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# CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION
A. Rationalization of the importance of critical book review
Criticizing books is a scientific activity undertaken to provide feedback and
assessment of the contents of a book. The purpose of this book is to provide
comprehensive information or understanding of what appears and is revealed in a book.
It also gives consideration to the reader whether the book deserves a welcome from the
public or not. Critical books are useful to increase the essential knowledge of the criticized
book. Readers who want to know more about the entire contents of the book will then
look in the stores or sites that sell the books.
In this "Critical Book Review", the author reviews and analyzes a book entitled
"Introduction to Matrices and Linear Transformations". This book is written by Daniel
T. Finkbeiner. " Introduction to Matrices and Linear Transformations " was published in
1919 by W.H. Freeman and Company. The 471-page book consists of eleven chapters,
namely: 1) Chapter I, about linear equations; 2) Chapter II, about linear spaces, 3) Chapter
III, about linear mappings. 4) Chapter IV, on matrices, 5) Chapter V, on determinants, 6)
Chapter VI equivalence realitions on rectangular matrices, 7) Chapter VII a canonical
form for similariy, 8) Chapter VIII on inner product spaces, 9) Chapter IX on scalar-
valued functions, 10) Chapter X, Application: Linear Programming, and 11) Chapter XI,
Application: Linear Differential Equations. A brief explanation on this critical book about
Determinants, is in chapter V that will be explained briefly in Chapter II.
B. Goals of CBR
This Critical Book Review aims:
1. Review the contents of a book.
2. Finding and knowing the information contained in the book.
3. Train yourself to think critically in searching for information provided by each
chapter of the first and second books.
4. Compare the contents of the first book and the second book
5. Find the advantages and disadvantages of the first book content
C. Benefits of CBR
1) To fulfill the task of the course of Introduction to Matrices and Linear
Transformations.
2) To increase knowledge determinants.
D. Book Identity
1. Title : Introduction to Matrices and Linear Transformations.
2. Edition : Third Edition
3. Author : Daniel Talbot Finkbeiner
4. Publisher : W.H. Freeman and Company
5. City of Publication : America
6. Year of Publication : 1919
7. ISBN : 0-7167-0084-0
CHAPTER II
SUMMARY
A. Determinants
1. Basic Properties of Determinants
Althoung the case n = 1 is trivial, it is the obvious starting pint. The determinant of a
one-by-one matrix is defined by:
det (a) = a
For n = 2 the determinant of a two-by-two matrix is defined by:
11 12
( ) = 11 22 21 12
21 22
For n = 3 the determinant of a three-by-three matrix is defined by:
11 12 13
( 21 22 23 ) = 11 22 33 + 21 21 21 + 21 21 21

31 32 33
21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21

obviously the coputation reqired to verify these statements for n = 3 is much longer that
required to verify the corresponding atatements for n =2. it is aqually obvious that a
computational defenition of det A for n-by-n matrix will be quite awkward, so we shall
tha a different approach.
Defenition 1
a determinant is a function, denoted det, that assigns to each n-by-n matrix having column
vectors A1,......, An ascalar avlue det A that has the following three properties : for each
scalar c and each i = 1,....,n.
1) det (A1, ......, cAi, ......, An) = c det (A1, ..., Ai, ...., An)
2) det (A1, ..., Ai,..., Aj,...., An) = det (A1, ..., Ai + cAj, ...., An) for each ji
3) det (I) = 1.

