Titan

such as placing junctions, connecting pipes, entering pipe and junction

specifications, and creating and using pipe size range sets and

constraints. Refer to the Weight Optimization Example in Chapter 2 for

more information on these topics.

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28 AFT Titan 3.0 Quick Start Guide

Model files

This example uses the following files, which are installed in the

Examples folder as part of the AFT Titan installation:

Air Distribution.ttn AFT Titan model file

Air Distribution.dat junction engineering database

Air Distribution.cst cost database associated with Air

Distribution.dat

pipe-steel-sch40-galv-threaded.cst - cost database for galvanized

steel

Optimization goals

This example uses an existing model to investigate two optimization

cases:

1. Optimize system for initial cost with a 5-year operating period

2. Optimize system for life cycle cost with a 5-year operating period.

Getting started

To begin, start AFT Titan and load the model file Air Distribution.ttn.

This model has a number of different scenarios. If you are not familiar

with scenarios, you can review the Scenario Manager discussion in the

Help system or Chapter 5 of the AFT Titan User Guide.

Open the Scenario Manager from the View menu to see the existing

scenarios. Select and load the scenario "Five Year Life/Design for Initial

Cost". The model should be ready to run, but first lets understand what

the model is doing. See Figure 3.1.

quickstart 1.doc

Chapter 3 Initial and Life Cycle Cost Optimization Example 29

Open the Optimization Control window from the Analysis menu (Figure

3.2). The Optimization Control offers a number of features to control the

optimization process. In the Optimization Type area, the first selection is

"Do Not Optimize". This is equivalent to running AFT Titan as one runs

AFT Fathom.

The second selection is "Calculate Costs, Do Not Optimize". This is

identical to the first selection, with the exception that costs are

calculated for the system and displayed in the Output window.

The third selection is "Perform Continuous Optimization", which selects

pipes sizes assuming the diameters are continuous. In other words, it

ignores the fact that commercial pipe is available only in discrete sizes,

and instead assumes that any diameter is acceptable.

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30 AFT Titan 3.0 Quick Start Guide

The fourth selection is more realistic than the third because it recognizes

the fact that commercial pipes are available only in discrete sizes, and

chooses the optimal combination of discrete sizes.

that control the optimization process

the optimization objective. Frequently this will be to minimize certain

monetary cost categories. Also available is Engineering Parameter

optimization, which allows one to minimize the pipe or duct volumes,

weight, surface area, etc. (Weight optimization was used in Chapter 2.)

For calculating life cycle costs, users must provide a System Life and,

optionally, interest and inflation rates to calculate the present value of

the recurring costs.

This scenario assigns a system life of 5 years, and includes only material

and installation costs in the objective. Both of these cost categories are

non-recurring. With only these specified, the model is attempting to find

an optimum based on non-recurring (i.e., first or initial) cost.

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Chapter 3 Initial and Life Cycle Cost Optimization Example 31

Review databases

The actual material and installation costs that the Optimization Control

window specifies are contained in cost databases. The cost databases

needed for this air distribution example already exist, and just need to be

accessed.

The Database Manager (opened from the Database menu) shows all of

the available and connected databases. Databases can either be

engineering databases or cost databases. Cost databases are always

associated with an engineering database, and are thus displayed

subordinate to an engineering database in the database lists.

Here we will summarize some key aspects of databases:

Cost information for a pipe system component is accessed from a

cost database. Cost database items are based on corresponding items

in an engineering database. (The engineering databases also include

engineering information such as pipe diameters, hydraulic loss

factors, etc.)

To access a cost for a particular pipe or junction in a model, that

pipe or junction must be based on items in an engineering database.

Moreover, that database must be connected.

There can be multiple cost databases associated with and connected

to an engineering database. This makes it easier to manage costs of

items.

The Database Manager should appear as shown in Figure 3.3. With the

"Air Distribution System", both database sections are checked. The two

sections should be Junction/Component Costs and Energy Costs.

The engineering databases associated with these two cost databases are

the AFT DEFAULT INTERNAL database, and an external database

called "Air Distribution System". For the cost data in the two cost

databases to be accessed by pipes and junctions in the model, the pipe

and junctions must use these two engineering databases.

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32 AFT Titan 3.0 Quick Start Guide

databases

Open pipe P1 on the Workspace by double-clicking it. Figure 3.4 shows

the Pipe Specifications window with the Pipe Model tab selected, and

Figure 3.5 shows it with the Optimization tab selected.

The Optimization data offers the ability to optimize or not optimize a

pipe. If Optimize is selected, AFT Titan will treat the pipe diameter as a

variable and vary it according to certain criteria that will be discussed

shortly. Why would one choose to not optimize a pipe? There could be a

number of reasons, but one good reason is that the pipe represents a pipe

in an existing system and the design does not allow the replacement of

that pipe with a new one. Therefore its diameter is fixed, and optimizing

the pipe would serve no purpose. All pipes in this model are to be

optimized, because it is a new system and it makes sense to select the

optimal diameters for all pipes.

