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Increasing usage of Library Services

among IIML students

Submitted to
Prof. Satya Bhushan Dash
Indian Institute of Management Lucknow

Submitted By: Group 1


Sahil Singh (PGP32141)
Sankalp Jaiswal (PGP32136)
Nishant Gaurav (PGP32362)
Amit Kumar (PGP32123)
Fidel Kachari (PGP32090)
Botta Durga Deepak (PGP32045)
Subhankar Saha (PGP32127)

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CONTENTS

1. Abstract

2. Introduction

3. Literature Review

4. Market Research Problem

5. Literature Review

6. Research Objectives: Insights from Qualitative Research

7. Methodology

8. Results

9. Management Implications

10. References

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Abstract student of Post Graduate Program to a
research scholar, hence there is a variety of
The following study looks at the utilization information resources available for all.
of IIML library services by student However, it was noticed that inspite of the
community. IIML library has had a world class library facilities provided at
prolonged problem that students are IIML, their usage by students is minimal.
unaware about its offerings and end up Hence the market research was conducted in
relying on other less trustworthy or paid order to understand and analyze the factors
sources of information. So our intent here is behind low awareness, evaluation criteria,
to firstly find factors which motivate or de- motivation and barriers for using the library
motivate students in using library to get an facilities at IIM Lucknow campus.
idea about how students perceive IIML Qualitative research enabled us to form
library services. Then we look into initial hypothesis which were tested by
evaluation criteria used, psychographic doing quantitative analysis on data collected
factors behind usage of online and offline through survey. A host of factors were
library services and lastly compare IIML identified for the Academic, Non-Academic
library with other educational platforms and Literary user groups and difference of
used by students to get information. This perspectives between them were also
study gives us a detailed analysis of what encountered during the course of the study.
ails the current IIML library, what can be
done to increase footfalls and how it can We have given our recommendations taking
compete with other platforms. into account the various influences that drive
a student towards using the offline and
Introduction online modes of library services. The
stakeholders like the Library officers,
The library at IIM Lucknow campus is Student Council and the Administrative
popularly known as Gyanodaya. It houses a authorities to help increase the participation
rich collection of over 60000 select learning of students in using the Gyanodaya services
resources in the areas of management and can implement the recommendations.
other areas, in various formats and functions
from a 30000 sq. ft. spacious air conditioned The Online Library service has proved to be
building. It is managed by a group of crucial for the students especially during
dedicated professionals and offers a wide their internships as the students use research
range of Information technology products journals, business world data for their
and services. projects. Many of the expensive data of the
business world specially related to the
It supports the academic curriculum of IIM companies are being provided free of cost
Lucknow by providing a range of reference by Gyanodaya for all its community
books, Bloomberg terminal, research members. But it has been observed that the
journals, non-academic journals etc. As the usage of library services has decreased
clientele of Gyanodaya ranges from a

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among the IIM L students both in the offline subsequently used for collecting responses
and online mode. to carry out the quantitative research. In the
second phase, a quantitative research was
Thus considering the importance of this
conducted which helped to test the
topic, we have made an effort to understand
hypothesis formed in the first phase and
and analyze both the online and offline
arrive at the suitable conclusions and
library related attitude of students, root
recommendations towards solving the
cause of low usage of library services and
management decision problem of increasing
then determine potential measures to
usage of library services at IIM Lucknow
increase the interest among the student
among IIML students.
fraternity at IIM Lucknow.
For the purpose of conducting this research, Literature Review
the students were segmented into three Marketing of Academic Library Services
groups of Academic users, Non-Academic for Effective Service Delivery in Delta
users and Literary users based on their type State University Library
of information usage of IIM L library
services. The academic users are the ones Objective: The study on Marketing of
that use the IIML library services for Academic Library Services in Delta State
academic purposes (reference books, University Library was set to achieve 1. The
academic journals, research journals etc.). different library services rendered by Delta
The non-academic users use the IIML State University Library. 2. The extent to
library services for placements, competitions which Delta State University Library engage
etc. The literary users use the IIML library in marketing of its services. 3. The various
facilities for non-academic purpose like channels used in marketing its services. 4.
studying novels, magazines, business stories The benefits of marketing library services
etc. and 5. The different challenges encountered
by the library in marketing its services
The study was carried out in two phases. In
the first phase, the authors made use of their Methodology: A descriptive survey
own experience at IIM Lucknow, the research design was chosen, as it is a
knowledge derived from the literature research design that helps to describe and
survey and feedback of the officers of the collect data from the respondents without
IIM Lucknow library to form the the researcher manipulating the data to suit
Management Decision problem (MDP) and his/her own opinion. The population of the
six Management Research Problems (MRP) study comprises of professional staff, para-
for the aim of aggregating information to professional staff, and
solve the above stated Management nonprofessional/supportive staff drawn from
Decision problem. Moreover, a qualitative the three campuses of Delta State
research was carried out using techniques University, which are Abraka, Anwai and
such as Focus group discussions (FGDs), In- Oleh campus of the institution.
depth interviews, Perceptual map, Election Questionnaire was used as the only
technique etc. to form hypothesis for each of instrument for data collection, and it was
the six MRPs and a questionnaire to be titled Marketing of Academic Library

