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CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 BIOLOGY OF WHITE GRUB SPECIES-


2.1.1 Adult-

Beneficial dung beetles and harmful chafer beetles are possesses in scaraboeidae
family. These are series of ecological function such as nutrient cycle seed dispersal, soil
aeration and regulation of entetic parasites and dung breeding dipterans pests (Mittal,
1993; Estrada and Coates, 1991; Fincher, 1981). Chafer beetles are Phytophagous in
nature and cause damage various commercial crops. In India regions, the first
comprehensive account on the scarab beetles was published (Arrow, 1910; Arrow, 1917)
in three valumer of Fauna of British India, total species were reported in Madhya
Pradesh, part of Central India.

The scarab pest, Holotrichia rustica and Holotrichia mucida was reported in
agricultural hosts like brinjal, groundnut, coffee and Moringa (Patil and Veeresh, 1985).
Daily collection of these beetles from host plants when combine with the recent report on
S. ruficollis, provides a basis on which develop management practices for the beetle
populations to prevent the grubs.

Recently, diversity and abundance of the scarab beetles in Colkas region of MTR
and reported the occurrence of 26 species distributed in 8subfamilies (Thakare et al.,
2011). Also, diversity of scarab beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) of Melghat Tiger
Reserve, Central India were found 32 species of scarab beetles belonging to 22 genera, 8
subfamily and families (Thakare et al., 2012).

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Several names (May- June beetle, June bugs) have been given to the adults of the
Scarab beetles (Metcalf and Metcalf, 1993; Crocker et al., 1995). The adult of Indian
Holotrichia species become active with the arrival of the monsoon or heavy pre-
monsoon shower; if the monsoon is late, the beetles emergence is accordingly delayed
(Yadava and Sharma, 1995). The colour of adult Phyllophaga species ranges from brown
to black. They are usually more than 25 mm long (Walschke et al., 1995; Potter, 1998).

Pupation likewise occurs beneath in soil surface. The adult life span is relatively
brief, lasting for only a few weeks. Adults are nocturnal and at day time break they
burrow in the ground (Ma Colloch and Hayer, 1923; Stweetman, 1931; Gruner, 1973) or
hide under loose vegetation (Miner, 1944).

The adults of June beetles are nocturnal and defoliators of trees, shrubs, and
grasses (Richter, 1958; Vallejo et al., 1998). In India, white grub adults emerge from the
soil during April- June in response to the first seasonal rains (Singh and Mishra, 2003).

The emergences of beetles were takes place at the time of dusk at 27- 300C. In
some species males and females can be distinguished by difference in the width of the
segments of the lower surface of the abdomen (Crocker et al., 1995). The scarab insects
feeding on host plants may induced the production of toxins and digestibility reduces
(Dicke, 1999).

The white grub adult emergence time, they needs some rain at least 11mm on the
last week of May. Rainfall, temperature, atmospheric humidity and wind velocity largely
groves the emergence, movement and distribution of adults (Mishra and Singh, 1999).
The second fortnight of June observed is the peak period of June beetles and emergence
continued until the fortnight of August (Mittal, 2000).

The pre-onset increase in atmospheric moisture is a feature of the monsoons


arrival in India and it may useful for forecasting and preparation of beetle management
(Raju et al., 2005). As this pre-monsoon humidity increases of the monsoons arrival, it
may also provide the same trigger for management action whereas adult control of

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Holotrichia species is being attempted in groundnut area (Raju et al., 2005; Yadava and
Sharma, 1995; Anith et al., 2006).

As the monsoon, there would be strong selection pressure for adult to respond to
environmental cues so as to maximize offspring fitness in the species natural
environment (Ward and Rogers, 2007). The low rainfall or irrigation would make highly
development of larvae.

The size of Holotrichia consanguinea was 18-28mm in length and 7-9mm in


width. The special sex dimorphic characters were recorded; usually females are larger
than males (Bhawane et al., 2011).

2.1.2 Larvae-

The C shape larval legs are well developed but rarely used for locomotion. Head
is large or oblique brown in colour with dark tinge downwordly inclined strongly
sclerotised, with powerful exposed mandibles (Imms, 1957). The white grub larvae are
feeds on roots of crops. They are easily distinguished from similar looking by the
presence of two rows of minute bristles on the underside on the last segment (Metcalf and
Flint, 1962).

The damage caused by Scarab larvae is estimated to reduce the crop yields by
about 40- 80 percent (Prasad and Thakur, 1959; Raodeo, 1974), and in a more recent
study by about 12- 60 percent (Pokhrel, 2004). At later stages of larval development,
white grubs are usually described as having a robust C- shaped body of white or cream
colour with three pairs of legs. The legs are four segmented, as well as are the antennae
(Richer, 1966).

The majority of the root grubs pupates during November- December, however, it
may also takes place during September and February. The larvae have well developed
yellow to reddish brown sclerotized head, C- shaped bodies, usually three pairs of

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thoracic legs, usually 10 segmented abdomen and spiracles on the mesothorax, rarely on
prothorax, and first eight abdominal segments of the body (Booth et al., 1990).

The white grub, Holotrichia species larvae are feed on the tap roots of the
seedlings and the damaged plants wilt and die (Bandara, 1990). These grubs are damage
to cause the commercial crops and injurious to the plant or sometime it may dead of the
whole plant. If the crop plants were damage or dead, the crop production may also be
reduced.

First instar larvae in October- February, second and third instar larvae are only
damaging stage and these were observed in February to June and this period appeared to
be the most suitable for control measures, which coincides with cultural operations that
were undertaken (Patil and Adsule, 1991). In Uttar Pradesh, India during May-
September 1991 indicated that eggs and 1st instar larvae were found during June- July,
with 2nd and 3rd instar larvae damaging potato tubers at the end of July and mid-August
respectively (Mishra and Singh, 1991).