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Chapter 3 Initial and Life Cycle Cost Optimization Example 33

When the pipe is optimized, the optimal diameter is selected from a

group of potential diameters called a pipe size range set. A specific pipe

can only access one pipe size range set, but a specific pipe size range set

can be accessed by any number of pipes.

As shown in Figure 3.5, the Size Range list shows all the pipe size range

sets that exist for this model. In this case there are two, and one and only

one must be selected.

The pipe size range sets are created in the Pipe Optimization Parameters

window, which is opened from the Optimization menu. It can also be

opened by clicking the Optimization Parameters button at the lower right

(see Figure 3.5).

Once a size range set is selected, the list of available pipe sizes on the

pipe window is restricted to pipes in that size range set. Look in Figure

3.4 and you can see the area normally described as "Size" is now

described as "Size (From Optimization Size Range)". The actual pipe

size you select here is analogous to an initial guess at the size.

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Constraints can be applied to both optimized and unoptimized pipes.

Constraints are design limitations on certain parameters. For example,

there may be a design requirement that the velocity cannot exceed 100

feet/second. As the optimizer evaluates different pipe sizes, if a

particular size results in a velocity greater than 100 feet/second, that pipe

size is rejected because it causes a constraint violation.

When a pipe that is not optimized has a constraint, it means that the

optimized pipe sizes cannot be such that it violates the constraint for the

unoptimized pipe. There can be multiple constraints in a constraint set,

and multiple constraint sets applied to a pipe. For instance, in addition to

a maximum velocity limit, a maximum pressure limit may exist.

Constraints are contained in constraint sets, which are created in the Pipe

Optimization Parameters window. This window is opened from the

Optimization menu or by clicking the Optimization Parameters button at

the lower right (see Figure 3.5).

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Chapter 3 Initial and Life Cycle Cost Optimization Example 35

As shown in Figure 3.5, pipe P1 does not have any constraint sets

applied. If you open the Pipe Optimization Parameters window, you will

see the "Max Velocity" constraint is 150 feet/sec. Other pipes in this

model can have constraints applied according to the design

requirements. You can view the constraint sets for each pipe in the

Model Data window. In addition, you can view the pipes using each

constraint in the Optimization Summary window.

Pipe linking

Pipe linking is the process whereby certain groups of pipes are specified

to have the same pipe size. As pipes are linked it reduces the number of

design variables and allows the optimizer to run faster. It also has the

effect of simplifying the design.

for a model.

An unlinked pipe is one that has no links to any other pipe, and no other

pipes linked to it. A "link basis" pipe is one that is not linked to other

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pipes, but allows other pipes to link to it. A linked pipe is one linked to

another pipe that is a link basis pipe.

There is a fourth type of linking, which is related to dependent design

cases. This is discussed in the next chapter.

In this model, pipe P1 is a link basis pipe. To find out how all the pipe

linking is setup, open the Optimization Summary window from the

Optimization menu and select the Linking tab. If you select the Expand

Tree button, the window should look like Figure 3.6. This tree

graphically shows the number of design variables that AFT Titan will

solve. This particular model has eighteen pipes that are being optimized,

but because of linking it has twelve link basis pipes, and thus twelve

design variables. You can also view the pipe linking by selecting the

Color Linked Pipes feature on the Optimization menu.

The pipe size range sets are created in the Pipe Optimization Parameters

window, which is opened from the Optimization menu. It can also be

opened by clicking the Optimization Parameters button (see Figure 3.5).

Figure 3.7 Pipe size range sets are created and modified in the

Pipe Optimization Parameters window.

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Chapter 3 Initial and Life Cycle Cost Optimization Example 37

The source of cost data for each of these size range sets is specified in

the Cost Database Source list (Figure 3.7). In our case, all cost sources

are specified as "All Cost Databases", which means to use the data

sources as specified in the Database Manager.

The Pipe Optimization Parameters window, Constraint Sets tab, is

shown in Figure 3.8. Here constraint sets for pipes are created. These

constraint sets can be applied to the pipes of your choosing. For

example, if all pipes have a maximum velocity of 100 feet/sec, then that

constraint set should be applied to all pipes in the model. This is done on

each pipe window, in the Constraints Sets area as shown in Figure 3.5.

Figure 3.8 Pipe Constraint Sets are created and modified in the

Pipe Optimization Parameters window.

Open compressor/fan junction J2 on the Workspace by double-clicking

it. Figure 3.9 shows the Compressor/Fan Specifications window with the

Compressor/Fan Model tab selected, and Figure 3.10 shows it with the

Optimization tab selected.

