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1.

For each of the following nouns, decide if it can be used as a count or as a non-count
(mass) noun. In doing so, construct acceptable and unacceptable examples using the tests
(plurality, indefinite article, pronoun one, few/little, many/much tests) we have discussed in
this chapter.

(i) activity, art, cheese, discussion, baggage, luggage, suitcase, religion, sculpture, paper,
difficulty, cheese, water, experience, progress, research, life

ACTIVITY (count noun)

a. I am fully aware of Tom's activities.

b. What's your favorite activity?

c. The activity that Bryan prefers is dancing.

d. few activities/many activities

ART (non-count)

a. Fishing is an art.

b. Only few performing arts were excellent.

c. The arts are activities such as music, painting, literature, and so forth.

d. Art consists of painting, sculptures, and so on.

f. Not much art is involved for this assignment.

g. He gave his art collection away for nothing.

k. He is an art student.

CHEESE (uncountable, countable)

a. Cheese is a solid food made from milk.

b. He cut the mold off a piece of cheese.

c. Bread and cheese, we need.

d. Delicious French cheeses.

e. He is a big cheese in the Art Fraud Squad.

f. Many of their cheeses are exclusive to our stores in Britain.

DISCUSSION (countable)

a. Our discussions were amicable and productive.

b. The whole question for school curriculum is up for discussion.


c. The discussions were beset with difficulties.

BAGGAGE (non-countable)

a. All hand baggage would be x-rayed.

b. the loading of baggage onto international flights.

c. Most of our flights have a baggage allowance of 50lbs per passenger.

d. The baggage hall was crowded and noisy.

LUGGAGE (non-countable)

a. Passengers with hand luggage can go straight to the departure gate.

b. The luggage with clothes remained unclaimed, but the one with books was claimed by a
man.

c. There was much luggage in the airport.

d. They checked in their luggage and found seats in the lounge.

e. Clothes were thrown in the luggage in and untidy heap.

f. My rucksack was too big for the luggage rack.

SUITCASE (non-countable)

a. It didnt take a long time to pack a suitcase.

b. The suitcase with my clothes was misplaced, but the one with his was not.

c. There are many suitcases.

d. *little suitcase, *much suitcase

e. She put things into her suitcase.

f. He felt two men wrench the suitcase from his hand.

EXPERIENCE (Countable)

a. He had managerial experience on every level.

b. Experience has taught me caution.

c. Moving had become a common experience for me.

d. We are all conditioned by early impressions and experiences.

PROGRESS (non-countable)

a. The two sides made little if any progress toward agreement.


b. The medical community continues to make progress in the fight against cancer.

c. We did not expect much progress/*many progresses.

d. The game was already in progress when we took our.

2. Check or find out whether each of the following examples is grammatical or


ungrammatical. For each ungrammatical one, provide at least one (informal) reason for its
ungrammaticality, according to your intuitions or ideas.

(i) a. Kim and Sandy [is] looking for a new bicycle.

b. I have never [put] the book.

c. The boat floated down the river sank.

d. Chris must [liking] syntax.

e. There is [eager] to be fifty students in this class.

f. What is John [eager] to do?

g. What is John [easy] to do?

h. Is the boy who [holding] the plate can see the girl?

i. Which chemical did you mix the hydrogen peroxide [and]?

j. There [seem] to be a good feeling developing among the students.

k. Strings have been [pulled] many times to get students into that university.

a. John is eager to learn English.

b. *John is eager to learn.

a. *John is easy to learn English.

b. John is easy to learn.

a. What is John eager to learn?

b. *What is John easy to learn?

3. Consider the following set of data, focusing on the usage of self reflexive pronouns and
personal pronouns:

(i) a. He washed himself.

b. *He washed herself.


c. *He washed myself.

d. *He washed ourselves.

(ii) a. *He washed him. (he and him referring to the same person)

b. He washed me.

c. He washed her.

. He washed us.

[Binding condition: The self pronouns, called reflexives or anaphors, need to have its
antecedent with the same person and number information. That is, the anaphor must be
bound by its antecedent.]

Can you make a generalization about the usage of self pronouns and personal pronouns like
he here? In answering this question, pay attention to what the pronouns can refer to. Also
consider the following imperative examples:

(iii) a. Wash yourself.

b. Wash yourselves.

c. *Wash myself.

d. *Wash himself.

(iv) a. *Wash you!

b. Wash me!

c. Wash him!

-Can you explain why we can use yourself and yourselves but not you as the object of the
imperatives here? In answering this, try to put pronouns in the unrealized subject position.

-[The imperative has the unrealized subject you. This makes [You] wash yourself possible
but not *[You] wash you. The latter will violate the Binding Condition.]

4. Read the following passage and identify all the grammatical errors. If you can, discuss the
relevant grammar rules that you can think of.

Grammar is important because it is the language that make [makes] it possible for us to talk
about language. Grammar naming [names] the types of words and word groups that make up
sentences not only in English but in any language. As human beings, we can putting [put]
sentences together even as childrenwe can all do grammar. People associate grammar for
[with] errors and correctness. But knowing about grammar also helps us understood
[understand] what makes sentences and paragraphs clearly [clear] and interesting and
precise. Grammar can be part of literature discussions, when we and our students closely
reading [read] the sentences in poetry and stories. And knowing about grammar means finding
out that all language [languages] and all dialect [dialects] follow grammatical patterns.