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Parametric study of the required seating length


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Article in Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics January 1998


DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9845(199801)27:1<91::AID-EQE722>3.0.CO;2-I

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EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, VOL. 27, 91103 (1998)

A PARAMETRIC STUDY OF THE REQUIRED SEATING LENGTH


FOR BRIDGE DECKS DURING EARTHQUAKE
HONG HAO
School of Civil and Structural Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Ave., Singapore 639798, Singapore

SUMMARY
During the recent major earthquakes, some bridges su ered severe damage due to the pull-o -and-drop collapse of their
decks. This is due to the large di erential movements of the adjacent spans of bridges during strong shaking compared to
the seating lengths provided. The di erential movements are primarily due to the di erent vibration properties of adjacent
spans and non-uniform ground excitations at the bridge supports. This paper analyses the e ects of various bridge and
ground motion parameters on the required seating lengths for bridge decks to prevent the pull-o -and-drop collapse. The
random vibration method is used in the analysis. A two-span bridge model with di erent span lengths and vibration
frequencies and subjected to various spatially varying ground excitations is analysed. Non-uniform spatial ground motions
are modelled by the ltered TajimiKanai power spectral density function and an empirical coherency function. Ground
motions with di erent intensities, di erent cross-correlations and di erent site conditions are considered in the study. The
required seating lengths for bridge decks are calculated. Numerical results are presented and discussed with respect to
di erent bridge vibration and ground motion properties. ? 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Earthquake Engng. Struct. Dyn., 27, 91103 (1998)

KEY WORDS: spatial variation; di erential movements; bridge deck ground displacement

INTRODUCTION

Pull-o -and-drop collapses of bridge decks were observed due to di erential movements between adjacent
bridge spans, in two recent major earthquakes. For example, the collapse of one panel of the San Francisco Bay
Bridge during the October 17, 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake in California, and more recently, the collapse of
the approach span of the Nishinomiya-Ko Bridge during the January 17, 1995 Hyogo-Ken Nanbu earthquake
in Kobe, Japan, were caused by di erential movements between adjacent spans. The collapses resulted in
complete close down of the two bridges after the events.
The collapsed upper deck of the Bay Bridge was 50 ft (1524 m) long, and was connected on its east end
to another span with a series of connections that acted as pin joints. On the west end, however, the deck
rested on a series of sti ened seat connections with no provisions for restraining the horizontal movement of
the deck. During the earthquake, the east end moved eastward about 7 in (18 cm), while the seating length
of the sti ened seat connection on the west end of the deck was only about 5 in (127 cm). The horizontal
movement of the deck being larger than the seating length of the support, the deck was pulled o the support
and dropped on the west end.1 The approach span of the Nishinomiya-Ko Bridge was 52 m long, and was
supported by seat connection on an elevated support. Adjacent to it on the west was a 252 m long tied arch
main span. The vibration properties of the two adjacent spans di er considerably. The ground motions at
the three supports also di er from each other signi cantly due to the large separation distance. Although the

Correspondence to: Hong Hao, Senior Lecturer, School of Civil and Structural Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang
Avenue, Singapore 2263. E-mail: chhao@ntu.edu.sg

CCC 00988847/98/01009113$1750 Received 26 September 1995


? 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Revised 25 March 1997
92 HONG HAO

seating length provided for the dropped deck was about 08 m, the change in the vibration periods of the two
adjacent spans and the pronounced spatial variations of ground excitations at di erent supports induced very
signi cant di erential movements of the two adjacent spans that resulted in the 52 m steel box girder approach
span being pulled westward o the support and dropped.2 The di erential movements of bridge decks were
also observed in other earthquakes, e.g. some pounding damage to decks was observed on bridges of freeway
5 in California during the Northridge earthquake.3
Long span structure response to non-uniform support excitations has been investigated recently by many
authors.49 All of those studies concentrate on the response of a single structure with multiple supports and
subjected to non-uniform multiple excitations. None of them speci cally studied the di erential movements
of adjacent structures excited by correlated non-uniform ground motions. The present paper carries out a
parametric study of the required seating length, which is the maximum di erential movement of the adjacent
bridge spans, for a bridge deck to prevent the pull-o -and-drop collapse. A two-span bridge model with
di erent span lengths and vibration frequencies and subjected to di erent non-uniform support excitations is
analysed. Random vibration method is used in the analysis. Non-uniform ground excitations with di erent
intensities and spatial variations are considered in the analyses. They are modelled by the ltered Tajimi
Kanai10 power spectral density function and an empirical coherency loss function.11 The e ects of the site
conditions and damping ratios on the required seating lengths are also studied. Numerical results are presented
and discussed with respect to the various bridge and ground motion properties.

