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Mathematics 53

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 1 / 19

For today

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 2 / 19

Theorem

sin x lim cos x = 1

lim =1 x 0

x 0 x

lim sin x = 0 1 cos x

x 0 lim =0

x 0 x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 3 / 19

Theorem

sin x lim cos x = 1

lim =1 x 0

x 0 x

lim sin x = 0 1 cos x

x 0 lim =0

x 0 x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 3 / 19

Theorem

sin x lim cos x = 1

lim =1 x 0

x 0 x

lim sin x = 0 1 cos x

x 0 lim =0

x 0 x

The Squeeze Theorem is used to prove the item 1. Item 1 is used to prove item 2

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 3 / 19

Theorem

sin x lim cos x = 1

lim =1 x 0

x 0 x

lim sin x = 0 1 cos x

x 0 lim =0

x 0 x

The Squeeze Theorem is used to prove the item 1. Item 1 is used to prove item 2,

and item 2 is used to prove item 3.

Theorem

sin x lim cos x = 1

lim =1 x 0

x 0 x

lim sin x = 0 1 cos x

x 0 lim =0

x 0 x

The Squeeze Theorem is used to prove the item 1. Item 1 is used to prove item 2,

and item 2 is used to prove item 3.

Finally,

1 cos x

lim

x 0 x

Theorem

sin x lim cos x = 1

lim =1 x 0

x 0 x

lim sin x = 0 1 cos x

x 0 lim =0

x 0 x

The Squeeze Theorem is used to prove the item 1. Item 1 is used to prove item 2,

and item 2 is used to prove item 3.

Finally,

1 cos x 1 cos x 1 + cos x

lim = lim

x 0 x x 0 x 1 + cos x

Theorem

sin x lim cos x = 1

lim =1 x 0

x 0 x

lim sin x = 0 1 cos x

x 0 lim =0

x 0 x

The Squeeze Theorem is used to prove the item 1. Item 1 is used to prove item 2,

and item 2 is used to prove item 3.

Finally,

1 cos x 1 cos x 1 + cos x 1 cos2 x

lim = lim = lim

x 0 x x 0 x 1 + cos x x 0 x (1 + cos x )

Theorem

sin x lim cos x = 1

lim =1 x 0

x 0 x

lim sin x = 0 1 cos x

x 0 lim =0

x 0 x

The Squeeze Theorem is used to prove the item 1. Item 1 is used to prove item 2,

and item 2 is used to prove item 3.

Finally,

1 cos x 1 cos x 1 + cos x 1 cos2 x

lim = lim = lim

x 0 x x 0 x 1 + cos x x 0 x (1 + cos x )

sin x sin x

= lim

x 0 x 1 + cos x

Theorem

sin x lim cos x = 1

lim =1 x 0

x 0 x

lim sin x = 0 1 cos x

x 0 lim =0

x 0 x

The Squeeze Theorem is used to prove the item 1. Item 1 is used to prove item 2,

and item 2 is used to prove item 3.

Finally,

1 cos x 1 cos x 1 + cos x 1 cos2 x

lim = lim = lim

x 0 x x 0 x 1 + cos x x 0 x (1 + cos x )

sin x sin x

= lim

x 0 x 1 + cos x

sin x sin x

= lim lim

x 0 x x 0 1 + cos x

Theorem

sin x lim cos x = 1

lim =1 x 0

x 0 x

lim sin x = 0 1 cos x

x 0 lim =0

x 0 x

The Squeeze Theorem is used to prove the item 1. Item 1 is used to prove item 2,

and item 2 is used to prove item 3.

Finally,

1 cos x 1 cos x 1 + cos x 1 cos2 x

lim = lim = lim

x 0 x x 0 x 1 + cos x x 0 x (1 + cos x )

sin x sin x

= lim

x 0 x 1 + cos x

sin x sin x

= lim lim

x 0 x x 0 1 + cos x

0

=1 =0

2

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 3 / 19

Theorem

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 4 / 19

Theorem

1 lim cos x = cos a

xa

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 4 / 19

Theorem

1 lim cos x = cos a and lim sin x = sin a

xa xa

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 4 / 19

Theorem

1 lim cos x = cos a and lim sin x = sin a

xa xa

2 The trigonometric functions are continuous on their respective domains.

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 4 / 19

Example

sin (4x )

Evaluate: lim

x 0 x

Solution:

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 5 / 19

Example

sin (4x )

