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INCLUSIVE EDUCATION & LEARNING -CASE STUDY

CASE STUDY:

Name: Drake*

Age: 13

Year: 8

Learning Difficulty: High Functioning Autism

STUDENT DESCRIPTION:

Drake cannot concentrate on tasks and tends to distract others Drake has trouble with social

and communication skills with fellow students. Drake mostly is engaging in self-stimulatory

behaviour such as tapping on the desk. Drake tends to be disruptive at times and is lost with

what is being taught in class. Drake engages when he receives attention and praise. Drake

engages more in visual activities such as film, PowerPoints and arts and crafts and responds

well to routine and structure. Strengths include visual and audio based learning activities.

The need for inclusivity in the standard classroom is essential for all students needs to be met

and adapted to cater to all students learning needs. The contemporary classrooms have a

diverse range of student educational needs and disabilities. However, lesson plans, structures

and content may not be suitable for students with diverse learning needs to successfully

engage with content. Teachers must modify their lessons to ensure full engagement. The

Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a framework that can cater to students using the

three principles: Provide Multiple Means of Representation, Provide Multiple Means of

Action and Expression and Provide Multiple Means of Engagement (National Center On

Universal Design For Learning, 2012). By incorporating the UDL framework into a lesson,

this paper will highlight the justifications of the modifications and changes in a lesson plan

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that will aim to accommodate to all students with learning needs such as Autism Spectrum

Disorder in particular.

My first encounter with a student with learning needs within a classroom was during my first

Placement in a year 8 class. The student entered the class 5 minutes late and disrupted the

class by making noise on his way in. Through observing his behaviour for the entire lesson, it

was apparent that the student had trouble focusing on tasks and has self-stimulatory

behaviour such as tapping on the desk. This tends to annoy his peers creating a social barrier.

Smith & Houton (1996) state that the occurrence of bizarre behaviours has been shown to

decrease the likelihood of positive social interactions with persons in the natural

environment (p. 254). The students communication skills and social skills with fellow peers

seemed to be poor as he also sat alone with students sitting away from him. I was later

notified that the student had Autism Spectrum Disorder.However, Drake was too difficult to

control in class and required attention. White, Koenig & Scahill (2007), state that social and

communication impairment for students with ASD tends to leave the student feeling isolated

and having trouble with interpersonal relationship with fellow peers (p. 1858).

The following week I had sat beside Drake and assisted him. It was evident that the student

lacked strategic alternatives and engagement for his behaviours and instead was ignored. I

took it upon myself to guide him in tasks, engaging in conversation and giving him structure

and time-line. Drake responded well to classroom content and engagement. It was also

evident that Drake had trouble with handwriting. What I found that had worked was

beginning the task for Drake and then him finishing it. As I had begun to teach the class, I

decided to integrate worksheets that were not primarily based on writing. For example, film

technique sheets students were made to draw the different camera angles and match terms

with their definitions by linking them with a line. This strategy responded well for Drakes

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engagement in content and class. Through one activity of creating their own monsters for

Frankenstein the student engaged and followed instructions. It was evident that the student

rather engaged with visual activities and arts and crafts. The use visual and arts and crafts

being used to engage and teach content is beneficial for the student both social and

communication skills as well as developing a sense of self, relationship building, and

facilitating sensory integration (Christopher, 2011, p. 685). By modifying and making

adjustments to Drakes every day lessons with activities he can engage in using the UDL, it

can significantly alter Drakes participation and relationships within the classroom.

The principles of The Universal Design of Learning aim to ensure an engaging environment

in the classroom for all learners, in particular, students with learning needs. Implementing

UDL within the classroom allows students to become independent learners and creative

learners, creating a barrier free classroom (Nelson & Allison, 2013, p.2-3). The UDL

framework aim to achieve this through the three principles; Provide Multiple Means of

Representation, Provide Multiple Means of Action and Expression and Provide Multiple

Means of Engagement (National Center On Universal Design For Learning, 2012).

Encouraging a UDL environment within the classroom requires modifying the curriculum by

implementing flexible and achievable goals, accessible materials and resources, an

approachable teaching method, clear and concise structure within the classroom and content

and alternative methods of assessments that accommodate students with learning needs

(Hinshaw & Gumus, 2013, p.1). Ralabate (2007) emphasizes that integrating the UDL

principles effectively within the classroom students will significantly motivate students with

learning needs by engaging on their own level of curricula, adopt a deeper sense of learning,

progress and achieve at a higher level and most significantly will want to remain learning

(p.17).