Theorem 1
If det is a function having properties 1 and 2 of definition 1, the the following statements
hold for each 1, j = 1,...., n such that ji
a) det (A1, ..., Ai,..., Aj,...., An) = - det (A1, ..., Ai + cAj, ...., An). in words, intercahnge
of any columns of a reverses the sign of the determinant; or, det is an alternating
function of the column of A.
b) if the columns of A are linearly dependent, then det A = 0.
c) if the columns of B are a permutation of the columns of A, then det B = det A,
where the plus sign applies if that permutation can be performed by an even
number of transpositions (interchange of pairs of column), and the minus sign
applies if the permutation can be performed by an add number of tranformations.
d) det (A1, ..., Bi+Ci..., An) = det (A1, ..., Bi,...., An) + det (A1, ..., Ci,...., An). in words,
if column i is expressed as the sum of two column vectors, Ai=Bi + Ci, then det A
is the sum of the two indicated determinants; or det A is an additive function of
each column.
2. An Explicit Formula For Det A
Let A and B be any n-by-n matrices and let C = BA. we compute the elements in
Ck, column k of C:
1 = 11 1 + 12 2 + + 1
2 = 21 1 + 22 2 + + 2
.
.
= 1 + 2 2 + +
Letting Bj denote column j of B, we can write

1 = 11 1 + 12 2 + + 1 =
=1
Hence: det C = det (C1, C2,..., Cn) = det(=1 1, =1 2 , , =1 )

Theorem 2 An function det that has the three properties of defenition 1 must have the
form
det A = (1) (1) (2)2 ()
Theorem 3 If A and B are n-by-n matrices, then
det (BA) = (det B)(det A)
Theorem 4 An n-by-n matrix is nonsingular if and only if det A 0. if A is nonsingular,
det (A-1) = (det A)-1
theorem 5 If At is the transpose of A, then det (At) = det A.
Theorem 6 For each value of n = 1, 2, ...., there exists one and only one determinant
function for n-by-n matrices. its value is expressed by formula 1 and also by 2.
Theorem 7

= det
=1

= det
=1

2.2 The book of Elementary Linear Algebra Tenth Edition Howard Anton
2.1 Determinants by Cofactor Expansion
Definition 1
If A is a square matrix, then the minor of entry aij is denoted by Mij and is defined to be
the determinant of thesubmatrix that remains after the ith row and jth column are
deleted from A. The number (-1)i+jMij is denoted by Cijand is called the cofactor of
entry aij.
Definition of a General Determinant
Formula 4 is a special case of the following general result, which we will state without
proof.
Theorem 2.1.1
If A is annxn matrix, then regardless of which row or column of A is chosen, the number
obtained by multiplying theentries in that row or column by the corresponding cofactors
and adding the resulting products is always the same.

Definition 2
If A is annxn matrix, then the number obtained by multiplying the entries in any row or
column of A by thecorresponding cofactors and adding the resulting products is called
the determinant of A, and the sums themselves arecalled cofactor expansions of A.
That is,

## det(A) = a1jC1j + a2jC2j ++ anjCnj

[cofactor expansion along the jth column]

## det(A) = ai1Ci1 + ai2Ci2 ++ ainCin

[cofactor expansion along the ith column]

Theorem 2.1.2
If A is annxn triangular matrix (upper triangular, lower triangular, or diagonal), then
det(A) is the product of the entries on the main diagonal of the matrix; that is, .det(A) =
a11a22ann.

## 2.2 Evaluating Determinants by Row Reduction

Theorem 2.2.1
Let A be a square matrix. If A has a row of zeros or a column of zeros, then det(A) = 0.

Proof Since the determinant of A can be found by a cofactor expansion along any row
or column, we can use the row or
column of zeros. Thus, if we let C1,C2,,Cn denote the cofactors of A along that row or
column, that
The following useful theorem relates the determinant of a matrix and the determinant of
its transpose.

Theorem 2.2.2
Let A be a square matrix. Then det(A) = det(AT)
Because transposing a matrix changes its columns to rows and its rows to columns,
almost every theorem about the rows of a determinant has a companion version about
columns, and vice versa.

Proof Since transposing a matrix changes its columns to rows and its rows to columns,
the cofactor expansion of A along any row is the same as the cofactor expansion of AT
along the corresponding column. Thus, both have the same determinant.

