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ONGC TRIPURA POWER COMPANY LIMITED

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
FOR
CONSTRUCTION OF BOUNDARY WALL AT PROPOSED
OTPC TOWNSHIP AT KHILPARA, TRIPURA

2 X 363.3 MW

GAS BASED COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT,

PALATANA, UDAIPUR, TRIPURA

(This document is meant for the exclusive purpose of bidding against this specification and shall not be
transferred, reproduced or otherwise used for purposes other than that for which it is specifically issued).
Project: CONSTRUCTION OF BOUNDARY WALL, GATE & GATE HOUSE

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF BOUNDARY


WALL, GATE & GATE HOUSE AT PROPOSED OTPC STAFF COLONY,
KHILPARA, UDAIPUR
TABLE OF CONTENT

Clause No. Description Page No.

1.0 Specifications For Excavation And Earth Work 3

2.0 Specifications For Cement Concrete Works 5

3.0 Specifications For Reinforced Concrete 7

4.0 Specifications For Steel Reinforcement 37

5.0 Specifications For Form Work 43

6.0 Specifications For Brick Masonry Work 50

7.0 Specifications Granite Stone 62

8.0 Specifications For Cement Plaster 65

9.0 Specifications For Painting Works 72

10.0 Specifications For Pile Work 77

11.0 Specifications For Glass Mosaic Tiles (NS) 82

12.0 Specifications For Concertina Coil Fencing (NS) 83

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1.0 EARTH WORK

1.1 Excavation In All Kinds Of Soils

1.1.1 All excavation operations manually or by mechanical means shall include excavation and
getting out the excavated materials. In case of excavation for trenches, basements,
water tanks etc. getting out shall include throwing the excavated materials at a distance
of at least one metre or half the depth of excavation, whichever is more, clear off the
edge of excavation. In all other cases getting out shall include depositing the excavated
materials as specified. The subsequent disposal of the excavated material shall be either
stated as a separate item or included with the items of excavation stating lead.

1.1.2 During the excavation the natural drainage of the area shall be maintained. Excavation
shall be done from top to bottom. Undermining or undercutting shall not be done.

1.1.3 In firm soils, the sides of the trenches shall be kept vertical upto a depth of 2 metres
from the bottom. For greater depths, the excavation profiles shall be widened by
allowing steps of 50 cms on either side after every 2 metres from the bottom.
Alternatively, the excavation can be done so as to give slope of 1:4 (1 horizontal : 4
vertical). Where the soil is soft, loose or slushy, the width of steps shall be suitably
increased or sides sloped or the soil shored up as directed by the Engineer-in- Charge. It
shall be the responsibility of the contractor to take complete instructions in writing from
the Engineer-in-Charge regarding the stepping , sloping or shoring to be done for
excavation deeper than 2 metres.

1.1.4 The excavation shall be done true to levels, slope, shape and pattern indicated by the
Engineer-in- Charge. Only the excavation shown on the drawings with additional
allowances for centering and shuttering or as required by the Engineer-in-Charge shall be
measured and recorded for payment.

1.1.5 In case of excavation for foundation in trenches or over areas, the bed of excavation
shall be to the correct level or slope and consolidated by watering and ramming. If the
excavation for foundation is done to a depth greater than that shown in the drawings or
as required by the Engineer-in-Charge, the excess depth shall be made good by the
contractor at his own cost with the concrete of the mix used for levelling/ bed concrete
for foundations. Soft/defective spots at the bed of the foundations shall be dug out and
filled with concrete (to be paid separately) as directed by the Engineer-in-Charge.

1.1.6 While carrying out the excavation for drain work care shall be taken to cut the side and
bottom to the required shape, slope and gradient. The surface shall then be properly
dressed. If the excavation is done to a depth greater than that shown on the drawing or

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Project: CONSTRUCTION OF BOUNDARY WALL, GATE & GATE HOUSE

as required by the Engineer-in-Charge, the excess depth shall be made good by the
contractor at his own cost with stiff clay puddle at places where the drains are required
to be pitched and with ordinary earth, properly watered and rammed, where the drains
are not required to be pitched. In case the drain is required is to be pitched, the back
filling with clay puddle, if required, shall be done simultaneously as the pitching work
proceeds. The brick pitched storm water drains should be avoided as far as possible in
filled-up areas and loose soils.

1.1.7 In all other cases where the excavation is taken deeper by the contractor, it shall be
brought to the required level by the contractor at his own cost by filling in with earth
duly watered, consolidated and rammed.

1.1.8 In case the excavation is done wider than that shown on the drawings or as required by
the Engineer-in-Charge, additional filling wherever required on the account shall be done
by the contractor at his own cost.

1.1.9 The excavation shall be done manually or by mechanical means as directed by Engineer-
in-charge considering feasibility, urgency of work, availability of labour /mechanical
equipments and other factors involved. Contractor shall ensure every safety measures for
the workers. Neither any deduction will be made nor any extra payment will be made on
this account.

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2.0 Concrete Works

2.1 Grades of cement concrete: The concrete shall be in grade designated as under:

Specified characteristic
compressive strength of
150mm cube at 28 Days in
Group Grade Designation N/mm2
1 2 3
M10 10
Ordinary M15 15
Concrete M20 20
M25 25
M30 30
M35 35
M40 40
M45 45
Standard M50 50
concrete M55 55
M60 60
M65 65
M70 70
High Strength M75 75
Concrete M80 80

Notes:
1. In the designation of concrete mix M refers to the mix and the number to the specified
compressive strength of 150 mm size cube at 25 days, expressed in N/ mm2
2. For concrete of compressive strength greater than M55, design parameters given in the
standard may not be applicable and the values may be obtained from specialized
literatures and experimental results.

3. The characteristic strength is defined as the strength of material below not more than 5
percent of the test results are expected to fall.

2.2 Minimum Cement Content, Maximum Water-Cement Ratio and Minimum


Grade of Concrete for Different Exposures with Normal Weight Aggregates of
20 mm Nominal; Maximum Size.

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SI Exposure Plain Reinforced


.NO. Concrete Concrete 2.3 M
Maximum Minimum Maximum a
Minimum Free Water Grade of Minimum Free Minimum c
Cement Ratio Concrete Cement Water Grade of h
Content Content Cement Concrete i
kg/m 3
Ratio kg/m3 Ratio n
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 e
I Mild 220 0.60 300 0.55 M20
M
II Moderate 240 0.60 M15 300 0.50 M25
i
III Severe 250 0.50 M20 320 0.45 M30 x
Very 0.45 M20 i
M35
IV Severe 260 340 0.45 n
V Extreme 280 0.40 M25 360 0.4 M40 g
:

The mixer drum shall be flushed dean with water. Measured quantity of coarse
aggregate be placed first in the hopper. This shall be followed with measured quantity of
fine aggregate and then cement. In case fine aggregate is damp, half the required
quantity of coarse aggregate shall be placed in the hopper, followed by fine aggregate
and cement. Finally the balance quantity of coarse aggregate shall be fed in the hopper,
& then the dry materials are slipped into the drum by raising the hopper. The dry
material shall be mixed for at least four turns of the drum. While the drum is rotating,
water shall be added gradually to achieve the water cement ratio as specified or as
required by the Engineer-in-charge. After adding water, the mixing shall be continued
until concrete of uniform 'colour, uniformly distributed material and consistency is
obtained. Mixing shall be done for at least two minutes after adding water. If there is
segregation after unloading from the mixer, the concrete should be remixed. The drum
shall be emptied before recharging. When the mixer is closed down for the day or at any
time exceeding 20 minutes, the drum shall be flushed cleaned with water.

2.3.1 Hand Mixing:

When hand mixing has been specifically permitted in exceptional circumstances by the
Engineer-in-Charge. in, writing, subject to adding 10% extra cement, it shall be carried
out on a smooth, clean and water tight platform of suitable size. Measured quantity of
sand shal1.be spread evenly on the platform and the cement shall be dumped on the
sand and distributed evenly. Sand and cement shall be mixed intimately with spade, until
the mixture is of even colour throughout. Measured quantity of coarse aggregate shall be
continued until concrete of uniform colour and consistency is obtained. The mixing
platform shall be washed and cleaned at the end of the day.

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3.0 Reinforced Cement Concrete

3.1 General

3.1.1 Description

This section covers the requirements for finishing of cement concrete, proportioning,
batching, mixing, testing, placing, compacting, finishing, jointing, curing and all other
work as required for cast in place reinforced concrete. The contractor shall provide all the
materials including cement, steel, labour, equipment, form work, scaffolding etc.,
required for completion of all reinforced concrete works as per drawings and documents.

Cement concrete shall be composed of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, water,
with or without admixture as approved, proportioned and mixed as specified herein.

3.1.2 Related Work Specified Elsewhere

a) Steel reinforcement

b) Form work

3.1.3 Applicable Codes And Standards

The codes and standards generally applicable to the work of this section are listed
hereinafter.

IS 383 Coarse and fine aggregates from natural sources for concrete
IS 456 Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete
IS 516 Methods of testing for strength of concrete
IS 1199 Methods of sampling and analysis of concrete
IS 1489 Portland - Pozzolana cement
IS 1838 Performed fillers for expansion joints in concrete non-extruding and resilient type
IS 1946 Code of practice for use of fixing devices in walls, ceiling and floors of solid
Construction
IS 2389 Methods of testing of aggregate for concrete.
IS 2505 Concrete vibrators, immersion type
IS 2645 Integral cement water proofing compounds
IS 3414 Code of practice for design and installation of joints in buildings
IS 3558 Code of practice for use for immersion vibrators for consolidating concrete
IS 4082 Recommendation on stacking and storage of construction materials at
IS 7861 Code of practice for extreme weather concretizing
IS 7861 Recommended practice for hot weather (part I) concretizing
IS 8112 Ordinary Portland Cement grade 43
IS 12269 Ordinary Portland cement grade 53

PART I

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The following clauses are intended to amplify the requirements of the reference document listed
above and the contractor shall comply with these clauses

3.2 Submittals

Material Report

Prior to start of delivery of materials required, the following shall be submitted by the
contractor to the Consultant / Engineer-in-charge for approval

Suppliers and / or sources of all consumable materials including cement, steel, fine and
coarse aggregates, water additives, bricks and timber etc.

Quality Inspection Plan to ensure continuing quality control of ingredients by periodic


sampling, testing and reporting to the Consultant on the quality of materials being
supplied.

3.3 Plant And Equipment

The contractor shall submit the following to the Consultant well in advance.

The proposed program, methods and details of plant and Equipment for be used to
testing of ingredients and concrete samples.

The proposed programme methods and details of plant & equipment to be used for
concrete work.

3.4 Reports For Inspection And Testing

During concreting operations, the contractor shall conduct inspection and testing as
described in subsection 3.15.2 herein, and all reports thereon shall be submitted in
summary form to the Consultant / Engineer-in-charge.

3.5 Schedules

Before commencement of the work the contractor shall prepare working schedules of
concreting giving dates and rate of pour for each item of work and submit the same to
the Consultant / Engineer-in-charge for their approval.

3.6 MATERIALS

Before bringing to the site, all materials for cement concrete shall be approved by the
Consultant / Engineer-in-charge. All approved samples shall be deposited in the office of
the Consultant / Engineer-in-charge before placing orders for the materials with suppliers
The materials brought on to the work shall conform in every respect to their approved
samples.

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Project: CONSTRUCTION OF BOUNDARY WALL, GATE & GATE HOUSE

Fresh samples shall be deposited with the Consultant / Engineer-in-charge whenever


type or source of any material changes The contractor shall check each fresh
consignment of materials as it is brought on to the works to ensure that they conform to
the specification and / or approved samples.

The Consultant / Engineer-in-charge shall have the option to have any of the materials
tested to find whether they are in accordance with specifications at the contractors
expense. All bills vouchers and test certificates which in the opinion of the Consultant /
Engineer-in-charge are necessary to convince him as to the quality of materials or their
suitability shall be produced for his inspection when required.

Any materials which have not been found to the specification and not approved by the
Consultant / Engineer-in-charge shall be rejected forthwith and shall be removed from
the site by the Contractors at his own cost within the time stipulated by the Consultant /
Engineer-in-charge. The Consultant / Engineer-in-charge shall have the powers to cause
the contractors to purchase and use materials from any particular source, as may in their
opinion be necessary for the proper execution of work.

3.6.1 Cement

Cement shall be provided by the Contractor

On the following types of cement as specified shall be used

a) Ordinary Portland Cement 43 grade confirming to BIS 8112-1987

b) Ordinary Portland Cement 53 grade confirming to BIS 12269-1987

Cement at site shall be stored in dry weather proof go-downs (or shed) built by the
Contractor at his own costs in stacks which are not higher than 10 bags. The cement go-
down shall be constructed as per CPWD specifications. The contractor shall conduct all
necessary tests as specified in the IS, of the cement supplied by Engineer-in-charge at
the contractors cost to ascertain himself on quality of the material issued.

3.6.2 AGGREGATES

a) Aggregates from natural sources shall be in accordance with IS: 383. The contractor
shall submit to the Consultant / Engineer-in-charge certificates of grading and
compliance from the suppliers for all consignments of aggregate. In addition at site from
time to time, the contractor shall test the aggregates in accordance with IS: 2386 parts
1, II, III and IV. The contractor shall allow for and provide all necessary apparatus for
carrying out each test and for supplying test records to the Consultant.

b) For fair faced concrete, the contractor shall ensure that aggregates are free from iron
pyrites and impurities which may cause discoloration.

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c) The fine aggregates shall be river sand, stone dust or other approved sand. It shall be
free from clay, loan, earth or vegetables matter and from salt or other harmful chemical
impurities It shall be dean sharp, strong angular and composed of hard siliceous material

The grading of sand as determined by the method prescribed in IS: 2386 part I shall be
within the limits of grading zone III given in Table 1. When the grading falls outside the
percentage limits given for sieves other than 600 micron, 300 micron, and 150 micron
(I.S) sieves by not more 5 percent, it shall be regarded as falling within this zone. The 5
percent can be excess submission on one more sieves.

TABLE 1

FINE AGGREGATE

I. S. Sieve Percentage passing for Grading

ZONEI ZONEII ZONEIII ZONE IV


10 mm 100 100 100 100
4. 75 MM 90-95 90-100 90-100 95-100
2 36 mm 60-95 75-100 85-100 95-100
1.18mm 30-70 55-90 75-100 90-100
600 micron 15-34 35-59 35-60 80-100
300 micron 5-20 8-30 8-30 20-65
150 micron 0-10 0-10 0-10 0-15

The maximum quantity of silt as determined by the method prescribed in IS: 2386 Part II
shall not exceed 8%.

Stone dust shall be within the limits of Grading Zone III given in table 1. When the
grading falls outside the percentage limits given for the sieves other than 600 micron and
300 micron (IS) sieves by not more than 5 percent and on 150 micron sieves by not
more than 20 percent it shall be regarded as falling within this zone. The 5 percent can
be excess summation on one or more sieves.

3.6.2.1 Coarse Aggregate

The coarse aggregate shall be crushed stone or broken stone. Coarse aggregate
obtained from crushed or broken stone shall be angular, hay, strong, dense, durable
clean and free from soft, friable, thin, flat, elongated flaky pieces. The coarse aggregate
should be from the approved source/quarry.

Coarse aggregate River shingle or pit gravel shall be rounded, sound hard, clean, non-
porous, suitably graded in size with or without broken fragments and free from flat
particle of shale, clay, silt, loam and other impurities.

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Project: CONSTRUCTION OF BOUNDARY WALL, GATE & GATE HOUSE

Except where it can be shown to the satisfaction of the Consultant than a supply of
properly graded aggregate of uniform quality can be maintained over the period of the
obtaining the coarse aggregate in different sizes & blending them in correct proportions
as and when required.

The maximum size of coarse aggregate shall be such that the concrete can be placed
without difficulty so as to surround all reinforcement thoroughly and fill the comers of
form work.

3.6.3 Water

Water used in the works shall be potable water and free from deleterious materials.
Water used for mixing and curing concrete as well as for cooling and/or washing
aggregate shall be fresh and clean, free from injurious amounts of oil, salts, acids, alkali,
other chemicals and organic matter.

Water shall be from the source approved by the Consultant / Engineer-in-charge and
shall be in accordance with Clause 4.3 of IS: 456.

Before starting any concreting work and whenever the source of water changes, the
water shall be tested for its chemical and other impurities to ascertain its suitability for
use in concrete for approval of the Consultant. No water shall be used until tested and
found satisfactory. Cost of all such tests shall be borne by the contractor.

3.6.4 Admixtures And Additives

Chemical admixtures are not to be used until permitted by the Consultant/Engineer-in-


charge in case their use is permitted, the type, amount and method of use of any
admixture proposed by the contractor shall be submitted to the Consultant for approval

The contractor shall further provide the following information concerning each admixture
to the Consultant/Engineer-in-charge.

a) Normal dosage and detrimental effects, if any, of under dosage and over dosage.

b) The chemical names of the main ingredients in the admixture.

c) The chloride ion content, if any, expressed as a percentage by weight of admixture.

d) Whether or not the admixture leads to the entertainment of air when used in the
manufacturers recommended dosage.

e) Where two or more admixtures are proposed to be used in any one mix, the
manufacturers written confirmation of their compatibility.

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In reinforced concrete, the chloride ion of any admixture as determined in accordance


with IS: 6925 and the total chloride ion in all admixtures used in concrete mix shall not
exceed 0.30n percent by weight of cement.

The admixtures when used shall conform to IS: 9103. The suitability of all admixtures
shall be verified by trial mixes.

The addition of calcium chloride to concrete containing embedded metal will not be
permitted under any circumstances.

Regarding admixtures when used shall be based on lingo-sulphonates with due


consideration to clause 5.2 and 5.30 of IS: 7861.

Waterproofing admixtures shall comply with IS: 2645.

3.7 Plant

The contractor shall obtain the approval of the Consultant/Engineer-in-charge for all
plant items he proposes to use for the manufacture and placing of concrete.

The arrangement shall maintain all items of plant at all times in a clean and efficient
working condition.

3.8 Storage

All goods and products covered by these specifications shall be procured well in advance
and stored as specified below.