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The first principle Provide Multiple Means of Representation is based on the different

methods of information can be filtered to students. This includes textbook, images, film and

music. (Loreman, Deppler & Harvey, 2009). Students perceive information in diverse ways,

therefor for it is to adopt alternative approaches. For example, students with ASD will most

likely find it easier to learn content visually and auditory in contrast to texts as well as other

forms of sensory modalities (National Center on Universal Design for Learning, 2012). As

earlier stated, it is clear that Drake learning strengths are from visual formats of

representation. To cater to Drakes learning needs, in the opening lesson, I have integrated

alternative method of visual and auditory methods. Drake will be supplied with the poem in

enlarged texts. This will also be followed through by using an audio of the poem. In the

following PowerPoint activity, as opposed to just giving students text-books to gather their

information I have modified by showing a PowerPoint which will use images, videos,

audios and captions in enlarged texts to teach the content. Hodgdon (2000) highlights that

when content is visually being presented accordingly, students will be able to engage with the

content, regardless of the disability.

The second principle Provide Multiple Means of Action and Expression refers to the

various diverse forms of approaches to activities that do not limit them such as physically

activities and through communication and expression (National Center on Universal Design

for Learning, 2012). This can be done through physical action, expression and

communication and executive functions (CAST, 2017). This principle is essential factor as

students with learning needs may not be able to communicate and express through written

texts, therefor, the alternatives within the classroom is vital to make sure all students are

receiving their educational needs to freedom to express their learning and knowledge freely

to ensure positive learning. In Drakes case, it was stated earlier that he has trouble to express

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and communicate in comparison to other students. Within the lesson plan I have ensured that

modifications and alternatives have been made to cater to Drakes needs. The opening of the

lesson gives a background on todays lesson and sequence as well as setting goals or all

students. At the end of the lesson, students receive feedback on their performance in class.

All students are to receive positive and helpful feedback with praise. Students with ASD

connect well through receiving structure of tasks, feedback and praise as It re-assures the

student to continue learning as use of praise and extrinsic reward often led to increases in

students intrinsic motivation (Weiser, 2014, p.3). Constantly giving Drake praise and

feedback also builds teacher a positive student- relationship.

As Drake has self-stimulatory behaviour, I have made activities Poetic Techniques and

Poster Share a group work which includes students to move around the classroom and

communicate. This will minimalize Drakes self-stimulatory behaviour as he was be

interacting and socialising. Although it is not much physical action, it is essential for Drake to

be able to express himself, adjust his posture and positioning and to be able to move around

the classroom and to talk. By not integrating physical activity Situations and environments

that demand social understanding or that lack structure can be very challenging for

individuals with ASD, and, as a result, these situations can lead to isolation, outbursts,

depression, and higher stress levels" (Menear & Neumeier, 2014,p.45). It is vital to ensure

students are expressing freely within the classroom. In terms of expression and

communication, the lesson plan has modified activities to further cater to Drakes needs.

Through majority of the activities that is done in the class will be used as scaffolding for the

final assessment. The scaffolding will aid Drakes understanding as it will break down content

to ensure understanding and engagement. The activity Poetic Techniques gives Drake the

alternative to draw instead of write his answers. As Drake tends to shy away from written

work, giving the alternative to draw his answers allows him to express and communication

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through art. This method ensures that Drake can participate freely, by still engaging with the

content and his peers. Activities such as linking up lines from the poem to the technique have

been modified to assist students with learning needs as opposed to written. This also includes

Drake as he rather a more stimulating activity than written. By creating this activity in groups

and giving students guiding questions, Drake will be able to build on his social skills by

discussing the content, as well as giving Drake a direction and assisting him with the correct

content.

The third principle Provide Multiple Means of Engagement refers to the different methods

of engagement for students to involve in activities and how they engage in those activities.