SPATIAL GROUND MOTION MODEL


With the stationarity assumption, the ground motion cross-power spectral density function can be modelled as

Skl (i!)
 = Sg (!)
 kl (i!;
 dkl )

 2 S0 (!)|
= |Hf (i!)|  kl (i!;
 dkl )|exp (i!d
 kl =v) (1)

where ! is the circular frequency, v the apparent ground motion propagation velocity, dkl the projected distance
between points k and l on the ground surface in the ground motion propagation direction, and

! 4
 2=
|Hf (i!)| (2)
(!f2 ! 2 )2 + 42f !f2 ! 2

is a highpass lter with centre frequency !f and damping ratio f ;10 and

1 + 42g ! 2 =!g2
S0 (!)
 = (3)
(1 ! 2 =!g2 )2 + 42g !2 =!g2

is the TajimiKanai ground acceleration power spectral density function,12 in which !g and g , are the centre
frequency and damping ratio, respectively, and both depend on the site conditions, epicentral distance and
earthquake magnitude,13 and is a scale factor depending on the ground motion intensity.
 kl =v) in equation (1) represents the phase shift between the ground motions at points k
The factor exp (i!d
and l; and
p
2
| kl (i!;
 dkl )| = exp ( dkl ) exp [ (!)
 dkl (!=2)
 ] (4)

is an empirical coherency loss function for ground motion propagating from points k to l,11 where
(
2a= ! + b!=2
 + c; 0314 rad=s6!66283
 rad=s
(!)
 = (5)
01a + 10b + c; !6283
 rad=s

Earthquake Engng. Struct. Dyn., 27, 91103 (1998) ? 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
A PARAMETRIC STUDY OF BRIDGE DECKS DURING EARTHQUAKE 93

Table I. Central frequencies and damping ratios for


the three sites
Site fg (Hz) g

Firm 40 06
Medium rm 25 06
Soft 10 06

Figure 1. Ground acceleration and displacement power spectral density functions with respect to di erent site conditions and unit

where a, b, c and are constants which can be determined by a least-squares t of equation (4) to the
coherency loss of actually recorded motions.
In this study, three di erent site conditions representing rm, medium rm and soft sites are considered. The
centre frequencies and damping ratios of the three sites are given in Table I. It should be noted that a constant
g is used for all three site conditions since there is no reliable conclusion yet on how g varies with the site
conditions. The corresponding power spectral density functions with a unit and ff = !f =2 = 025 Hz and
f = 06 are shown in Figure 1.
The highpass lter of equation (2) is applied in ground acceleration power spectral density function to lter
out energy at zero and very low frequencies to correct the singularity in ground velocity and displacement
power spectral density functions, and to prevent the drift of ground velocity and displacement. There is no
solid physical base for the choice of the central frequency ff and damping ratio f . Di erent authors used
di erent values based on the nature of the problem. Figure 1 also shows the power spectral density functions
of ground displacements (Sg (!)=  ! 4 ) of the medium rm site conditions and di erent ff . As can be seen,
ground displacement power spectral density functions decrease drastically with the increase of the central
frequency ff .
Peak ground acceleration (PGA) and peak ground displacement (PGD) depend on the scale factor . The
relations between them and can be established based on their respective power spectral density functions
Sg (!)  2 S0 (!)
 = |Hf (i!)|  ! 4 [see Appendix I]. Figure 2 shows PGA and PGD as functions of
 and Sg (!)=
for di erent site conditions. These results are obtained by assuming the ground motion duration T = 20 s,
and a high cut-o frequency of 25 Hz. It should be noted that the rst and the second spectral moments
of Sg (!)
 diverge if the upper limit of the integral in equation (21) is in nite [Appendix I]. Thus, only
approximate spectral moments can be obtained by introducing a high cut-o frequency. In the present study, a
high cut-o frequency of 25 Hz is used since it covers the dominant vibration frequencies of most engineering
structures and earthquake ground motions. As can be seen, although the highpass lter has little e ect on
ground acceleration, it a ects ground displacement signi cantly. A highpass lter with a lower centre frequency
results in a larger PGD.