3.8.1 Cement

Cement shall be stored on a raised floor in dry weather proof & dust free but well
ventilated shed.

Cement bags shall be stacked close together away from external walls and in stacks of
not more than ten bags to avoid lumping under pressure.

Cement stored during monsoons or cement expected to be in store for more than eight
weeks shall be completely enclosed in 700 micron polyethylene sheet so arranged that
the flap closes on the top stack. The contractor shall ensure that protective polyethylene
sheet is not damaged at any time during use.

Consignments of cement shall be used in order of delivery A record shall be kept of the
batch numbers of cement deliveries in such a form that the part of the works in which
the cement is used can be readily identified. If during delivery or by test, the cement is
found to be defective, the same shall be returned back forthwith.

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Project: CONSTRUCTION OF BOUNDARY WALL, GATE & GATE HOUSE

The contractor shall be responsible for the storage of cement at the site and no claim will
be entertained in the event of any damage occurring to cement due to faulty storage by
the contractors or on account of his negligence.

Cement stored on site for a period longer than eight weeks shall be tested to the
satisfaction of the Consultant/Engineer-in-charge before it is used in the works. Cement
that has failed the tests conducted shall not be used in the works and shall be remarked
from the site immediate by without fail.

STORING OF AGGREGATE

Aggregates shall be stored on a suitable well drained raft of concrete, timber, metal or
other approved material. The storage of aggregates on the ground will not be permitted.

Each size of aggregate shall be stored separately in such a manner as to prevent spillage
and mixing of one aggregate with an adjacent aggregate The dividing walls of any bin
shall be of sufficient height and the aggregate shall be so deposited that a distance of
100 mm shall be left between the top of the division wall and any part of the aggregate
stack

When stack piling, the aggregate shall not form pyramids resulting in segregation of
different size particles. The stacks shall be regular and of a height not exceeding two
meters.

3.9 Grades of Concrete

The grades of concrete shall be in accordance with the following table. The grade of
concrete to be used in each section of work will be shown in the drawings or in the Bill of
Quantities:

CHARACTERSTIC STRENGTH

Grade of Concrete Characteristic strength i.e. Nominal maximum


compressive strength of 15 aggregate size (mm)
cm. Cubes at 28 days
(N/mm2)
10 10 25
15 15 25
20 20 20
25 25 20
30 30 20
35 35 20

Unless otherwise specified in the drawings, the maximum nominal size of coarse
aggregates for different grades of concrete shall be as under:

a) For concreting in very narrow space or in very small thickness 12 mm

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b) For all reinforced concrete work except in massive foundations 20 mm

c) For all ordinary plain concrete and massive reinforced foundations 10 mm

All mix design grades viz., M10, M15, M20, M25, M30 etc., shall be designed and have
minimum cement content as follows:

Grade Qty (in kg/m3)

M-20 300
M-25 300
M-30 320
M-35 340

Minimum content of cement remaining unchanged, as specified above for each type of
concrete mix, the proportion and quantities of local sand and aggregate are to be worked
out and determined in the field/laboratory as per Road Research Note No.4, Department
of Scientific and Industrial Research, United Kingdom for design of concrete mixes or as
per ACI 613 with the approval of the Engineer. Any change in the source of aggregates
will require the re-designing of the concrete mix for the Engineer's approval.

3.10 Mix Design

General

At the commencement of the contract, the Contractor shall make preliminary tests to
determine the proportions by weight of cement, fine aggregates, coarse aggregates and
water necessary to produce required grades of concrete. The mix proportions shall be
selected to ensure that workability of the fresh concrete is suitable for the conditions of
handling and placing and when concrete hardens, it shall have the required strength,
durability and surface finish. The Contractor shall get approval of the Engineer to such
proportions before start of concreting. However, such approval shall not relieve the
Contractor of his responsibility to produce concrete having compressive strengths as laid
down in the foregoing table.

No departure from the approved proportions will be permitted during the works unless
and until the Engineer gives written authorization for any change in proportion. The
Engineer shall have authority at any time to check whether the mixing of concrete is
being carried out according to the approved proportions.

For the major and important RC works and for all special works, the design of mixes shall
be made by the Contractor at his own cost, for each grade of concrete as well as for
various workability. The design of mixes shall be made according to relevant I.S. codes
or to approved standard methods.

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Project: CONSTRUCTION OF BOUNDARY WALL, GATE & GATE HOUSE

The concrete made by designing the mix is termed hereinafter as "Design Mix Concrete".

The Contractor shall use only design mix and weigh batching for RCC. Only if specially
permitted by the Engineer, he will be allowed to use nominal mix or volume batching.
The Contractor shall make available at least two concrete mixers with weigh batching
facility. He shall also make available concrete cube, testing machine, cube moulds etc. to
test the crushing strength of concrete at site. He shall also indicate while submitting the
Bid, the methods proposed to carry out the designs for the mix.

3.11 Water/Cement Ratio

Where a particular water/cement ratio is stipulated in the design or drawing along with
the characteristic grade of concrete, the design of mix shall be carried out by adjusting
the other variable factors to obtain characteristic strength of concrete with stipulated
water/cement ratio.

In the structures where the impermeability and shrinkage of concrete have an important
bearing on the durability and serviceability of the structures, such as water retaining
structures, basements, underground premises, tunnels, pump houses, exposed
structures near sea side or deserts, pre-stressed structure, thin precast members etc.,
the water/cement ratio shall be kept low and preferably not exceeding 0.45.

The water cement ratio as achieved in the mix design or as specified in the drawings
shall be adhered to strictly and shall not be varied without the permission of the
Engineer.

3.12 Workability

The workability of fresh concrete shall be such that the concrete is just suitable for the
conditions of handling and placing so that after compaction, it becomes completely
consistent and homogeneously surrounds all the reinforcement and completely fills the
formwork.

The workability of fresh concrete at the place of batching/mixing shall be measured by


compacting factor test and at the place of disposition by means of slump test. During the
finalization of trial mixes, the relationship between compacting factor and slump test
shall be established for each grade of concrete as well as for various levels for
workability.

Normally, in the condition of low water cement ratio as well as for medium/high
workability, the workability shall be achieved by increasing the cement content.

In cases where the cement content is to be limited to reduce the heat of hydration, and
the water / cement ratio is also to be kept low to reduce the permeability or due to other
requirements the desired workability may be achieved with the use of limited doses of
plasticizer or air entraining agent. In such cases, the method of mixing and dosage of the

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plasticiser / air entraining agent shall be according to the manufacturer's specification


and with the approval of the Engineer.

Consistency and workability of concrete shall be checked by measuring the slump of a


truncated cone of concrete straight from the mixer under normal working conditions. The
conical mould shall be of metal, 300 mm high and 100 mm and 200 mm in diameter at
top and base respectively.

Moulds shall be prepared by the Contractor. The slump range of concrete shall be as per
the tabulation given below, as well as standards.

Slump tests shall be performed as per IS:1881 at intervals established by the Engineer at
the Contractor's cost in such a way as to check that the degree of consistency
established by the Engineer for work in progress is maintained. The table below gives the
general slump range to be followed for various types of construction unless otherwise
shown on drawings or instructed by the Engineer.

Various types of construction ...Slump (in mm)... Max. Min.

Reinforced foundation walls and footings 75 25


Plain footings, caissons and structure walls 75 25
Compressor foundations and for heavy mass constructions 75 25
Pumps and other misc. equipment foundations 75 25
Columns, slabs, beams and reinforced walls 100 50

3.13 Durability

The durability of concrete, depending on the exposure condition, is to be taken into


account while designing the mix. For given aggregates, the cement content should be
sufficient to make sufficiently low water/cement ratio and Appendix A of IS: 456 shall be
taken as guideline for durability considerations.

3.14 Trial Mixes

After approval of the mix design by the Engineer, the Contractor shall make in presence
of the Engineer the trial mixes for each grade of concrete as well as for required
workability.

Before starting the trial mixes, necessary preparatory works like determination of sieve
analysis of the aggregates, densities of different ingredients, moisture contents in the
aggregates, shall be completed according to the relevant BIS Codes.

Each trial mix shall be handled and compacted by the method which the Contractor
proposes to use for that mix in the works and the mixes shall not show tendency of
inadequate compaction by the method proposed.

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The compacting factor and the slump of each trial mix shall be determined immediately
after mixing and the values shall not exceed the maximum value obtained in the mix
design.

Five (5) 150 mm test cubes shall be made from each trial mix. These shall be cured and
tested in accordance with relevant BIS codes. In order to have the specified
characteristic strength in the field, the concrete mix as designed in the design mix shall
have higher average compressive strength depending on the degree of quality of control
at site.

Before commencement of the concreting works of particular grade of concrete, the


Contractor must complete the work of trial mixes and subsequent testing of the test
cubes obtained there from and the desire of the approved mix for that particular grade
of concrete.

The entire cost of all the trial mixes including all the preparatory works for trial mixes,
preparation of test cubes and their testing shall be borne by the Contractor.

3.15 Nominal Mix Concrete

Nominal mix concrete may be used for all concrete of grade M-10 and below. If design
mix concrete cannot be used for any reason for grade M-15 and M-20, nominal mix
concrete may be used with the permission of the Engineer. Nominal mix concrete shall
be in accordance with Table-3 of clause 8.3 of I S 456. The stipulations of clauses 8.3.1
and 8.3.2 of IS: 456 shall also be taken into consideration.

3.16 Volumetric Mix Concrete

Where concrete is specified in volumetric proportions such as 1:4:8, 1:3:6, 1:2:4,


1:1.5:3, 1:1:2 etc., in the Bill of Quantities, coarse & fine aggregates shall be measured
by volume & cement by weight. The water cement ratio shall be within 0.45 & 0.70
depending upon the workability.

3.17 Batching of Concrete

3.17.1 Cement

Cement shall always be batched by weight. A separate weighing device shall be


provided for weighing cement. Where the weight of cement is determined by accepting
the weight per bag, a number of bags shall be weighed separately to determine the
average net weight of cement per bag and the same shall be checked regularly.

3.17.2 Aggregates

For both design mix concrete and nominal mix concrete, the aggregates, (coarse and
fine) shall be batched by weight.

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In particular cases, or where weight-batching is not possible, proportioning by volume


batching may be allowed by the aggregates throughout the period of construction. For
this purpose, the Contractor shall submit to the Engineer sufficient data indicating the
weight/volume relationship of the aggregates shall be made by the Contractor to the
satisfaction of the Engineer. Where aggregates are moist and volume batching is
adopted, allowance shall be bulking in accordance with IS (Part III).

Suitable adjustments shall be made for the variation in the weight of aggregates due to
variation in their moisture contents.

3.18 Water

3.18.1 General

Water may be measured either by weight or by volume. When measured by volume, it


shall be by well calibrated conical shaped jar or vessel or from a calibrated tank filled to
the mixer.

3.18.2 Adjustment of Water Due to Moisture Contents in Coarse and Fine Aggregates

It is very important to maintain the water cement ratio constant at its correct value. For
the correct determination of the amount of water to be added in the concrete mix, to
maintain the water cement ratio constant, the amount of moisture content in both coarse
and fine aggregates shall be taken into consideration, be checked as frequently as
possible, the frequency for a given job being determined by the Engineer according to
weather condition.

3.18.3 Determination of Moisture Content in the Aggregates

Determination of moisture content in the aggregates shall be according to IS 2386 (Part-


III). Where tests are not conducted, the amount of surface water may be estimated
from the following table:

Aggregates Surface water carried by Aggregates


% by l/m3
weight
Very wet sand 7.50 120
Moderately wet 5.00 80
sand
Moist Sand 2.50 40
Moist gravel 1.25-2.5 20-40
stone chips *

coarser the aggregate, less the water it will carry

3.18.4 Admixtures

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Any solid admixture, to be added, shall be measured by weight, but liquid or semi-liquid
admixture may be measured by weight or volume.

The Bidder shall indicate the brand name, the Manufacturer and the properties of any
admixture to be used for the concrete as per Bill of Quantity items or on his own
initiative.

3.18.5 Accuracy of Batching

The accuracy of batching shall be within the following tolerance:

1 Cement within -2% to +2%by weight

2 Aggregate, admixture and water within - 3% to +3% by quantity.

3.19 Mixing of Concrete

3.19.1 Machine Mixing

Concrete shall always be mixed in mechanical mixer. Water shall not, normally, be
charged into the drum of the mixer until all other ingredients are already in the drum and
mixed for at least one minute. Mixing shall be continued until there is uniform
distribution of materials and the mass is uniform in colour and consistency. The mixing
time from the time of adding water shall be in accordance with IS 1791, but in no case
less than 2 minutes or at least 40 revolutions.

3.19.2 Hand Mixing

When hand mixing is permitted by the Engineer, it shall be carried out on a water tight
platform and care shall be taken to ensure that mixing is continued until the mass is
uniform in colour and consistency. In case, of hand mixing, 10% extra cement shall be
added to each batch at no extra cost to client.

3.20 Transportation of Concrete

Concrete shall be transported from the place of mixing to the place of placing concrete
as rapidly as practicable by any means, which will prevent the segregation or loss of any
of the ingredients and maintain the required workability. No water shall be mixed with
the concrete after it has left the mixer.

Where concrete is transported over long distances, the Contractor shall provide suitable
means by which different grades of concrete are readily identifiable at the place of final
deposit.

3.21 Preparatory Works/Surface Preparation

3.21.1 For Concrete Directly on Earth Foundation

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Earth foundation on which direct placement of concrete is specified, shall be rammed


and consolidated as directed by the Engineer such that it does not crumble and get
mixed with concrete during or after placement. If the foundation is quite wet, the same
shall be kept dry and then sufficiently consolidated, if necessary, a thin top layer of the
wet soil shall be removed and replaced by sand or other suitable materials as directed by
the Engineer without extra cost , Care shall also be taken that earth from the sides also
does not get mixed with the concrete, during or after placement, before it has sufficiently
set and hardened.

The earth foundation, over which concrete is to be placed directly, shall not be kept
abandon at the specified level and concrete shall be placed immediately following
otherwise suitable measures shall be taken, as directed by the Engineer without extra
cost.,

3.21.2 For Construction Joints

Concrete shall be cast, as far as possible, continuously until the parts of structure to be
built are finished. Should this not be feasible, the type, number and location of
construction joints shall be approved by the Engineer prior to placing concrete.

All such joints shall have continuous square bond grooves to produce substantial and
water-tight-key and the exposed faces of joints shall be monolithic with the main mass of
concrete formed and completed under substantially shattered faces. The Contractor shall
take all the necessary steps by means of timber edgings etc. to ensure an exact
horizontal straight finish to outside edge of any lift of concrete. Subject to the approval
of the Engineer, the Contractor is at liberty to arrange his own construction joints but the
following restrictions are to be observed:

1. There shall be no vertical construction joints

2. No longitudinal joints shall be made in the walls and floors of trenches and
pits unless otherwise shown in the drawings.

3. Concrete pouring shall be reasonably large, but in no case shall the height of
pouring concrete exceed 1.5 m without the Engineer's firm approval. Such approval of
the Engineer shall not in any way relieve the Contractor of his responsibility to ensure
that the construction is water tight and that no segregation takes place.

4. Laitance shall be removed from the surface of concrete before it has set hard
by washing and wire brushing so as to expose the stones of the top layer without undue
erosion of the mortar or damage to the under laying concrete.

All beds and joints in concrete faces, which have become set, are to be picked all over
and all loose materials removed before fresh concrete is deposited thereon. The
indentations shall be at least 12 mm deep and not less than seventy five percent of the
area of the existing concrete face to be covered over.

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Immediately before depositing fresh concrete, the exposed surface shall be cleaned of
foreign matter by further wire brushing, if necessary. It shall then be thoroughly washed
and surplus water removed. The surface, while still moist, shall be covered with layer of
1:1 cement mortar which must be vigorously stippled into the surface by means of a stiff
brush, the depositing of the fresh concrete following on closely. Pockets to form keys
shall be left in the surface of the concrete at constructional joints, 75 mm deep and
approximately equal to 20% of the exposed surface.

All costs in connection with the forming of construction joints shall be to the account of
the Contractor and shall be deemed to be included in the rates for concreting and
formwork and shall not be separately paid for. In a column, the joint shall be formed 75
mm below the lowest soffits of the beams, including haunches, if any.

Concrete in a beam shall be placed throughout without a joint but if the provision of a
joint is unavoidable, then the joint shall be vertical and at the centre of, or within, middle
third of the span, unless otherwise shown on the drawings.

3.21.3 On Vertical Surfaces of Masonry

When the concrete is placed on the vertical surface of masonry (as in the case of thin
concrete fins projected from the vertical masonry surface), a groove of dimension as
directed by the Engineer shall be cut in the masonry to ensure a proper bond and the
surface shall be cleaned thoroughly. Before the placement of concrete, the surface shall
be kept moist by spraying water at least for the period of 2 hours and a thick coat of
cement slurry shall be applied immediately before the placement of concrete.

3.21.4 Inside the Form Works (Cleaning, Surface Preparation etc.)

The interior of the form works, where the concrete is to be placed, shall be thoroughly
washed by high pressure water jet or air jet to completely clean the entire volume from
the dirts, grease/oil foreign and deleterious materials etc. The reinforcements shall be
completely cleaned and free from all sorts of dirts grease/oil, rust, foreign/deleterious
materials etc. Before placement of concrete, the form works coming in contact with
concrete, shall be coated highly with form oil or raw linseed oily material or provided
with any approved material to prevent adhesion of concrete to the form work, but
utmost care shall be taken so that such oily material does not come in contact with the
reinforcement.

3.22 Placing and Compaction of Concrete

Before placing the concrete, the Contractor shall ensure that:

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1. All mixing and placing equipment is thoroughly cleaned

2. All concreting space is free from debris and rubbish

3. All forms have been thoroughly wetted or oiled and firmly installed in line and plumb
to the Engineer's approval.

4. All reinforcement is cleaned of loose rust, scales and other injurious adherents and is
firmly bound and correctly placed and has been so approved by the Engineer.