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Services for Effective Service Delivery personally distributed and retrieved the
(MALSESD). questionnaire from the academicians as well
as from the students. 258 questionnaires
Result & Conclusion: From the findings of
were gathered, yielding a response rate of
the data presented, analyzed and discussed
97.4 per cent.
on this work by the researcher, it had been
concluded that marketing of academic Result and conclusion: The results of t-test
library services in Delta State University revealed that there is a statistically
library in the 3 campuses (Abraka, Anwai significant mean difference between readers'
and Oleh) are at its initiation stage. This as it type such as academic staff and students in
may, acts as a draw back to the library in terms of attitude of usage of electronic
marketing its services and also in supporting information resources (t = 3.199, p < 0.05).
the institution in the provision of But, in relation to gender, both male and
information for educational and research female readers have roughly same level of
purposes. opinion with regard to the usage of
electronic information resources, which is
Relevance: Although it talks about
insignificant at 0.05 levels.
marketing of library resources rather than
the usage by participants, this particular Relevance: The paper uses various analysis
study served as a guiding tool to help techniques to analyze survey data. This
segment our questionnaire better. paper can be instrumental in helping
applying data analysis tools correctly to the
Attitude towards the Usage of Electronic
suitable data set.
Information Resources in Medical
Library, University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka Methodology
Objective: The purpose of the study is to Research Design: Research follows a
find out whether there are any significant diagnostic research design and is suggestive
mean differences among personal in nature backed by rigorous data analysis
characteristics such as readers type, gender, done on sample data to approve or
user category, age group and the year of disapprove the findings of qualitative
study towards attitude of using electronic analysis (i.e the hypothesis for different
information resources in Medical Library, research objectives).
University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka during the
year 2013. Data Collection Method:

Methodology: The survey method is a The target population is the student community
questionnaire which pleads for data from of IIML between the ages of 20-30 years. The
academic staff and students from Faculty of sampling unit was a single student in colleges.
Only those people who used library services
Medicine, University of Jaffna. A structured
(online or offline) were considered for this
questionnaire was designed to collect data study.
from the academic staff members and
students from Faculty of Medicine, keeping In the first phase, qualitative research was
in mind the basis objective of the study. The done to formulate hypotheses for each of the
researchers being the staff of the university six MRPs and to create a proper