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tab

Optimization tab

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Chapter 3 Initial and Life Cycle Cost Optimization Example 39

A compressor/fan can be modeled either as a compressor/fan curve or as

an assigned flow. The fundamental reason one would choose one

approach over the other is if one is trying to identify the pressure

generation requirements for the purposes of choosing a compressor/fan

(in which case one would model the compressor/fan as an assigned

flow), or if one already has a specific compressor/fan identified (in

which case one would model the compressor/fan as a compressor/fan

curve). It could be the case that one does not have a specific

compressor/fan selected, but does have several candidate

compressor/fans. In this case, it would be best to model each candidate

compressor/fan as a compressor/fan curve, and do this within a scenario

created for each compressor/fan.

The compressor in our air distribution case is modeled as an assigned

flow of 1250 scfm. This was chosen for the following reason. Each of

the five rooms is required to receive 250 scfm of air, for a total of 1250

scfm.

As already stated, when a compressor is modeled as an assigned flow, it

is not a specific compressor from a specific manufacturer. Thus, the

costs for the compressor can only be approximated. To a first

approximation, it should be possible to estimate the non-recurring cost

(i.e., material and installation cost) for the compressor/fan as a function

of power requirements at 1250 scfm. For instance, a five horsepower

compressor/fan (of specific configuration and materials of construction)

may cost $1000, and a ten horsepower may cost $1800. Other typical

costs for different power requirements can be approximated. The actual

cost for the compressor will, of course, highly depend on the application.

These costs are entered into a cost database, and are accessed by the

optimizer. As AFT Titan evaluates different combinations of pipe sizes,

each combination will require a certain power from the compressor With

a cost assigned to this power, AFT Titan can obtain a cost to enter into

the objective function which it optimizes. Later in this chapter, we will

look at the costs for the compressor in our example air distribution

network.

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In addition to non-recurring costs, recurring costs can also be estimated.

Specifically, the cost of the power used by the compressor over a period

of time (which AFT Titan calls the "system life") can be determined. All

AFT Titan needs is an overall compressor/fan efficiency to determine

the actual power from the ideal power. Again, since we do not have a

specific compressor selected yet, the efficiency can only be

approximated. AFT Titan calls this the "nominal efficiency" (see Figure

3.9).

A step-by-step method of compressor and fan selection proceeds in two

phases. The steps are outlines in the Help System and in Chapter 12 of

the AFT Titan User Guide.

Junction costs

There are three choices in specifying the cost of a junction. These

choices are provided on the Optimization tab in the junction's

Specifications window (see Figure 3.10).

1. Do Not Include in Cost As it says, the cost of the junction is

entirely neglected.

2. Include in Cost Report Only This reports all costs for the junction,

but does not include the cost in the objective function. The costs

thus do not impact the overall optimization process.

3. Include in Cost Report and Objective This reports all costs for the

junction, and includes the cost in the objective function. The

junction costs are thus allowed to influence the optimization process.

Junctions do not have size range sets as do pipes, but many have

constraints. Junction constraints function similarly to pipe constraints.

Some examples of junction constraints are compressor/fan power and

control valve pressure drop. Junction constraint sets are specified

similarly to pipes, by selecting the constraint sets from the provided list.

Junction constraint sets are created in a similar way to pipe constraint

sets. Constraint sets for compressor/fans, control valves, and other types

of junctions are created on three different windows opened from the

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Chapter 3 Initial and Life Cycle Cost Optimization Example 41

Optimization menu. Figure 3.11 shows a control valve constraint set

used in the air distribution example we are reviewing. This constraint is

applied to control valves J111, J121, J211 and J221.

Figure 3.11 Constraint sets for control valves are created in the

Compressor/Fan Optimization Parameters window.

Before running the model, lets discuss some key aspects of the model.

You may want to review the actual model itself as we discuss these

points.

1. The system is an air distribution system, with air supplied at 70F.

2. The overall goal of the model is to size the J2 compressor for a flow

of 1250 scfm, and in the process find an optimal compressor and

pipe system combination.

3. There is a design requirement that each of the five rooms receive

250 scfm, with flow maintained by flow control valves. In addition,

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42 AFT Titan 3.0 Quick Start Guide

it is required that the final design yield at least a 2 psid drop across

each control valve.

4. After the design is complete, the flow through the compressor will

be controlled by the five flow control valves. Since we are sizing the

compressor, we select the J131 control valve as the most remote and

set it to the minimum allowed pressure drop of 2 psid. The choice of

2 psid comes from the design requirement for this system that the

flow control valve shall, at a minimum, have a 2 psid pressure drop.

5. A Control Valve Constraint Set called Min Pressure Drop has

been specified as a minimum 2 psid. This has been applied to J111,

J121, J211, and J221. But not J131, which has been modeled as a

fixed pressure drop at this stage. (You can see which junctions use

this constraint in the Optimization Summary window).

