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D: Application of spreadsheets
A spreadsheet, also known as a worksheet, contains rows and columns and
is used to record and compare numerical or financial data.
Where they are used ?
Originally, spreadsheets only existed in paper format, but now they are
most likely created and maintained through a software program that
displays the numerical information in rows and columns.
Spreadsheets can be used in any area or field that works with numbers
and are commonly found in the accounting, budgeting ,financial analysis,
sales forecasting and scientific fields.
The advantage of using computerised spreadsheets is their ability to
update data and perform automatic calculations extremely quickly.
Structure of spread sheet
On a computerised spreadsheet, the intersection of a row and a column is called a cell
Rows are generally identified by numbers - 1, 2, 3, and so on
Columns are identified by letters, such as A, B, C, and so on
The cell is a combination of a letter and a number to identify a particular location within the
spreadsheet, for example A3 ---Cell reference
Activity #1
Label the following spreadsheet:
1. Formula Bar
2. Columns
3. Rows
4. Active worksheets
5. Inactive worksheets
6. New sheet
7. Active cell
8. Status bar
9. Page layout
10. Page zoom
11. Formula

Formula of spreadsheet
Formulas are equations that perform calculations on values in your worksheet. A formula starts with an equal
sign (=). For example, the following formula multiplies 2 by 3 and then adds 5 to the result.=5+2*3
A formula can also contain any or all of the following:
operators constants
Parts of a formula
Functions: The PI( ) function returns the value of pi: 3.142...
References: A2 returns the value in cell A2.
Constants: Numbers or text values entered directly into a formula, such as 2.
Operators: The ^ (caret) operator raises a number to a power, and the * (asterisk) operator multiplies.
Formula Continues..
Formulas are expressions entered into cells which cause the spreadsheet to calculate new
values from existing values. Formulas usually include a function and the name of one or more
cells. Some examples are shown in the table below.
Formula Meaning

=B4+C4 In this cell put the sum of

the values in cells B4 and C4.

=SUM(B4:B9) In this cell put the sum of all

the values in cells B4, B5,

B6, B7 and B9.

=AVERAGE(B4:B9) In this cell put the average

of all the values in cells B4,

B5, B6, B7 and B9.

Important Points
There is an equals ( = ) sign at the start of each formula. This tells the spreadsheet
that the expression is a formula. It simply means: 'To calculate the value of this cell,
perform the following calculation.' Some spreadsheets use the @ symbol instead of
the equals sign, but all have similar formats with brackets and cell names inside the

There are shortcuts for calculations involving large numbers of cells. Instead of
entering =B4+B5+B6+B7+B8+B9 to calculate the values from B4 to B9, it is easier to
enter =SUM(B4:B9) where the colon (:) is used to specify a range of cells. The colon
can be used provided the cells are all consecutive cells in the same row or column.

Instead of having to copy a formula into many cells and then modify it, spreadsheet
programs provide a shortcut called 'Fill'. Choosing Fill Down (or Up, or Left, or Right)
copies a formula into the selected range of cells.

Putting $ signs in the cell reference (e.g. $A$5) indicates that it is an absolute cell
reference. Cell references without a $ sign are relative cell references. When using the
Fill command relative cell references are automatically changed so that they refer to
the correct cells. Absolute cell references are not changed.
Example #2
Create the spreadsheet shown below ad save it with the file name EXPENSES and perform the
listed operations on your worksheet.
Header and Footer
What is chart?
A chart is a graphical representation of numerical data. While tables are a useful way of
organizing data, the reader must study them closely to understand the information.


By representing the data graphically, charts make it much easier to understand. Charts show
trends in the data and allow comparisons to be made quickly.
They are widely used in business to help people make quick and accurate decisions.

Charts are also more inviting to look at than a large chunk of text or numbers, so are good to
include in reports.
One of the strengths of electronic spreadsheets is that they can quickly convert rows and
columns of data into a chart that can be read at a glance.
Different types of charts
Bar Chart
Column chart
Line chart
Pie chart
Activity #3
Create the spreadsheet and pie chart shown
in Figure and save it with the filename WASTE.
A. In the spreadsheet, delete the Other waste category
(row 9) and add a new
category for metal.
B Change the percentage for each waste product as follows:
i Paper to 29% ii Food to 32% iii Plastic to 22%
iv Glass to 10% v Metal to 7%.
c Create the pie chart with the new data.
d Print the pie chart.
Revision of concepts
Revision of learned concepts
Next lesson tasks
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Pappas, E., Pierrakos, O., & Nagel, R. (2013). Using Bloom's Taxonomy to teach sustainability in multiple contexts. (Report). Journal of Cleaner Production, 48, 54