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# Limits and Continuity of Trigonometric Functions

Mathematics 53

## Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 1 / 19
For today

## 1 Limits and Continuity of Trigonometric Functions

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 2 / 19
Theorem
sin x lim cos x = 1
lim =1 x 0
x 0 x
lim sin x = 0 1 cos x
x 0 lim =0
x 0 x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 3 / 19
Theorem
sin x lim cos x = 1
lim =1 x 0
x 0 x
lim sin x = 0 1 cos x
x 0 lim =0
x 0 x

## The Squeeze Theorem is used to prove the item 1.

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 3 / 19
Theorem
sin x lim cos x = 1
lim =1 x 0
x 0 x
lim sin x = 0 1 cos x
x 0 lim =0
x 0 x

The Squeeze Theorem is used to prove the item 1. Item 1 is used to prove item 2

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 3 / 19
Theorem
sin x lim cos x = 1
lim =1 x 0
x 0 x
lim sin x = 0 1 cos x
x 0 lim =0
x 0 x

The Squeeze Theorem is used to prove the item 1. Item 1 is used to prove item 2,
and item 2 is used to prove item 3.

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 3 / 19
Theorem
sin x lim cos x = 1
lim =1 x 0
x 0 x
lim sin x = 0 1 cos x
x 0 lim =0
x 0 x

The Squeeze Theorem is used to prove the item 1. Item 1 is used to prove item 2,
and item 2 is used to prove item 3.
Finally,
1 cos x
lim
x 0 x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 3 / 19
Theorem
sin x lim cos x = 1
lim =1 x 0
x 0 x
lim sin x = 0 1 cos x
x 0 lim =0
x 0 x

The Squeeze Theorem is used to prove the item 1. Item 1 is used to prove item 2,
and item 2 is used to prove item 3.
Finally,
1 cos x 1 cos x 1 + cos x
 
lim = lim
x 0 x x 0 x 1 + cos x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 3 / 19
Theorem
sin x lim cos x = 1
lim =1 x 0
x 0 x
lim sin x = 0 1 cos x
x 0 lim =0
x 0 x

The Squeeze Theorem is used to prove the item 1. Item 1 is used to prove item 2,
and item 2 is used to prove item 3.
Finally,
1 cos x 1 cos x 1 + cos x 1 cos2 x
 
lim = lim = lim
x 0 x x 0 x 1 + cos x x 0 x (1 + cos x )

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 3 / 19
Theorem
sin x lim cos x = 1
lim =1 x 0
x 0 x
lim sin x = 0 1 cos x
x 0 lim =0
x 0 x

The Squeeze Theorem is used to prove the item 1. Item 1 is used to prove item 2,
and item 2 is used to prove item 3.
Finally,
1 cos x 1 cos x 1 + cos x 1 cos2 x
 
lim = lim = lim
x 0 x x 0 x 1 + cos x x 0 x (1 + cos x )
 
sin x sin x
= lim
x 0 x 1 + cos x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 3 / 19
Theorem
sin x lim cos x = 1
lim =1 x 0
x 0 x
lim sin x = 0 1 cos x
x 0 lim =0
x 0 x

The Squeeze Theorem is used to prove the item 1. Item 1 is used to prove item 2,
and item 2 is used to prove item 3.
Finally,
1 cos x 1 cos x 1 + cos x 1 cos2 x
 
lim = lim = lim
x 0 x x 0 x 1 + cos x x 0 x (1 + cos x )
 
sin x sin x
= lim
x 0 x 1 + cos x
sin x sin x
= lim lim
x 0 x x 0 1 + cos x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 3 / 19
Theorem
sin x lim cos x = 1
lim =1 x 0
x 0 x
lim sin x = 0 1 cos x
x 0 lim =0
x 0 x