6. Except for pipe P1, all other pipes are inside the building and cannot

have a velocity greater than 150 feet/sec. This is a pipe constraint

called Max Velocity, which is applied to all pipes except P1. (You

can see which pipes use this constraint in the Optimization Summary

window).

7. As shown in Figure 3.6, the pipes are linked such that there are

twelve independent pipe sizes (i.e., design variables) that will be

included. The linking is such that pipes that should have the same

size are linked together. For instance, it makes sense that the suction

and discharge pipes for the compressor have the same size.

Therefore, pipe P1 and P2 are linked together, with pipe P1 being

the link basis (either of the pipes could be chosen as the link basis,

and yield identical results).

8. The compressor has a nominal efficiency of 80%.

9. The compressor is specified to "Include in Cost Report and

Objective" (see Figure 3.10).

10. The two cost databases, shown in Figure 3.3, have cost data for the

pipes and the compressor. You can use the Cost Database window

opened from the Database menu to review the cost data for these

databases. In summary, there is cost data for the compressor as a

function of power. There is also operational cost for power of a

fixed 0.06 U.S. dollars per kW-hr. The cost is fixed in that is

assumed to be constant over the system life. It is possible to increase

or decrease the cost over time using scaling tables.

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Chapter 3 Initial and Life Cycle Cost Optimization Example 43

For the two scenarios we will evaluate, the only change will be in the

Optimization Control window. The first case is the one we have been

reviewing.

As shown in Figure 3.2, the system life is set to 5 years for this scenario,

and the objective only includes costs for material and installation.

The optimization results are already saved in this file. You can view the

results in the Output window by selecting Output from the Windows

menu. Alternatively, you can rerun the optimization. Depending on your

computers processor, this may take 3-10 minutes.

When the model is run, AFT Titan evaluates a range of pipe size

combinations, and finds the one that minimizes the sum of material and

installation costs (i.e., initial cost).

Figure 3.12 The Cost Report in the Output window shows the total

and individual costs for the optimized system.

The Cost Report is shown in the General Section of the Output window

(see Figure 3.12). AFT Titan shows all costs in the Cost Report, even

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those that were not used in the optimization. The total cost for this

system is $149,313. This includes all costs over 5 years. The first cost,

which was the basis for the optimization, was the total of the material

and installation ($68,255). This total is also the cost shown as the "Items

in Objective". Again, AFT Titan minimizes the objective, and thus the

cost that was minimized was the $68,255 cost shown in the Cost Report

as "Items in Objective". Individual items whose cost contributed to the

objective are shown with a green background in the cell.

Other costs that are displayed in the Cost Report are "Items Not in

Objective". These are items that have costs associated with them, but

were not included in the objective that was minimized.

pipe section.

Note that the Items Not in Objective total to $81,058. Looking across at

the subtotal one can see that all of this cost is Operational (i.e.,

compressor/fan power costs). The total cost is the sum of the two, or

$149,313. Why was the Operational Cost not added to the Items in

Objective? The reason relates to the Optimization Control settings, as

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Chapter 3 Initial and Life Cycle Cost Optimization Example 45

shown in Figure 3.2. Here one sees that the objective is set to minimize

only material and installation cost. Costs related to maintenance and

operation are thus not minimized. If this is still not clear, read through to

the next section which optimizes with operation costs included.

The actual pipe sizes chosen as optimum are shown in Figure 3.13. This

is the Optimization tab in the Output window pipe section area. Along

with the optimized pipe sizes, the pipe linking is shown and the cost of

each pipe.

In both the pipe and junction sections of the Output window, there are

tables called Database Source. These show the source of all cost data for

each pipe and junction. This is useful for model verification.

Using Scenario Manager, load the scenario called "5 Year Life/Design

for LCC". Open the Optimization Control window, and you can see the

objective now has operation cost selected (Figure 3.14). This is the only

difference from the previous scenario. Let's call the previous scenario

the "first cost" scenario and this one the "life cycle cost" scenario.

By including operational costs in the objective, we are now trying to

minimize the sum of the material, installation and operation cost. This

may cause the material and installation costs to increase. Let's see what

happens.

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46 AFT Titan 3.0 Quick Start Guide

for LCC" scenario

Run the model (this model should run in less than a minute) and look at

the results in the Cost Report (Figure 3.15).

Figure 3.15 Cost Report for life cycle cost optimization scenario.

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Chapter 3 Initial and Life Cycle Cost Optimization Example 47

There are a number of items of note:

1. The overall cost is now $135,790. Taken on its own, this represents

a savings of about $13,500 over the first cost scenario which was

design based on first cost. This represents a 9% cost reduction.

2. The "Items Not in Objective" category is now zero, whereas it was

substantial in the first cost scenario. The reason is that we have

included all costs in the objective based on the settings in

Optimization Control. To be complete, the Optimization Control did

not include maintenance costs, but there were no maintenance costs

in any of the cost databases. You can see this by looking at the Cost

Report column for Maintenance. If there were maintenance costs in

these cost databases, there would be values in this column and the

"Items Not in Objective" would not be zero unless Optimization

Control was modified to include maintenance cost.