The newly emerged grub of Holotrichia species are creamy white in colour. They
are three instar of the pest and body length and body width varies with the species. The
first and second instar larvae period is short as compare to the third instar larvae (Singh
and Mishra, 2003). The larvae of these beetles are associated with numbers of crops and
sometimes cause economic losses (GC et al., 2009).

The first instar larva of Holotrichia fissa (Bre) was completed in 18-23 days and
Holotrichia consanguinea was lasted in 9-18 days (Lolage and Patil, 1988); the average
duration of first instar larva was 32 days in Holotrichia serrata (Fab) and second instar
larva ranged from 32-38 days (Mujumdar and Teotia, 1965; Lolage and Patil, 1988). The
third instar larva of Holotrichia serrata (Fab) lasted 81 days and the Holotrichia
consanguinea was completed in six weeks (Yadava and Suxena, 1977).

The newly hatched grub was dirty white in colour, light brown head, feeds on
roots of crop and organic matter. In all two moults were observed during the larval
development which totally lasted for 66-78 days (Bhawane et al., 2011). The newly

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formed white grub species, Holotrichia consanguinea pupa measured near about 15-18
mm in length and 6-8 mm in breadth lasted 17-20 days (Bhawane et al., 2011). The
Holotrichia fissa (Bre) has been measured total pupal period ranged for 14-18 days and
Holotrichia coriacea (Hope) was ranged for 12-20 days (Lodge and Patil, 1988; Chandla
et al., 1988).

2.1.3 Taxonomy-

White grub has been defined as larvae of Melolonthidae (Wolcott, 1933). The
Melolonthidae larvae as feeding by preference on roots of crops and certain rutelid and
dynastic grubs as normally feeding on dead organic matter but attacking living roots in its
absence (De Fluiter, 1941).

The groups of white grub insects, beetles (Coleoptera) are the largest group about
40% of all insect species and consist of non less than 250 thousand species (Pracaya,
1999). White grub included in Melolonthidae and Scarabaeidae family of Coleoptera
order (Borror et al., 1992).

The white grub has been three segmented body such as head, thorax and
abdomen, in which thorax is three segmented (first segment is spiracles). The spiracles
serve as the exits point of O2 and CO2, it also evaporation of H2O (Jumar, 2000).

Characterization of the morphological approach has several weaknesses,


including the appearance of the characters are often influenced by environmental factors.
But the main weakness of this morphological approach is character recognition at the
level of sub- species, especially with the presence of twin species or sibling species
(Delluchi et al., 1989; Suskendriyati et al., 2000).

It belongs to the order Coleoptera, super family Scarabaeidae. The white grub
family is the second largest omnipresent family, which includes over 30000 species
(Mittal, 2000). The super family Scarabaeidae contains two other families that are
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Lucanidae and Passalidae. The family Scarabaeidae divided into thirteen subfamily viz.
Coprinae, Pleocomiinar, Aegiatiinae, Ochodaeinae, Hyposorinae, Troginae,
Melolonthinae, Rutelinae, Dynastinae and Cetoninae. Out of 1500 species recorded from
India in which 40 species are reported to be serious pests on economically important
Agricultural and Horticultural crops as well medically important host trees in different
parts of the country (Mittal, 2000).

The white grub is the group of scarabaeid. It has cream or white in colour body,
reddish brown head with cutters mouth type, three pairs of legs right at the back of the
head. The body of white grub is divided in to head, thorax and abdomen, total body
length ranges from 2-6 cm and diameter ranges from 0.5 to 1.5 cm (Sugiyarto, 2000;
Sugiyarto et al., 2002; Kompas, 2003).

The Many species of white grubs are well known pests of a number of cultivated
crops in India, that are belongs to four sub families of Scarabaeidae viz., Melolonthinae,
Dynastinae, Cetonivae and Rutelinae, which includes all the phytophagous species of the
family (Balasimha and Rajgopal, 2003) detailed review of the known pestiferous species
of white grubs in India was provided by (Veeresh, 1983; Yadava and Sharma, 1995).

For the effective management of only insect species, and especially for soil
dwelling pests, species- specific field ecology is of immense importance, but this has not
been studied in detail or Scarab pests of Indian forest experts (Kulkarni, 2006; Kulkarni
et al., 2007).

The external morphological study of scarab beetles, in which Holotrichia


consanguinea (Blanch) was found to be a compact and medium sized beetle with legs and
underside shining, labium and labrum hairy (Kangoo et al., 2011). Also, taxonomical
status of the genus Holotrichia Hope (Melolonthinae: Scarabaeidae) with re-description
of two poorly described species and key to species were studied (Khan and Ghai, 1982).

2.1.4 Oviposition behavior and Life cycle-

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The adult of white grubs are attracted to trees to feed and they tend to lay most
eggs in the higher portion of sod near wooded areas. The male and female were mated at
the evening (dusk time) at the time of emergence and flow down at the soil. The
oviposition period oranges from about 50- 100 days; fecundity varies from 0- 140 per
female (Potter, 1998).

The female Holotrichia consanguine (Blanch) and Leucopholis lepidophora


(Blanch) Deposit their eggs singly underground near the feeding material of roots. The
total numbers of eggs were nine to thirty per kujing time and they lay 1-8 inch white
colour eggs inside the soil (Yadava and Vijayavergia, 1994).

The Melolontha melolontha (L) female adult may lay eggs in group of 12- 46.
After absorption of water, the elongated oval eggs become connected into the spherical in
shape (Keller, 2000). Dietary habit differs from one community to another based on their
customs and in general, is influenced by many factors, including religion, tradition,
climate, family, age, culture, agriculture, medicines etc. (Joshi, 2002).