The Squeeze Theorem is used to prove the item 1. Item 1 is used to prove item 2,
and item 2 is used to prove item 3.
Finally,
1 cos x 1 cos x 1 + cos x 1 cos2 x
 
lim = lim = lim
x 0 x x 0 x 1 + cos x x 0 x (1 + cos x )
 
sin x sin x
= lim
x 0 x 1 + cos x
sin x sin x
= lim lim
x 0 x x 0 1 + cos x
 
0
=1 =0
2

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 3 / 19
Theorem

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 4 / 19
Theorem
1 lim cos x = cos a
xa

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 4 / 19
Theorem
1 lim cos x = cos a and lim sin x = sin a
xa xa

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 4 / 19
Theorem
1 lim cos x = cos a and lim sin x = sin a
xa xa
2 The trigonometric functions are continuous on their respective domains.

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 4 / 19
Example

sin (4x )
Evaluate: lim
x 0 x

Solution:

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 5 / 19
Example

sin (4x )
Evaluate: lim
x 0 x

Solution:
sin (4x )
lim
x 0 x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 5 / 19
Example

sin (4x )
Evaluate: lim
x 0 x

Solution:
 
sin (4x ) sin (4x ) 4
lim = lim
x 0 x x 0 x 4

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 5 / 19
Example

sin (4x )
Evaluate: lim
x 0 x

Solution:
 
sin (4x ) sin (4x ) 4 sin (4x )
lim = lim = lim (4)
x 0 x x 0 x 4 x 0 4x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 5 / 19
Example

sin (4x )
Evaluate: lim
x 0 x

Solution:
 
sin (4x ) sin (4x ) 4 sin (4x )
lim = lim = lim (4) = 1(4)
x 0 x x 0 x 4 x 0 4x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 5 / 19
Example

sin (4x )
Evaluate: lim
x 0 x

Solution:
 
sin (4x ) sin (4x ) 4 sin (4x )
lim = lim = lim (4) = 1(4) = 4
x 0 x x 0 x 4 x 0 4x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 5 / 19
x
Evaluate: lim
x 0 sin x

Solution:

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 6 / 19
x
Evaluate: lim
x 0 sin x

Solution:
x
lim
x 0 sin x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 6 / 19
x
Evaluate: lim
x 0 sin x

Solution: !
x 1
lim = lim sin x
x 0 sin x x 0
x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 6 / 19
x
Evaluate: lim
x 0 sin x

Solution: !
x 1 1
lim = lim sin x
=
x 0 sin x x 0 1
x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 6 / 19
x
Evaluate: lim
x 0 sin x

Solution: !
x 1 1
lim = lim sin x
= =1
x 0 sin x x 0 1
x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 6 / 19
Remark
In general, if lim f ( x ) = 0 and f ( x ) 6= 0 for any x in some open interval
xa
containing a (except possibly at a), then

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 7 / 19
Remark
In general, if lim f ( x ) = 0 and f ( x ) 6= 0 for any x in some open interval
xa
containing a (except possibly at a), then

sin[ f ( x )]
lim =1
xa f (x)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 7 / 19
Remark
In general, if lim f ( x ) = 0 and f ( x ) 6= 0 for any x in some open interval
xa
containing a (except possibly at a), then

sin[ f ( x )]
lim =1
xa f (x)
f (x)
lim =1
x a sin[ f ( x )]

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 7 / 19
Remark
In general, if lim f ( x ) = 0 and f ( x ) 6= 0 for any x in some open interval
xa
containing a (except possibly at a), then

sin[ f ( x )] 1 cos[ f ( x )]
lim =1 lim =0
xa f (x) xa f (x)
f (x)
lim =1
x a sin[ f ( x )]

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 7 / 19
Example

sin(3x )
Evaluate: lim
x 0 sin(5x )

Solution:

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 8 / 19
Example

sin(3x )
Evaluate: lim
x 0 sin(5x )

Solution:

sin(3x )
lim
x 0 sin(5x )

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 8 / 19
Example

sin(3x )
Evaluate: lim
x 0 sin(5x )

Solution:

sin(3x ) 3x
lim
x 0 sin(5x ) 3x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 8 / 19
Example

sin(3x )
Evaluate: lim
x 0 sin(5x )