? 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earthquake Engng. Struct. Dyn., 27, 91103 (1998)
94 HONG HAO

Figure 2. Peak ground acceleration and displacement corresponding to di erent site conditions and scale factor

Figure 3. Three coherency loss functions with separation distance d = 100 m

Table II. Constants in coherency loss function

Event (104 ) a (104 ) b (104 ) c (104 )

30 225 1066 0265 0999


45 1109 3583 0181 1177

Ground motion is assumed to propagate in the longitudinal direction of the bridge with an apparent ve-
locity v = 1000 m=s in this study. Then, the distance dkl between the two supports of each span equals the
span length d. Constants in the coherency loss function used are those obtained from the recorded motions
during Event 45 at the SMART-1 array.4 For comparison purposes, those corresponding to the recorded
motions during Event 30 at the SMART-1 array, as well as the ground motions without coherency loss,
i.e. | kl (i!;
 dkl )| = 10, are also considered in the analyses. Table II gives the constants of the coherency
loss function corresponding to the two events. Figure 3 shows the coherency loss functions estimated by
equation (4) with dkl = 100 m. As can be noted, recorded motions of Event 30 are less correlated than those
of Event 45.

Earthquake Engng. Struct. Dyn., 27, 91103 (1998) ? 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
A PARAMETRIC STUDY OF BRIDGE DECKS DURING EARTHQUAKE 95

Figure 4. Two-span bridge model subjected to spatiallly varying ground excitations

BRIDGE MODEL AND EQUATIONS OF MOTION


A two-span bridge model is shown in Figure 4. The deck of the left span is pin connected at its two ends to
the supports. The deck of the right span is pin connected only at its right end to the support and its left end
is seat connected to the support without any lateral restraint. If one neglects the axial deformation of bridge
deck and considers only the in-plane horizontal ground excitations in the analysis, the bridge model has ve
degrees of freedom (DOFs) and three support excitations as shown. The rst three DOFs, which correspond
to the left span, are independent of the DOFs 4 and 5 of the right span. The three support excitations are,
however, cross correlated.
The total structural responses can be expressed as

Ut = U + Uqs (6)

where U is the dynamic response vector and Uqs is the quasi-static response vector. The dynamic responses
can be calculated by solving the equation14

MU + CU + Kss U = MKss


1
Ksb V g (7)

and the quasi-static responses can be calculated by

Uqs = Kss
1
Ksb Vg (8)

where M is the mass matrix, C the viscous damping matrix, Kss the sti ness matrix corresponding to the
bridge response DOFs, and Ksb the sti ness matrix corresponding to the coupled DOFs between the bridge
responses and the support excitations. The subscripts s and b refer to structure and base, respectively.
Vg = (v1 ; v2 ; v3 )T is the vector consisting of the three ground displacements at the three supports. The mass
and sti ness matrices of the bridge model are given in Appendix II.
Since the dynamic responses of the two spans are independent of each other, they can be calculated
separately. For the rst span, it has

M1 U 1 + C1 U1 + Ks1 U = M1 Ks1
1
Kb1 V g1 (9)

where Vg1 = (v1 ; v2 )T . As the mass matrix M1 is a diagonal matrix with only one non-zero term associated
with the lateral displacement of the rst span (DOF 1), by neglecting the damping terms corresponding to
the rotational DOFs, equation (9) can be reduced by static condensation to

6k1 m1
m1 u1 + c11 u1 + u1 = (v1 + v2 ) (10)
l21 2

where u1 is the lateral displacement of the rst span, which can be expressed in the frequency domain as

u1 (i!)  v1 + v2 )=2


 = H1 (i!)( (11)

? 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earthquake Engng. Struct. Dyn., 27, 91103 (1998)
96 HONG HAO

and where i = 1 is the imaginary unity, the bar over the quantity indicates the Fourier transform of the
quantity, and
1
H1 (i!)
 = (12)
!12 ! 2 + 2i1 !1 !
p
in which 1 is the viscous damping ratio, !1 = 6k1 =l21 m1 is the lateral vibration frequency of the rst span.
Similarly, the lateral response of the second span u4 in the frequency domain is

u4 (i!)  v3


 = H2 (i!) (13)

where H2 (i!)
q has a form similar to equation (12) except that !1 and 1 are replaced by !2 and 2 , and
where !2 = 3k3 =l23 m2 is the lateral vibration frequency of the second span.
The lateral quasi-static responses of the two spans can be derived as

u1qs (t) = 12 (v1 + v2 ) (14)

u4qs (t) = v3 (15)

and hence, the total lateral responses of the two spans in the frequency domain are

u1t (i!)  v1 + v2 )=2 + 12 (v1 + v2 )