The duration of life cycle in different white grub species was found to be variable
ranging from one to five years (Veersh, 1980). The Holotrichia karschi Br. were
univoltine or one year life cycle (Bhawane et al., 2011).

Different species of white grubs have similar patterns of life cycle but may vary
according to the climatic factor at the time of emergence, egg lying, active larval period,
time of pupation and other stages (Sharma, 1989).

The life history of some of the beetles which take more than three years in
temperate region and two years seems to the normal (Matheson, 1985). Most typical
species have cycles that are annual or biennial depending on the environmental
conditions (Villalobos, 1995).

The few species may complete their life cycle in one year (e.g. Holotrichia
species) and other like European Chafer, Melolontha melolontha has at least of three
years cycle and many others have biannual cycle (Keller, 2000). Also, biological study of
some system of Holotrichia serrata (Fab) was studied (Patil and Bhawane, 1997).
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The scarab species most of their life spend below the soil surface. Eggs are
deposited in the soil and larvae spend one to four years in the soil, feeding on roots of
plants, depending on species and the latitude (Stweetman, 1958; Rolston and Barlow,
1980; Potter, 1998). Pupation likewise occurs beneath in soil surface. The adult life span
is relatively brief, lasting for only a few weeks.

2.2 PEST DAMAGE AND HOST PREFERENCE-


2.2.1 Pest damage-

Grubs have a long history as pests of farm crops and forest trees and have caused
extensive damage in pine nurseries, causing losses of 25- 40% (Johnston and Eaton,
1939). In worldwide distribution, the percentage of root loss due to the white grub insects
to be 8.9% on sweet potato farm. The larvae of white grubs are preferred corn,
groundnut, potatoes and strawberries but dislike legumes, sweet cloves and lucerne
(Matheson, 1985; Metcalf and Flinch, 1975).

The white grubs damages almost all types of agricultural crops and economical
important trees in natural and artificial stands that are roots of tea, coffee, cashewnut,
arecanut, rubber and forest nursery plants. The scarab species have been observed to
cause serious damage throughout the country right from Himalaya to Kerala and Gujrat
to North eastern region (Chandla et al., 1988; Misra, 1992).

The grubs feed on roots of almost all the crops, like potato, maize, wheat, barley,
jawar, bajara, groundnut, sesame, sunflower, chilies, cotton, sugarcane, tobacco, brinjal,
cucurbit, and ladys figure including turf, meadows, lawns and forest trees (Oya, 1995;
Fujiie and Yakoyama, 1996; Arita et al., 1993; Potter et al., 1992).

Sweet potato, Ipomea batata Lam, is cultivated through the tropical, subtropical
and warmer zones of the temperature region of the world (Chalfan et al., 1990). On a
worldwide basis the white grub complex (Scarabaeidae) is among the most injurious pest
of sweet potato (Yamaguch and Rabatzky, 1997; Jansson and Raman, 1991; Chalfant et
al., 1990; Subramanian et al., 1977).
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Several species of white grubs are root feeding pests such as turf grass, forage
grass, corn, small grains, sugarcane, strawberry, potato tubers, and young nursery trees
(Crocker et al. 1996). Also, the green beetles feed the leaves and flowers and European
Chafer adults feed from the margins without leaving the midribs causing host plants
completely damaged (Keller, 2000).

The white grub infestation is severe during the Kharif season (south-west
monsoon, June- October) causing serious damage to groundnut Arachis hypogaea
Linnaeus, pearl millet Pennisetum typhoides Linnaeus, sorghum Sorghum vulgare
Linnaeus, maize Zea mays Linnaeus, sesamum Sesamum orientale Linnaeus (Desai and
Patel, 1965; Patel et al., 1967).

The larvae of white grubs are preferred corn, groundnut, potatoes and strawberries
but dislike legumes, sweet cloves and lucerne (Matheson, 1985; Metcalf and Flinch,
1975; Keller et al., 2000). The biology of the studied pest is nearly the same as that of the
white grub species attacking various agricultural crops (Joshi et al. 2003).

The Clinterio species in which, Clinterio klugi were injurious to the roots of
Tectona grandisc (Regupathy et al., 1995). The immature forms are saprophagous or
phytophagous, feding on roots, stems or organic matter in which, few are economically
important, causing injury to crops such as corn and sugarcane (Moron, 2004). The pearl
Millet 8 own on 17 June escaped the damage of Rhinyptia indica beetles and recorded
highest yield and minimum losses (Mitharuial et al., 2007).

Out of several species of white grubs damaging potatoes, Holotrichia coracea


(Hope) is the predominant species in North- Western hills of Himachal Pradesh (Mishra,
1995). Also, the potato crop planted in April and harvest on September suffered tuber
damage due to attack of white grub Holotrichia species (Mishra, 2002).

The 100% damage to crops of the infestation was caused by white grub (Yadava
and Mathur, 1987). The Scarabaeids damage to groundnut and in the world, listing a total
22 species from 9 genera associated with groundnut in India (Wightman and Ranga Rao,

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1994). White grub damaging groundnut in the region includes (Hussain M., 1974; Rao et
al., 1976; Pal S.K., 1977).

More recent research on white grub indicate that of the many Melolonthidae
genera found under the crop in India, the genus Holotrichia includes the most important
pest species in groundnut (Yadava and Sharma, 1995; Mustak Ali, 2001). At that time,
the predominant species known to be associated with groundnut in Southern India was
Holotrichia serrata (Wightman and Ranga Rao, 1994).

On the global scale, southern India is a major groundnut producing region, with
the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamilnadu produsing more than 5 million
tones of nuts from almost 5 million hectares in 1998/99, that is almost 60% of Indian
production and 16% of world production (Ali, 2003; Maneepun, 2003).