## Elementary Row Operations

The next theorem shows how an elementary row operation on a square matrix affects
the value of its determinant. In place of a formal proof we have provided a table to
illustrate the ideas in the case3X3.
Theorem 2.2.3
Let A be annxn matrix.
(a) If B is the matrix that results when a single row or single column of A is multiplied
by a scalar k, then det(B) = k det(A).
(b) If B is the matrix that results when two rows or two columns of A are interchanged,
then det(B) = -det(A).
(c) If B is the matrix that results when a multiple of one row of A is added to another
row or when a multiple of
one column is added to another column, then det(B) = det(A).

Elementary Matrices
It will be useful to consider the special case of Theorem 2.2.3 in which A=In is the nxn
identity matrix and E (rather than B) denotes the elementary matrix that results when the
row operation is performed on In. In this special case Theorem 2.2.3 implies the
following result.

Theorem 2.2.4
Let E be an nxn elementary matrix.
(a) If E results from multiplying a row of In by a nonzero number k, then det(E) =k.
(b) If E results from interchanging two rows of In, then det(E) =-1.
(c) If E results from adding a multiple of one row of In to another, then det(E) =1.

## Matrices with Proportional Rows or Columns

If a square matrix A has two proportional rows, then a row of zeros can be introduced by
adding a suitable multiple of one of the rows to the other. Similarly for columns. But
adding a multiple of one row or column to another does not change the determinant, so
from Theorem 2.2.1, we must have det(A). This proves the following theorem.
Theorem 2.2.5
If A is a square matrix with two proportional rows or two proportional columns, then
det(A)=0.

## Evaluating Determinants by Row Reduction

We will now give a method for evaluating determinants that involves substantially less
computation than cofactor expansion. The idea of the method is to reduce the given
matrix to upper triangular form by elementary row operations, then compute the
determinant of the upper triangular matrix (an easy computation), and then relate that
determinant to that of the original matrix.

## 2.3 Properties of Determinants; Cramer's Rule

Basic Properties of Determinants
Suppose that A and B are nxn matrices and k is any scalar. We begin by considering
possible relationships between det(A), det(B), and det(kA), det(A+B), det(AB).
Since a common factor of any row of a matrix can be moved through the determinant
sign, and since each of the n rows in kA has a common factor of k, it follows that
det(kA)=kn det(A).
Theorem 2.3.1
Let A, B, and C nxn be matrices that differ only in a single row, say the rth, and assume
that the rth row of C can be obtained by adding corresponding entries in the rth rows of
A and B. Then
det(C)=det(A)+det(B)
The same result holds for columns.

## Determinant of a Matrix Product

Considering the complexity of the formulas for determinants and matrix multiplication,
it would seem unlikely that a simple relationship should exist between them. This is
what makes the simplicity of our next result so surprising. We will show that if A and B
are square matrices of the same size, then
det(AB)=det (A) det (B)
Determinant Test for Invertibility
Theorem 2.3.3
A square matrix A is invertible if and only if det(A) 0.
Proof Let R be the reduced row echelon form of A. As a preliminary step, we will show
that det(A) and det(R) are both zero or both nonzero: Let E1,E2,Er be the elementary
matrices that correspond to the elementary row operations that produce R from A. Thus
R=ErE2E1A
and from 3,
det(R)=det(Er)det(E2)det(E1)det(A)

We pointed out in the margin note that accompanies Theorem 2.2.4 that the determinant
of an elementary matrix is nonzero. Thus, it follows from Formula 4 that det(A) and
det(R) are either both zero or both nonzero, which sets the stage for the main part of the
proof. If we assume first that A is invertible, then it follows from Theorem 1.6.4 that
R=I and hence that det(R)=(10). This, in turn, implies that det(A)0, which is what we
wanted to show.
It follows from Theorems 2.3.3 and Theorem 2.2.5 that a square matrix with two
proportional rows or two proportional columns is not invertible.
Conversely, assume that det(A)0. It follows from this that det(R)0, which tells us that
R cannot have a row of zeros. Thus, it follows from Theorem 1.4.3 that R=I and hence
that A is invertible by Theorem 1.6.4.