5. All inserts, sleeves, foundation bolts and embedded parts have been correctly and
firmly installed to conform to the Engineer's drawings and have been carefully checked to
comply with the drawings. Special care shall be taken to locate and check sleeves or
inserts, which may not be symmetrically placed with respect to centre lines.

The Contractor and Engineer shall separately inspect and check the above mentioned
points and record and sign the results in a register which shall be maintained by the
Contractor in a approved form. No concrete shall be placed without the Engineer having
inspected and approved in writing. Inspite of ensuring the above requirements, the
Contractor shall fill pour cards furnishing the necessary details of the job, duly signed by
the Engineer. This, however, will not absolve the Contractor from his responsibility to
correctly execute the work. Pour cards shall contain the following information:

Design Index

- Date
- Slump
- Workability
- Work test specimen
- Type of finishing and admixtures used (if any)
- Period of removal of shuttering/props/forms.

The concrete pouring method shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval and shall
always be such as to avoid any possibility of segregation of the components or shifting of
the reinforcement.

Special grout or mix shall be used for difficult and intricate locations as specified by the
Engineer. During placing, the concrete shall be thoroughly worked around reinforcement,
embedded parts and corners of the formwork.

Greatest possible care shall be taken by the Contractor that reinforcement and
embedded parts, particularly foundation bolts and sleeves, are not displaced during
placement of concrete. While concreting mats and other such locations where top and
bottom reinforcement are adopted, top reinforcement shall be thoroughly cleaned of all
slurry and mortar sticking to them at the time of concreting top layers.

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The concrete shall be placed and compacted before setting commences and should not
be subsequently disturbed. No water shall be mixed with the concrete after it has left
the mixer. Method of placing should be such as to preclude segregation. Approved
mechanical vibrator shall be used for compacting concrete, and concrete shall not be non
vibrated or under vibrated. No concrete shall be placed until the place of deposit has
been thoroughly inspected and approved by the Engineer, all inserts and embedment
properly secured in position and checked and forms properly oiled. No concrete shall be
placed in the absence of the Engineer.

Concrete shall be placed on clean bed having the designed level. The bed shall be
cleaned of all debris and other objectionable materials. Seepage water, if any, shall be
controlled or diverted.

Concreting shall not be carried on during rains unless all precautions have been taken by
the Contractor and necessary permission has been given by the Engineer. Suitable
measures shall be taken to control the temperature of concrete.
Where plums are permitted in massive concrete, they shall be washed and carefully
placed. No stone shall be closer than 30 cm to an exposed face, nor nearer than 15 cm
to an adjacent stone.

Concrete shall not be dropped from a height of more than 2 m except through a chute,
the design and type of which shall be subjected to approval of the Engineer.

The concrete shall be placed, spread and compacted by approved mechanical vibrator.
Vibrators shall not be used for pushing concrete to adjoining areas.

For members involving vertical placing of concrete (e.g. columns, walls etc.), each lift
shall be deposited in horizontal layer extending for the full width between shuttering and
of such depth that each layer can be easily and effectively vibrated and incorporated with
the layer below by means of compaction being employed.

For members involving horizontal placing of concrete (e.g., slabs, beams etc.), the
concrete shall be placed along the line of starting point in such quantities as will allow
members to be cast to their full depth along the full width between side shuttering and
then gradually brought towards the finishing point along its entire front parallel to the
starting line. Vibration and surface finish shall follow behind the placement as closely as
possible.

Utmost care shall be taken to avoid the displacement of reinforcements/ embedded parts
or movement of form work or damage to faces of the form work or transmission of any
harmful vibration/shocks to the concrete which has not yet hardened sufficiently.

All members shall be concreted at such a rate that no cold joint is formed and fresh
concrete is placed always against green concrete, which is still plastic and workable.

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Should any unforeseen occurrence result in a stoppage of concreting for one hour or
such other time as might allow the concrete, already placed, to begin to set before the
next batches can be placed, the Contractor shall make at his own cost, suitable tongue,
and groove construction joint, as approved by the Engineer. Any additional
reinforcement required as directed by the Engineer shall also be provided by the
Contractor at his own cost. Before placement of new batches of concrete over that
construction joint, the surface preparation according to this specification stipulated
earlier, shall be done by the Contractor.

The concrete shall be worked well up against whatever surface it adjoins and compacted
to such a degree that it reaches its maximum density as a homogeneous mass, free from
air and water holes and penetrates to all corners of moulds and shuttering and
completely surrounds the reinforcement. All measures shall be taken to make the shape,
size, and location of the finished concrete including its embedment, holes, openings etc,
well within the accepted tolerance limit.

3.23 Sub-standard concrete

Should the work strength of controlled concrete fall below the specified strength,
Engineer shall decide:

1. To reject the work, in which case the Contractor shall replace the defective
work with concrete of required strength and bear all costs for dismantling and replacing
including cost of associated form work, reinforcement, embedded parts & all associated
works.

2. To accept the work at a reduced rate, in which case the unit rate payable for
sub-standard work will be reduced, directly in proportion to the work strength as
compared to the specified strength. The Engineer may, in addition, require other tests
performed on the respective structural member so accepted period to its acceptance with
or without necessary corrective measures and in each such case, the Contractor shall
bear all costs for all such tests or corrective measures, besides the reduction in the unit
rates as specified herein.

3. Concrete of strength below fifteen (15) percent of the specified strength will
not be accepted.

4. The test load shall be 125% of the maximum superimposed load for which
the structure was designed. Such test load shall not be applied before 56 days after the
effective hardening of concrete. During the test, struts strong enough to take the whole
load shall be placed in position leaving a gap under the members. The test load shall be
maintained for 24 hours before removal.

5. If, within 24 hours of the removal of the load, the structure does not show a
recovery of at least 75% of the maximum deflection shown during the 24 hours under

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load, the test loading shall be repeated after a lapse of alteast 72 hours. The structure
shall be considered to have failed to pass the test if the recovery after the second test is
not at least 75% of the maximum deflection shown during the second test.

If the structure is certified as failed by the Engineer, the cost of the load test shall be
borne by the Contractor.

3.24 Optional Tests

The Engineer, if he so desires, may order tests to be carried out on cement, sand, coarse
aggregate, water in accordance with the relevant Indian Standards.

Tests on cement shall include

1. Fineness test

2. Test for normal consistency

3. Test for setting time

4. Test for soundness

5. Test for tensile strength

6. Test for compressive strength

7. test for heat of hydration (by experiment and by calculation) in accordance


with IS:269.

Tests on sand shall include

1. Sieve test.

2. Test for organic impurities.

3. Decantation test for determining clay and silt content.

4. Specific gravity test.

5. Test for unit weight and bulkage factor.

6. Test for sieve analysis and fineness modulus.

Tests on coarse aggregates shall include

1. Sieve analysis.

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2. Specific gravity and unit weight of dry, loose and rodded aggregate.

3. Soundness and alkali aggregate reactivity.

4. Petrographic examination.

5. Deleterious materials and organic impurities.

6. Test for aggregate crushing value.

Any or all these tests would normally be ordered to be carried out only if the Engineer
feels the materials are not in accordance with the specifications or if the specified
concrete strengths are not obtained and shall be performed by the Contractor or at an
approved test laboratory at the cost of the Contractor.

If the work cubes do not give the stipulated strengths, the Engineer reserves the right to
ask the Contractor to dismantle such portions of the work which, in his opinion, are
unacceptable and re-do the work to standards stipulated, at the Contractor's cost. The
unit rate for concrete shall be all inclusive, including making preliminary mix design and
test cubes works, cubes, testing them as per specification, slump tests, optional tests
etc.,

3.25 Concrete for Equipment or steel structures foundations

Concrete for equipment foundation, whether principal or auxiliary, shall be poured


continuously so that the structure becomes monolithic, particular care being exercised to
see that the base slabs, if any, are of compact impervious construction. Tunnels,
passages, apertures and so forth shall be provided in accordance with the drawings for
the installation of mechanical and electrical equipment, pipes or cables. The top
elevation of the equipment foundations or parts shall be accurately cast to 20/50 mm (or
more as may be specified on the drawings) above the level required for grouting and it
shall be pneumatically chiseled off and well roughened just prior to the erection of the
equipment concerned. All embedded anchor bolts or bolt sleeves shall be accurately and
firmly set with the aid of approved templates, steel supports and/or other accessories.
For holding the embedded bolts or sleeves in the correct position during concreting,
template shall have to be of steel of suitable section approved by the Engineer. Two
sets of templates shall have to provided, one to hold the bottom and the other the top of
the bolts or sleeves. The bottom template shall be securely and rigidly fixed by providing
anchorage arrangement and by welding to the lowest part of the steel reinforcement and
other structural supports. The top templates shall be securely fixed by tying with guy
wires and turn buckle arrangements to firm and rigid adjoining structures and staging.
The bottom template that is embedded in concrete will be measured and paid for as
embedded steel.

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Bolt pockets, where required, shall be cast with wooden taper wedges. These shall be
withdrawn at an appropriate time when the concrete has set, the pockets cleaned,
roughened and then covered or blocked thoroughly to prevent debris getting into these.
The exposed portions of bolts and embedded parts shall be kept well greased and
adequately protected from damage throughout construction. Any damages found shall
have to be corrected at the Contractor's cost client shall have the right to use the
foundations, pads, piers, slabs, floors and all concrete work as needed for other works or
equipment erected prior to its "Taking Over".

3.26 Requirements for Concreting in Special Cases

3.26.1 Concreting in Deep Lifts

Placing of concrete in lifts exceeding 3 m in columns and 2 m in walls is in the category


of deep lifts.

Before commencement of work, the Contractor shall submit for the approval of the
Engineer, the details of the methods he proposes to adopt for concreting.The placement
of concrete shall preferably be by tremie chute or any other approved method.

In structures of heavy/complicated reinforcement or in complicated form works, the


Contractor shall provide sufficient number of windows in the form works as directed by
the Engineer to check the placement and compaction of concrete in different stages.
Such windows shall be closed as soon as the concreting reaches the bottom level of the
same.

3.26.2 Cold Weather Concreting

When conditions are such that the ambient temperature may be expected to be 4.5oC or
below during the placing and curing period, the work shall conform to IS: 7861 (Part-II).

3.26.3 Hot Weather Concreting

Concrete shall not normally be placed when the atmospheric temperature exceeds 40C
in the open. If, in spite of programming concrete work in the cooler hours of early
morning, evening or night, placement is necessary in too hot a weather, then the
Contractor shall take at least the following additional precautions:

1. Stock-pile aggregates in shade


2. Do not use fresh, factory hot cement
3. Use cold water
4. Cool form work by sprinkling water without collecting water inside
5. Reduce to minimum the time interval between mixing and placing
6. Place, vibrate and finish as quickly as possible
7. Initiate curing as soon as concrete hardens.

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Positive temperature control by methods like pre-cooling, post cooling or cooling of


concrete by circulating cold water through small embedded pipe lines inside concrete, if
required, shall be specified and shall be undertaken.

3.26.4 Concreting in Large Pours (Mass Concrete)

The aim of controlling the concreting in large pours is to reduce cracking caused by
shrinkage due to heat of hydration. The Contractor shall submit detailed proposal to the
Engineer for approval about the method of pouring and the measures to reduce heat of
hydration, which he proposes to adopt.

The maximum height of lifts will depend on the type of cement used. The use of cement
having low heat of hydration, could allow greater lifts.

The Contractor shall provide all the necessary arrangements like pre-cooling of
aggregates, cooling of fresh concreting by passing cold water through pipes placed inside
the concrete or such other measures at least 38 hours before the placement of concrete
and also provide the facility for recording of temperature at least 24 hours prior to
placement of concrete.

The minimum interval between concreting of successive lifts, separated by horizontal


construction joint, shall be six days or as directed by the Engineer.
The minimum interval between the concreting of adjacent pours separated by vertical
construction joints shall be three (3) days, or as directed by the Engineer.

3.27 Finishes to Exposed Surface of Concrete

The Contractor is to include his quoted rate for concrete, the provision of normal finishes
in both formed and unformed surfaces as and where required by the Engineer without
any extra cost , Some common finishes are indicated below:

3.27.1 Surfaces which do not require Plastering

Surface in contact with casing shall be brought to a fair and even surface by working the
concrete smooth against casings with a steel trowel while it is being deposited and also
by working over the surface with a trowel immediately after the removal of the casings
or centering, removing any irregularities and stopping air holes, etc. Use of mortar
plaster is not permissible for correcting levels, removing unevenness etc. However, if in
the opinion of the Engineer, such plastering is unavoidable, then the thickness of plaster
shall in no case exceed 5 mm and the plastering shall be in CM (1:3).

3.27.2 Faces of Foundations which will be Back Filled

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Neither the smoothness of the surface not the positions of the joints in the form work
are important. Small blemishes caused by entrapped air are permitted. No special
surface finish is required.

3.27.3 Exposed Surfaces

Surface of beams/columns flushing with the block work or other structures where it is
intended to plaster, shall be backed adequately as soon as the shuttering is stripped off
so that proper bond with the plaster can develop.

3.27.4 Surface for Non-integral Finish

Where a non-integral finish such as floor finish is specified or required, the surface of the
concrete shall be struck off at the specified levels shall be furnished and finished rough.

3.27.5 for Monolithic Finish

To be done where no more finishing course is to be supplied as in the case of basement


floor, industrial flooring or the screed concrete flooring etc., the concrete shall be
completed and struck off at the specified levels and slopes in a screed board and then
floated with a wooden float. Steel trowel ling is then started after the concrete has
hardened enough to prevent the excess of fines and water to rise to the surface but not
hard enough to prevent proper finishing. Trowelling shall be such that the surface is flat,
smooth and neatly finished.

3.28 Curing of Concrete

3.28.1 General

The purpose of curing is either to provide sufficient water at optimum temperature or to


prevent loss of moisture from the concrete itself so that the cement inside the concrete is
sufficiently hydrated which, of course, is a slow and prolonged process. As soon as the
concrete has hardened sufficiently, the curing shall be started.

3.28.2 Different Methods of Curing

Any one of the following may be used for curing as approved by the Engineer.

a) Curing by Direct Water

This is done either by pounding or spraying water.

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Pounding

Pounding is widely used for curing slabs and pavement. Earth bands are formed over the
slabs and water is pumped or poured into them and the same is replenished at interval
to make up for the loss of evaporation. As this type of curing is one of the best methods,
10 days of curing after final setting is sufficient.

By Spraying Water

Curing is done by spraying water by suitable means at approved time intervals. While
spraying, it shall be ensured that the complete area is covered. In order to avoid
cracking, cold water shall not be applied to massive members immediately after striking
the form work, while the concrete is still warm. Alternative wetting and over drying shall
be avoided.

Curing by spraying water shall be continued as least for 18 days.

b) Curing of Concrete with Absorbent Material Kept Damp

The entire concrete surface is covered either with hessian, burlap, sawdust, sand, canvas
or similar material and kept wet continuously for at least 12 days after final settings.

c) Curing by Covering Concrete Surface with an Impressive Sheet

This is achieved by covering the entire concrete surface with water proof paper or plastic
sheets specially manufactured for this purpose. The waterproof papers are stuck
together by adhesive compound and the plastic sheets can be welded at site.

Such type of covering shall be kept at least for 24 days after the final setting. It is
preferable to have sheet as white in appearance since the white colour will reflect hot
sunrays and keep the concrete temperature at reasonable level.

d) Curing by Providing Protective Membrane by Applying curing compound

This is achieved by applying a membrane forming compound (curing compound) over


the concrete surface. Generally, these are available in the emulsion form. The application
of the curing compound should be started immediately after stripping off the shuttering
in case of formed surface and after the surface has hardened in case of unformed
surface.

The curing compound membrane forming emulsions dry up within 3 to 4 hours after
application and forms a continuous coherent adhesive membrane over the concrete
surface. Such membrane serves as a physical barrier to prevent the loss of moisture from
the concrete itself. Membrane forming emulsions are generally coloured black or white to
improve visibility for ensuring uniform application. Black colour shall never be used for
curing in very hot weather. In order to prevent glare, a colouring pigment may be added
to white compounds.

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Black curing compounds are either Bituminous or Asphaltic emulsions and shall be used
to surfaces which are to be covered by back filling or on the floor which is to be covered
with tiles and linoleum.

White curing compound shall be used for the surfaces of tall structures under exposure
of hot sun where other method of curing cannot be properly ensured.

e) Curing by Chemical Coating

For chemical curing, sodium silicate or calcium chloride is used. The use of calcium
chloride shall be done with the approval of the Engineer. Normally, the sodium silicate
mixed with water is applied over concrete surface and, when it dries up, it forms a thin
varnish like film, which fills up the pores, and surface voids and prevents evaporation of
water. This also acts like curing compound but only difference is that curing compounds
are available in ready mixed emulsion forms while sodium silicate is to be mixed with
water at site.

3.28.3 Limitation to Use of Different Methods of Curing:

i) Curing by the processes as indicated in Section B Clause 3-24 and more specifically
as per sub-clause 2(b) of the above clause gives very good results in normal warm
climate for maturity of concrete.

ii) In cold weather, the process as indicated in sub-clause 2(b) of clause 3-24 gives very
good result for maturity of concrete.

iii) Where water cement ratio is less than 0.5, the methods indicated in sub-clause 2(d)
and 2(e) of clause 3-24 of Section B, shall not be used.

iv) In warm climate also, where the methods of curing as indicated in sub-clauses 2(a)
and 2(b) of clause 3-24 cannot be properly ensured, any suitable method of curing as
indicated in sub-clauses 2(c) to 2(e) of clause 3-24 of Section B, as
approved/directed by the Engineer, shall be adopted.

3.29 Testing of Concrete

3.29.1 General

The Contractor shall carry out, entirely at his own cost, all sampling and testing in
accordance with the relevant IS standards and as supplemented herein. The Contractor
shall get all tests done in an approved laboratory and submit to the Engineer, the test
result in triplicate within 3 days after completion of the test.

3.29.2 Consistency Test (Tests of Fresh Concrete)

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At the place of deposition/pouring of the concrete, to control the consistency slump tests
and/or compacting factor tests shall be carried out by the Contractor in accordance with
IS 1199 as directed by the Engineer.