Solution:

sin(3x ) 3x 5x sin(3x )
lim = lim
x 0 sin(5x ) 3x 5x x 0 3x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 8 / 19
Example

sin(3x )
Evaluate: lim
x 0 sin(5x )

Solution:

sin(3x ) 3x 5x sin(3x ) 5x
lim = lim
x 0 sin(5x ) 3x 5x x 0 3x sin(5x )

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 8 / 19
Example

sin(3x )
Evaluate: lim
x 0 sin(5x )

Solution:

sin(3x ) 3x 5x sin(3x ) 5x 3
lim = lim
x 0 sin(5x ) 3x 5x x 0 3x sin(5x ) 5

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 8 / 19
Example

sin(3x )
Evaluate: lim
x 0 sin(5x )

Solution:

 
sin(3x ) 3x 5x sin(3x ) 5x 3 3
lim = lim = (1)(1)
x 0 sin(5x ) 3x 5x x 0 3x sin(5x ) 5 5

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 8 / 19
Example

sin(3x )
Evaluate: lim
x 0 sin(5x )

Solution:

 
sin(3x ) 3x 5x sin(3x ) 5x 3 3 3
lim = lim = (1)(1) =
x 0 sin(5x ) 3x 5x x 0 3x sin(5x ) 5 5 5

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 8 / 19
Example

tan x
Evaluate: lim
x 0 x

Solution:

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 9 / 19
Example

tan x
Evaluate: lim
x 0 x

Solution:
tan x
lim
x 0 x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 9 / 19
Example

tan x
Evaluate: lim
x 0 x

Solution:  
tan x sin x 1
lim = lim
x 0 x x 0 x cos x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 9 / 19
Example

tan x
Evaluate: lim
x 0 x

Solution:  
tan x sin x 1
lim = lim = 1(1)
x 0 x x 0 x cos x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 9 / 19
Example

tan x
Evaluate: lim
x 0 x

Solution:  
tan x sin x 1
lim = lim = 1(1) = 1
x 0 x x 0 x cos x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 9 / 19
Example

x2
Evaluate: lim
x 0 sin (3x2 )

Solution:

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 10 / 19
Example

x2
Evaluate: lim
x 0 sin (3x2 )

Solution:

x2
lim
x 0 sin (3x2 )

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 10 / 19
Example

x2
Evaluate: lim
x 0 sin (3x2 )

Solution:

x2 x2
 
3
lim = lim
x 0 sin (3x2 ) x 0 sin (3x2 ) 3

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 10 / 19
Example

x2
Evaluate: lim
x 0 sin (3x2 )

Solution:

x2 x2 3x2
 
3 1
lim = lim = lim
x 0 sin (3x2 ) x 0 sin (3x2 ) 3 x 0 sin (3x2 ) 3

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 10 / 19
Example

x2
Evaluate: lim
x 0 sin (3x2 )

Solution:

x2 x2 3x2
 
3 1 1
lim = lim = lim =
x 0 sin (3x2 ) x 0 sin (3x2 ) 3 x 0 sin (3x2 ) 3 3

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 10 / 19
Example

sin x2 1

Evaluate: lim
x 1 x+1

Solution:

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 11 / 19
Example

sin x2 1

Evaluate: lim
x 1 x+1

Solution:
sin x2 1

lim
x 1 x+1

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 11 / 19
Example

sin x2 1

Evaluate: lim
x 1 x+1

Solution: !
sin x2 1 sin x2 1 x 1
 
lim = lim
x 1 x+1 x 1 x+1 x1

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 11 / 19
Example

sin x2 1

Evaluate: lim
x 1 x+1

Solution: !
sin x2 1 sin x2 1 x 1
 
lim = lim
x 1 x+1 x 1 x+1 x1
sin x2 1

= lim ( x 1)
x 1 x2 1

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 11 / 19
Example

sin x2 1

Evaluate: lim
x 1 x+1

Solution: !
sin x2 1 sin x2 1 x 1
 
lim = lim
x 1 x+1 x 1 x+1 x1
sin x2 1

= lim ( x 1) = 1(2)
x 1 x2 1

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 11 / 19
Example

sin x2 1

Evaluate: lim
x 1 x+1

Solution: !
sin x2 1 sin x2 1 x 1
 
lim = lim
x 1 x+1 x 1 x+1 x1
sin x2 1

= lim ( x 1) = 1(2) = 2
x 1 x2 1

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 11 / 19
Example

tan(3x )
Evaluate: lim
x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x )