Theorem 2.3.4
If A and B are square matrices of the same size, then
det(AB)=det (A) det (B)

Proof We divide the proof into two cases that depend on whether or not A is invertible.
If the matrix A is not
invertible, then by Theorem 1.6.5 neither is the product AB. Thus, from Theorem
Theorem 2.3.3, we have det(AB)=0
and det(A)=, so it follows that det(AB)=det(A) det(B).

Theorem 2.3.5
If A is invertible, then
1
det(1 ) =
det()
Proof Since , it follows that A-1A=I. Therefore, we must have det(A-1)det(A)=I.
Since det(A)0, the proof can be completed by dividing through by det(A).

Adjoint of a Matrix
In a cofactor expansion we compute det(A)by multiplying the entries in a row or column
by their cofactors and adding the resulting products. It turns out that if one multiplies the
entries in any row by the corresponding cofactors from a different row, the sum of these
products is always zero. (This result also holds for columns.) Although we omit the
general proof, the next example illustrates the idea of the proof in a special case.

## It follows from Theorems 2.3.5 and 2.1.2 that

1 1 1
det(1 ) =
11 22
Moreover, by using the adjoint formula it is possible to show that
1 1 1
det(1 ) = , ,,
11 22
-1
are actually the successive diagonal entries of A .

Definition 1
If A is any nxn matrix and Cij is the cofactor of aij, then the matrix

is called the matrix of cofactors from A. The transpose of this matrix is called the
adjoint of A and is denoted by adj(A).

## Theorem 2.3.6 Inverse of a Matrix Using Its Adjoint

If A is an invertible matrix, then
1
1 = ()
det()
Proof We show first that
() = det()

## Theorem 2.3.7 Cramer's Rule

If = is a system of n linear equations in n unknowns such that , then the system
has a unique solution. This solution is
det(1 ) det(2 ) det(3 )
1 = , 2 = , 3 =
det() det() det()
Where is the matrix obtained by replacing the entries in the jth column of A by the
entries in the matrix
CHAPTER III

## 1.1 The advantages of book Elementary Linear Algebra Applications Version

Howard
1. The book has a cover that interests readers to read it.
2. Every important word is given bold letters. This facilitates the reader in searching
for those words.
3. Preparation chapters and sub chapters are quite good.
4. Put pictures and tables for a more detailed explanation.
5. Attach an example and how to solve it.

## 3.2 The Advantages of book Linear Algebra 1 Stefan Martynkiw

1. The book has a cover and also an attractive color to read.
2. There are many colors on the contents of the book that make the book more
3. Describes the complete material.
4. Presents the formula accompanied by examples of problems and discussion.
5. Include drawings and tables explaining the material covered.
6. Attach an important note to each left of the book.
CHAPTER IV
WEAKNESS OF BOOK

## 4.1 The weakness of book Elementary Linear Algebra Applications Version

Howard
Nothing to comment on because the book is very high standard and has been
used a lot by the community, especially in universities by these students show that this
book is very good.