Depending on students preference, students may respond differently. Within the lesson plan

I have applied and modified activities through class discussions and group work (National

Center on Universal Design for Learning, 2012).. By applying different forms of learning

such as the PowerPoint presentation, mind map, poetic techniques and the alternative of

drawing his answers gives Drake a variety of forms to express and engage himself reference

By students going through the activities and content as a class discussion it will allow the

student to be a part of discussion, learn different views, opinions and information. For the

Poetic Techniques and Poster Share activities applying group work will allow student to

engage with students, building on social and communication skills, as well as sharing

opinions and learning. By implementing group work, the student will be able think of what

they may be able to contribute as oppose to singling the student out to feel uncomfortable the

student to link the content that is being taught (Goodman, & Williams, 2007, p.56).

Scaffolding within the lesson such as using the audio version of the poem will able to support

Drakes learning. By breaking the assessment into sections and scaffolding throughout the

lesson will ensure student engagement. BY giving the student a schedule and the beginning

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of the class and feedback at the end of the class as the lesson plan has will promote student

engagement and their involvement with content and the classroom will improve (Goodman et

al., 2007, p.54). It has been stated in the lesson plan that all content (activities, PowerPoint,

poem (written and audio) will be shared onto the class blog to ensure that students have

access to it at all times and to be able to reflect and revise. This will ensure that students will

not miss out on any content.

The Universal Design for Learning appears to be a successful framework that ensures that all

students, with or without learning needs are receiving the sufficient education and

engagement within curriculum and their peers. By applying the three principles of UDL to an

existing lesson plan, the modifications and alternatives that have been implemented have

aimed to cater to a student who has Autism Spectrum Disorder. Applying UDL in lessons

will ensure to create flexibility in teaching and learning and breaking barriers, ultimately

achieving an inclusive classroom.

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LESSON PLAN 1

Subject: English- War Poetry Year: 8 Time: 60 minutes

Prior Learning Background knowledge of WW1 & poetic techniques and devices
Resources/ video link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qB4cdRgIcB8
Links http://www.warpoetry.co.uk/owen1.html
glossary terms BOSTES: https://syllabus.bostes.nsw.edu.au/english/english-
k10/glossary/

Materials Projector
PowerPoint
Whiteboard markers
Internet/laptop
A3 sheets of paper
Markers
Sticky tape
Craft supplies
Organisation Based on specific activities there will be individual and group activities and classroom
discussions. This will be specified in the lesson plan

What is being In this lesson we will be focusing on WW1, poetic techniques and devices and a brief
taught in this introduction of the poem Dulce Et Decorum Est by Wilfred Owen and a history
lesson? lesson on Wilfred Owen. Poetic techniques and devices will be reviewed so students
are able to successfully understand and break down the poem to understand it. I will
be teaching students the ability to learn how descriptive vivid language and atmosphere
can create powerful imagery and emotions.

Why am I This lesson is linked to Outcomes EN5-1A and EN5-2A (BOS, 2012, p.14). By
teaching it? integrating ICT in English, it provides opportunity to students to enhance and
strengthen their knowledge, skills and understanding. Technology is a contemporary
modern device, in terms of the activities within this lesson plan, ICT will have the
ability to aid the students to think imaginatively, therefor I am meeting the
requirements and standards of a students learning criteria.

How am I Teaching students the content can be done in various ways. There will be specific
teaching it? materials and links that students will be observing to further their knowledge. Sensory
activities such as closing their eyes, listening and imagining, visual and audio materials
will allow students to physically and emotionally connect with the content. The
organisation of the class will depend on what is being taught and how it is going to be
taught. It is essential students are able to build an engagement with the text to fully

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understand what is being taught in this unit. Students are to explore their own
perspective and interpretation on the poem

Time Teaching & Organisation T/S Resources


Learning
Recap previous lesson. Give an outline of S - Textbook
todays schedule and run it through with - Poem
the students. Include times and activities. - Powerpoint
10 Poem/ This will aid the students transition into
minutes Background tasks. Teacher will also notify students
that all content is on class blog for
students to access a home or in class if
preferred.

Students will receive a handout of the


poem to read to themselves and then
altogether. Students will then be given a
text-book and are to read a chapter as a
class.

Play the audio of the poem as well as


giving students a handout of the poem for
students to follow. Text will be enlarged.