 = H1 (i!)( (16)

u4t (i!)  v3 + v3


 = H2 (i!) (17)

The absolute value of the di erence in lateral displacement between the two spans is given by

 = |u1t (i!)
us (i!)  u4t (i!)|
 (18)

and its power spectral density function can be derived as


  l

1 1 !d
 12
Sus (!)
 = H1 H1 =2 2 real(H1 ) + 1 + | 12 | cos
! 2! 4 v

  
2 1 1
+ H2 H2 2 real(H2 ) + 4 real(H1 H2 ) 2 real(H1 )

! ! !
 l l

1 1 !d
 13 !d
 23
2 real(H2 ) + 4 | 13 | cos + | 23 | cos Sg (!)
 (19)
! ! v v
where real represents the real part of a complex quantity, and the complex conjugate. If the ground
excitations are spatially uniform, equation (19) is simpli ed to

 = [H1 H1 + H2 H2 2 real(H1 H2 )]Sg (!)


Sus (!)  (20)

NUMERICAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Let the viscous damping ratios of the two spans be both 5%. The required seating lengths for bridges to
prevent the pull-o -and-drop collapse are calculated using the above derived power spectral density functions
[Appendix I]. The e ects of various parameters on required seating lengths are discussed.

Earthquake Engng. Struct. Dyn., 27, 91103 (1998) ? 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
A PARAMETRIC STUDY OF BRIDGE DECKS DURING EARTHQUAKE 97

Figure 5. Required seating lengths of bridge spans obtained by varying bridge vibration frequencies

The e ect of natural vibration frequency is studied rst by calculating the required seating length of the
bridge model with varying natural frequencies. Results for span length d = 100 m, coherency loss function of
Event 45, PGA = 05 g, medium rm site conditions with ff = !f =2 = 025 Hz and f = 06, and di erent
ratios of natural frequencies of the two spans, f2 =f1 , are presented in Figure 5 with respect to the dimensionless
parameter f1 d=v, where f1 = !1 =2 is the natural frequency of the rst span in Hertz. It is known that the
in-phase and the out-of-phase excitations between ground motion phase shift (d=v) and structural vibration
mode occur when fd=v = 05(2n) and fd=v = 05(2n 1), respectively, where f is the vibration frequency of
the structure and n = 1; 2; : : :; and the e ect of multiple excitations is minimum when the phase shift of the
multiple excitations is in-phase with the vibration mode, and maximum when they are out-of-phase.5; 6; 7; 9
As can be seen, the required seating length reaches the maximum value at f1 d=v = 0025 and 025 when
f2 =f1 = 01; at 0025 and 0125 when f2 =f1 = 02; and at 0025 when f2 =f1 = 10, implying the maximum
seating length is required when the natural frequency of the rst or the second span coincides with the central
frequency of the highpass lter, ff . This observation indicates that the resonance of the rst or the second
span with the ground displacement causes the maximum di erential movements. When f2 =f1 = 05, however,
only one peak occurs at f1 d=v = 0034, or f1 = 034 Hz and f2 = 017 Hz, i.e. when the natural frequencies
of both spans are close to ff . The above observations demonstrate that the displacement response depends
strongly on the highpass lter because the quasi-static displacement depends on the ground displacement; and
a lower centre frequency ff of the highpass lter results in a larger ground displacement. Thus, the choice of
the highpass lter, which is not based on any physical property of ground motion as discussed above, a ects
numerical results of displacement response signi cantly.
To further observe the e ect of the highpass lter, numerical results corresponding to ff = 015 and 05 Hz,
f = 06 and f2 =f1 = 10 are also shown in Figure 5. Signi cant di erence between results obtained with
di erent highpass lters is observed. As can be seen, displacement response increases with the ground dis-
placement as the central frequency ff of the highpass lter decreases.
The case of f2 =f1 = 05 results in the largest peak value because both spans are resonant simultaneously with
ground displacement as discussed above, whereas f2 =f1 = 10 results in the smallest seating length requirement
because the di erential movements of the two spans are induced solely by non-uniform ground excitations.
As f1 d=v increases, implying an f1 increase, numerical values of all the cases approach a constant, which is

? 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earthquake Engng. Struct. Dyn., 27, 91103 (1998)
98 HONG HAO