3. The "Items in Objective" category now includes all cost items, and

the Cost Report breaks this down further into a Non-Recurring Sub

Total ($89,700) and a Recurring Sub Total ($46,100).

4. Because Operation costs are now included in the objective, the cells

for Operation are colored green whereas before they were not.

Looking at the source of operational costs, one sees it comes from

the compressor/fans (which will always be the case for operational

costs).

5. In the first cost scenario, the non-recurring cost was $68,300, while

the overall cost was $149,300. Now the non-recurring cost is

$89,700 while the overall cost is $135,800. The first cost thus

increased by about $21,400 in order to reduce the operating cost

from $81,100 to $46,100 (a reduction of about $35,000).

System

Optimized for: Material Installation Total Operating Total (system + Reduction

System operation)

Life cycle cost 5 yr 55,300 34,400 89,700 46,100 135,800 13,500

6. The source of the operating cost is the cost of power for the

compressor. To reduce compressor power usage, it makes sense to

increase the pipe size and thus reduce frictional losses. For the AFT

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Titan "Design for LCC" scenario, AFT Titan optimizes the sum of

these two costs. The larger pipe sizes can be reviewed by looking at

the Output window pipe Optimization tab, and also are summarized

in Figure 3.16.

J2

41.4 hp

J1 23.5 hp J3 J201

P1 P2 P201

6 inch 6 inch 4 inch

8 inch 8 inch P101 6 inch P202

4 inch 4 inch

6 inch 4 inch

P211 P212

P112 P111 2 1/2 inch 2 1/2 inch

2-1/2 inch 2-1/2 inch P102 3 inch 3 inch

2-1/2 inch 2-1/2 inch 4 inch

P203

4 inch

3 inch

4 inch

J122 J121 J102 J203 J221 J222

3 inch 3 inch 2 1/2 inch 2 1/2 inch

3 inch 3 inch P103 4 inch 4 inch

3 inch

4 inch

Legend:

J132 J131 J103

Optimized for initial cost

Optimized for 5 year life cycle

P132 P131

2 1/2 inch 2 1/2 inch

4 inch 4 inch

Figure 3.16 Pipe sizes selected by AFT Titan for first cost, and life

cycle cost over 5 years.

the Cost Report of the first cost scenario. If they were not in the Cost

Report of the first cost scenario, the total cost would be $68,300.

Since the life cycle cost scenario total cost is $135,800, it would

appear (at first glance) to be a cost increase. But that is misleading.

Just because the operating costs were not included in the first cost

scenario's objective does not mean they do not exist. To get a clear

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Chapter 3 Initial and Life Cycle Cost Optimization Example 49

comparison between designing for first cost and life cycle cost one

needs to make an "apples to apples" comparison, including all

relevant costs in each case. The approach taken in this chapter does

this.

8. If, after having performed the optimization, one still wants to design

the system for first cost, the first cost scenario results provides the

optimal system design to minimize first costs. Importantly, the

designer has quantitative data on the impact of first cost design on

operational costs of the system.

Once the compressor/fan is sized then actual compressor/fans can be

modeled. The actual compressor/fan should closely match the sizing

results in the following areas: generated pressure at the design flow,

efficiency at the design flow, and cost.

Reviewing the results for this case one can see that the optimum system

calls for a compressor/fan of about 41 hp which generates about 6.7 psid

of pressure at 1250 scfm. The nominal efficiency used in the sizing part

of the analysis was 80%. The material cost for such a compressor/fan

was about $6500, and the installation cost was about $3250. Note that if

no actual compressor/fans can be found that reflect these requirements,

then the phase 1 of the Summarizing the compressor/fan selection

process should be repeated with better performance and/or cost data for

the compressor/fan.

Conclusions

Using cost databases in the optimization process involves increased

complexity from simple engineering parameter optimization as discussed

in Chapter 2. However, it allows more powerful optimization options

including the ability to optimize costs over a system life cycle.

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CHAPTER 4

Summary

This example will optimize the pipe sizes for a natural gas supply system

to five burners where there are two design cases. This example uses

monetary cost optimization.

Topics covered

This example will cover the following topics:

How dependent design cases are used to satisfy two different

operating modes for a system

Pipe linking and its effect on how well AFT Titan can optimize a

system

Required knowledge

This example assumes that the user has some familiarity with AFT Titan

such as placing junctions, connecting pipes, entering pipe and junction

specifications, and creating and using pipe size range sets and

constraints. Refer to the Weight Optimization Example in Chapter 2 for

more information on these topics.