The results of the slump tests/compacting factor tests shall be recorded in a register for
reference duly signed by both the Contractor and the Engineer, and shall be kept by the
Contractor at site in safe custody.

The results of the slump tests/compacting factor tests shall tally, within accepted
variation of 12%, with the results in the respective design mix, in case of mix design
concrete and with the values indicated in the table under clause 6.1 of IS:456 in case of
nominal mix concrete.

For any particular batch of concrete, if the results do not conform to the requirements as
specified in IS 456, the Engineer has the right to reject that batch and the Contractor
shall remove the same immediately from the site.

3.29.3 Strength Test of Concrete

While placing concrete, the Contractor shall make six (6) 150 mm test cubes from
particular batches of concrete as desired by the Engineer. The frequency of taking test
cubes shall be either according to clause 14.2 of IS:456 or as directed by the Engineer.

The cubes shall be prepared, cured and tested according to IS 516. Out of the six (6)
test cubes, 3 shall be tested for compressive strength at 7 days after casting and the
remaining 3 at 28 days after casting

A register shall be maintained at site by the Contractor with the following details entered
and signed by both the Contractor and the Engineer.

a) Reference to the specific structural member


b) Mark on cubes
c) The grade of concrete
d) The mix of concrete
e) Date and time
f) Crushing strength at 7 days
g) Crushing strength at 28 days
h) Any other information directed by the Engineer.

3.29.4 Acceptance Criteria for Test Cubes

The acceptance criteria of concrete on strength requirement shall be in accordance with


the stipulations under clause 15 of IS:456.

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3.29.5 Non-destructive Tests on Hardened Concrete

If there is doubt about the strength or quality of a particular work or the test results do
not comply with the acceptance criteria as stipulated under clause 15 of IS: 456, non-
destructive tests on hardened concrete like core tests and/or load tests or other type of
non destructive tests like ultrasonic impulse test etc. shall be carried out, as may be
directed by the Engineer, by the Contractor at entirely his own cost.

The core tests and load tests shall comply with the requirements of clause 16.6 of IS:
456 shall be applicable.

3.29.6 Concrete below Specified Strength

In case of failure of test cubes to meet the specified requirements, the Engineer may
take one of the following actions:

1. Reject the work and instruct that section of the works to which the failed
cubes relate shall be cut out and replaced at the Contractor's expense.

2. Instruct the Contractor to carry out additional tests and/or works to ensure
the soundness of the structure at the Contractor's expense.

3. Accept the work with reduction in the rate in appropriate item.

3.29.7 Concrete failed in Non-destruction Tests

In case test results of the core tests or load tests in a particular work do not comply with
requirements of respective clause (16.3 for core test and 16.5 for load tests) of IS 456,
the whole or part of the work concerned shall be dismantled and replaced by the
Contractor as may be directed by the Engineer no extra cost to client, and to the
satisfaction of the Engineer. No payment for the dismantled concrete including relevant
form work, reinforcement, embedded fixtures etc. shall be made. In the course of
dismantling if any damage occurs to the adjacent structure or embedded item, the same
shall be made good, free of charge by the Contractor, to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

3.30 Cracks

If any cracks develop in the reinforced cement concrete construction which in the opinion
of the Consultant may be determined to the strength of the construction, the contractor
at his own expense shall test the structural element in question If under these test loads
the cracks shall develop further the contractor at his own expense shall dismantle the
construction, cart away the debris, replace the construction and carry out all
consequential work there to at no extra cost.

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If the cracks are not detrimental to the stability of the construction in the opinion of the
Consultant, the contractor at his own expense shall grout the cracks with pneumatically
applied mortar. At his own expense and risk he shall also make good all other building
works such as plaster, molding, surface finish of floods, roofs, ceiling etc. which in the
opinion of the Consultant have suffered damage either in appearance or stability owing
to such cracks.

The repair work shall be carried out to the satisfaction of the Consultant/Engineer-in-
charge. The decision of the Consultant/Engineer-in-charge as to the extent of the liability
of the contractor in the above matter shall be final and binding on the contractor.

3.31 Supervision

All concreting work shall be done under strict supervision of the qualified and
experienced representatives of the Contractor as well as those of the Consultant The
contractors Engineer and supervisor who are in-charge of concreting work shall be
skilled in this class of work and shall personally supervise all the concreting operations.

Special attention shall be paid to the following:-

(a) Proportioning, mixing and quality testing of the materials with particular
control on the water cement ratio.
(b) Laying of material in place and thorough compaction of the concrete to
ensure solidity and freedom from voids and honey combing.
(c) Proper curing for the requisite period.
(d) Reinforcement and inserts/embodiments position are not disturbed during
concreting and consolidation by vibration.

3.32 QUALITY CONTROL

The Consultant/Engineer-in-charge reserves the right to make changes in the mix


proportions including the increased cement content or/and a change in the Contractors
control procedure, should the quality control during progress of the works prove to be
inadequate in his opinion.

All the concrete work shall be true to level, plumb and square within the acceptable
tolerance. The corners, edges and rises in all cases shall be unbroken and finished
properly and carefully.

3.33 TOLERANCES

The acceptable tolerances for formed concrete surfaces shall be given below: -

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a) Variation from plumb for -

i. Columns and walls to be rendered 6 mm in 3 meters


ii. Exposed columns and walls 3 mm in 3 meters

b) Variation in cross sectional dimensions of columns and beams and in the


thickness of slabs and walls: - 6 mm & + 12 mm

All the works executed beyond the tolerance limits are liable to be rejected and no extra
cost shall be paid to the contractor for reconstructing the same as desired by the
Consultant/Engineer-in-charge.

3.34 TESTING ROOM

A testing room of not less than 10 sqm equipped with the following apparatus and
qualified concrete technician, labour and materials required for carrying out tests therein
shall be provided by the contractor at his own cost:

1. Sieve Set (For aggregate 20 mm down)


40 mm, 20 mm, 16 mm, 12.5 mm, 10 mm, 4.75 mm, 600 micron, 300 micron, and 75
micron having diameter of 45 cms.

2. Weighing

a) Physical balance cap. 200 gms with weigh box (accuracy 0.5 gm)
b) Counter Scale cap 20 Kg
c) Weights
5 kg 1 No 500 gms 1 No.
2 kg 2 Nos. 200 gms 1 No.
1 kg 1 No. 100 gms 1 No.

3. Slump Cones 2 Nos


4. 15 cms moulds 18 no.
5. Electric/Kerosene Heater
6. pans etc. as directed by the Consultant
7. Measuring Cylinders of 1000 ml., 500 ml and 100ml.
8. Wash bottles of the Capacity of 500 ml., 2 Nos.
9. Sink
10. Work benches, shelves, desks and any other furniture and lighting as required
by the Consultant.
11. Spring balance dial type cap. 100 kg
12. Litre measures
a) 10 Lit 1 No.
b) 5 Lit 1 No.
c) 2 Lit 2 Nos
d) 1 Lit 1 No.

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e) 1/2 Lit 1 No.

13. Cube Testing Machine 100 Tons.


14. Oven.
15. Cores/ Apparatus for conducting Proctor Density Tests.

3.35 CO-ORDINATION OF WORK

The contractor is fully responsible for coordinating with the other agencies for sanitary,
electrical work, etc. to ensure execution of their work related to commencement of
concreting. Nothing extra shall be payable to the contractor, if the works pertaining to
concreting have to be dismantled and redone due to lack of co-ordination on the part of
the contractor in ensuring completion of works of such agencies before concreting had
been undertaken.

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4.0 Specifications For Steel Reinforcement

4.1 Genera

4.1.1 Description

This section covers the requirements for fabricating, delivering and placing of steel
reinforcement in position for casting all types of concrete work

4.1.2 Related Work Specified Elsewhere

Applicable Codes and Standards:

The codes and standards generally applicable to the work this section is listed in this
section.

IS: 280 Mild wire for general engineering purpose


IS: 432 Part I Mild steel and medium tensile steel bars
Part II Hard drawn steel wire
IS: 456 Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete
IS: 1139 Hot rolled mild steel, medium tensile steel and high yield strength steel deformed
bars for concrete reinforcement
IS: 1566 Hard drawn steel wire fabric for concrete reinforcement

IS: 2502 Code of Practice for bending and fixing of bars for concrete reinforcement

The following clauses are intended to amplify the requirements of the reference
documents listed above and the contractor/Engineer-in-charge shall comply with these
clauses.

4.2 Submitals

4.2.1 Bar Bending Schedule

The Contractor shall prepare Bar Bending Schedule for reinforcement before fabrication

4.3 Materials

4.3.1 Steel Reinforcement

Steel reinforcement to be procured by the Contractor for works shall be either of the
following types:-

(a) Mild steel of Grade 1 tested quality conforming to IS: 432-Part

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(b) 3370 Code of practice for concrete structures for (Part 1 to IV) the storage of
liquids
(c) High yield strength cold worked deformed steel bars of tested quality
conforming to IS: 1786 or hot rolled high tensile deformed steel bars of tested quality
conforming to IS: 1139.

(d) Hard drawn steel fabric conforming to IS: 1566.

All reinforcement shall be stored horizontally above ground level on supports, skids or
other approved supports, clear of any running or standing water. Contact with soil should
be avoided. Proper drainage and protection from the elements shall be provided to
minimize corrosion.

Before steel reinforcement is placed in position, the surface of the reinforcement shall be
cleaned of rust, dust, grease and other objectionable substances. In order to confirm
them self the quality periodical tests as specified as the relevant IS shall be conducted by
the contractor at his own cost for the materials procured by the Contractor.

4.3.2 Binding Wire

Binding wire shall be black annealed steel wire conforming to IS: 280 and of minimum 18
gauge.

4.3.3 Welding Electrodes

Electrodes used for welding of steel bars shall be of ordinary mild steel grade electrodes
conforming to IS: 814 and shall be of the best quality approved by Consultant/Engineer-
in-charge.

4.4 Storage

Reinforcement steel shall be handled and stored in a manner that bending or distortion
of the bars is avoided and contamination of steel is prevented

All reinforcement shall be stored horizontally above ground level on supports, skids or
other approved supports, clear of any running or standing water Contact with soil should
be avoided. Proper drainage and protection from the elements shall be provided to
minimize corrosion

Bars of different classifications and diameters shall be stored separately

A record shall be kept of the batch numbers of reinforcement deliveries in such a form
that the part of the works in which particular reinforcement is used can be readily
identified.

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Welding electrodes shall be. Stored in moisture control-led environment in accordance


with the manufacturers recommendations.

4.5 Fabrication

Reinforcement steel shall be carefully and accurately cut, bent or formed to the
dimensions and configurations shown on the drawings and as per bar bending schedules
approved by the Consultant / Engineer-in-charge.

All reinforcement shall be bent cold using appropriate pin size. Bars may be preheated
only on approval of the Consultant. Quenching shall not cool hot bars. Bends shall be in
accordance with IS: 2502.

It shall be ensured that the bars are not straightened in any manner that will injure the
material. Any bars incorrectly bent shall be used only if means for straightening and
rebinding be such as not to affect adversely the material. Reinforcement shall not be re-
bent or straightened without prior review by the Consultant. No reinforcement shall be
placed in position on the works without approval of the Consultant, whether or not it is
partially embedded in hardened concrete.

Reinforcement steel having a reduced section, visible transverse cracks in bends, or


otherwise damaged in anyway shall not be used.

Spiral reinforcement shall be accurately fabricated to the diameter and pitch shown on
the drawings. One and one half finishing turns shall be provided at both top and bottom
unless shown otherwise.

Cut ends of galvanized rods shall be given a protective coat of an approved zinc paint
immediately after cutting.

4.6 Lapping

As far as possible bars of maximum length available shall be used. All bars shall be in
one length unless otherwise shown on the drawings or agreed with the
Consultant/Engineer-in-charge.

Laps shown on the drawings or otherwise specified by the Consultant shall be based on
the used of bars of maximum length by the contractor. In case the Contractor wishes to
use shorter bars, laps shall be provided at the Contractors cost in the manner and
locations approved by the Consultant /Engineer-in-charge.

Not more than 1/3 rd of the bars or as specified in the drawings shall be lapped at one
section.

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Reinforcement bars shall not be welded unless shown on the drawings or instructed by
the Consultant / Engineer-in-charge.

4.7 Placement

All reinforcement shall be placed accurately and maintained in the position indicated on
the drawings.

The contractor shall provide approved type of supports for maintaining the bars in
position and ensuring required spacing and correct cover of concrete to the
reinforcement as called for in drawings. Pre-cast cement concrete blocks of required
shapes and size, MS. chairs and spacers bars shall be used in order to ensure accurate
positioning of reinforcement. Pre-cast concrete blocks shall be cast well in advance and
shall be at least equal in quality to the class of concrete specified in the work.

In fair faces of concrete, temporary spacers only shall be used and removed or
withdrawn as compaction of concrete proceeds. Spacers will not be permitted to be left
in fair faces of concrete.

All intersections of the reinforcements shall be securely tied with two strands of binds
wire twisted tight to make the skeleton or net work rigid so that the reinforcement is not
displaced during placing of concrete.

Tack welding of crossing bars shall not be done except as authorized or directed by the
Consultant / Engineer-in-charge. Nothing extra will be paid for tack welding.

The contractor shall take all responsible precautions to ensure that when handling or
erecting reinforcement no damage shall be done to finished concrete Bars that are
partially embedded in concrete shall not be filed bent partially embedded in concrete
shall not be field bent unless concurrence has been obtained from the Consultant /
Engineer-in-charge.

Walkways and borrow runs for placing and compacting the concrete shall be independent
of the reinforcement.

Loose binding wire and other extraneous metal shall be removed from inside the form
work prior to concrete placing.

Without relieving the Contractor of the responsibilities for the correctness thereof, the
reinforcement shall be inspected and approved by the Consultant in writing before any
concrete is placed and the contractor shall allow sufficient time for such inspecting and
any subsequent remedial action to be carried out

No part of the reinforcement shall be used for conducting electrical currents.

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4.8 Cover To Reinforcement

Unless shown otherwise on the drawings, minimum cover for all reinforcement shall be
provided as per IS: 456 care shall be taken to maintain the correct cover to
reinforcement.

For concrete members exposed to weather, earth, action of harmful chemicals, acid
vapor, saline atmosphere, sulphurous smoke etc minimum cover for reinforcement shall
be increased by 15 cm to 40 mm as directed by the Consultant / Engineer-in-charge.

The maximum cover for reinforcement shall not be greater than that specified above or
shown on the drawings plus 10 mm except for bundled bars.

For bundled bars, minimum, concrete cover shall be equal to the equivalent diameter of
the bundle but need not be greater than 50 mm.

Exposed reinforcement intended for binding with future extensions shall be protected
from corrosion as shown in the drawings.

4.9 Cleaning

After placing, the reinforcement shall be maintained in a clean condition until the
concrete is placed. On no account the bars shall be oiled or painted or mould oil used on
the formwork be allowed to come in contact with the bars.

Before concreting is commenced, the bars shall be thoroughly cleaned with dry gunny
bags if they are coated lightly with rust or other impurities.

4.10 Work Will Include

a) All cutting to lengths, labour in bending and cranking, forming hook ends,
handling, hoisting and all that is necessary to fix reinforcement in work as per Drawings
and specifications This shall also include all that is fairly intended and is necessary for
completion of work.

b) Cost of pre-cast concrete cover blocks to maintain cover and holding


reinforcement in position, chairs, spaces, dowels, pins, laps, etc.

c) For fabricating and fixing reinforcement in any structural member irrespective


of its location, dimension and level.

d) Work at all levels.

e) All the above mentioned works shall be included in the quoted rates, Nothing
extra shall be payable to the contractor on this account

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f) Reinforcement Steel procurement shall be done by the Contractor.

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5.0 Specifications For Formwork

5.1 General

5.1.1 Description

This section covers the requirements for providing, fabricating and erecting of form work
including propping, bracing, shoring, strutting, rising, bolting, wedging and all other
temporary and all other temporary supports to the concrete during the process of setting
subsequent removal of forms.

5.1.2 Related Work Specified Elsewhere

a) Cast-in-place Reinforced Concrete

5.1.3 Applicable Codes And Standards

The codes and standards generally applicable to the work of this section are listed
hereinafter

IS: 456 Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete.


IS: 4990 Ply wood for concrete shuttering work.

5.2 Submittals

5.2.1 Type Of Form Work

Prior to start of delivery of material for formwork, the contractor shall prepare samples of
different types of formwork for about 10 sqm and obtain approval of the
Consultant/Engineer-in-charge.

5.2.2 Design Of Forms

Before fabricating of forms, the contractor shall submit design calculations for proposed
form work to Consultant/Engineer-in-charge for his approval However, the approval of
his responsibility for adequately constructing and maintaining the forms so that they will
functions properly.

5.2.3 Tie Bolts

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In case the contractor proposes to use tie bolts running through the concrete, the
location and size of such tie bolts shall be submitted to the Consultant/Engineer-in-
charge for his Approval.

5.3 Materials
5.3.1 Formwork shall be timber, plywood, steel or any other material capable of resisting
damage to the contact faces under normal conditions of erecting forms, fixing steel and
placing concrete. The selection of materials suitable for formwork shall be made by the
Contractor based on the maximum quality consistent with the specified finished and
safety.

5.3.2 Timber

Timber used for formwork shall be easily workable with nails without splitting. It shall be
stable and into liable to warp when exposed to sun and rain or wetted during concreting.

5.3.3 Plywood

Plywood used for formwork shall be 12 mm thick shuttering quality plywood complying
with IS: 4990 and of make approved by the Consultant

5.3.4 Steel

Steel form work shall be made of minimum 2 mm thick or more as required black sheets
stiffened with angle iron frame made out of M S angles 40 mm X 6mm.

5.4 Design Criteria

Formwork shall be designed for the loads and lateral pressures due to dead weight of
concrete, superimposed live loads of workmen, materials and plants and for other loads
as indicated on the drawings.

Forms shall be designed to have sufficient strength to carry on the hydrostatic head of
concrete as a liquid without deflection tolerances exceeding the acceptable limits.