Figure 6. Required seating lengths of bridge spans obtained by varying span lengths

equal to the quasi-static response because dynamic response is very small at large vibration frequencies due
to deampli cation e ect, but the quasi-static response is independent of the vibration frequency.
As the bridge span length a ects the spatial variations of multiple support excitations, numerical results
for the bridge model with f1 = 10 Hz and di erent span lengths are calculated to analyse the ground motion
spatial variation e ect. Figure 6 shows those obtained with PGA = 05 g, medium rm site conditions, di erent
natural frequency ratios, and di erent highpass lters. Generally, as can be noticed, the required seating length
increases with f1 d=v or d, implying that less correlated ground motions cause larger di erential displacement
responses. This is because ground motions measured at points with a larger separation distance are less
correlated, and less correlated motions cause larger quasi-static responses.49
The required seating lengths also oscillate with f1 d=v. For the case of f2 =f1 = 10, they reach the peak
values at f1 d=v = 025; 075; 125 and 175, and the minimum values at f1 d=v = 05; 10; 15 and 20.
This is because of the e ects of in-phase and out-of-phase between the dominant ground motion phase
shift and the fundamental vibration mode of the bridge. Since the separation distance between supports 1
and 3 is 2d = 200 m, the out-of-phase excitations between the motions at supports 1 and 3 occur when
f1 d=v = 025; 075; 125 and 175, whereas the in-phase excitations occur when f1 d=v = 05; 10; 15 and
20. The out-of-phase excitations cause the maximum di erential displacements while the in-phase excitations
produce the minimum di erential displacements.
As can be seen in Figure 6 again, the highpass lter a ects the di erential displacement of adjacent bridge
spans signi cantly. Since the choice of the central frequency ff is not physically based, in the following
discussion, all the numerical results are normalized by the corresponding peak ground displacement.
To study the relative importance of the various parameters of spatial ground motions and the vibration
properties of the two adjacent bridge spans, Figure 7 shows the normalized relative displacements with respect
to the frequency ratio f2 =f1 obtained by using f1 = 05 Hz and varying f2 . As can be seen, the largest required
seating length occurs when f2 =f1 = 05, i.e. f2 = ff = 025 Hz, and the smallest seating length occurs when
f2 =f1 = 10. The ground motion spatial variation e ect is most prominent when f2 =f1 is close to unity, i.e.
when the two adjacent spans have similar vibration properties. The less correlated ground motions (Event 30)
cause larger di erential displacements than the more correlated motions (Event 45). The ground motion spatial
variation e ect is, however, not pronounced if the vibration frequencies of the two spans di er signi cantly;

Earthquake Engng. Struct. Dyn., 27, 91103 (1998) ? 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
A PARAMETRIC STUDY OF BRIDGE DECKS DURING EARTHQUAKE 99

Figure 7. Normalized seating lengths for bridges subjected to multiple ground excitations with di erent spatial variations

Figure 8. Normalized seating lengths for bridges having di erent natural frequencies

the dominant factor of causing the di erential displacements is now the di erent vibration phases of the two
spans. When f2 =f1 is larger than 20, the required seating length approaches a constant, implying that the
response of the second span is primarily caused by quasi-static response, which is independent of f2 .
Figures 8 and 9 show the required seating lengths calculated by using di erent f1 , di erent viscous damping
ratios, and di erent site conditions. Besides the above observations, it can be seen that the natural vibration
frequency of the bridge a ects the required seating length signi cantly. The largest seating length is needed
if the bridge resonates with the ground displacement.
The required seating length for bridge deck also depends on the damping ratios and ground motion intensi-
ties. Increase of the viscous damping is a very e ective way to reduce the required seating length. As shown

? 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earthquake Engng. Struct. Dyn., 27, 91103 (1998)
100 HONG HAO

Figure 9. Normalized seating lengths for bridges having di erent damping ratios and on sites of di erent conditions

in Figure 9, the required seating length is reduced by more than 50 per cent by increasing the damping ratio
from 1 to 5 per cent.
Also shown in Figure 9 are the normalized results corresponding to di erent site conditions. As can be
seen, the normalized results for the three site conidtions are very close to each other, implying a larger
seating length should be provided for a bridge on a soft site than on a rm site. This is because the PGD
corresponding to a soft site is larger than that corresponding to a rm site if the PGA for both sites are the
same. Required seating lengths corresponding to di erent PGA are also calculated. It is interesting to note that
the normalized relative displacements obtained by ground motions with di erent PGA are the same, indicating
that the relative displacement and PGD are linearly proportional to each other although they are non-linearly
proportional to PGA or .
The above results demonstrated that bridge vibration properties, viscous damping ratios and spatial ground
motions a ect the di erential responses of structures. Depending on the bridge vibration frequency, damping
ratio, PGA and PGD, and site conditions, the seating length required to prevent the bridge deck being pulled
o its support during a major earthquake could be more than 10 m. Because of the quasi-static response,
the di erential displacements strongly depend on ground displacement. In practice, most of the available
ground motion information is ground accelerations, and ground displacements are usually obtained by nu-
merically integrating the recorded ground accelerations. Mathematically, a highpass lter has to be applied
to ground acceleration before integration to prevent ground velocity and displacement to drift from the zero
axis. Since the choice of the highpass lter, especially the choice of the central frequency of the highpass
lter, a ects ground displacement substantially, it is crucial to nd a reliable and physically meaningful central
frequency for the highpass lter if ground motion spatial variation is considered in the structural response
analysis.