Sugarcane white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) feed on roots occurring


lodging, reduced plant growth and death of the cane. This holds 75 percent share among
all insect pest losses to sugarcane in Australia (Anonymous, 1995). Availability of
moisture for a longer time in sugarcane crops tends to increase the white grub build up
markedly (David and Anathanarayanan, 1986).

The larvae of the Chinese rose beetle, Burmeister feed on the roots, root hairs,
rootless, tubers and rhizomes of variety of plants. The tuber crop like potato, the grubs
make large, shallow and circular holes and render them unfit for consumption. The white
grubs are subterranean and attack wide range wild plants and crops such as potato,
chilies, tomato, okra, brinjal, ginger, and cole crops are the vegetables severely damaged
(Singh and Mishra, 2003). Almost all field crops growing during the rainy season are
damaged.

White grub species are damaged the primary hosts are sugarcane, soyabean, black
gram, sorghum, maize, mungbean, pigeon pea, tomato, sweet potato, jasmine, cow pea,
sunflower, potato, bell pepper, coffee, barley, oats, radish, Indian oats, ginger etc.
(Bhatacharjee and Bhatia, 1981; Crockeret et al., 1990; Baksha, 1990).

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The Holotrichia species in which Holotrichia serrata (Fab) has potential to cause
complete loss in sugarcane crop and subsequently damage the underground portions of
the stalks by scooping hole (Nair, 2011).

2.2.2 Host preference-

The tap root system crops are more susceptible as compare to the adventitious
roots and also nonstructural carbohydrates found within the plant stimulates feeding in
the beetles. Adult June beetles are nocturnal defoliators of trees, shrubs, and grasses in
diverse ecological regions (Richter, 1958; Vallejo et al., 1998).

Preference of adults Holotrichia species for mating and feeding trees are known
for some species in other parts of India, adult host trees includes ber (Zizyphus spp.),
neem (Azadirachta indica) and drumstick (Moringa oleifera) (Yadava and Sharma, 1995)
with a 1:1 sex ratio for adults on trees (Leal et al., 1996). Holotrichia serrata occur most
commonly on neem, Butea monosperma and babhul, Acacia spp. (Yadava and Sharma,
1995).

The white grub species are feed on the leaves of plants like Guinea grass, castor bean,
seasame, sun hemp, cotton, biter almond, grapevine, phalsa, fig, mango, stone fruits,
citrus, turf grasses and the additional wild host such as neem, scented thorn, lemon
scented, gum, common jujube, guava, mora, wattles etc. (Bhatacharjee and Medd, 1981;
Rohill et al., 1981; Crockeret et al., 1990; Baksha, 1990).

The adult of Holotrichia serrata adults feeds on foliage of host trees like neem,
Ailanthus sp., acacia (Acacia arabica), Prosopis sp., Zyziphus sp., etc. (Nair, 2011). The
white grub species, Anomala dimidiate in Kumaon Hills reported 32 food species from
food crops and 18 host plants during larval stages (Verma, 1993). The species of
cetoniinae superfamily exhibit diurnal habit feed on flowers as well as plant sap and fruits
(Mico et al., 2008).

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2.3 STUDIES ON SPECIES IDENTIFICATION OF WHITE GRUBS-

The scarab species were identified by various scientists and give standard key
(Arrow, 1910, 1917; Balthasar, 1963) and classified adopted for the superfamily
scarabeoidea (Smith, 2006).

The criteria for identification of adults are often general and superficial: size,
colouration, feeding habitats and periods of adult activity (Potter, 1998). Phyllophaga
species are similar to each other in morphology and are difficult to distinguish (Dillon
and Dillon, 1961).

After that the collection scarab beetles was identified to species level based on the
keys and characters lists (Veeresh, 1977; Mittal anf Pajni, 1977; Khan and Ghai, 1982).
Also, defoliating beetles were identified to collected beetles by standard key (Chandela et
al., 1997; Singh and Mishra, 2003).

An extensive survey of Scarabaeidae in Uttar Pradesh, India and recorded twelve


species were first recorded from the state for first time. The beetles were found feeding
on variety of plant species, some being of economic importance of scarab species
(Mathur et al., 1989). Fourteen species of Scarabaeidae were trapped in light trap in
Kumaon, Uttar Pradesh, India during 1995 and 1996 of which Anomala dimidiate B. was
the predominant one (Mishra and Singh, 1993).

The diversity of phytophagous Scarabaeidae in Georgia and the need for need for
identification of white grub infestations to genus or species level in order to maximize
management efforts (Forschler and Gardner, 1991). The total 21 species of white grubs

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recorded on defoliating beetles on apple, pear, pulm and apricot in Himachal Pradesh
during 1990 and 1991 (Chandela et al., 1997).

The Leucopholis lepidophora was found distributed throughout the hilly area
covering Uttar Kannada, Dakshina Kannada, Shimoga, Chikmaglur districts of the state.
These accounts for 58.3% of total area visited and 88.15% arecanut garden were infested
with white grubs (Kumar, 1997). It also found in Kundari, Kasari, and belt of
Panchaganga Riverine of Kolhapur district (Bhanot and Bhawane, 1992).

In Miyako Island, the larvae of Scarabaeidae were found extensively from interior
to the coastal areas, whereas the occurrence of Dasylepida spp. Larvae was restricted to
the interior areas where damaged the fields are frequently found (Sadoyama et al., 2001).
The white grubs belonging to eight sub families distributed over are host trees in
Uttaranchal hills. An extensive survey of white grub menacc areas in Uttaranchal showed
that, five major species of Scarabaeid beetles viz., Holotrichia longipennis Blanch,
Holotrichia setiocolis Moser, Anomala dimidiate Hope, Anomala leneatopennis Blanch
and Brahmina coricea Hope caused the several damage on various crop (Singh and
Mishra, 2003).