Where necessary to maintain the tolerances indicated on the drawings. The formwork
shall be cambered to compensate for anticipated deflections due to the weight and
pressure of the fresh concrete, and also due to any other construction loads. Unless
otherwise shown or specified, the camber shall be provided as below:-

Types of member Compression Steel Camber


As % of tensile steel Co-efficient

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Simple span 0% 0.066


Continuous Restrained 50% 0.037
span Cantilever Cantilever 0% 0.032
50% 0.020
0% 0.086
50% 0.046
Camber in cms Where (K X L X 2.54)/D
K= Camber coefficient
L= Length of member in
D= meter
Depth ofmemberin meter

5.5 Erection Of Formwork

Forms shall be used wherever necessary to confine the concrete during vibration and to
shape it to the required line. The formwork shall conform to shapes, lines, levels and
dimensions of the concrete sections shown on the drawings.

Forms shall have sufficient strength to withstand the pressure resulting from placement
and vibration of concrete and shall be maintained rigidly in position. Form work shall be
adequately supported by adequate number and size of struts, braces, ties and props to
ensure rigidity of forms during concreting. Where props rest on natural or filled up
ground, to avoid any settlement, the soil shall be thoroughly compacted and bases of
props shall be sufficient size so as to restrict the bearing on the ground to 50 t/ sqm

Forms shall be tight enough to prevent loss of mortar from the concrete and to produce
dense, homogenous and uniformly coloured concrete completely free from
honeycombing or surface roughness. Joints in formwork shall be designed to prevent
leakage, not only between individual elements forming the panels but also from the
horizontal and vertical junction between the panels themselves.

If form work is held together by bolts or wires, those shall be so fixed that no
reinforcement bar is exposed on surface against which concrete is to be laid. The
Consultant may at his discretion allow the contractor to use tie bolts running through the
concrete at his own cost.

Hole left in the concrete by these tie-bolts shall be filled as specified by him at the
Contractors expense.

Formwork shall be constructed so as to facilitate loosening and permit removal without


jarring the concrete Wedges, clamps and bolts shall be used wherever practicable
instead of nails.

All formwork erected shall be approved by the Consultant/Engineer-in-charge before


concreting is started.

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5.6 Cleaning And Oiling Of Forms

At the time concrete is placed in the forms, the surface of the forms in contact with the
concrete shall be free from encrustations of mortar, grout or other foreign materials.
Temporary openings shall be left at the bottom of formwork to enable, sawdust,
shavings, wire cuttings and other foreign material to be worked out form the interior of
the forms before the concrete is placed.

The surface of the forms to be in contact with the concrete shall be coated with an
approved coating that will effectively prevent sticking and will not stain the concrete
surfaces. After each use the surfaces of forms in contact with concrete shall be cleaned,
well settled and treated with form oil approved by the Consultant Engineer-in-charge.
Lubricating (machine) oils shall not be used.

Oiling shall be done before reinforcement has been placed and care shall be taken that
no oil comes in contact with the reinforcement while it is being placed in positions.

Immediately before concreting is commenced the formworks shall be carefully examined


to see that all dirt, shavings, sawdust and other refuse have been removed and the
formwork shall be wetted thoroughly to prevent absorption of water from concrete. The
formwork shall be kept wet during concreting and for the whole time that it is left in
place.

5.7 Removal Of Form Work

Form works shall be removed carefully so as to prevent damage too the concrete.
Wooden wedge only shall be used between the concrete surface and the form where
force is necessary to separate the form from the concrete. Metal wedge, bars or tools
shall not be used for this purpose. Any concrete damaged in the process of removing the
forms shall be repaired in accordance with the provision of concrete specifications.

Unless otherwise permitted by the Consultant, the forms shall not be stripped in less
than the minimum periods specified in IS: 456. However the Consultant may increase the
above period if the considers if necessary for structural stability

All non-supporting forms shall be loosened and removed during regular working hours,
and as soon as the concrete has hardened sufficiently to prevent damage from the
removal of the forms All false work and forms supporting concrete beam and slabs, or
other members subject to direct bending stress, shall not be removed or released until
the concrete has attained sufficient strength to ensure structural stability and to carry
both the dead and live loads including any construction loads which may be placed upon
it.

No construction loads exceeding the combination of superimposed dead load plus


specified live load shall be supported on any unshared portion of the structure under
construction, unless analysis indicates adequate strength to support such additional loads

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Form work shall be removed in such a manner so as not to impair safety and
serviceability of the structure It shall be removed gradually to prevent sudden application
of loads to the concrete All concrete to be exposed shall have sufficient strength to
prevent any damage caused by removal of formwork.

5.7.1 Hacking:

Immediately after removal of forms, the concrete surface intended to be either plastered
or finished, shall be roughened with brush hammer or with chisel and hammer as
directed by the construction manager to make the surface sufficiently coarse and rough
to provide a bonding key for plaster.

No extra payments shall be made to the Contractor for such work on concrete surface
after removal of the form work.

No payment shall be made for temporary formwork used in concreting, or for form work
required for joints or bulk-heads, in floor or elsewhere, whether such joints are to be
covered later with concrete or mastic or other materials.

5.7.2 Pockets And Openings:

Where boxes, pockets or openings are required (not exceeding 0.1 sqm) to be formed in
the concrete. No deduction shall be made for the area of box or pockets in measuring
the area of concrete surface shuttered. In other words the area of shuttering shall be
reckoned as if box of pocket or openings were not present.

However, on measuring the concrete quantity, the volume of the box or pocket shall be
deducted. If the area of box or pocket or openings against the shuttered faces exceeds
0.1 sqm. It shall be paid not as a box or pocket or opening but as formwork at the rates
for formwork.

No extra payment shall be made for holes to be made in the form work for inserting
electrical conduits hooks for fans etc.

5.8 Reuse Of Forms

Immediately after the forms are removed, they shall be cleaned with jet of water and a
soft brush before they are reused.

The contractor shall not be permitted reuse of any forms which in the opinion of the
Consultant has worn out and has become unfit for formwork.

The Consultant/Engineer-in-charge may in his absolute discretion, order rejection of any


forms he considers unfit for use in the works, and order their removal from the site.

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5.9 Form Work For Sloped Surfaces

Forms for sloped surfaces shall be built so that the formwork can be placed board-by-
board immediately ahead of concrete placement so as to enable ready access for
placement, vibration, inspection and repair of the concrete.

The form work shall also be built so that the boards can be removed one by one from
the bottom up as soon as the concrete has attained sufficient stiffness to prevent
sagging. Surfaces of construction joints and finished surfaces with slopes steeper than 4
horizontal: 1 vertical shall be formed as required herein

5.10 Form Work For Curved Surfaces

5.11 The contractor shall interpolate intermediate sections as necessary and shall construct
the forms so that the curvature will be continuous between sections. Where necessary to
meet requirements for curvature, the form lumber shall be built up of laminated splines
cut to make tight, smooth form surfaces.

After the forms have been constructed, all surface imperfections shall be corrected and
all surfaces irregularities at matching faces of form material shall be dressed for the
specified curvature.

5.12 Form Work For Exposed Concrete Surfaces

Where it is desired, directed or shown on the drawings to have original fair finish of
concrete surface without any rendering or plastering, formwork shall be carried out by
using wood planks, plywood or steel plates of approved quality and as per direction of
the Consultant.

The Contractor shall use one type of material for all exposed concrete surfaces and the
forms shall be constructed so as to produce a uniform and consistent texture and pattern
on the face of the concrete. Patches on forms for these surfaces will not be permitted.
The formwork shall be placed so that all horizontal formworks are continuous across the
entire surface If forms are constructed of lumber and are not paneled the formwork shall
be staggered.

To achieve finish which shall be free of board marks, the formwork shall be faced with
plywood or equivalent material in large sheets The sheets shall be arranged in an
approved pattern. Wherever possible, joints between sheets shall be arranged.

To achieve a finish which shall give the rough in appearance of concrete cast against
swan boards, formwork boards unless otherwise stated shall be in an average be 150
mm wide, securely jointed with tongued and grooved joints if required to prevent grout

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loss with tie rod positions and direction of boards carefully controlled Sawn boards shall
be set horizontally, vertically or at an inclination as shown in the drawings. All bolts holes
shall be accurately aligned horizontally and vertically and shall be filled with matching
mortar recessed 5 mm back from the surroundings concrete face.

For exposed concrete surfaces shall be constructed with grade strips (the underside of
which indicates top of pour) at horizontal construction joints, unless the use of groove
strips is specified on the drawings Such forms shall be removed and reset from lift to lift.
Sheathing of reset forms shall be tightened against the concrete so that the forms will
not spread and permit abrupt irregularities or loss of mortar Supplementary from ties
shall be used as necessary to hold the reset forms tight against the concrete.

For fair faced concrete, the position of through bolts will be restricted and generally
indicated in the drawings.

Chamfer strips shall be paced in the corners of forms for exposed exterior corners so as
to produce 20 mm beveled edges except where otherwise shown in the drawings.
Interior corners edges at formed joints shall not be beveled unless shown on the
drawings. Mouldings for grooves, drip courses and bands shall be made in the form itself.

The wood planks, plywood and steel plates used in formwork for obtaining exposed
surfaces shall not be used for more than 3 times in case of wood planks, 6 times for
plywoods and 10 times for steel plates respectively. However no forms will be allowed for
reuse, if in the opinion of the Consultant/Engineer-in-charge it is doubtful to produce
desired texture or irregularities of exposed concrete.

In order to obtain exposed concrete work of uniform color it shall be necessary to ensure
that the sand used for all exposed concrete work shall be of approved uniform color.
Moreover the cement used in the concrete for any complete element shall be from single
consignment.

No exposed concrete surface shall be rendered or painted with cement or otherwise.


Plastering of defective concrete as a means of achieving the required finish shall not be
permitted, except in the case of minor porosity on the surface, the Consultant /
Engineer-in-charge may allow a surface treatment by rubbing down with cement and
sand mortar of the same richness and color as for the concrete. This treatment shall be
made immediately after removing the formwork.

The contractor shall also take all precautionary measures to prevent breaking and
chipping of corners and edges of completed work until the building is handed over.

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6.0 Brick Work

6.1 Classification:

The brick work shall be classified according to the class designation of brick used.

6.2 Mortar:

The mortar for the brick work shall be as specified, and conform to accepted standards.
Lime shall not be used where reinforcement is provided in brick work.

6.3 Soaking of Bricks:

Bricks shall be soaked in water before use for a period for the water to just penetrate the
whole depth of the bricks. Alternatively bricks may be adequately soaked in stacks by
profusely spraying with clean water at regular intervals for a period not less than six
hours. The bricks required for masonry work using mud mortar shall not be soaked.
When the bricks are soaked they shall be removed from the tank sufficiently early so that
at the time of lying they are skin-dry. Such soaked bricks shall be stacked on a clean
place where they are not again spoiled by dirt earth, etc.

Note I:

The period of soaking may be early found at site by field test in which the bricks are
soaked in water for different periods and then broken to find the extent of water
penetration. The least period that corresponds to complete soaking will be the one to be
allowed for construction work.

Note II:

If the brick are soaked for required time water that is frequently changed the soluble salt
in the bricks will be leached out, and subsequently efflorescence will be reduced.

6.4 Laying

Bricks shall be laid in English Bond unless otherwise specified. For brick work in half brick
wall, bricks shall be laid in stretcher bound. Half or cut bricks shall not be used except as
closer where necessary to complete the bound. Half or cut bricks shall not be used
except as closer where necessary to complete the bound. Closers in such cases, shall be
cut to the required size and used near the ends of the wall. Header bound shall be used
preferably in all courses in curved plan for ensuring better alignment.

Note:

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Header bound shall be used in foundation footings unless thickness of walls (width of
footings) makes the use of headers impracticable. Where thickness of footing is uniform
for a number of courses, the top courses of footing shall be headers.
All loose materials, dirt and set lumps of mortar which may be laying over the surface on
which brick work is to be freshly started, shall be removed with a wire brush and surface
wetted. Bricks shall be laid on a full bed of mortar. When laying, each brick shall, be
properly bedded and set in position by gently pressing with the handle of trowel. Its
inside face shall be buttered with mortar before the next brick is laid and pressed against
it. Joints shall be fully filled and packed with mortar such that no hollow apace are left
inside the joints.

The walls shall be taken up truly in plumb or true to the required batter where specified.
All courses shall be laid truly horizontal and all vertical joints shall be truly vertical.
Vertical joints in the alternate course shall come directly one over the other. Quoin,
jambs and other angles shall be properly plumbed as the work proceeds. Care shall be
taken to keep the pretends properly aligned within following maximum permissible
tolerances.

Deviation from vertical within a storey shall not exceed 6 mm per 3m height.

Deviation in verticality in total height of any wall of building more than one storey in
height shall not exceed 12.5 mm.

Deviation from position shown on plan of any brick work shall not exceed 12.5 mm.

Relative displacement between load bearing wall in adjacent storey intended to be


vertical alignments shall not exceed 6mm.

A set of tools comprising of wooden straight edge, Masonic spirit levels, square, 1 meter
rule line and plumb shall be kept on the site of work for every 3 masons for proper check
during the progress of work.

All quoins shall be accurately constructed and the height of brick courses shall be kept
uniform. This will be checked using graduated wooden straight edge or storey rod
indicating height of each course including thickness of joints. The position of damp proof
course, window sills, bottom of lintels, top of the wall etc. along the height of the wall
shall be marked on the graduated straight edge or storey rod. Acute and obtuse quoins
shall be bounded, where practicable in the same way as square quoins. Obtuse quoins
shall be formed with squint showing there quarters brick on one face and quarter brick
on the other.

The brick work shall be built in uniform layers.

No part of the wall during its construction shall rise more than one meter above the
general construction level. Parts of wall left at different levels shall be raked back at an
angle of 45 degree or less with the horizontal. Toothing shall not be permitted as an

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alternative to ranking back. For half brick partition to be keyed into main walls, indents
shall be left in the main walls.

All pipe fittings and specials, spouts, hold fasts and other fixtures which are required to
be built into the walls shall be embedded, as specified in their correct position as the
work proceeds unless otherwise directed by the Engineer-In- Charge.

Top courses of all plinths, parapets, steps and top of walls below floor and roof slabs
shall be laid with brick on edge, unless specified otherwise. Brick on edge, unless
specified otherwise. Brick on edge laid in the top courses at corner of walls shall be
properly radiated and keyed into position to from cut(maru) corners, cement concrete
1:2:4( 1 Cement: 2 Coarse sand : 4 graded stone aggregate 20 mm nominal size) equal
to thickness of course shall be provided in lieu of cut bricks.

Bricks shall be laid with frog( where provided) up. However when top course is exposed,
brick shall be laid with frog down. For the bricks to be laid with frog down, the frog shall
be filled with mortar before placing the brick in position.

In case of walls on e brick thick and under, one face shall be kept even and in proper
plane, while the other face may be slightly rough. In case of walls more than one brick
thick, both the faces shall be kept even and proper plane.

To facilitate taking service lines later without excessive cutting of complete work sleeves
(to be paid separately) shall be provided, where specified, while raising the brick work.
Such sleeves in external walls shall be sloped down outward so as to avoid passage of
water inside.

Top of briskness in coping and sills in external walls shall be slightly tilted. Where brick
coping and sills are projecting beyond the face of the wall, drip course/ throating ( to be
paid separately) shall be provided where indicated.

Care shall be taken during construction that edges of jambs, sills and projections are not
damaged in case of rain. New built work shall be covered with gunny bags or tarpaulin
so as to prevent the mortar from being washed away. Damage, if any, shall be made
good to satisfaction of the Engineer-In-Charge.

Vertical reinforcement in the form of bars (MS or high strength deformed bars),
considered necessary at the corners and junction of walls and jamb opening doors,
windows etc. shall be encased with cement mortar not leaner than 1:4( 1 cement : 4
coarse sand) or cement concrete mix as specified. The reinforcement shall be suitably
tied, properly embedded in the foundation and at roof level. The diameter of bras shall
not be less than 8mm and concrete grade shall be minimum 1:3:6( 1 Cement : 3 Coarse
sand : 6 graded stone aggregate 20 mm nominal size)

In retaining walls and like, where water is likely to accumulate, weep holes, 50 to 75 mm
square shall be provided at 2m vertically and horizontally unless otherwise specified. The
lowest weep hole shall be at about 30 cm above the ground level. All weep holes shall be

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surrounded by loose stones and shall have sufficient fall to drain out the water quickly
(Note: work of providing loose stone will be payable extra).

Work of cutting chases, wherever required to be made in the walls for housing G.I. pipes
, CI pipe or any other fixtures shall be carried out in various locations as per guidelines
given below:-

(a) Cutting of chases in one brick thick and above load bearing walls

i) As far as possible services should be planned with the help of vertical chases. Horizontal
chases should be avoided.

ii) The depths of vertical chases and horizontal chases shall not exceed one third and one
sixth of the thickness of the masonry respectively.
iii) When narrow stretches of masonry (Or short lengths of walls) such as between doors
and windows, cannot be avoided they should not be pierced with opening for soil pipes
or waste pipes or timber joints, etc. where there is a possibility of load concentration
such narrow lengths of walls shall be checked for stresses and high strength brick in
mortar or concrete wall s provided, if required.

iv) Horizontal chases when unavoidable should be located in the upper or lower one third of
height of storey and not more than three chases should be permitted in any stretch of a
wall. No continuous horizontal chase shall exceed one metre in length. Where
unavoidable, stress in the affected area should be checked and kept within the
permissible limits.

v) Vertical chases should not be closer than 2m in any stretch of a wall. These shall be kept
away from bearings of beams and lintels. If unavoidable, stresses in the affected are
should be checked and kept within permissible limits.

vi) Masonry directly above a recess, if wider than 30 cm horizontal dimension should be
supported on lintel. Holes in masonry may be provided upto 30 cm width and 30 cm high
without any lintel. In the case of circular holes in the masonry, no lintel need be provided
for holes upto 40 cm in diameter.

(b) Cutting of chases in half brick load bearing walls:-

No chase shall be permitted in half brick load bearing walls and such no recessed
conduits and concealed pipes shall be provided with half brick thick load bearing walls.