Solution:

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 12 / 19
Example

tan(3x )
Evaluate: lim
x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x )

Solution:
tan(3x )
lim
x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x )

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 12 / 19
Example

tan(3x )
Evaluate: lim
x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x )

Solution:
tan(3x ) tan(3x )
lim = lim
x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x ) x 0+ sin2 (2x )

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 12 / 19
Example

tan(3x )
Evaluate: lim
x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x )

Solution:
tan(3x ) tan(3x )
lim = lim
x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x ) x 0+sin2 (2x )
sin(3x )
= lim
x 0+ cos(3x ) sin2 (2x )

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 12 / 19
Example

tan(3x )
Evaluate: lim
x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x )

Solution:
tan(3x ) tan(3x )
lim = lim
x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x ) x 0+sin2 (2x )
sin(3x ) 3x
= lim
x 0+ cos(3x ) sin2 (2x ) 3x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 12 / 19
Example

tan(3x )
Evaluate: lim
x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x )

Solution:
tan(3x ) tan(3x )
lim = lim
x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x ) x 0+sin2 (2x )
sin(3x ) 3x 2x
= lim
x 0+ cos(3x ) sin2 (2x ) 3x 2x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 12 / 19
Example

tan(3x )
Evaluate: lim
x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x )

Solution:
tan(3x ) tan(3x )
lim = lim
x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x ) x 0+sin2 (2x )
sin(3x ) 3x 2x 2x
= lim
x 0+ cos(3x ) sin2 (2x ) 3x 2x 2x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 12 / 19
Example

tan(3x )
Evaluate: lim
x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x )

Solution:
tan(3x ) tan(3x )
lim = lim
x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x ) x 0+sin2 (2x )
sin(3x ) 3x 2x 2x
= lim
x 0+ cos(3x ) sin2 (2x ) 3x 2x 2x
sin(3x )
= lim
x 0+ 3x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 12 / 19
Example

tan(3x )
Evaluate: lim
x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x )

Solution:
tan(3x ) tan(3x )
lim = lim
x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x ) x 0+sin2 (2x )
sin(3x ) 3x 2x 2x
= lim
x 0+ cos(3x ) sin2 (2x ) 3x 2x 2x
 2
sin(3x ) 2x
= lim
x 0+ 3x sin(2x )

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 12 / 19
Example

tan(3x )
Evaluate: lim
x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x )

Solution:
tan(3x ) tan(3x )
lim = lim
x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x ) x 0+sin2 (2x )
sin(3x ) 3x 2x 2x
= lim
x 0+ cos(3x ) sin2 (2x ) 3x 2x 2x
 2
sin(3x ) 2x 1
= lim
x 0+ 3x sin(2x ) x cos(3x )

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 12 / 19
Example

tan(3x )
Evaluate: lim
x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x )

Solution:
tan(3x ) tan(3x )
lim = lim
x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x ) x 0+sin2 (2x )
sin(3x ) 3x 2x 2x
= lim
x 0+ cos(3x ) sin2 (2x ) 3x 2x 2x
 2
sin(3x ) 2x 1 3
= lim
x 0+ 3x sin(2x ) x cos(3x ) 4

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 12 / 19
Example

tan(3x )
Evaluate: lim
x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x )

Solution:
tan(3x ) tan(3x )
lim = lim
x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x ) x 0+sin2 (2x )
sin(3x ) 3x 2x 2x
= lim
x 0+ cos(3x ) sin2 (2x ) 3x 2x 2x
 2
sin(3x ) 2x 1 3
= lim
x 0+ 3x sin(2x ) x cos(3x ) 4
    