In general, the grubs of Phyllophaga are identified painstakingly (Flanders et al.,


2000). Colorado State University Extension reported the standard key to insect orders.
The white grub species was identified by the raster patterns of larvae.

2.4 MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES/ CONTROL MEASURES-


Insidious damage, late appearance symptoms and most damaging of the larval and
adult period to insecticides or chemical pesticides, biological or microbial, mechanical
and biopesticidal control.
2.4.1 Microbial control-

Among the microbial control agents entomogenous fungi like Beauveria


basssiana (Balsama) Vuillemin and Beauveria brongniarti (Matschinikoff) Sorokin have

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proved excellent control against a large number of insect pests (Pandey and Kanaujia,
2005); microbial studies of gut of Holotrichia serrata (fab) (Patil and Bhawane, 1996).

Fungi are dependent on the medium as the substrate for all the elements and
compounds they require or utilize, except molecular oxygen and carbon dioxide which
they obtained from atmosphere. Knowledge of the effect of these nutrients may assist in
understanding the population dynamics of the fungi under the influence of both biotic and
abiotic factors in the soil and help in developing strategies for successful application of
the fungi as biocontrol agents (Sharma et al., 2002).

Pathogenicity tests of conidia produced from different solid substrate was carried
out against third instar larvae of Holotrichia serrata (Fab) resulted that the SDA medium
showed higher virulence against Holotrichia serrata (Fab) larvae (Thamarai et al., 2010).
They concluded the among the various solid substrate highest conidia produced with
higher viability and virulence was recorded in conidia produced from cow pea grains
medium while lowest was in conidia produced from rice bean medium.

In a laboratory study, the fungus Metarrhizium anisopliae when used at higher


doses (7.98 1.7 conidia/ g) caused 90 percent mortality of Holotrichia consanguinea
seven days after treatment (Patel et al., 1986). White grubs are economically important
pest insects in Nepal, however, its strategic management is lacking in the country (G.C.
and Keller, 2002).

A field experiment was conducted in Maharashtra, India. To study the efficiency


of B. brongniartii against white grubs (Holotrichia serrata) infesting sugarcane. The
spores of B. brongniartii were applied at 109 spores/ ml. The treated plots showed 2.5
percent damage, 1.5 white grub larvae per meter of low length and a yield of 19 t/ ha. The
untreated plots showed 74 percent group damage, 36 white grub larvae (Chirame et al.,
2003).

The pathogenic fungi Metashizium anisopliae effectively controlled a number of


grub species, and showed good field persistence (Yakoyama et al., 1998). The efficacy of

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soil application of Lypophilized mycelial and M. aqnisopliae conidia practices against
white grubs and mortality occurred significantly (Krueger et al., 1990).

When M. aqnisopliae var. anisopliae tested against third instar larvae of cane
grubs and recorded LC50 value of M. aqnisopliae @ 8.7 104 cinidia per gram peat
substrate ten weeks after inoculation. The dose of 1 106 conidia per g peat killed 96%
cane grubs, 85% Lepidiota spp. And less than 36% of other five species of cane grubs
tested (Milner et al., 2002).

A number of biological agents, viz, parasites, predators and the micro- organisms
of this pest have been reported by various workers (Veeresh, 1983; Yadava et al., 1973;
Jayaramaiah and Veeresh, 1983; Vyas et al., 1990).

A considerable control using the toxin from Bacillus thuringiersis serovas


japonenisis (Strain buibui), which is specific to Scarabaeidae larvae (Suzuki et al., 1994).
Field trial conducted in arecnut garden near Sagara and Shimoga in Karnataka state,
against root grub showed Metarrhizium anisopliae 1 108 conidia/g @1.1 kg per acre
given 50.97% mortality which is significantly differ with neem cake @ 550kg per acre
which gave only 14.21% mortality (Channakeshava, 2006).

2.4.2 Mechanical control-

As the field is prepared using traditional bullock driven plough, a large


number of birds follow it and pick up white grubs and other insects which are exposed
(Yadava et al., 1971). The low and high moisture content in the soil affected the growth,
developments and movement of the grubs Holotrichia serrata saturated soil moisture was
required for emergence of beetles (Veeresh, 1977).

However, white grubs have abdominant role in maintaining many insect pests at
innocuous level in forest ecosystem (Morris et al., 1958; Tinbergen, 1960; Dickson et al.,
1979; Torgersen and Mason, 1987).

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Although birds are reported to feed on white grubs (Bhattacharjee and Bhatia,
1981; Nath and Singh, 1984) there exist no quantitative information on the extent of
control brought about birds during the ploughing operation and the benefits gained
thereby.

The beetles could be influenced by several physical characteristics of the soil such
as temperature, rainfall, moisture, vegetation, soil texture etc. that physical features of the
ground covers influenced the site selection of white grub species (Miner, 1944). The role
of moisture on the ecology of invertebrates is often over looked (Tauber et al., 1998).

The sufficient rain (moisture) was required for emergence of beetles. Drought
during monsoon season caused the depth of beetle in the soil itself (Yadava and Saxena,
1977). Also the stagnation of water in the field increases the grub mortality in the soil.
Optimum moisture content in the soil increases the grub movement and migration
(Yadava, 1991).

The low moisture caused movement of the grub into deeper layer of soil and it
also affected the pupation and beetles emergence (Mishra and Singh, 1993). The
optimum soil moisture increased the survival percentage of grubs whereas high soil
moisture caused mortality of grub (Gupta and Yadava, 1993).