(c) Cutting of chases in half brick non load bearing wall:-

Services should be planned with the help of vertical chases. Horizontal chase should be
provided only when unavoidable.

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6.5 Joints

The thickness of all types of joints including brick wall joints and cross joints shall be
such that four course and three joints taken consecutively shall measure as follows:-

( I ) In case of F.P.S bricks , it shall be equal to 31 cm.

(II) In case of non-modular bricks, it shall be equal to 31 cm.

6.6 Finishing of joints:

The face of brick work may be finished flush or by pointing. In flush finishing either the
face joints of the mortar shall be worked out while still green to given a finished surface
flush with the face of the brick work or the joints shall be squarely raked out to a depth
of 1 cm while the mortar is still green for subsequently plastering. The faces of brick
work shall be cleaned with wire brush so as to remove any splashes of mortar during the
course of raising the brick- work. In pointing, the joints shall be squarely ranked out to
depth of 1.5 cm while the mortar is still green and ranked joints shall be brushed to
remove dust and loose particles and well wetted and shall be later refilled with mortar to
give ruled finish. Some such finishes are flush weathered, ruled, etc

6.7 Curing

The brick work shall be constantly kept moist on all faces for a minimum period of seven
days, Brick work done during the day shall be suitably marked indicating the date on
which the work is done so as to keep a watch on the curing period.

6.8 Scaffolding :-

Scaffolding shall be strong to withstand all dead, live and impact loads which are likely to
come on them. Scaffolding shall be provided to allow easy approach to every part of the
work.

6.8.1 Single Scaffolding :-

Where plastering, pointing or any other finishing has been indicated for brick work,
single scaffolding may be provided, unless otherwise specified. In single scaffolding, one
end of the specified. In single scaffolding, one end of the put-logs/ pole shall rest in the
hole provided in the header course of brick masonry. Not more than one header for each
put-log/ pole shall be left out. Such holes shall not be allowed in the case of pillars, brick
work less than one meter in length between the openings or near the skew backs of
arches or immediately under or near the structural member supported by the walls. The

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holes left for put-logs / poles shall be made good with brick work and wall finishing as
specified.

6.8.2 Double-Scaffolding:-

Where the brick work or tile work is to be exposed and not to be finished with plastering
etc. double scaffolding having two independent supports, clear of the work, shall be
provided,

6.9 Measurements:-

Brick work shall be measured in cubic metres unless otherwise specified. Any extra work
over the specified dimensions specified. Any extra work over the specified dimensions
shall be ignored. Dimensions shall be measured correct to the nearest 0.01m i.e 1 cm.
Area shall be calculated to the nearest 0.01 sqmts. and the cubic contents shall be
worked out to the nearest 0.01 cubic metres.

Brick work shall be measured separately in the following stages:

(a) From foundation to floor one level( Plinth level)

(b) Plinth (floor one ) level to floor two level

(c) Between two specified floor levels above floor two level

Note :-

Brick work in parapet walls, mumty, lift machine room and water tanks constructed on
the roof upto 1.2m height above roof shall be measured tighter with the corresponding
work of the floor next below:

Note :

Where minimum area is defined for deduction of an opening, void or both, such areas
shall refer only to opening or void within the space measured.

a) Ends of dissimilar materials (that is , joints, beams, lintels, posts, girdes, rafters,
purlins, trusses, corbels, steps etc.); up to 0.1 m2 in section.

b) Opening up to 0.1m2 in area ( see Note).

c) Wall plates, bed plates and bearing of slabs, chajjas and the like , where thickness
does not exceed 10cm and bearing does not extend over the full thickness of wall.

d) Cement concrete blocks as for hold fasts and holding down bolts.

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e) Iron fixtures, such as wall ties, pipes up to 300 mm diameter and hold fasts for doors
and windows, and

f) Chases of section not exceeding 50 cm in girth

g) Bearing portion of drip course, bearing of moulding and cornice

Note:-

In calculating area of an opening, any separate lintel or sills shall be included with the
size of the opening but end portions of lintel shall be excluded. Extra width of rebated
reveals, if any, shall also be excluded.
Walls half brick thick and less shall each be measured separately in square metres
stating thickness.

Walls beyond half brick thickness shall be measured in multiples of half brick which shall
be deemed to be inclusive of mortar joints. For the sizes of bricks specified in 6.1.1 half
brick thickness shall mean100mm for modular and 115 mm for non-modular bricks.

Where fractions of half brick occur due to architectural or other reasons, measurement
shall be as follows:

a) upto th brick-actual measurements and

b) exceeding brick full half bricks

String courses, projecting pilasters, aprons, sills and other projections shall be fully
described and measured separately in running metres starting dimensions of each
projection.

Square or rectangular pillars shall be measured separately in cubic metres in multiple of


half brick.

Circular pillars shall be measured separately in cubic metres as per actual dimensions.

Brick work covered on plan shall be measured like the brickwork in straight walls and
shall include all cutting and wastage of bricks, tapered vertical joints and use of extra
mortar, if any , Brick work covered on plan to a mean radius not exceeding six metres
shall be measured separately and extra shall be payable over the rates for brick work in
straight walls. Nothing extra shall be payable if the mean radius of the brick work
covered in plan exceeds six metres.

Tapered walls shall be measured net as walls and extra payment shall be allowed for
making tapered surface for brick work in walls.

Brick work with brick tiles shall be measured and paid for separately.

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6.10 Rate

The rate shall include the cost of materials and labour required for all the operations
described above except the vertical reinforcement and its encasement in cement mortar
or cement concrete. The rate shall also include the following:-

a) Raking out joints or finishing joints flush as the work proceeds:

b) Preparing tops of existing walls and the like for raising further new brick work

c) Rough cutting and waste for forming gables, splays at eaves and the like

d) Leaving holes for pipes upto 150mm dia and encasing hold fasts etc.

e) Rough cutting and waste for brick work covered in plan and for backing to stone or
other types of facing.

f) Embedding in ends of beams, joists, slabs, lintels, sills, trusses etc.

g) Bedding wall plates, lintels, sills, roof tiles, corrugated sheets, etc, in or on walls if
not covered in respective items and

h) Leaving chases of section not exceeding 50cm in girth or 350 Sq. Cm. in cross-
section.

i) Brick on edge courses, cut brick corners, splays reveals, cavity walls, brick works
curved on plan to a mean radius exceeding six metres.

6.11 Half Brick Work:

6.11.1 General

Brick work in half walls shall be done in same manner as described above except that the
bricks shall be laid in stretcher bound. The half brick work is to be reinforced 2. Nos. M.S
bars of 6mm dia. shall be embedded in every third course as given in the item( the dia of
bars shall not exceed 8 mm). These shall be securely anchored at their end where the
partitions end. The free ends of the reinforcement shall be keyed into the mortar of the
main brick work to which the half brick work is jointed. The mortar used for reinforced
brick work shall be rich dense cement mortar of mix 1:4. Lime mortar shall not be used.
Over laps in reinforcement, if any shall not be less than 30cm.

The mortar interposed between the reinforcement bars and the brick shall not be less
than 5mm. The mortar covering in the direction of joints shall not be less than 15mm.

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6.11.2 Measurements

The length and height of the wall shall be measured correct to a cm. The area shall be
calculated in sq.m. Where half brick wall is jointed to the main walls of one brick or
grater thickness the measurements for half brick wall shall be taken for its clear length
from the face of the thicker wall.

6.11.3 Rate

The rate includes the cost of the materials and labours involved in all the operations
described above except reinforcement which is to be paid separately.

6.12 Brick tile work

The work shall be done in the same manner as described in 4.1 4.6 except the brick
tile shall be used instead of bricks. The measurement and rate shall be same as specified
under 4.10.

6.13 Honey Comb Brick Work

6.13.1 General

The brick honeycomb work shall be done with specified class of brick, laid in specified
mortar. All joints and edges shall be struck flush to give an even surface.

The thickness of the brick honeycomb work shall be half only, unless otherwise specified.
Opening shall be equal and alternate with half brick laid with a bearing of 2 cm on either
side.

6.13.2 Rate

The rate includes the cost of materials and labour involved in all the operations described
above.

6.14 Joining Old Brick Work With New Brick Work

6.14.1 General

In case the height of the bricks of old as well as new work is same, the old work shall be
toothed to the full width of the new wall and to the depth of a quarter of brick in
alternate courses. In case the height of each of the bricks is unequal, then the height of
each course of new work shall be made equal to the height of the old work shall by

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adjusting thickness of horizontal mortar joints in the new wall. Where necessary,
adjustment shall be made equal to thickness of old wall by adjusting the thickness of
vertical joints.

For joining new cross wall to old main walls, a number of rectangular recesses of width
equal to the thickness of cross wall, three courses shall be left between two consecutive
recesses. The new cross wall shall be bounded into the recesses to avoid any settlement.

Joining of old brick work with the new brick work shall be done in such a way that there
shall not be any hump or projection at the joint.

6.14.2 Measurement :

The height and thickness of vertical face in contact with new work shall be measured to
the nearest 0.01m and the area shall be calculated to the nearest 0.01 m and the area
shall be calculated to the nearest 0.01 Sqm

6.14.3 Rate:

The rate includes the cost of labour and material involved in all the operations described
above.

6.15 TEST FOR COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

6.15.1 Specification

Five whole bricks shall be taken from the sample as specimens for this test. Length and
width of each specimen shall be measured correct to 1 mm.

6.15.2 Apparatus

The apparatus consists of compression testing machine, the compression plate of which
shall have a ball seating in the form of portion of a sphere the centre of which shall
coincide with the centre of the plate.

6.15.3 Procedure

(a ) Pre- Conducting

The specimen shall be immersed in the water for 24 hours at 250 to 290 C . Any
surplus moisture shall be allowed to drain at room temperature. The frog of the brick
should be filled flush with mortar 1:3( 1 cement : 3 clean coarse sand of grade 3mm

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and down) and shall be kept under damp jute bags for 24 hours after that these shall be
immersed in clean water for three days.

After removal from water, the brick shall be wiped out of any traces of moisture.

(b) Actual Testing

Specimen shall be placed with flat faces horizontal and mortar filled face upward
between three 3 plywood sheets each of thickness 3mm and carefully centered between
plates of the testing machine. Plaster of Paris can also be used in place of plywood
sheets to ensure a uniform surface.

Load shall be applied carefully axially at uniform rate of 14 N/nm2 per minute till the
failure of the specimen occurs.

6.15.4 Reporting the Test results.

The compressive strength of each specimen shall be calculated in N/ nm2 as under:

Compressive Strength = Maximum load at failure ( in N) / Area of Specimen (In Sq mm)


In case the compressive strength of any individual brick tested exceeds the upper limit of
the average compressive strength specified for the corresponding class of brick, the
same shall be limited to the upper limit of the class specified in 6.1.1 for the purpose of
calculating the average compressive strength. Compressive strength of all the individual
bricks comprising the sample shall be averaged and reported.

6.15.5 Criteria for conformity :-

A lot shall be considered having satisfied the requirements of average compressive


strength if the average compressive strength if the average in 6.1.2 for the
corresponding class of brick tested is not be low the minimum average compressive
strength specified for the corresponding class of bricks by more than 20 percent.

6.16 Test For Water Absorption

6.16.1 No. Of Specimen

Five whole bricks shall be taken from samples as specified for the test.

6.16.2 Apparatus

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A balance required for this test shall be sensitive to weight 0.1 percent ( %) of the
weight of the specimen

6.16.3 Procedure

( a) Pre- Conditioning

The specimen shall be allowed to dray in a ventilated oven at a 110 0 C to 115 0 C till it
attains a substantially constant weight. If the specimen is known to be relatively dry, this
would be accomplished in 48 hours. If the specimen is wet, several additional hours may
be required to attain a constant weight. It shall be allowed to cool at room temperature.
In a ventilated room, properly separated bricks will require for hours for cooling, unless
electric fan passes air aver them continuously in which case two hours may suffice.
The cooled specimen shall be weight (WI) a warm specimen shall not be used for this
purpose.

( b) Actual Testing :

Specimen shall be completely dried before immersion in the water. It shall be kept in
clean water at a temperature of 27 0 C +- 2 0 C for 24 hours. Specimen shall be wiped
out of the traces of water with a damp cloth after removing from the water and then
shall be weighted within three minutes after removing from water ( W2)

6.16.4 Reporting the test results:

The water absorption of each specimen shall be calculated as follows and the average of
five tests shall be reported.

Water Absorption = ((w2 w1) / w1) x 100

6.16.5 Criteria for Conformity:

A lot shall be considered having satisfied the requirements of water absorption if the
average water absorption is not more than 20 % by weight.

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7.0 Polished Granite Stone Slabs For Flooring, Steps, Stairs, Cladding On Pantry
And Wash Basin Counters

Providing & fixing granite of approved quality and colour of required size mm double
polished M/C cut of 20mm thick over floor surface in proper line. Level in CM 1:4
including finishing the joint with matching colour cement, polishing the top surface etc.,
complete as per instruction of EIC/ Consultant.

Granite stone shall be of best quality machine polished, Machine Cut and of approved
colour, dense and homogenous in texture free from cracks, decay, weathering and flaws.
The stone shall be of required size and shall be 20 mm thick. The material shall have to
be approved by Consultant before and after procurement. Before laying flooring, the
surface shall be paved and thoroughly hacked, cleaned off all mortar scales, loose
materials etc., unless and until the surface is approved by Consultant / Engineer-in-
charge, the laying shall not be done. The bedding with CM 1:4 proportions as directed by
Consultant / Engineer-in-charge with minimum thickness of 30 mm layer shall be laid
evenly and to the required slope. The granite shall be truly and evenly set in thin paste
of next cement apply to the bottom and to the prepared base. The stone then shall be
temped down with wooden mallet until they are exactly in true plane and in line with
adjacent stone.

The stone shall be closed jointed and filled with matching cement. The entire surface of
flooring shall be polished with machine upto to mirror polish achieved including
necessary use of antimony trioxide anxilix acid etc., as directed by Consultant / Engineer-
in-charge.

7.1 Finishing

The finishing of the surface shall follow immediately after the cessation of beating. The
surface shall be left for some time, till moisture gets dried from its joints or top,
Excessive trowel ling shall be avoided. Use of dry cement or cement and sand mixture
sprinkled on the surface to stiffen the concrete or absorb excessive moisture, shall not be
permitted.

7.2 Curing

The curing shall be done for a minimum period of ten days. Curing shall not be
commenced until the top layer has hardened. Covering with empty cement gunnies shall
be avoided as the color is likely to be bleached with the remanents of cement matter
from the bags.

7.3 Marble Stone Flooring

7.4 Marble Stone

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It shall be as specified in sub head 8.0.

7.5 Dressing of Slabs


Every stone shall be cut to the required size and shape, fine chisel dressed on all sides to
the full depth so that a straight edge laid along the side of the stone shall be fully in
contact with it. The top surface shall also be fine chisel dressed to remove all waviness.
In case machine cut slabs are used , fine chiesel dressing of machine cut surface need
not be done provided a straight edge laid any where along the machine cut surfaces is in
contact with every point on it. The sides and top surface of slabs shall be machine
rubbed or table rubbed with coarse sand before paving. All angles and edges of the
marble slabs shall be true, square and free from chippings and the surface shall be true
and plane. The thickness of the slabs shall be 18, 30 or 40 mm as specified in the
description of the item. Tolerance of + 3% shall be allowed for the thickness. In respect
of length and breadth of slabs a tolerance of + 2% shall be allowed.

7.6 Laying

Base concrete or the RCC slab on which the slabs are to be laid shall be cleaned, wetted
and mopped. The bedding for the slabs shall be with cement mortar 1:4 (1 cement: 4
coarse sand) or as given in the description of the item.

The average thickness of the bedding mortar under the slab shall be 20
mm and the thickness at any place under the slab shall be not less than 12 mm.

The slabs shall be laid in the following manner:

Mortar of the specified mix shall be spread under the area of each slab, roughly to the
average thickness specified in the item. The slab shall be washed clean before laying. It
shall be laid on top, pressed, tapped with wooden mallet and brought to level with the
adjoining slabs. It shall be lifted and laid aside. The top surface of the mortar shall then
be corrected by adding fresh mortar at hollows. The mortar is allowed to harden a bit
and cement slurry of honey like consistency shall be spread over the same at the rate of
4.4 kg of cement per sqm. The edges of the slab already paved shall be buttered with
grey or white cement with or without admixture of pigment to match the shade of the
marble slabs as given in the description of the item.

The slab to be paved shall then be lowered gently back in position and tapped with
wooden mallet till it is properly bedded in level with and close to the adjoining slabs with
as fine a joint as possible.

Subsequent slabs shall be laid in the same manner. After each slab has been laid, surplus
cement on the surface of the slabs shall be cleaned off. The flooring shall be cured for a
minimum period of seven days. The surface of the flooring as laid shall be true to levels,

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and, slopes as instructed by the Engineer-In-Charge. Joint thickness shall not be more
than 1 mm.

Due care shall be taken to match the grains of slabs which shall be selected judiciously
having uniform pattern of Veins/streaks or as directed by the Engineer-In-Charge.

The slabs shall be matched as shown in drawings or as instructed by the Engineer-in-


Charge.

Slabs which are fixed in the floor adjoining the wall shall enter not less than 12 mm
under the plaster skirting or dado. The junction between wall plaster and floor shall be
finished neatly and without waviness.

Marble slabs flooring shall also be laid in combination with other stones and/or in simple
regular pattern/design as described in item of work and/or drawing.

7.7 Polishing and Finishing

Slight unevenness at the meeting edges of slabs shall then be removed by fine chiselling
and finished in the same manner as specified in 11.10.3 except that cement slurry with
or without pigments shall not be applied on the surface before each polishing.