2 1 3
= (1)(1)
(0 )(1) 4

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 12 / 19
Example

tan(3x )
Evaluate: lim
x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x )

Solution:
tan(3x ) tan(3x )
lim = lim
x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x ) x 0+sin2 (2x )
sin(3x ) 3x 2x 2x
= lim
x 0+ cos(3x ) sin2 (2x ) 3x 2x 2x
 2
sin(3x ) 2x 1 3
= lim
x 0+ 3x sin(2x ) x cos(3x ) 4
    
2 1 3
= (1)(1) +
(0 )(1) 4

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 12 / 19
Example

tan(3x )
Evaluate: lim
x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x )

Solution:
tan(3x ) tan(3x )
lim = lim
x 0+ 1 cos2 (2x ) x 0+sin2 (2x )
sin(3x ) 3x 2x 2x
= lim
x 0+ cos(3x ) sin2 (2x ) 3x 2x 2x
 2
sin(3x ) 2x 1 3
= lim
x 0+ 3x sin(2x ) x cos(3x ) 4
    
1 3
= + (1)(1) 2
+
(0 )(1) 4

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 12 / 19
Example

1 cos x
Evaluate: lim
x 0 x2

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 13 / 19
Example

1 cos x
Evaluate: lim
x 0 x2

Note:
1cos x
1 cos x x
lim = lim
x 0 x2 x 0

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 13 / 19
Example

1 cos x
Evaluate: lim
x 0 x2

Note:
1cos x
1 cos x x
lim = lim
x 0 x2 x 0 x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 13 / 19
Example

1 cos x
Evaluate: lim
x 0 x2

Note:
1cos x
1 cos x
 
x 0
lim = lim
x 0 x2 x 0 x 0

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 13 / 19
Example

1 cos x
Evaluate: lim
x 0 x2

Solution:

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 14 / 19
Example

1 cos x
Evaluate: lim
x 0 x2

Solution:
1 cos x 1 cos x 1 + cos x
lim = lim
x 0 x2 x 0 x2 1 + cos x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 14 / 19
Example

1 cos x
Evaluate: lim
x 0 x2

Solution:
1 cos x 1 cos x 1 + cos x
lim = lim
x 0 x2 x 0 x2 1 + cos x
2
1 cos x 1
= lim 2

x 0 x 1 + cos x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 14 / 19
Example

1 cos x
Evaluate: lim
x 0 x2

Solution:
1 cos x 1 cos x 1 + cos x
lim = lim
x 0 x2 x 0 x2 1 + cos x
2
1 cos x 1
= lim 2

x 0 x 1 + cos x
sin2 x 1
= lim 2

x 0 x 1 + cos x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 14 / 19
Example

1 cos x
Evaluate: lim
x 0 x2

Solution:
1 cos x 1 cos x 1 + cos x
lim = lim
x 0 x2 x 0 x2 1 + cos x
2
1 cos x 1
= lim 2

x 0 x 1 + cos x
sin2 x 1
= lim 2

x 0 x 1 + cos x
 2
sin x 1
= lim
x 0 x 1 + cos x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 14 / 19
Example

1 cos x
Evaluate: lim
x 0 x2

Solution:
1 cos x 1 cos x 1 + cos x
lim = lim
x 0 x2 x 0 x2 1 + cos x
2
1 cos x 1
= lim 2

x 0 x 1 + cos x
sin2 x 1
= lim 2

x 0 x 1 + cos x
 2
sin x 1
= lim
x 0 x 1 + cos x
 
2 1
= (1)
2

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 14 / 19
Example

1 cos x
Evaluate: lim
x 0 x2

Solution:
1 cos x 1 cos x 1 + cos x
lim = lim
x 0 x2 x 0 x2 1 + cos x
2
1 cos x 1
= lim 2