The light soil provides the optimal condition for the survival and multiplication of
the many pests (Blossey and Joshi, 2003). In Nepal, such soil have brought under
cultivation with better irrigation facilities, the grub gradually multiplied and become the
serious threat to crops in the area, a similar situation is also reported in India (Singh and
Mishra, 2003). The dethatching in the summer prior to when you would treat for white
grub will definitely be helpful. If irrigation is available, apply 0.5 inch of water 28.48
hour prior to treatment to bring insects up towards the surface and to wet the thatch.

2.4.3 Chemical control-

16
To spraying of carbaryl and fenitrothion for the control of the white grub beetles
(Bindra et al., 1971). Also, spraying of carboryl on the host trees gives the best control of
white grub beetles (Kaunsane et al., 1978).

The soil drenching with chlorypyriphos was effective for control of the pest (Patil
et al., 1991). The use of chemical pesticides in nursery adversely affects the chemical
balance of the soil (Patil and Singh, 1991).

In some banned insecticides such as BHC followed by metacid are still been used,
that insecticides may effects on other living organisms (Dahal, 1995). The gamma- HCH
were used for the control of the white grub in a groundnut crop area.

Lorsban (chlorpyrifos) has been used against a wide range of soil organisms on
several crops that has a broad spectrum of activity (Kucharek and Edmonton, 1991; Giles
and Obrycki, 1997). The efficacy of these registered compounds and other product for
control of white grubs has been studied in Louisiana in recent years (Story et al., 1998;
Hammond and Story, 1999; Hammond et al., 2000; Story et al., 2003).

The white grubs are an impediment to agricultural development in many parts of


the world. The capacity of white grubs to occupy diverse agricultural environments and
the lack of effective insecticides for their control are primary seasons for their serious
pests (Jakson, 1992). During the last sixty years, these white grubs have serious problems
in several countries (USA, France, Australia, New Zealand).

Soil mixing of 200g phorate 10 G per bed size of 101 m (Vaishampayan and
Bandari, 1981) or carbofuran (Furadon) 3 G 150g per bed of 101 m from June- July is
highly effective against white grubs (Joshi et al., 2001).

Acetic acid is another example of a nonselective herbicide being marked and sold
as a non- synthetic product, but it is not considered a low- impact pesticide under the
New Sersey School IMP law. The 95- 99.5% of the white grub insecticides have been
reported to get stuck in the thatch the never make it to the root zone where the white grub
are feeding. Chemical control should only be contemplated if grub counts exceed 6-8 per

17
square foot. Grub population of 8-15 per square foot may not cause damage if lawns
receive adequate water (Home and garden, University Manyland Extention).

Such a changes became imminent mainly because of the increasing failure of


chemical pesticides in controlling most of the major pests and also due to the ever
increasing global pollution, health hazards; destruction of beneficial organism, pest
resurgence, secondary pest outbreaks, biodiversity deterioration of plant and soil health
(Baker and Gyawali, 1994).

Small neem trees may be sprayed with carbaryl or endosulfan or cloropyriphos


immediately after the first summer showers to kill congregating beetles (Nair, 2011).
Although, the big branches of the neem trees may be sprayed with the cloropyriphos and
reduced the beetle defoliation.

2.4.4 Biopesticidal control-

Impact of different plant derived pesticides of Ipomea fistulosa, Pongamia glabra,


Parthenium hysterophorus, Azadirachta indica and Callophylum inophyllum on the
digestive carbohydrates (amylase, invertase and trehalase) of the white grubs,
Leucopholic lepidophora and Holotrichia fissa (Bhanot, 1984; Bhanot and Bhawane,
1992). Reduction of trehalose was major of blood content due to Azadirachtin treatment
(Ayyangar and Rao, 1990).

The biopesticides have been recommended for control (Vaishampayan and


Bhandari, 1981; Meshram et al., 1990, 1993). Biopesticides have been evaluated in field
trials (Kard et al., 1988; Milner et al., 1992; Klein, 1995).

The biopesticides cakes have both contact and systematic action in plants or act as
soil amendments. When applied to soil, the plants absorb pesticide through their roots
and translocate it throughout the plants as protection against nematodes, termites and root
grubs (Patil and Singh, 1991). Among neem products, Achook 10 G @ 10kg per ha as
furrow application showed some promising results for white grub control in groundnut
crops (Patel et al., 1996).

18
In the recent studies are trying to circumvent these limitations, using combined
applications of biopesticides with other products (Gruner, 1973; Schalk et al., 1993;
Thurston et al., 1993; Rajagopalan et al., 1995; Choo et al., 1996; Koppenhofer and
Kaya, 1997).

Botanical pesticides exert a range of behavioral and physiological effects on the


colonization, development, growth survival and multiplication of insects (Anonymous,
2008). In Nepal, aqueous extracts of Spilathes acmella Murr. (1kg/ 5litre), buffalo and
cow urine (20%) have been reported providing efficient control of flee beetle,
IPhyllotreta nemorus L. in radish under field conditions (Subedi and Kamini, 2003).

Effectiveness of fermented cattle urine (1:6) and natural products of Nicotiana


tabaccum Lin., Azadirachta indica Lin., Capsicum annum Lin., and Allium cepa Lin. in
the management of barley aphid, D. noxia was tested in Ethiopia. Studies revealed that all
the treatments were toxic to Datura innoxia and provided more than double increase in
yield (Tesfaye and Gautam, 2003).
Mixing of 10kg neem cake per bed size 10 1m against white grub Holotrichia
serrata for the protection of seedlings of Withania somnifera in a forest nursery in
Poama, Chhindwara, Madhya Pradesh, India was recommended (Meshram, 2005). The
effective control for some species but there is a need for research to refine control
measures and development of new options for management of important Scarab pests
(Jackson and Klein, 2006).
Efficacy of plants viz. neem, Azadirachta indica (L.), Sapindus mukorossi (L.),
Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium (L.), bitti, Nerium oleander (L.), errand, Jatropha
curcas (L.), Utrica diocia (L.) and Vetex negundo (L.) extracted in indigenous cow
(Hariana) urine and used @5ml/litre was tested in the field trials during 2007 and 2008 to
control with grub, Brahmina coriacae (Hope) (Puja Rani et al., 2009).