Set up presentation of Wilfred Owen. - Powerpoint


5 miutes Teacher read it out aloud. Get every
Powerpoint student to participate and read a dot point S
aloud to the class. Using enlarged texts,
captions, and suitable colours. Send links
and powerpoint by email or class blog for
student to access if needed.
Whole class discussion on the - Whiteboard
Discussion information of Wilfred Owen and ask if
students are finding any links between the T/S
5 minutes information they have gathered. Ask
more specific guided questions
Revisit poetic techniques and devices. A
mind-map will be done on the board for
student to copy and students will receive
15minutes Poetic a handout with definitions of techniques. - Whiteboard
Techniques Students will then be given a class S - A3 paper
activity. Students will be given a sheet of - Extra sheets
the techniques and will need to write for alternative

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techniques using the theme of war. This activity for
activity will be worked in pairs of 2-3. student
Each group will be given an A3 paper to
write their techniques. This will used for
scaffolding. Activity sheet to already
have lines of the poem and techniques.
Students to line them up. This aids visual
learning. This assists student to not be put
on the spot and to make the task easier.

Alternative can be student to draw their


answers e.g stick figures, items and
figures used in the poem, draw faces with
emotions e.g happy, sad, scared, shocked,
injured etc.

Students will then post their sheet up - Guided


10 around the classroom and then need to questions on
minutes Poster Share present the technique and elaborate on the S whiteboard
how the technique creates a
mood/atmosphere/image. This will be
used for scaffolding. Give guided
questions. Giving specific questions helps
student to know what to do. Working in
pairs will aid student in communication
and social skills. This will also give time
for the student to think and discuss with
other peers of ways the techniques create
meaning. Student will have the
opportunity to move around such as fix
posture, position and stretch to minimise
self-stimulatory behaviour.

Lesson will finish up with classroom


5 minutes discussion of what was learnt today and
what will be achieved at the end of this T/S
unit. Students will be notified of how the
activities are used as scaffolding for their
final assessment. Also include positive
feedback for student. Discuss goals. This
gives student praise and structure.
Ensures student that they are on task.

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References

CAST (2011). Universal Design for Learning Guidelines version 2.0. Wakefield,

MA: Author.

CAST UDL Book Builder. (2017). Retrieved April 14, 2017,

from http://bookbuilder.cast.org/

Christopher, S. J. (2011). Art as an Early Intervention Tool for Children with Autism.

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(5), 685- 685.

doi:10.1007/s10803-010-0994-y

Goodman, G., & Williams, C. M. (2007). Interventions for increasing the academic

engagement of students with autism spectrum disorders in inclusive

classrooms. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 39(6), 53-61.

Hodgdon, L. (2000). Visual strategies for improving communication: Practical supports for

school and home. Troy,MI: Quirk Roberts.

Hinshaw, R.E &., Gumus, S.S. (2013). Perceptions and Practice. Universal Design for

Learning Principles in a Hybrid Course, 3(1), 1-7. doi: 10.1177/2158244013480789

Loreman, T., Deppeler, J., & Harvey, D. (2011). Inclusive education: Supporting diversity in

the classroom (2nd ed.). Crows Nest, Australia: Allen & Unwin.

Menear, K.S &., Neumeier, W.H. (2014). Promoting Physical Activity for Students with

Autism Spectrum Disorder: Barriers, Benefits, and Strategies for Success. Journal of

Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 86(3), 43-48. doi:

10.1080/07303084.2014.998395

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Nelson, L.L.R., & David Posey, A. (2013). Design and Deliver. Baltimore: Brookes

Publishing. Retrieved from

http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/UWSAU/detail.action?docID=1787427

Ralabate, P.K. (2011). Universal Design for Learning: Meeting the Needs of All Students.

The ASHA Leader, 16(10), 14-17. doi: doi:10.1044/leader.FTR2.16102011.14

Smith, E.A &., Houten, R.V. (1996). A comparison of the characteristics of self-stimulatory

behaviors in normal children and children with developmental delays. Research in

Developmental Disabilities, 17(4), 253-268. doi: 10.1016/0891-4222(96)00007-8

Weiser, B. (2014). Academic Diversity: Ways to Motivate and Engage Student with

Learning Disabilities. Council for Learning Disabilities. Retrieved from

https://www.council-for-learning-disabilities.org/wp

content/uploads/2014/07/Weiser_Motivation.pdf

White, S.W., Keonig, K., & Scahill, L. (2007). Social Skills Development in Children with

Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of the Intervention Research. Journal of

Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(10), 1858-1868. doi: 10.1007/s10803-006-

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