x 0 x 1 + cos x
sin2 x 1
= lim 2

x 0 x 1 + cos x
 2
sin x 1
= lim
x 0 x 1 + cos x
 
2 1 1
= (1) =
2 2

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 14 / 19
Examples

lim tan x
x 4

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 15 / 19
Examples


lim tan x = tan
x 4 4

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 15 / 19
Examples


lim tan x = tan =1
x 4 4

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 15 / 19
Examples


lim tan x = tan =1
x 4 4
1 cos x
lim
x x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 15 / 19
Examples


lim tan x = tan =1
x 4 4
1 cos x 1 cos
lim =
x x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 15 / 19
Examples


lim tan x = tan =1
x 4 4
1 cos x 1 cos 2
lim = =
x x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 15 / 19
Examples


lim tan x = tan =1
x 4 4
1 cos x 1 cos 2
lim = =
x
x 
lim sin x2 1
x 2

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 15 / 19
Examples


lim tan x = tan =1
x 4 4
1 cos x 1 cos 2
lim = =
x
x 
lim sin x2 1 = sin(4 1)
x 2

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 15 / 19
Examples


lim tan x = tan =1
x 4 4
1 cos x 1 cos 2
lim = =
x
x 
lim sin x2 1 = sin(4 1) = sin 3
x 2

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 15 / 19
Example

 
1
Evaluate lim cos
x + x

Solution:

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 16 / 19
Example

 
1
Evaluate lim cos
x + x

Solution:
1
lim =0
x + x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 16 / 19
Example

 
1
Evaluate lim cos
x + x

Solution:
1
lim =0
x + x
0 is in the domain of cos x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 16 / 19
Example

 
1
Evaluate lim cos
x + x

Solution:
1
lim =0
x + x
0 is in the domain of cos x
Therefore,  
1
lim cos = cos(0) = 1
x + x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 16 / 19
Example

1 cos x
 
Evaluate lim tan
x 0 x

Solution:

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 17 / 19
Example

1 cos x
 
Evaluate lim tan
x 0 x

Solution:
1 cos x
lim =0
x 0 x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 17 / 19
Example

1 cos x
 
Evaluate lim tan
x 0 x

Solution:
1 cos x
lim =0
x 0 x
0 is in the domain of tan x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 17 / 19
Example

1 cos x
 
Evaluate lim tan
x 0 x

Solution:
1 cos x
lim =0
x 0 x
0 is in the domain of tan x
Therefore,
1 cos x
 
lim tan = tan(0) = 0
x 0 x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 17 / 19
Example

## Evaluate lim cot x

x +

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 18 / 19
Example

## Evaluate lim cot x

x +

Solution:

Note that
/ dom cot.

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 18 / 19
Example

## Evaluate lim cot x

x +

Solution:

Note that
/ dom cot. But,

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 18 / 19
Example

## Evaluate lim cot x

x +

Solution:

Note that
/ dom cot. But,

lim cot x
x +

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 18 / 19
Example

## Evaluate lim cot x

x +

Solution:

Note that
/ dom cot. But,

cos x
lim cot x = lim
x + x + sin x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 18 / 19
Example

## Evaluate lim cot x

x +

Solution:

Note that
/ dom cot. But,

1
 
cos x
lim cot x = lim
x + x sin x
+ 0

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 18 / 19
Example

## Evaluate lim cot x

x +

Solution:

Note that
/ dom cot. But,

1
 
cos x
lim cot x = lim
x + x sin x
+ 0

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 18 / 19
Example

## Evaluate lim cot x

x +

Solution:

Note that
/ dom cot. But,

1
 
cos x
lim cot x = lim = +
x + x sin x
+ 0

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 18 / 19
Exercises

## Evaluate the following limits:

4x sin(2 x )
1 lim 4 lim
x 0 sin(5x ) x 2 x 2 x 2
sin 2x

2x sin x
2 lim 5 lim
x 5x x 0 1 cos(4x )
sin3 (3x ) sin x sin 1
3 lim 6 lim
x 0 x2 tan(2x ) x 1 x1

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 19 / 19