2.5 HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF SCARAB SPECIES-


In the beginning of 19th century, before introduction of an art of sectioning many
valid conclusions regarding morphology of insect gut and digestion mechanism were

19
drawn on the basis of studies made by early entomologist Swammerdam, Malphighi and
others (Ramdhor, 1811).
The excretory malphighian tubes discharge into the alimentary tract usually at the
junction of the midgut and hindgut. The hindgut is often fairly long and may be divided
into different regions, such as ileum and large intestine. It usually ends in an enlarged
rectum into which project rectal pads (Day and Waterhouse, 1953).
In insect, the alimentary canal is divided into three regions, foregut or stomodium,
midgut or mesonterm and hindgut or proctodacum (Snodgrass, 1935). The foregut
commences at the buccal cavity, into which saliva is discharged by one or more salivary
glands. The pharynx leads to oesophagous, which connects to crops and followed by
muscular proventriculus. The foregut is complete by an oesophagea invagination
projection into the midgut. Midgut is a variable in length. The excretory malphighian
tubes discharge into the alimentary tract usually at the junction of the midgut and
hindgut. The midgut is long and divided into different regions, such as ileum and large
intestine. It usually ends in an enlarged rectum into which project rectal pads (Day and
Waterhouse, 1953).
Also, histomorphological details of alimentary canal have been investigated in
several species of coleopterons insects (Sedlaereck, 1902; Bordas, 1903, 1904, 1906;
Portier, 1911; Payne, 1916; Woods, 1918; Bououre, 1919; Balfour- Browne, 1934, 1936;
Thiede, 1936; Jones, 1940; Swingle, 1950; Arrekul, 1957; Gupta, 1965; Kumar and
Adjei, 1975; Bhanot, 1992).
The internal organ of reproduction in male and female is of interested to
taxonomist, morphologist and physiologist. The taxonomist and morphologist describe
and use the structural features for classification and attempt to interpret the structure in
term of ontogenetic and physiogenetic origin. The physiologists, on the other hand
elucidate the function of the system with the help of anatomical details (Engelmann,
1970).
In female internal reproductive organs comprises of paired ovaries, paired
mesodermal lateral oviducts and the ectodermal common medial oviduct and vagina. The
male reproductive organs consist of paired testes, vasa efference, vasdeference with

20
vesicular seminalis, accessory glands, and an unpaired ducts ejaculatorius and external
genitalia (Bordas, 1900).
Recent literature on the digestive histology and physiology of insect is vast and
this subject has been frequently reviewed in the past three decades (Day and Waterhouse,
1953; Gilmour, 1961; Wigglesworth, 1965; House, 1965; Gilbert, 1967; Applebaum,
1984).
There are very few reports available on the effects of various toxicants on the gut
epithelium of different insect pests (Pilat, 1935; Woke, 1940; Salked, 1951; Soliman and
Soliman, 1958; Kock, 1960; Sharma, 1966; Lakshman Lal et al., 1970; Singh, 1990).
Midgut epithelium is the prominent site that usually exhibits such cytological
impairements. The loss to the midgut epithelium due to the destruction of regenerative
cells is suppose to be the primary cause of death of weevil, when exposed to the
insecticides (Reimann and Flint, 1967).
Very little information exists on the toxicity and physiology of the digestion in
Scarabaeidae. As the grub consumes roots of crop plants along with soil and humus there
is change in internal anatomy of digestive tract.

2.6 TOXICITY

Toxicity means the substances is being harmful, destructive or poisonous to the


life of any organism and may come to death. The toxicity have associated with many
terms like acute, it can be used to reflect the level of toxicity. Also, LC 50 and LD50
toxicity may confuse sometimes. The LC50 means that the concentration of a chemical or
toxicant that kills 50% of a sample, used population when exposed to a pesticide through
the animal breathing in, while LD50 refers to the dose of chemical or toxicant substance
which kills 50% of a sample population when the exposure is by swallowing, through
injection or a skin contact of animal.
The toxicity of most plant extracts varies on the type and depending upon the
animal species involved. The total 19 phytochemical composition were extracted due to
the variation in susceptibility between individual animals. An acute toxicity of tobacco,
Nicotina tobacum leaf dust was carried out on Oreochromis niloticus (Agbon et al.,
21
2002), LC50 value for 109.6mg/l at 48 hours. Also acute toxicity of certain plant extracts
on various fish species was studied (Ufodike and Omoregie, 1994; Saha and Kaniraj,
1996).
Also, acute toxicity is differentiated from chronic- toxicity, which describes the
adverse health effects from repeated exposures, often at lower level, to a substance over a
longer time period (Nic, 2006).