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52 AFT Titan 3.0 Quick Start Guide

Model files

Natural Gas Burner.ttn - AFT Titan model file

pipe-steel-sch40-galv-threaded.cst - Pipe cost database for steel pipe

Optimization goals

This example uses an existing model to investigate a single system with

two operating cases. The cases are the following:

1. Normal flow to burners requires 5 lbm/sec controlled by flow

control valves. Pressure drop across flow control valve must be at

least 25 psid and velocity at burner must be less than 200 feet/sec.

2. One burner off case has center burner turned off. Total flow must

be maintained so each flow control valve must flow 6.25 lbm/sec.

Same pressure drop requirement at control valves, but there is no

velocity requirement.

For this example, we will evaluate both operating cases. First, we will

use AFT Titan to optimize assuming a requirement to use up to three

pipe sizes throughout the system. After this we will optimize the pipes

assuming the pipes can be six different sizes.

Getting started

Start AFT Titan and open the " Natural Gas Burner.ttn" file. Select the

scenario "Base Scenario/Optimized Cases/ One Dependent Case / 2

Design Variables (Case 1)" (see Figure 4.1).

This example consists of a natural gas supply (Tank 1) at 200 psia and

50 deg. F that supplies natural gas to five burners. All the pipes in the

system are Steel schedule 40. The supply line to the heat exchanger is

fixed at 6 inch and is not be changed. The optimization of this system

will work with all pipes in the distribution part of the system.

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Chapter 4 Multiple Design Case Example 53

Review model

The supply to each burner under normal conditions is 5 lbm/sec of

natural gas (modeled as methane see System Properties window). Each

burner has a flow control valve to maintain this flow, and it is required

that each flow control have at least 25 psid pressure drop. Finally, it is

required that the velocity at each burner be at most 200 feet/sec. The

primary design case, "Supply to 5 Burners", is shown in Figure 4.2. This

case was built in the Base Scenario, which is not the scenario we are

currently reviewing.

For the supply line to the distribution piping (pipes 1 and 2), the pipe

size is fixed to six inches and will not be optimized. All other pipes can

be changed. In this scenario, we are assuming that all main pipes (pipes

11, 12, 21 and 22) will be sized to the same size. The distribution pipes

(31-72) can be sized to a different size than the mains, but but must all

be the size. Thus there will be two fundamental pipe sizes selected. The

size of the mains and the size of the distribution pipes.

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To do this, we have to establish two pipes as "link basis pipes" and then

link all the other pipes (except the supply pipes) one of these pipes. For

this example, Pipe 11 and Pipe 31 were chosen as the link basis pipe. If

we look at the Optimization Summary window, we can see that all the

pipes are linked to one of these two pipes. Figure 4.3 shows the

Optimization Summary Window for this scenario.

which is in the Base Scenario.

You can also investigate the size range sets and pipe constraint sets for

this model in the Pipe Optimization Parameters window opened from the

Optimization menu. The size range set includes all Schedule 40 steel

pipe from 1 inch to 12 inches. One pipe constraint set has been set up for

a maximum velocity of 200 feet/sec to the burners. A control valve

constraint set has been set up for the minimum 25 psid pressure drop

across the control valves.

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Chapter 4 Multiple Design Case Example 55

Figure 4.3 Optimization Summary Window with all the pipe mains

linked to each other and all distribution pipes linked

After we created the primary design case model shown in Figure 4.2, we

created one dependent design case. A dependent design case (or DDC)

in AFT Titan is a system that models the same physical pipes and

junctions as the primary design but with different operating

requirements. The dependent design case for this model is when one

burner is turned off. When one burner is off, the flow to each of the

other four burners is increased from 5 to 6.25 lbm/sec.

Here are the steps to create this DDC for the first time:

1. Open the Optimization Control window (from the Analysis menu)

and select the "Enabled Dependent Design Cases" option at the

lower left (Figure 4.4). Click OK.

2. Choose Select All from the Edit menu.

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Optimization Control window

dependent design case

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Chapter 4 Multiple Design Case Example 57

3. Open Duplicate Special (from the Edit menu), enter an increment of

100 and select "Make Dependent Design Case" (Figure 4.5). Click

OK.

Figure 4.6 Workspace with Primary Design Case (at top) and one

Dependent Design Case (at bottom)

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4. Move the duplicated pipes and junctions to distinguish them from

the original ones from the Primary Design Case (Figure 4.6).

5. Close the J151 flow control valve in the DDC by opening its

Specifications window, setting the Action if Control is Lost to Fail

Closed, and then (on the Optional tab) setting the Special Condition

to Closed. Since this valve is closed, the 25 psid pressure drop

requirement no longer applies. On the Optimization tab the

Minimum DP constraint was unselected.

6. Open the Specifications window for DDC pipes 132, 142, 152, 162

and 172 and unselect the velocity constraint, which does not apply

when one of the burners is off.

7. Use Global Junction Edit (from the Edit menu) to change all of the

flow control valve junctions in the DDC (junctions 131, 141, 151,

161, and 171) from 5 to 6.25 lbm/sec (see Figure 4.7).