CONCLUSIONS
The required seating lengths for bridge seat connections to prevent the pull-o -and-drop collapse during strong
earthquakes have been calculated. The numerical results of the required seating lengths have been presented

Earthquake Engng. Struct. Dyn., 27, 91103 (1998) ? 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
A PARAMETRIC STUDY OF BRIDGE DECKS DURING EARTHQUAKE 101

and discussed with respect to the bridge vibration frequencies, span lengths, damping ratios, and the spatial
ground excitations. It is found that:
1. The di erential movements of bridge spans strongly depend on ground displacement. The largest seating
length is required when the natural frequency of the bridge coincides with the central frequency of the
ground displacement;
2. A larger seating length is required if multiple ground motions are less correlated; and if the multiple
ground motion phase shift is out-of-phase with the fundamental bridge vibration mode;
3. The variation of vibration properties of two adjacent spans is the dominant factor causing di erential
displacements when the natural frequencies of the two spans di er from each other noticeably. However,
ground motion spatial variations become the primary factor to cause di erential displacements when the
natural frequencies of the two spans are close to each other;
4. Damping ratios, site conditions and ground motion intensities all a ect the required seating length. It is
a very e ective way to reduce the required seating length by increasing the damping of the bridge.

APPENDIX I
For a zero mean stationary process x(t) with power spectral density function S(!),
 its mth order spectral
moment is de ned as
Z
m = ! m S(!)
 d ! (21)
0

In engineering applications, the spectral moment can be approximately calculated by


Z !c
m ! m S(!)
 d ! (22)
0

where !c is a high cut-o frequency.


The zero mean cross rate  and the shape factor of the power spectral density  can be obtained by
s
1 2
= (23)
 0
q
= 1 12 =0 2 (24)

The mean peak response is then obtained by15


p 
05772
xmax = 2 ln e T +  (25)
2 ln e T

where T is the duration of the stationary process,  = 0 is the standard deviation of the process, and

max(21; 2T );
0601
045
e T = (163 038)T; 016069 (26)


T; 069

In this study, all the above integrations are carried out numerically by using the commercial mathematical
library NAG.16

? 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earthquake Engng. Struct. Dyn., 27, 91103 (1998)
102 HONG HAO

APPENDIX II
For the bridge model shown in Figure 4, the mass matrix is

m1 0 0
0 0 0 0  
M1 0
M= 0 0 0  =
(27)
0 M2
m2 0
0
0 0
where m1 and m2 are the lumped masses of the two spans to their respective lateral displacement DOFs.
The sti ness matrices can be formed as
12k 12k 6k1 6k2

l21
1
+ l2 2 l l
2 1 2

6k1
4k 1 0 0  
l1
6k Ks1 0
Kss = 2
0 4k2 = (28)
l2 0 Ks2
12k3 6k3
2 l3
0 l3
6k3
l3 4k3

and
12k1 12k2

l21
l22

6k1  
l1 0 0
Ksb = = Kb1 0
(29)
6k2 0 Kb2
0
l2  
12k3 6k3
0 l23
l3

where ki = (EI)i =li , in which (EI)i and li are the exural rigidity and the height of the ith support.
If l1 = l2 and k1 = k2 , i.e. the rst two supports of the left span are identical as they are assumed in this
study, we set
0:5 0:5 0
3=4l1 3=4l1 0

1
Kss Ksb = 3=4l1 3=4l1 0 (30)

0 0 1
0 0 0

REFERENCES
1. A. Astaneh, Initial observations of the damage to the San Francisco Bay Bridge, in Preliminary Report on the Seismological and
Engineering Aspects of the October 17; 1989 Santa Cruz (Loma Prieta) Earthquake; Report No. UCB=EERC-89=14; Chapter 4.
Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California at Berkeley, 1989.
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