2.6.1 Datura innoxia (Mills)-


Datura innoxia (Mills) is known as thorn apple or moon flower. In India,
Datura innoxia (Mills) is commonly called as Dhotara especially in Maharashtra. Datura
innoxia (Mills) is a species is native to central and South America and introduced in
Africa, Asia, Australia and Europe. Widely distributed Solanaceous plant in Sudan are
two species of night shade or Devils apple, Datura innoxia Mills., and Datura
stranonium L., which are found in Marathwada (MS) (Elhadi, 2002). Datura innoxia
(Mills) is a shrub plant that typically reaches a height 0.6 to 1.5m only. The white colour
funnel shape flower has 12-19 cm long. Whole plant parts emit foul odor similar to rancid
peanut butter when crushed or bruished. The active solanaceous plants are always
declared in different regions (Silva et al., 2005; Satti and Abdelrahman, 2008).
Datura fastuosa (Mills) contain compounds tigloidine (3B-tigloyloxytropane),
6B-tigloxytropanea-ol, tropine (3a- hydroxyl tropane), apoatropine, hyoscyamine,
scopolamine (Shahwar et al., 1995). The inhibited activity of Datura against
Mocrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani (Shahnaz et al., 2010); leaf extract of
Datura reduced the development of rust pustules on the leaves of wheat (Hasan et al.,
2010). The Datura species are rich in alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, phenols, essential
oils and cardiac glycosides (Gilman, 1990; Ayuba et al., 2011); the insecticides activities
of these plants were documented against some pests in different parts of the world
(Khalequzzaman and Islam, 1992; Lohra et al., 2002).

22
Datura innoxia (Mills) extract plays an important role of insecticidal activities
against various insects, such as feeding deterrence, moulting disturbances and increasing
mortality activity (Chopra et al., 1986; Oliver- Bever, 1986; De Geyter et al., 2007;
Chaieb, 2010), and phenolic compounds are also affected on insects and it decrease the
fertility and shortening their life span (Zivanov- Curils et al., 2004; Golawska et al.,
2008) whereas tannins may cause oxidative stress and nutrients problems (Summers and
Felton, 1994). Datura innoxia (Mills) plant extracts were found to cause significant
mortality and affecting oviposition and development of some other insect pests (Behera
and Satapathy, 1996; Maheshwari and Dwivedi, 1996; Gang et al., 2000; Lohra et al.,
2002).

2.6.2 Thevetia peruviana (Pers)-


The Yellow oleander is commonly caused as Bitti in India. The Yellow oleander
or Thevetia peruviana (Pers) is belonging to the family Apocynacea (Tetwtract et al.,
2002). Yellow oleander or bitti is a small shrub growing in garden and roadside as
ornamental plant. Storage losses due to attack by insect cause a several loss to small scale
farmers in developing countries who rely on the stored cereals and legume throughout the
storage period to feed their families (Kestenholk, 2001). The Thevetia peruviana (Pers)
plant are known as toxin to insecticide for termites. The oil of Thevetia peruviana (Pers)
was used to make paint with antifungal, antibacterial and antitermite properties.
The Thevetia peruviana (Pers) plant in which toxins are cardenolides called
Thevetin A and Thevetin B, other includes peruvoside, neriifolin, thevetoxin and
ruvoside are present (Rajpakshe et al., 2009; Roberts, 2006).
No solvent residues remain in the product after super critical extraction, nor are
there any chemical changes initiated in the extract due to applying such a processing
techniques, which gives an extract of outstanding quality (Catchpole et al., 1996). The
Thevetia peruviana (Pers) produce cardiac glycosides and nerifolin, which have a
relatively high therapeutic index compassed with that of digoxin (Mathur and Sharma,
1980; Gata- Goncalver et al., 2003; Omolara et al., 2007).

23
The antifungal activity results of CEM from Thevetia peruviana (Pers) seeds
examined the presence of compounds of vey high molecular weight (Ibiyemi et al., 2002)
such as terpenes and fatty acids which were identified using capillary gas
chromatography (Gata- Gonalves et al., 2003). The parts of Thevetia peruviana (Pers)
plant have been fatal poisoning in the world (Brester, 1986; Haynes, 1989; Osterloh,
1988; Ansford et al., 1981; Saraswat et al., 1992).
The Thevetia peruviana (Pers) pat is an antifungal, antibacterial and anti-termite
property (Kareru et al., 2010). It is toxin insecticide for termites and also inhibited
spermatogenesis in rat, developing an herbal male contraceptive (Gupta et al., 2011).

2.7 HISTOMORPHOLOGY OF WHITE GRUBS-

The internal anatomy of the larvae of various genera comparatively studied in


larval Phaneus vindex (Coprinae) in Phallophaga gracilis in larva Canthon pilularis in
Popollia japonica in larval Oryctes rhinocerous (Areekul, 1957; Bacton, 1930; Jones,
1940; Rapp, 1947; Swingle, 1950; Gressitt, 1953).
Many of the insecticides used in the pest control get entry into the alimentary
canal along with the ingested food material and pose a direct threat to the gut epithelium.
Histology of the alimentary canal of some white grubs was studied (Areekul, 1957;
Berberet and Helms, 1972; Bhanot, 1992).
Some information on the effects of the pesticides on the various enzymes
including digestive enzymes of insects is available (Bhawane and Bhanot, 1991; Bhanot
and Bhawane, 1992). The phosphatase and trehalase in the different tissues of male and
female adults of Leucopholis lepidophora were done (Bhanot and Bhawane, 1992).
The larval and adult of Phyllophaga anxia, Coprophaneus lanciref and Oryctes
nasicornis was studied (Berberate and Helms, 1972; Edmons, 1974; Bayon, 1980). A
comprehensive account on the alimentary canal and histology of six species of
Lepidoptera were studied (Mortimer, 1965).
The digestive tract of lepidopterous species was also studied (Chaudhari and
Callahan, 1967; Le Grice, 1968; Judy and Gilbert, 1970; Gongalves, 1981). Also, the
24
Diacrisia oblique anatomy and histological study of alimentary canal were studied (Kabir
and Ameen, 1986), Papilio demoleus (Goyle, 1990); adult of Papilio polytes polytes
(Gaikwad et al., 2011).

25