Figure 4.7 Global Junction Edit is used to change the FCV flows

to 6.25 lbm/sec to the burners in the DDC.

selected, each of the duplicated pipes was created with a special type of

linking relationship. For example, pipe 111 is linked to pipe 11 as "Link

quickstart 1.doc

Chapter 4 Multiple Design Case Example 59

to Pipe as Dependent Design Case" (see Figure 4.8). This type of link

functions similarly to a regular link, except the cost is not counted for

the pipe.

linking relationship to pipes in the primary case

Figure 4.4 showed the Optimization Control settings for this analysis.

AFT Titan will perform a discrete optimization on Material and

Installation costs of this system. Select Run from the Analysis menu and

AFT Titan will find the optimum pipe size to meet the system

requirements.

After the run finishes, examine the optimum pipe sizes calculated by

AFT Titan. The results for pipe size are shown in Figure 4.9. One can

see that the optimum size is 4-inch pipe for the mains and 5-inch for the

distribution pipes.

c:\aft manuals\t3\quickstart\titan3 quickstart 1.doc

60 AFT Titan 3.0 Quick Start Guide

The cost for all optimized pipes is $38,696 (see Cost Report in Figure

4.10). This is the cost for "Items in Objective". Since we did not

optimize the supply pipes (because these were fixed at 6- inch), there is

an additional cost of $8,250 for "items not in objective". The pipes that

were optimized are distinguished in the Cost Report by having a green

background color. The total cost is merely the sum of the two ($46,946).

quickstart 1.doc

Chapter 4 Multiple Design Case Example 61

The optimization we just ran had two operating cases. One was for

normal natural gas supply, and the second was for supply with one

burner turned off. The normal case is modeled by the network shown in

the upper part of Figure 4.6. The second model shown at the bottom of

Figure 4.6 models the one burner off case.

The pipes and junctions in the one burner off case are separate entities

for modeling purposes, but represent the same pipes and junctions as the

normal flow case. Thus when performing optimization, we only count

the cost of the pipes and junctions once. This occurs in the primary

design case, which in our model is the normal flow case. This can be

seen in Figure 4.9, where pipes 1-72 all have an associated cost, while

pipes 101-172 do not.

By applying different pressure and flow requirements between the

normal and one burner off cases, we performed an optimization that

selected the optimal pipe size which simultaneously met the

requirements of both cases.

c:\aft manuals\t3\quickstart\titan3 quickstart 1.doc

62 AFT Titan 3.0 Quick Start Guide

Finally, since the previous case only selected for two pipe sizes, there

were only two design variables. By unlinking some of the pipes, a better

optimum is possible. We will investigate this in the next section.

Return to the Scenario Manager and select the "8 Design Variables

(Case 2)" scenario. All input data is the same in this case as the previous

case, except for:

Figure 4.11 Linking relationships for the case with eight optimized

pipes.

1. Pipes 12, 41, 42, 51 and 52 have been made link basis pipes. These

are in addition to the original link basis pipes, 11 and 31.

2. Pipe 22 is now linked 12, pipe 61 is now linked to 41, pipe 62 is now

linked 42 and pipe 72 is now linked 32.

quickstart 1.doc

Chapter 4 Multiple Design Case Example 63

3. The default search method would work fine here, but it took about

five minutes to optimize. A different search method which uses

genetic algorithm methods was used to obtain results faster for the

sake of this example (it took about one and half minutes). This was

setup in the Optimization Control window, with some additional

adjustments input after selecting the Advanced button.

There are now eight independent pipe sizes for which the optimizer will

search. Figure 4.11 shows the new linking relationships.

Run this scenario and examine the results. The optimum pipe sizes for

this scenario are shown in Figure 4.12. The pipe sizes now are a

combination of sizes including 3-1/2, 4, 5 and 6 inch pipe. This design

still meets all the requirements of both scenarios but the pipe sizes are

optimized for cost.

Figure 4.12 Optimum pipe sizes for the case with eight link basis

pipes

c:\aft manuals\t3\quickstart\titan3 quickstart 1.doc

64 AFT Titan 3.0 Quick Start Guide

The cost of the design is shown in Figure 4.13. The cost of the optimized

pipes (i.e., Items In Objective) has changed from $38,696 to $32,950, a

15% cost reduction.

Figure 4.13 Cost Report for the case with eight link basis pipes

quickstart 1.doc

CHAPTER 5

AFT Titan capabilities. This chapter briefly describes some of the

important capabilities not covered.

For systems with multiple design cases, the system may operate a

significant portion of the time in each design case mode. AFT Titan

allows one to assign a percentage of the operating cost to each relevant

design.

For example, assume you are designing a two-compressor air supply

system which uses both compressors in the summer but only one in the

winter (because of reduced demand for air). The winter operating cost is

thus much less than in the summer. You can account for this by

assigning the percentage of the time the compressor operates in each

design case. This allows a proper accounting of annual operating costs,

and a proper life cycle optimization to be performed.