7.8 Measurements

Marble stone flooring with different kind of marble shall be measured separately and in
square metre correct to two places of decimal. Length and breadth shall be measured
correct to a cm before laying skirting, dado or wall plaster. No deduction shall be made
nor extra paid for voids not exceeding 0.20 square metre. Deductions for ends of
dissimilar materials or other articles embedded shall not be made for areas not exceeding
0.10 square metre. Nothing extra shall be paid for laying the floor at different levels in
the same room. Steps and treads of stairs paved with marble stone slabs shall also be
measured under the item of Marble Stone flooring. Extra shall, however, be paid for such
areas where the width of treads does not exceed 30 cm. Nosing for treads shall be
measured in running metre and paid for extra. The width of treads shall be measured
from the outer edge of the nosing, as laid, before providing the riser.

7.9 Rate

The rate shall include the cost of all materials and labour involved in all the operations
described above. However, extra shall be paid for making special type of
pattern/design/flowers as per drawings. No deductions shall be made in rate even if
flooring is done without any pattern/design.

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8.0 Cement Plaster

8.1 Cement Plaster

The cement plaster shall be 12 mm, 15 mm or 20 mm thick as specified in the item.

8.1.1 Scaffolding

For all exposed brick work or tile work double scaffolding independent of the work having
two sets of vertical supports shall be provided. The supports shall be sound and strong,
tied together with horizontal pieces over which scaffolding planks shall be fixed.

For all other work in buildings, single scaffolding shall be permitted. In such cases the
inner end of the horizontal scaffolding pole shall rest in a hole provided only in the
header course for the purpose. Only one header for each pole shall be left out. Such
holes for scaffolding shall, however, not be allowed in pillars/columns less than one
metre in width or immediately near the skew backs of arches. The holes left in masonry
works for scaffolding purposes shall be filled and made good before plastering.

Note : In case of special type of brick work, scaffolding shall be got approved from
Engineer-in-charge in advance.

8.1.2 Preparation of Surface

The joints shall be raked out properly. Dust and loose mortar shall be brushed out.
Efflorescence if any shall be removed by brushing and scrapping. The surface shall then
be thoroughly washed with water, cleaned and kept wet before plastering is commenced.

In case of concrete surface if a chemical retarder has been applied to the form work, the
surface shall be roughened by wire brushing and all the resulting dust and loose particles
cleaned off and care shall be taken that none of the retarders is left on the surface.

8.1.3 Mortar

The mortar of the specified mix shall be used as described in respective item.

8.1.4 Application of Plaster

8.1.4.1 Ceiling plaster shall be completed before commencement of wall plaster.

8.1.4.2 Plastering shall be started from the top and worked down towards the floor. All putlog
holes shall be properly filled in advance of the plastering as the scaffolding is being
taken down. To ensure even thickness and a true surface, plaster about 15 15 cm
shall be first applied, horizontally and vertically, at not more than 2 metres intervals
over the entire surface to serve as gauges. The surfaces of these gauged areas shall be
truly in the plane of the finished plaster surface. The mortar shall then be laid on the wall,

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between the gauges with trowel. The mortar shall be applied in a uniform surface slightly
more than the specified thickness. This shall be brought to a true surface, by working a
wooden straight edge reaching across the gauges, with small upward and sideways
movements at a time. Finally the surface shall be finished off true with trowel or wooden
float according as a smooth or a sandy granular texture is required. Excessive troweling or
over working the float shall be avoided.

8.1.4.3 All corners, arises, angles and junctions shall be truly vertical or horizontal as the case
may be and shall be carefully finished. Rounding or chamfering corners, arises,
provision of grooves at junctions etc. where required shall be done without any extra
payment. Such rounding, chamfering or grooving shall be carried out with proper
templates or battens to the sizes required.

8.1.4.4 When suspending work at the end of the day, the plaster shall be left, cut clean to line
both horizontally and vertically. When recommencing the plastering, the edge of the old
work shall be scrapped cleaned and wetted with cement slurry before plaster is applied
to the adjacent areas, to enable the two to properly join together. Plastering work shall
be closed at the end of the day on the body of wall and not nearer than 15 cm to any
corners or arrises. It shall not be closed on the body of the features such as plasters,
bands and cornices, nor at the corners of arrises. Horizontal joints in plaster work shall
not also occur on parapet tops and copings as these invariably lead to leakages. The
plastering and finishing shall be completed within half an hour of adding water to the
dry mortar.

No portion of the surface shall be left out initially to be patched up later on. The
plastering and finishing shall be completed within half an hour of adding water to the
dry mortar.

8.1.5 Thickness

Where the thickness required as per description of the item is 20 mm the average
thickness of the plaster shall not be less than 20 mm whether the wall treated is of brick
or stone. In the case of brick work, the minimum thickness over any portion of the
surface shall be not less than 15 mm while in case of stone work the minimum thickness
over the bushings shall be not less than 12 mm.

8.1.6 Curing

Curing shall be started as soon as the plaster has hardened sufficiently not to be
damaged when watered.

The plaster shall be kept wet for a period of at least 7 days. During this period, it shall be
suitably protected from all damages at the contractors expense by such means as the
Engineer-In-Charge may approve. The dates on which the plastering is done shall be
legibly marked on the various sections plastered so that curing for the specified period
thereafter can be watched.

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8.1.7 Finish

The plaster shall be finished to a true and plumb surface and to the proper degree of
smoothness as required. The work shall be tested frequently as the work proceeds with a
true straight edge not less than 2.5 m long and with plumb bobs. All horizontal lines and
surfaces shall be tested with a level and all jambs and corners with a plumb bob as the
work proceeds.

8.1.8 Precaution

Any cracks which appear in the surface and all portions which sound hollow when
tapped, or are found to be soft or otherwise defective, shall be cut out in rectangular
shape and redone as directed by the Engineer-in-Charge.

When ceiling plaster is done, it shall be finished to chamfered edge at an angle at its
junction with a suitable tool when plaster is being done. Similarly when the wall plaster is
being done, it shall be kept separate from the ceiling plaster by a thin straight groove not
deeper than 6 mm drawn with any suitable method with the wall while the plaster is
green.

To prevent surface cracks appearing between junctions of column/beam and walls, 150
mm wide chicken wire mesh should be fixed with U nails 150 mm centre to centre before
plastering the junction. The plastering of walls and beam/column in one vertical plane
should be carried out in one go. For providing and fixing chicken wire mesh with U nails
payment shall be made separately.

8.1.9 Measurements

8.1.9.1 Length and breadth shall be measured correct to a cm and its area shall be calculated in
square metres correct to two places of decimal.

8.1.9.2 Thickness of the plaster shall be exclusive of the thickness of the key i.e. grooves, or
open joints in brick work.

8.1.9.3 The measurement of wall plaster shall be taken between the walls or partitions (the
dimensions before the plaster shall be taken) for the length and from the top of the
floor or skirting to the ceiling for the height. Depth of coves or cornices if any shall be
deducted.

8.1.9.4 The following shall be measured separately from wall plaster.

Plaster bands 30 cm wide and under Cornice beadings and architraves or architraves
molded wholly in plaster. Circular work not exceeding 6 m in radius.

8.1.9.5 Plaster over masonry pilasters will be measured and paid for as plaster only.

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8.1.9.6 A coefficient of 1.63 shall be adopted for the measurement of one side plastering on
honey comb work having 6 x 10 cm. opening.

8.1.9.7 Moulded cornices and coves.

Length shall be measured at the centre of the girth.

Moulded cornices and coves shall be given in square metres the area being arrived at by
multiplying length by the girth. Flat or weathered top to cornices when exceeding 15 cm
in width shall not be included in the girth but measured with the general plaster work.
Cornices which are curved in their length shall be measured separately.

8.1.9.8 Exterior plastering at a height greater than 10 m from average ground level shall be
measured separately in each storey height. Patch plastering (in repairs) shall be
measured as plastering new work, where the patch exceed 2.5 sqm. extra payment
being made for preparing old wall, such as dismantling old plaster, raking out the joints
and cleaning the surface. Where the patch does not exceed 2.5 sqm in area it shall be
measured under the appropriate item under sub head Repairs to Buildings.

8.1.9.9 Deductions in measurements, for opening etc. will be regulated as follows:

No deduction will be made for openings or ends of joists, beams, posts, girders, steps
etc. upto 0.5 sqm in area and no additions shall be made either, for the jambs, soffits
and sills of such openings. The above procedure will apply to both faces of wall.

Deduction for opening exceeding 0.5 sqm but not exceeding 3 sqm each shall be made
for reveals, jambs, soffits sills, sills, etc. of these openings.

When both faces of walls are plastered with same plaster, deductions shall be made for
one face only.

When two faces of walls are plastered with different types of plaster or if one face is
plastered and other is pointed or one face is plastered and other is unplastered,
deduction shall be made from the plaster or pointing on the side of the frame for the
doors, windows etc. on which width of reveals is less than that on the other side but no
deduction shall be made on the other side.

Where width of reveals on both faces of wall are equal, deduction of 50% of area of
opening on each face shall be made from area of plaster and/or pointing as the case may
be.

For opening having door frame equal to or projecting beyond thickness of wall, full
deduction for opening shall be made from each plastered face of wall.

For opening exceeding 3 sqm in area, deduction will be made in the measurements for
the full opening of the wall treatment on both faces, while at the same time, jambs, sills
and soffits will be measured for payment.

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In measuring jambs, sills and soffits, deduction shall not be made for the area in contact
with the frame of doors, windows etc.

8.1.9.10 Rate

The rate shall include the cost of all labour and materials involved in all the operations
described above.

8.2 CEMENT PLASTER WITH A FLOATING COAT OF NEAT CEMENT

8.2.1 The cement plaster shall be 12, 15 or 20 mm thick, finished with a floating coat of neat
cement, as described in the item.

8.2.2 Specifications for this item of work shall be same as described in 10.1 except for the
additional floating coat which shall be carried out as below.

8.2.3 When the plaster has been brought to a true surface with the wooden straight edge it
shall be uniformly treated over its entire area with a paste of neat cement and rubbed
smooth, so that the whole surface is covered with neat cement coating. The quantity of
cement applied for floating coat shall be 1 kg per sqm. Smooth finishing shall be
completed with trowel immediately and in no case later than half an hour of adding
water to the plaster mix. The rest of the specifications described in 10.1.4 shall apply.

8.3 6 MM CEMENT PLASTER ON CEMENT CONCRETE AND REINFORCED


CEMENT CONCRETE WORK

8.3.1 Scaffolding

Stage scaffolding shall be provided for the work. This shall be independent of the walls.

8.3.2 Preparation of Surface

Projecting burrs of mortar formed due to the gaps at joints in shuttering shall be
removed. The surface shall be scrubbed clean with wire brushes. In addition concrete
surfaces to be plastered shall be pock marked with a pointed tool, at spacing of not more
than 5 cm. Centers, the pock being made not less than 3 mm deep. This is to ensure a
proper key for the plaster. The mortar shall be washed off and surface, cleaned off all oil,
grease etc. and well wetted before the plaster is applied.

8.3.3 Mortars

Mortar of the specified mix using the types of sand described in the item shall be used.

8.3.4 Application

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To ensure even thickness and a true surface, gauges of plaster 15 x 15 cm. shall be first
applied at not more than 1.5 m intervals in both directions to serve as guides for the
plastering. Surface of these gauged areas shall be truly in the plane of the finished
plaster surface. The plaster shall be then applied in a uniform surface to a thickness
slightly more than the specified thickness and shall then be brought to true and even
surface by working a wooden straight edge reaching across the gauges. Finally the
surface shall be finished true with a trowel or with wooden float to give a smooth or
sandy granular texture as required. Excess troweling or over working of the floats shall
be avoided. The plastering and finishing shall be completed within half an hour of adding
water to the dry mortar.

Plastering of ceiling shall not be commenced until the slab above has been finished and
centering has been removed. In the case of ceiling of roof slabs, plaster shall not be
commenced until the terrace work has been completed. These precautions are necessary
in order that the ceiling plaster is not disturbed by the vibrations set up in the above
operations.

8.3.5 Finish

The plaster shall be finished to a true and plumb surface and to the proper degree of
smoothness as required. The work shall be tested frequently as the work proceeds with a
true straight edge not less than 2.5 m long and with plumb bobs. All horizontal lines and
surfaces shall be tested with a level and all jambs and corners with a plumb bob as the
work proceeds.

8.3.6 Thickness

The average thickness of plaster shall not be less than 6 mm. The minimum thickness
over any portion of the surface shall not be less than 5 mm.

8.3.7 Measurements

8.3.7.1 Length and breadth shall be measured correct a cm. and its area shall be calculated in
sqm. correct to two places of decimal. Dimensions before plastering shall be taken.

8.3.7.2 Thickness of plaster shall be exclusive of the thickness of the key i.e. depth or rock
marks and hacking.

8.3.7.3 Plastering on ceiling at height greater than 5 m above the corresponding floor level shall
be so described and shall be measured separately stating the height in stages of 1 m or
part thereof.

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8.3.7.4 Plastering on the sides and soffits of the projected beams of ceiling at a height greater
than 5 m above the corresponding floor level shall be measured and added to the
quantity measured under 10.4.9.3.

8.3.7.5 Plastering on spherical and groined ceiling and circular work not exceeding 6 m in radius,
shall be measured and paid for separately.

8.3.7.6 Flowing soffits (viz. portion under spiral stair case etc.) shall be measured and paid for
separately.

8.3.7.7 Ribs and mouldings on ceiling shall be measured as for cornices, deductions being made
from the plastering on ceiling in case the width of the moulding exceed 15 cm.

8.3.7.8 The mode of measurement of exterior plastering and patch plastering (in repairs) shall
be as laid down in 10.1.9.8

8.3.7.9 Deduction shall not be made for openings or for ends of columns, or columns caps of 0.5
sqm each in area and under. No additions will be made either for the plastering of the
sides of such openings. For openings etc. of areas exceeding 0.5 sqm deduction will be
made for the full opening but the sides of such openings shall be measured for payment.

8.3.8 Rate

The rate shall include the cost of all labour and materials involved in all the operations
described above.

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9.0 Painting Work

9.1 Whitewashing

9.1.1 Scaffolding

Wherever scaffolding is necessary, it shall be erected on double supports ties together by


horizontal pieces, over which scaffolding planks will be fixed No ballies, bamboos or
planks shall rest on or touch the surface which is being white washed.

Where ladders are used, pieces of old gunny bags shall be tied on their tops to avoid
damage or scratches to walls.

9.1.2 Preparation Of Surface

Before new work is white washed, the surface shall be thoroughly brushed free from
mortar dropping and foreign matter.

9.1.3 Preparation Of Lime Wash

The wash shall be prepared from stone white lime. The lime shall be thoroughly slacked
on the spot, mixed and stirred with sufficient water (approx. 5 kg of water to one kg of
lime) to make a thin cream. This shall be allowed to stand for a period of 24 hours and
then shall be screened through a clean coarse cloth. 4 kg of gum dissolved in hot water,
shall be added to each cum of the cream. Indigo (Neel) up to 3 gm per kg of lime
dissolved in water, shall then be added and washed stirred well. Water shall then be
added at the rate of about 5 liters per kg of lime to produce a milky solution.

9.1.4 Application

The washing on ceiling should be done prior to that of walls. The white wash shall be
applied with moon brushes to the specified number of coats. The operation for each coat
shall consist of a stroke of the brush given from the top downwards, another from the
bottom upwards over the first stroke, and similarly one stroke horizontally from the right
and another from the left before it dries.

Each coat shall be allowed to dry before the next one is applied. Further each coat shall
be inspected and approved by the Consultant/Engineer-in-charge before the subsequent
coat is applied No portion of the surface shall be left out initially to be patched up later
on.

For new work, three or more coats shall be applied till the surface presents a smooth and
uniform finish through which the plaster does not show The finished dry surface shall not
show any sings of cracking and peeling not shall it come off readily on the hand when
rubbed.

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9.1.5 Protective Measures

Doors windows floors, articles of furniture etc and such other parts of the building not to
be white washed shall be protected for being splashed upon Splashing and droppings, if
any, shall be removed by the contractor at his own cost and the surfaces cleaned
Damages if any to furniture or fittings and fixtures shall be recoverable from the
contractor.

9.2 Oil Bound Distemper

9.2.1 Materials

Oil emulsion (Oil Bound) washable distemper (IS : 428) of approved brand and
manufacture shall be used. The primer shall be of the same manufacture as distemper
shall be diluted with water of any other prescribed thinner in a manner recommended by
the manufacturer. Only sufficient quantity of distemper required for days work shall be
prepared.

The distemper and primer shall be brought by the contractor in sealed tins in sufficient
quantities at a time to suffice for a fortnights work, and the same shall be kept in the
joint custody of the contractor and the Engineer-in-Charge. The empty tins shall not be
removed from the site of work, till this item of work has been completed and passed by
the Consultant / Engineer-in-Charge.

9.2.2 Preparation Of Surface

The surface shall be thoroughly cleaned of dust. Any unevenness shall be made good by
applying putty, made of plaster of Paris mixed with water on the entire surface including
filling up the undulations and then sand papering the same after it is dry.

Pitting in plaster shall be made good with plaster of Paris mixed with the colour to be
used. The surface shall then be rubbed down again with a fine grade sand paper and
made smooth. A coat of the distemper shall be applied over the patches. The patched
surface shall be allowed to dry thoroughly before the regular coat of distemper is applied

9.2.3 Application

15 cm double bristled distemper brushes shall be used. After each days work, brushes
shall be thoroughly washed in hot water with soap solution ands hung down to dry. Old
brushes which are dirty and caked with distemper shall not be used on the work.

9.2.4 Scaffolding

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The specifications in respect of scaffolding, protective measures shall be as described


under white washing.

9.3 Acrylic Emulsion Painting:

9.3.1 Workmanship:

9.3.1.1 Scaffolding:

Wherever scaffolding is necessary, it shall be erected on double supports ties together by


horizontal pieces, over which scaffolding planks will be fixed No ballies, bamboos or
planks shall rest on or touch the surface which is being white washed

Where ladders are used, pieces of old gunny bags shall be tied on their tops to avoid
damage or scratches to walls.

9.3.1.2 Preparation of surface:

Preparation of surface shall in general be in accordance with, except that any


unevenness shall be made good by applying putty (white cement based) mixed with
water including up the undulation and then sand papering the same after it is dry.