Evaluate: lim

x 0 x

Solution:

sin (4x )

lim

x 0 x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 5 / 19

Example

sin (4x )

Evaluate: lim

x 0 x

Solution:

sin (4x ) sin (4x ) 4

lim = lim

x 0 x x 0 x 4

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 5 / 19

Example

sin (4x )

Evaluate: lim

x 0 x

Solution:

sin (4x ) sin (4x ) 4 sin (4x )

lim = lim = lim (4)

x 0 x x 0 x 4 x 0 4x

Example

sin (4x )

Evaluate: lim

x 0 x

Solution:

sin (4x ) sin (4x ) 4 sin (4x )

lim = lim = lim (4) = 1(4)

x 0 x x 0 x 4 x 0 4x

Example

sin (4x )

Evaluate: lim

x 0 x

Solution:

sin (4x ) sin (4x ) 4 sin (4x )

lim = lim = lim (4) = 1(4) = 4

x 0 x x 0 x 4 x 0 4x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 5 / 19

x

Evaluate: lim

x 0 sin x

Solution:

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 6 / 19

x

Evaluate: lim

x 0 sin x

Solution:

x

lim

x 0 sin x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 6 / 19

x

Evaluate: lim

x 0 sin x

Solution: !

x 1

lim = lim sin x

x 0 sin x x 0

x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 6 / 19

x

Evaluate: lim

x 0 sin x

Solution: !

x 1 1

lim = lim sin x

=

x 0 sin x x 0 1

x

x

Evaluate: lim

x 0 sin x

Solution: !

x 1 1

lim = lim sin x

= =1

x 0 sin x x 0 1

x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 6 / 19

Remark

In general, if lim f ( x ) = 0 and f ( x ) 6= 0 for any x in some open interval

xa

containing a (except possibly at a), then

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 7 / 19

Remark

In general, if lim f ( x ) = 0 and f ( x ) 6= 0 for any x in some open interval

xa

containing a (except possibly at a), then

sin[ f ( x )]

lim =1

xa f (x)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 7 / 19

Remark

In general, if lim f ( x ) = 0 and f ( x ) 6= 0 for any x in some open interval

xa

containing a (except possibly at a), then

sin[ f ( x )]

lim =1

xa f (x)

f (x)

lim =1

x a sin[ f ( x )]

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 7 / 19

Remark

In general, if lim f ( x ) = 0 and f ( x ) 6= 0 for any x in some open interval

xa

containing a (except possibly at a), then

sin[ f ( x )] 1 cos[ f ( x )]

lim =1 lim =0

xa f (x) xa f (x)

f (x)

lim =1

x a sin[ f ( x )]

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 7 / 19

Example

sin(3x )

Evaluate: lim

x 0 sin(5x )

Solution:

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 8 / 19

Example

sin(3x )

Evaluate: lim

x 0 sin(5x )

Solution:

sin(3x )

lim

x 0 sin(5x )

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 8 / 19

Example

sin(3x )

Evaluate: lim

x 0 sin(5x )

Solution:

sin(3x ) 3x

lim

x 0 sin(5x ) 3x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 8 / 19

Example

sin(3x )

Evaluate: lim

x 0 sin(5x )

Solution:

sin(3x ) 3x 5x sin(3x )

lim = lim

x 0 sin(5x ) 3x 5x x 0 3x

Example

sin(3x )

Evaluate: lim

x 0 sin(5x )

Solution:

sin(3x ) 3x 5x sin(3x ) 5x

lim = lim

x 0 sin(5x ) 3x 5x x 0 3x sin(5x )

Example

sin(3x )

Evaluate: lim

x 0 sin(5x )

Solution:

sin(3x ) 3x 5x sin(3x ) 5x 3

lim = lim

x 0 sin(5x ) 3x 5x x 0 3x sin(5x ) 5

Example

sin(3x )

Evaluate: lim

x 0 sin(5x )

Solution:

sin(3x ) 3x 5x sin(3x ) 5x 3 3

lim = lim = (1)(1)

x 0 sin(5x ) 3x 5x x 0 3x sin(5x ) 5 5

Example

sin(3x )

Evaluate: lim

x 0 sin(5x )

Solution:

sin(3x ) 3x 5x sin(3x ) 5x 3 3 3

lim = lim = (1)(1) =

x 0 sin(5x ) 3x 5x x 0 3x sin(5x ) 5 5 5

Example

tan x

Evaluate: lim

x 0 x

Solution:

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 9 / 19

Example

tan x

Evaluate: lim

x 0 x

Solution:

tan x

lim

x 0 x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 9 / 19

Example

tan x

Evaluate: lim

x 0 x

Solution:

tan x sin x 1

lim = lim

x 0 x x 0 x cos x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 9 / 19

Example

tan x

Evaluate: lim

x 0 x

Solution:

tan x sin x 1

lim = lim = 1(1)

x 0 x x 0 x cos x

Example

tan x

Evaluate: lim

x 0 x

Solution:

tan x sin x 1

lim = lim = 1(1) = 1

x 0 x x 0 x cos x

Example

x2

Evaluate: lim

x 0 sin (3x2 )

Solution:

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 10 / 19

Example

x2

Evaluate: lim

x 0 sin (3x2 )

Solution:

x2

lim

x 0 sin (3x2 )

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 10 / 19

Example

x2

Evaluate: lim

x 0 sin (3x2 )

Solution:

x2 x2

3

lim = lim

x 0 sin (3x2 ) x 0 sin (3x2 ) 3

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 10 / 19

Example

x2

Evaluate: lim

x 0 sin (3x2 )

Solution:

x2 x2 3x2

3 1

lim = lim = lim

x 0 sin (3x2 ) x 0 sin (3x2 ) 3 x 0 sin (3x2 ) 3

Example

x2

Evaluate: lim

x 0 sin (3x2 )

Solution:

x2 x2 3x2

3 1 1

lim = lim = lim =

x 0 sin (3x2 ) x 0 sin (3x2 ) 3 x 0 sin (3x2 ) 3 3

Example

sin x2 1

Evaluate: lim

x 1 x+1

Solution:

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 11 / 19

Example

sin x2 1

Evaluate: lim

x 1 x+1

Solution:

sin x2 1

lim

x 1 x+1

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 11 / 19

Example

sin x2 1

Evaluate: lim

x 1 x+1

Solution: !

sin x2 1 sin x2 1 x 1

lim = lim

x 1 x+1 x 1 x+1 x1

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 11 / 19

Example

sin x2 1

Evaluate: lim

x 1 x+1

Solution: !

sin x2 1 sin x2 1 x 1

lim = lim

x 1 x+1 x 1 x+1 x1

sin x2 1

= lim ( x 1)

x 1 x2 1

Example

sin x2 1

Evaluate: lim

x 1 x+1

Solution: !

sin x2 1 sin x2 1 x 1

lim = lim

x 1 x+1 x 1 x+1 x1

sin x2 1

= lim ( x 1) = 1(2)

x 1 x2 1

Example

sin x2 1

Evaluate: lim

x 1 x+1

Solution: !

sin x2 1 sin x2 1 x 1

lim = lim

x 1 x+1 x 1 x+1 x1

sin x2 1

= lim ( x 1) = 1(2) = 2

x 1 x2 1

Example

tan(3x )

Evaluate: lim

x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x )

Solution:

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 12 / 19

Example

tan(3x )

Evaluate: lim

x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x )

Solution:

tan(3x )

lim

x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x )

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 12 / 19

Example

tan(3x )

Evaluate: lim

x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x )

Solution:

tan(3x ) tan(3x )

lim = lim

x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x ) x 0+ sin2 (2x )

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 12 / 19

Example

tan(3x )

Evaluate: lim

x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x )

Solution:

tan(3x ) tan(3x )

lim = lim

x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x ) x 0+sin2 (2x )

sin(3x )

= lim

x 0+ cos(3x ) sin2 (2x )

Example

tan(3x )

Evaluate: lim

x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x )

Solution:

tan(3x ) tan(3x )

lim = lim

x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x ) x 0+sin2 (2x )

sin(3x ) 3x

= lim

x 0+ cos(3x ) sin2 (2x ) 3x

Example

tan(3x )

Evaluate: lim

x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x )

Solution:

tan(3x ) tan(3x )

lim = lim

x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x ) x 0+sin2 (2x )

sin(3x ) 3x 2x

= lim

x 0+ cos(3x ) sin2 (2x ) 3x 2x

Example

tan(3x )

Evaluate: lim

x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x )

Solution:

tan(3x ) tan(3x )

lim = lim

x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x ) x 0+sin2 (2x )

sin(3x ) 3x 2x 2x

= lim

x 0+ cos(3x ) sin2 (2x ) 3x 2x 2x

Example

tan(3x )

Evaluate: lim

x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x )