## 4.2 The weakness of book Linear Algebra 1 Stefan Martynkiw

1. In the book reviewed we did not find any greed in each book because the book
has been applied in everyday life.
2. There are not many examples of questions and exercises about each chapter, so
readers better understand the content of the material.
CHAPTER V
IMPLICATIONS
5.1 Theory
VectorAdditionViewed asTranslation If v, w, and v + w are positioned so their initial
points coincide, then the terminal point of v + w can be viewed in two ways:
2. The terminal point of v + w is the point that results when the terminal point of v
is translated in the direction of w by a distance equal to the length of w
3. The terminal point of v + w is the point that results when the terminal point of w
is translated in the direction of v by a distance equal to the length of v
4. Accordingly, we say that v + w is the translation of v by w or, alternatively, the
translation of w by v.
If uv=0 , u and v are orthogonal. Point-Normal forms of lines and planes. To find
the equation of a line or plane, we take an arbitrary point P0 =(Xo , Yo, Zo), and another
point, P(x,y,z). We form a vector P o P= xx0, yy0, zz0 . Then we know that the
normal must be orthogonal to this vector (and the plane/line), so that nP 0P=0 . If this
normal n, is defined as n = (a, b, c), then the above equation becomes (by the component
dot product):

## [Point-Normal Form of a Plane]

The above equation, [Point-Normal Form of a Plane],
can be simplified. If we multiply the terms out and simplify we get the following theorem.
Theorem 3.3.1 Point-Normal Forms of Lines and Planes
Ax + By + C = 0, is a line in R2 with normal n=(a,b).
Ax + By + Cz + D = 0, is a plane in R3 with normal n=(a, b, c).

## 5.2 Development of Indonesia

1. Utilization of wave frequency difference in color
In the field of medicine, said Dr. Erwin Tb. Kusuma, Sp.KJ, color therapy is classified as
electromagnetic medicine or treatment with electromagnetic waves. Unwittingly the body
has a congenital response Automatically against color and light. It can happen because
basically Color is an element of light, and light is one form of energy. Giving energy to
the body will have a positive effect. When applied To the body, the color has its own
energy characteristics. The use of color depends on the problems each person experiences.
2. Colors on computer
Colors on computer monitors are commonly based on what is called the RGB color
model. Colors in this system are created by adding together percentages of the primary
colors red (R), green (G), and blue (B). One way to do this is to identify the primary colors
with the vectors
r = (1, 0, 0) (pure red),
g = (0, 1, 0) (pure green),
b = (0, 0, 1) (pure blue)
in R3 and to create all other colors by forming linear combinations of r, g, and b using
coefficients between 0 and 1, inclusive; these coefficients represent the percentage of
each pure color in the mix. The set of all such color vectors is called RGB space or the
RGB color cube. Thus, each color vector c in this cube is expressible as a linear
combination of the form
c = k1r + k2g + k3b
= k1(1, 0, 0) + k2(0, 1, 0) + k3(0, 0, 1)
= (k1, k2, k3)
where 0 ki 1. As indicated in the figure, the corners of the cube represent the pure
primary colors together with the colors black, white, magenta, cyan, and yellow. The
vectors along the diagonal
running from black to white correspond to shades of gray.
5.2 Analysis
In the application of students should be able to analyze the benefits of the matrix
in life and how to manage and develop the theory well.
CHAPTER VI
CLOSED
6.1 Conclusion
6.1.1 The advantages of book Elementary Linear Algebra Applications
Version Howard
1. The book has a cover that interests readers to read it.
2. Every important word is given bold letters. This facilitates the reader in searching
for those words.
3. Preparation chapters and sub chapters are quite good.
4. Put pictures and tables for a more detailed explanation.
5. Attach an example and how to solve it.
6.1.2 The Advantages of book Linear Algebra 1 Stefan Martynkiw
1. The book has a cover and also an attractive color to read.
2. There are many colors on the contents of the book that make the book more
3. Describes the complete material.
4. Presents the formula accompanied by examples of problems and discussion.
5. Include drawings and tables explaining the material covered.
6. Attach an important note to each left of the book.

6.2 Suggestion
Thanks to friends who helped complete this Critical Book, so we can finish it
just in time. In this writing we really need input from Lecturers and friends all for the
perfection of this Critical Book.
Bibliography

## Anton, H and Chris, R. 2014. Elementary Linear Algebra Applications Version

Tenth Edition. United States of America : Wiley
Martynkiw, Stefan. 2010. Linear Algebra I. United States of America : Wiley