Through "scale tables" AFT Titan allows you to input recurring data for

pipes or junctions that vary over time. For instance, perhaps the

maintenance cost of a piece of equipment is low at first but requires

increased maintenance over some time period. The cost for maintenance

can be varied over time to match the anticipated maintenance schedule.

quickstart 1.doc

66 AFT Titan 3.0 Quick Start Guide

An important consideration in evaluating recurring cost items is the cost

of money for future expenses. AFT Titan allows you to enter an interest

rate and inflation rate to account for actual value of future expenses

based on today's currency value. This data is entered in the Optimization

Control window.

Cost data can be entered in any currency you wish. Different currencies

can be defined in the Parameter and Unit Preferences window, and then

used as a basis for cost databases.

Scale tables can be used to model how equipment costs vary with pipe

diameter. For instance, a 4-inch valve will cost more than a comparable

2-inch valve. This can be accounted for in the cost database by use of

scale tables.

Generic compressor and fan costs can be modeled as a function of

power, and generic control valve costs can be modeled as a function of

maximum Cv.

AFT Titan can optimize systems with only rectangular ducts or a

combination of rectangular and cylindrical ducts. Rectangular ducts have

two space dimensions, and thus two design variables are required for

each independent duct size.

Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) control methods are frequently

compared to Flow Control Valve (FCV) methods. However, this is

typically only evaluated in the context of a given pipe system. AFT Titan

quickstart 1.doc

Chapter 5 Other AFT Titan Capabilities 67

allows one to optimize the system for each of these methods. This allows

a more meaningful comparison.

When evaluating multiple operating cases, one of the compressor or fan

operating modes will drive the compressor or fan selection for all cases.

This is by virtue of the fact that the cost will be based on the mode

requiring the most power and/or largest pressure rise. This can be

modeled in AFT Titan with Maximum Cost Groups. A Maximum Cost

Group allows one to couple costs together for all compressors or fans

that will eventually be of the same design (and thus cost the same). This

allows the proper cost information to be used for each design case.

Maximum cost groups can also be used for control valves.

Network databases

Engineering and cost databases can be located on local PC's or deployed

across local or wide area networks. The Database Manager allows users

to connect to relevant databases for their specific pipe system design.

c:\aft manuals\t3\quickstart\titan3 quickstart 1.doc

68 AFT Titan 3.0 Quick Start Guide

quickstart 1.doc

Creating for pipes 36

Index Junctions 40

Pipes 34

A

Control valve 9

AFT DEFAULT INTERNAL

DATABASE 31 Control Valve constraint set 19

window 19

Overview 5

Cost Report 25, 43, 60

summary of capabilities 4

Currency units 66

C

D

Chempak 4

Database Manager 31, 67

Compresors

Databases 67

Cost of power 40

Cost 31

Compressor Curve 39

DDC See Dependent Design Case

Compressor/fan junction

Dependent Design Case 55

Compressor/fan Curve 39

Enabling in Optimization Control 55

Compressor/Fan Specifications window

Linking See

Nominal efficiency 40

Design variable 7, 35, 36, 62, 66

Compressors

linking 8

Optimizing with compressor curves

49 Duct optimization 66

Constraint 7, 34

E

Active and Inactive 7

Elevation 4

General junction 40

Pipes 34

F

Constraint Set

Fan Curve 39

70 AFT Titan 3.0 Quick Start Guide

Fans Operational costs 45

sizing method 39 Optimization

Flow Control Valve 19, 66, 67. See Continuous vs. discrete 8

Control valve

Optimization Control window 23, 29,

Maximum Cost Groups 67 55, 66

Optimization Summary window 36, 54

G Output window 6

Global Junction Edit 58 Pipe Optimization 45, 60

Graph Results window 6 Overview of AFT Titan 5

I P

Infeasible design 8 Parameter and Unit Preferences window

Installation costs 43 66

Pipe Drawing Tool 11

J Pipe linking See Linking

Junctions Pipe Optimization Parameters window

Costs 40 16, 33, 34, 36, 54

Pipe Size Range Set 16. See Size

Range Set

L

Pipe Specifications window 15, 20

Link basis pipe 35, 54

Optimization data 32

Linking 8, 35

Pipes

M Optimizing 32

R

O Rectangular duct optimization 66

Rotational acceleration 4

Index 71

S

Scenario Manager 28, 62

Size Range Set

Creating for pipes 36

Pipes 33

Solution Progress window 24

Supersonic flow 5

System Life 30

System Properties window 12

T

Tank junction 13

Time value of money 66

V

Variable Frequency Drive 66

Visual Report window 6

W

Workspace window 6, 11

c:\aft manuals\t3\quickstart\titan3 quickstart 1.doc

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