9.3.1.3 Preparation of paint

The paint mix, shall be continuously stirred while applying for maintaining uniform
consistency. Number of coats shall be as per item description. The painting shall be laid
evenly and smoothly by means of crossing and laying off. The crossing and laying off
consists of covering the area with paint, brushing the surface hard at first, then brushing
alternatively in opposite direction 2/3 times and then finally brushing lightly in a direction
at right angles to the same. In this process, no brush marks, no hair marks no clogging
of paint puddles shall be permitted. The full process of crossing and laying off with
constitute one coat.

The paint shall be applied by means of brush or roller.

Before starting painting with plastic emulsion paint, the prepared surface shall be reacted
with two coats of primer consisting of cement primer whiting and plastic emulsion paint
shall start only after the preceding coat has become sufficiently hard to resist brush
marking. Subsequent coats of plastic emulsion paint shall also be started after the
preceding coat is dried by evaporation of water content.

The surface of finishing shall present a flat, velvets smooth finish, even and uniform
shade without patches, marks, paint drops etc.

9.3.1.4 Precautions:

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i. Brushes shall be quickly washed in water immediately after use and kept
immersed in water during break periods to prevent the paint from hardening on the
brush. Old brushes, if used shall be completely dried of turpentine / oil paints by washing
in warm soap water.

ii. No oil base puttied shall be used in filling cracks / holes.

iii. Washing of painted surface shall not be done within 3-4 weeks of application.

9.3.1.5 Protective measures

Surface of distempering over existing distempered surface, the existing distempering


shall be scrapped by steel scrapers leaving a clean surface.

All nails shall be removed. Pitting in plaster shall be made good with plaster of paris
mixed with dry distemper of colour to be used. The surface then shall be rubbed down
again with a fine grade sand paper and made smooth. A coat of distemper shall be
applied over the patches. The surface shall be allowed to dry thoroughly before the
regular coat of distemper is allowed.

The surface affected by moss, fungus, algae efflorescence shall be treated in accordance
with IS 2395.

9.4 Painting Of Steel And Other Metal Surfaces

9.4.1 General

Reference shall be made to the following Indian Standards: IS 2524, IS 1447.

9.4.2 Preparation of surface

The surface, before painting, shall be cleaned of all rust, scale, dirt and other foreign
matter with wire brushes, steel wool, scrappers, sand paper etc. The surface shall then
be wiped finally with mineral turpentine which shall then be removed of grease etc. The
surface then shall be allowed to dry.

In case of GI surface so prepared shall be treated with Mordant solution (5 liters for
about 100 sq.m) by rubbing the solution generously with brush. After about half an hour,
the surface if required shall be retouched and washed down thoroughly with clean cold
water & allowed to dry.

9.4.3 Application of priming and paints

Approved quality primer and paint in specified no. of coats shall be applied as per
manufacturers recommendations either by brushing or spraying. Each subsequent coat
shall be applied only after the preceding coat is dried.

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9.5 Synthetic Enamel Paint To Wood Work

9.5.1 Synthetic enamel paint of approved brand and manufacture and of the required colour
shall be used for the top coat and an under coat of shade to match the top coat as
recommended by the manufacture shall be used.

9.5.2 One coat of specified paint of shade suited to the shade of the top coat shall be applied
after rubbing with the finest grade of wet abrasive paper to ensure a smooth and even
surface, free from brush marks and all loose particles dust off.

9.5.3 Top coats of specified paint of required shade shall be applied after the first coat is
thoroughly dry. Additional finishing coats shall be applied if found necessary to ensure
properly uniform glossy surface.

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10.0 Pile Work

10.1 Bored Cast-In-Situ Reinforced Concrete Piles

10.2 General

The piles are formed within the ground by excavating or boring a pile within it with or
without the use of temporary casing and subsequently filling it with plain or reinforced
concrete. When the casing is left permanently it is termed as cased pile and when the
casing is taken out it is termed as uncased pile.

10.2.1 Equipment

The equipment and accessories used for bored cast-in-situ piles shall depend on subsoil
strata, ground water conditions, type of founding material and penetration etc. General
requirements of boring equipment are as per Appendix D. The equipment is applicable
for bored piles without the use of bentonite.

10.2.1.1 Boring operation shall be done by rotary percussion type drilling rigs using direct mud
circulation or reverse mud circulation methods to bail out the cuttings or as specified. In
soft clays and loose sand, bailer and chisel method should be used with caution to avoid
the effect of suction. Rope operated grabbing tool Kelly mounted hydraulically operated
grab are also used. This method of advancing the hole avoids suction. The size of cutting
tool shall be as per [IS 2911 (Part I Section 2)] and not less than the diameter of pile by
more than 75 mm.

10.2.1.2 Use of drilling mud is stabilizing sides of bore hole where specified shall have properties
as defined in Appendix A. Permanent casing where specified shall be used to avoid
aggressive action of water.

10.2.2 Boring for installing Pile

10.2.2.1 Installation of Piles :

Installation of piles shall be as accurate as possible and as per design and drawings. The
vertically or the required batter should be correctly maintained. Particular care shall be
taken in respect of installing either single pile or piles in two pile groups.

10.2.2.2 Deviation and Tolerance :

(i) The deviation/tolerance should be as per IS 2911 (Part 1/Sec.1). The piles should not
deviate more than 75 mm or D/4 whichever is less (75 mm or D/10 whichever is more in
case of piles having diameter more than 600 mm) from their designed position at the
working level.

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(ii) In case of a single pile under a column, the positional deviation should not be more
than 50 mm or D/4 whichever is less (100 mm in case of piles having diameter more
than 600 mm. Greater tolerance may be prescribed for piles driven over water and for
raking piles.

10.2.2.3 Procedure of Driving Pile Bore

(i) Bored cast-in-situ concrete piles are installed by making a bore into the
ground and removing out the material.

(ii) The ground shall be roughly leveled and position of pile marked. The boring shall be
done with or without the use of temporary casing. The sides of bore hole; shall be
stabilized with the aid of temporary casing or with the aid of drilling mud of suitable
consistency.

(iii) The equipment and accessories shall depend upon the type of bored pile chosen for
the job, consideration of sub-soil strata, ground water condition, type of founding
material. Boring operation normally are done by rotary or percussion type drilling rigs
using direct mud circulation on reverse mud tool shall be as detailed in IS 2911 (Part
1/Sec.2).

(iv) In case permanent/temporary casing is not used then bored pile is stablised with
drilling fluid. Bentonite supplied to site shall conform to IS 2720 (Part V). A certificate
shall be obtained by the contractor from the manufacturer showing properties of each
consignment and should be submitted to the Engineer-in-charge. Bentonite shall be
mixed thoroughly with fresh clean water to make a suspension which will maintain the
stability of the pile excavation for the period necessary to place concrete and complete
construction. The temperature of the water used in mixing the bentonite suspension and
when supplied to bore hole shall not be lower than 5C. Consistency of the drilling fluid
suspension and when controlled throughout the boring as well as in concreting
operations in order to keep the hole stabilized as well as to avoid concrete getting mixed
up with thick suspension of mud. Frequency and methods of testing drilling fluid shall be
as specified and the test results shall be as specified in IS 2720 (Part V).

(v) Bored cast-in-situ piles in soils which are stable may often be installed with a small
casing length at the top. A minimum of 2.0 m length of top of bore shall; invariably be
provided with casing to ensure against loose soil falling in to drilling mud, or a suitable
steel casing. The casing may be left in place permanently especially in cases where the
aggressive action of the ground water is to be avoided, or in the cases of piles built in
water or in cases where significant length of piles could be exposed due to scour.

(vi) For bored cast-in-situ piles, casing/liner shall be driven open ended with a pile
driving hammer capable of achieving penetration of the liner to the length shown on the
drawing or as directed by the Engineer-in-charge. Materials inside the casing shall be
removed progressively by air lift, grap or percussion equipment or other approved
means.

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(vii) Where bored cast-in-situ piles are used in soils liable to inflow, the bottom of the
casing shall be kept low enough in advance of the boring tool; to prevent the entry of
soil into the casing, thus presenting the formation of settlements in the adjoining ground.
The water level in the casing should generally be maintained at the natural ground water
level for the same reasons. The joints of the casing shall be made as tight as possible to
minimize inflow of water or leakage of slurry during concreting.

(viii) Boring shall be carried out using rotary or percussion type equipment. Unless
otherwise directed by the Engineer-in-charge the diameter of the bore holes shall be not
more than the inside diameter of the liner.

(ix) After the boring has reached the required depth, the steel reinforcement shall be
lowered in position maintaining the specified size of cover on all sides. The bore shall
then be flushed with bentonite slurry and concreting shall be taken up exactly as
described under clause 20.1.6.8

10.2.2.4 A proper record of pile driving and other details such as sequence of installation of piles,
dimension of piles, depth bored, time taken for concreting etc. shall be maintained in
sequence of occurrence at site as per clause 20.1.3.6.

While drilling mud is used, the specific gravity of fresh supply and contaminated mud in
the hole before concreting is taken up shall be recorded for first ten piles and
subsequently at interval of 10 piles or as specified.

10.2.3 Reinforcement

(i) The design of reinforcing cage varies depending upon the driving and
installation conditions, the nature of the sub-soil and the nature of load to be transmitted
by the shaft, axial or otherwise. The minimum area of longitudinal reinforcement of any
type or grade within the pile shaft shall be 0.4 per cent of the sectional area calculated
on the basis of the outside area of the casings of the shaft.

(ii) The curtailment of reinforcement along the depth of the pile, in general, depends on
the type of loading and sub-soil strata. In case of piles subjected to compressive load
only, the designed quantity of reinforcement may be curtailed at appropriate level
according to design requirements. For piles subjected to uplift load, lateral load &
moments, separately or with compressive loads, it may be necessary to provide
reinforcement to the full depth of the pile. In soft clays or loose sands, or where there is
likelihood of danger to green concrete due to driving of adjacent piles, the reinforcement
should be provided up to full pile depth, regardless of whether or not it is required from
uplift & lateral load considerations. However, in all cases, the minimum reinforcement
specified in Para (i) above should be provided in full length of the pile.

(iii) Piles shall always be reinforced with a minimum amount of reinforcement as dowels
keeping the minimum bond length into the pile shaft below its cut-off level, and with
adequate projection into the pile cap, irrespective of design requirements. Note: In some

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cases the cage may lift at bottom or at the laps during withdrawal of casing. This can be
minimized by making the reinforcement U shaped at the bottom and up to well secured
joints. Also the lifting 5 percent of the length should be considered not to affect the
quality of pile.

(iv) Clear cover to all main reinforcement in pile shaft shall be not less than 50 mm and
shall be maintained by suitable spacers. The laterals of reinforcing cage may be in the
form of links or spirals. The diameter and spacing of the same is chosen to impart
adequate rigidity of the reinforcing cage during the handing and installation. The
minimum diameter of links or spirals shall be 6 mm and the spacing of the links or spirals
shall be not less than 150 mm. The minimum clear distance between two adjacent main
reinforcement should normally be 100 mm for full depth of the cage.

(v) The reinforcing cage should be left with adequate protruding length above the cut
off level for proper embedment in the pile cap. Prior to the lowering of reinforcement
cage into the pile shaft, the shaft shall be cleaned of all loose materials.

(vi) Reinforcement in the form of cage shall be assembled with additional support, such
as spreader forks and lacings; necessary to form a rigid cage hoops, links, or helical
reinforcement has to fit closely around the main longitudinal bars and shall be tied by
binding wire of approved quality. The ends of the binding wire shall be turned into the
interior of the pile. Reinforcement shall be placed and maintained in correct position. The
reinforcements shall be joined wherever necessary by welding and the procedure of
welding be followed as described in IS 2751.

10.2.4 Concrete

10.2.4.1 Cement :

Cement shall be as specified in agreement item. However, high alumina cement shall not
be used.

10.2.5 Ready Mix Concrete

Alternatively, the contractor can be allowed to use Ready Mix Concrete (RMC) with the
permission of Engineer-in-Charge, provided that the manufacturer assures that for RMC
supplied for the particular work contains the minimum cement content and it is in
conformity of approved design mix. The manufacturer of RMC has also to agree to the
sampling and testing procedure as specified under clause 20.1.7 or alternatively he can
propose his own sampling and testing procedure which should in turn be approved by
the Engineer-in-Charge. Normally, RMC supplied to site are mixed with certain
admixtures which enables the concrete to be used within 3 hours of supply at site. In
case RMC supplied is not consumed within 3 hours of supply the quantity of RMC
remaining unused beyond 3 hours shall be rejected and removed from site

10.2.6 Measurement

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Dimensions shall be measured nearest to a cm. Measurement of length on completion


shall be along the axis of pile and shall be measured up to the bottom of pile cap. No
allowance shall be made for bulking, shrinkage, cut off tolerance, wastage and hiring of
tools, equipment for excavating, driving etc.

10.2.7 Rate

The rate includes the cost of material and labour involved in all the operations described
above including pile embedded in pile cap except reinforcement, pile cap and grade
beam.

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NON TSR ITEMS

11.0 GLASS MOSAIC TILES

Providing & fixing Ist quality glass mosaic tiles of minimum thickness 3.8 mm of
approved make of approved make in all colours of group D & shades of any size as
approved by Engineer-in-charge in flooring, skirting, risers of steps, slopping window cill,
dados, & bends over 12 mm thick bed of cement mortar 1:3 (1cement : 3 coarse sand)
and jointing with gray cement slurry & 3.3 kg per sqm including pointing in white
cement mixed with pigment of matching shade complete, as per pattern shown in
drawing including washing with diluted solution of hydrochloride acid and water ( 1 acid :
10 warter ). The surface shall be than thoroughly washed down with fresh water

Glass Mosaic tiles shall be of approved Indian manufacture unless foreign make is
specified in the description of item. They shall be flat, and true to shape. They shall be
free from cracks, crazing spots, chipped edges and corners. The glazing shall be of
uniform shade.

The tiles shall be of nominal sizes such as 20 x 20 mm or other standard sizes with equal
sides as specified in the schedule. The maximum variation from the stated sizes, other
than the thickness of tiles shall be as per manufacturer specification. Tiles shall conform
to IS 13753-1993 in all other respects.

PREPARATION OF SURFACE AND LAYING

Sub grade concrete or the RCC slab on which the tiles are to be laid shall be cleaned,
wetted and mopped. The bedding for the tile shall be with cement mortar 1:3 (1 cement
:3 coarse sand) or as specified. The thickness of the bedding shall be 12mm. Unless
otherwise specified.
Mortar shall be spread, tamped and corrected to proper levels and allowed to harden
sufficiently to offer a fairly rigid cushion for the tiles to set and enable the mason to
place wooden plank across and squat on it.

Over this mortar bedding, neat grey cement slurry of honey consistency shall be spread
at the rate of 3.3 kgs of cement per sqm over such an area as could accommodate about
50 tiles. Tiles shall be washed clean and shall be fixed in the grout one after another.
Each tile being gently tapped with a wooden mallet till, it is properly bedded and in level
with the adjoining tiles. The joints shall be kept as thin as possible unless spaces are
specified and in straight lines or to suit the required pattern.

The surface of the flooring during laying shall be frequently checked with a straight edge
about 2 m long, so as t obtain a true surface with the required slope. After tiles have
laid, surplus cement grout shall be cleaned off.

POINTING AND FINISHING

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The joints shall be cleaned off the grey cement grout with wire brush or trowal to a
depth of 5 mm and all dust and loose mortar removed. Joints shall be kept wet for 7
days. After curing, the surface, shall be washed and finished clean. The finished floor
shall not sound hollow when tapped with a wooden mallet.

The rate for tiling shall include the cost of all materials and labour involved in all the
operations described above.

12.0 Concertina Coil Fencing

12.1 Material:

Angle iron post & strut shall be used. Concertina coil fencing shall be dia 610 mm (having
15 nos round per 6 mtre. length), spring core (2.5 mm thick) wire of high tensile
strength of 165 kg./sq.mm with tape (0.52 mm thick) and weight 43.478 gm/metre.

12.2 Spacing of Posts & Struts:

The spacing of posts shall be 2.4 m or 3.00 m apart centre to centre, unless otherwise
specified or as per Engineer-in-Charge to suit the dimension of the area to be fenced.
Every 15th last but one end posts and corner posts shall be strutted on both sides and
end posts on one side only.

12.3 Fixing of Posts and Struts :

Pits 45 x 45 cm and 75 cm deep or as directed be excavated true to line and level to


receive the posts. In the case of struts, pits 70 x 45 x 75 cm deep or as directed shall be
excavated to suit the inclination of the strut so that it is surrounded by concrete by not
less than 15 cm at any point. The pits shall be filled with a layer of 15 cm thick cement
concrete 1:3:6 (1 cement: 3 fine sand: 6 graded stone aggregate 40 nominal size). The
posts and struts shall then be placed in the pits, the posts projecting 1.2 m or to the
specified height above ground, true to line and position. The cement concrete 1:3:6 shall
be filled in upto 15 cm for posts and 25 cm for struts below ground level at the base of
the concrete so that the posts are embedded in the cement concrete block of size 45 x
45 x 60 cm and strut in block of size 70 x 45 x 50 cm. The concrete in foundations shall
be watered for at least 7 days to ensure proper curing. The remaining portions of pits
shall be filled up with excavated earth and the surplus earth disposed off as directed by
the Engineer-in-Charge and site cleared. In addition, angle iron post at bottom shall be
split and banded at right angle in opposite direction for 10 cm length to get proper grip.

Fixing Concertina coil fencing shall be fixed on angle iron shaped with 9 horizontal
reinforced centre, unless otherwise specified or as per Engineer-in-Charge to suit the
dimension of the area to be barbed tape (RBT) stud tied with GI staples and GI clips to
retain horizontal including necessary bolts or GI barbed wire tied to angle iron all
complete as per directions of Engineer-in-Charge with reinforced barbed tape.

12.4 Measurements

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The length of fencing shall be measured correct to a cm. for finished work.

12.5 Rate

The rate shall include the cost of labour and materials involved in all the operation
described above but excluding the cost of M.S. angle and excavation and concrete in
foundation for which separate payment shall be made under respective items.

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