Solution:

tan(3x ) tan(3x )

lim = lim

x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x ) x 0+sin2 (2x )

sin(3x ) 3x 2x 2x

= lim

x 0+ cos(3x ) sin2 (2x ) 3x 2x 2x

sin(3x )

= lim

x 0+ 3x

Example

tan(3x )

Evaluate: lim

x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x )

Solution:

tan(3x ) tan(3x )

lim = lim

x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x ) x 0+sin2 (2x )

sin(3x ) 3x 2x 2x

= lim

x 0+ cos(3x ) sin2 (2x ) 3x 2x 2x

2

sin(3x ) 2x

= lim

x 0+ 3x sin(2x )

Example

tan(3x )

Evaluate: lim

x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x )

Solution:

tan(3x ) tan(3x )

lim = lim

x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x ) x 0+sin2 (2x )

sin(3x ) 3x 2x 2x

= lim

x 0+ cos(3x ) sin2 (2x ) 3x 2x 2x

2

sin(3x ) 2x 1

= lim

x 0+ 3x sin(2x ) x cos(3x )

Example

tan(3x )

Evaluate: lim

x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x )

Solution:

tan(3x ) tan(3x )

lim = lim

x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x ) x 0+sin2 (2x )

sin(3x ) 3x 2x 2x

= lim

x 0+ cos(3x ) sin2 (2x ) 3x 2x 2x

2

sin(3x ) 2x 1 3

= lim

x 0+ 3x sin(2x ) x cos(3x ) 4

Example

tan(3x )

Evaluate: lim

x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x )

Solution:

tan(3x ) tan(3x )

lim = lim

x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x ) x 0+sin2 (2x )

sin(3x ) 3x 2x 2x

= lim

x 0+ cos(3x ) sin2 (2x ) 3x 2x 2x

2

sin(3x ) 2x 1 3

= lim

x 0+ 3x sin(2x ) x cos(3x ) 4

2 1 3

= (1)(1)

(0 )(1) 4

Example

tan(3x )

Evaluate: lim

x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x )

Solution:

tan(3x ) tan(3x )

lim = lim

x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x ) x 0+sin2 (2x )

sin(3x ) 3x 2x 2x

= lim

x 0+ cos(3x ) sin2 (2x ) 3x 2x 2x

2

sin(3x ) 2x 1 3

= lim

x 0+ 3x sin(2x ) x cos(3x ) 4

2 1 3

= (1)(1) +

(0 )(1) 4

Example

tan(3x )

Evaluate: lim

x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x )

Solution:

tan(3x ) tan(3x )

lim = lim

x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x ) x 0+sin2 (2x )

sin(3x ) 3x 2x 2x

= lim

x 0+ cos(3x ) sin2 (2x ) 3x 2x 2x

2

sin(3x ) 2x 1 3

= lim

x 0+ 3x sin(2x ) x cos(3x ) 4

1 3

= + (1)(1) 2

+

(0 )(1) 4

Example

1 cos x

Evaluate: lim

x 0 x2

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 13 / 19

Example

1 cos x

Evaluate: lim

x 0 x2

Note:

1cos x

1 cos x x

lim = lim

x 0 x2 x 0

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 13 / 19

Example

1 cos x

Evaluate: lim

x 0 x2

Note:

1cos x

1 cos x x

lim = lim

x 0 x2 x 0 x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 13 / 19

Example

1 cos x

Evaluate: lim

x 0 x2

Note:

1cos x

1 cos x

x 0

lim = lim

x 0 x2 x 0 x 0

Example

1 cos x

Evaluate: lim

x 0 x2

Solution:

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 14 / 19

Example

1 cos x

Evaluate: lim

x 0 x2

Solution:

1 cos x 1 cos x 1 + cos x

lim = lim

x 0 x2 x 0 x2 1 + cos x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 14 / 19

Example

1 cos x

Evaluate: lim

x 0 x2

Solution:

1 cos x 1 cos x 1 + cos x

lim = lim

x 0 x2 x 0 x2 1 + cos x

2

1 cos x 1

= lim 2

x 0 x 1 + cos x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 14 / 19

Example

1 cos x

Evaluate: lim

x 0 x2

Solution:

1 cos x 1 cos x 1 + cos x

lim = lim

x 0 x2 x 0 x2 1 + cos x

2

1 cos x 1

= lim 2

x 0 x 1 + cos x

sin2 x 1

= lim 2

x 0 x 1 + cos x

Example

1 cos x

Evaluate: lim

x 0 x2

Solution:

1 cos x 1 cos x 1 + cos x

lim = lim

x 0 x2 x 0 x2 1 + cos x

2

1 cos x 1

= lim 2

x 0 x 1 + cos x

sin2 x 1

= lim 2

x 0 x 1 + cos x

2

sin x 1

= lim

x 0 x 1 + cos x

Example

1 cos x

Evaluate: lim

x 0 x2

Solution:

1 cos x 1 cos x 1 + cos x

lim = lim

x 0 x2 x 0 x2 1 + cos x

2

1 cos x 1

= lim 2

x 0 x 1 + cos x

sin2 x 1

= lim 2

x 0 x 1 + cos x

2

sin x 1

= lim

x 0 x 1 + cos x

2 1

= (1)

2

Example

1 cos x

Evaluate: lim

x 0 x2

Solution:

1 cos x 1 cos x 1 + cos x

lim = lim

x 0 x2 x 0 x2 1 + cos x

2

1 cos x 1

= lim 2

x 0 x 1 + cos x

sin2 x 1

= lim 2

x 0 x 1 + cos x

2

sin x 1

= lim

x 0 x 1 + cos x

2 1 1

= (1) =

2 2

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 14 / 19

Examples

lim tan x

x 4

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 15 / 19

Examples

lim tan x = tan

x 4 4

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 15 / 19

Examples

lim tan x = tan =1

x 4 4

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 15 / 19

Examples

lim tan x = tan =1

x 4 4

1 cos x

lim

x x

Examples

lim tan x = tan =1

x 4 4

1 cos x 1 cos

lim =

x x

Examples

lim tan x = tan =1

x 4 4

1 cos x 1 cos 2

lim = =

x x

Examples

lim tan x = tan =1

x 4 4

1 cos x 1 cos 2

lim = =

x

x

lim sin x2 1

x 2

Examples

lim tan x = tan =1

x 4 4

1 cos x 1 cos 2

lim = =

x

x

lim sin x2 1 = sin(4 1)

x 2

Examples

lim tan x = tan =1

x 4 4

1 cos x 1 cos 2

lim = =

x

x

lim sin x2 1 = sin(4 1) = sin 3

x 2

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 15 / 19

Example

1

Evaluate lim cos

x + x

Solution:

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 16 / 19

Example

1

Evaluate lim cos

x + x

Solution:

1

lim =0

x + x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 16 / 19

Example

1

Evaluate lim cos

x + x

Solution:

1

lim =0

x + x

0 is in the domain of cos x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 16 / 19

Example

1

Evaluate lim cos

x + x

Solution:

1

lim =0

x + x

0 is in the domain of cos x

Therefore,

1

lim cos = cos(0) = 1

x + x

Example

1 cos x

Evaluate lim tan

x 0 x

Solution:

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 17 / 19

Example

1 cos x

Evaluate lim tan

x 0 x

Solution:

1 cos x

lim =0

x 0 x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 17 / 19

Example

1 cos x

Evaluate lim tan

x 0 x

Solution:

1 cos x

lim =0

x 0 x

0 is in the domain of tan x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 17 / 19

Example

1 cos x

Evaluate lim tan

x 0 x

Solution:

1 cos x

lim =0

x 0 x

0 is in the domain of tan x

Therefore,

1 cos x

lim tan = tan(0) = 0

x 0 x

Example

x +

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 18 / 19

Example

x +

Solution:

Note that

/ dom cot.

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 18 / 19

Example

x +

Solution:

Note that

/ dom cot. But,

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 18 / 19

Example

x +

Solution:

Note that

/ dom cot. But,

lim cot x

x +

Example

x +

Solution:

Note that

/ dom cot. But,

cos x

lim cot x = lim

x + x + sin x

Example

x +

Solution:

Note that

/ dom cot. But,

1

cos x

lim cot x = lim

x + x sin x

+ 0

Example

x +

Solution:

Note that

/ dom cot. But,

1

cos x

lim cot x = lim

x + x sin x

+ 0

Example

x +

Solution:

Note that

/ dom cot. But,

1

cos x

lim cot x = lim = +

x + x sin x

+ 0

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 18 / 19

Exercises

4x sin(2 x )

1 lim 4 lim

x 0 sin(5x ) x 2 x 2 x 2

sin 2x

2x sin x

2 lim 5 lim

x 5x x 0 1 cos(4x )

sin3 (3x ) sin x sin 1

3 lim 6 lim

x 0 x2 tan(2x ) x 1 x1

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 19 / 19

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