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questionnaire which would be used for provided with a questionnaire which
quantitative research. For the qualitative contained 16 questions. Their responses
research, the techniques used were Focused were then used for carrying out data
Group Discussions (FGDs), In-Depth analysis.
Interviews (DIs) and Survey which gave an
Tools Used for Analysis:
initial understanding of attitude of the
students towards the IIM L library services.
MRP Data Analysis Tools
Sampling: A total of three focused group
discussions comprised of 7-9 students were Research
Discriminant Analysis
carried out and based on that students were Objective 1
categorized into namely Academic, Non- Research Factor Analysis, Cluster
Academic and Literary users. After that, the Objective 2 Analysis
in-depth interviews were carried out for 8 Research Factor Analysis, Cluster
Objective 3 Analysis
participants. The moderation techniques
Research Factor Analysis,
used were World View, Random Sampling,
Objective 4 Discriminant Analysis
Mind Mapping and Election Technique for
Research Factor Analysis, Cluster
the qualitative methodologies used in the Objective 5 Analysis
research. Qualitative analysis details are as Research Factor Analysis,
mentioned below Objective 6 Discriminant analysis
Serial Qualitative
Participants
No. Methodology For conduction of the data analysis, the
Academic SPSS software was used and the results are
Users (7) summarized as below for each of the
Focus Group
Non-Academic
1. Discussions Research Objective.
Users (8)
(FGDs)
Literary Users Research Objectives, Data analysis and
(7) Results
Academic
Users (3) A total of six MRPs were formed to solve
In-Depth Non-Academic the formulated Management Decision
2.
Interviews (DIs) Users (3) problem. All the research objectives along
Literary Users with the hypothesis are discussed in this
(2) section.
All the three
Research Objective 1: What are the
3. Survey categories of
Users perceptions of IIML students about
library services?
Generic Qualitative Findings: Through
In the quantitative research a sample of 122
this research objective, the aim was to
respondents was taken. The number of
understand the attitudes of students towards
Academic users, Non-Academic users and
the library services offered at IIM Lucknow
Literary users were 52, 42 and 28 Library Gyanodaya. For this, it was
respectively. All the 122 respondents were important to understand the awareness level

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of the students about the current services 1.3: Academic books are the most
offered by the library. The differences in the important during the exams for academic
awareness level of library services offered at user.
IIM L campus among the academic, non-
Qualitative Findings: Evidently, the most
academic and literary users was known
important source of the library during
through this. The hypothesis for this MRP,
examination times would be the reference
which were formed after the qualitative
books which come in handy to support and
research were:
clear the understanding of the student
Hypothesis regarding the subject. Many reference books
are available in the library but sufficient
1.1: Newspapers are the most important
number of reference books and more variety
factor during placement process for
is required as was found during the
academic user.
qualitative research. The library could also
Qualitative Findings: Based on the increase the pdf versions of the books or the
qualitative research, it was found that presentation format of the books.
academic users preferred newspapers the
1.4: Academic Journals are the most
most during the placement process.
important for research work for non-
Newspapers contain different business news
academic user.
and policies which are sometimes asked
during the placement process and thus the Qualitative Findings: For non-academic
importance of newspapers during the users, the most important resource for
placement process had grown in the recent research work was not the academic
times. Thus the IIM L library should journals. Mostly the academic users use the
subscribe to more business newspapers both research journals for their research purpose
in online and offline mode which would like the research scholars. The authors of
give an insight to the students regarding the this research project have also referred to
current happenings in the industry. some academic journals which have proved
to be quite instrumental in the research
1.2: For competitions, the most important
work. The managerial implication is
factor is Academic Journals for academic
important as the variety of academic
user.
journals availability increases the propensity
Qualitative Findings: The academic users of the usage of library services for the
preferred the academic journals more while academic users.
appearing for case competitions as these
Data Analysis Tool: Discriminant Analysis
helped them to prepare the presentation and
reports. This was an important discovery as Hypothesis Dependent Independent
it led to the understanding that the academic H1 Placements Newspapers
journals are not only important for research H2 Competitions Academic
purposes but have far reaching effects in the Journals
case competitions also. H3 Exams Academic
Books
H4 Research Academic
Journals

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Model Summary (Analysis & Results) services in the offline mode by different
users. Through this research objective, the
(For analysis snapshots refer Appendix 3
Research objective 1) students identified various factors that drive
the decision of using the offline mode of
As per the analysis we can see that for each of IIM L library services. The scope of the
the hypothesis we looked at the group means research objective was limited to the
values for each category.
identification of the important parameters
For hypothesis 1 news paper comes out to be the that the students value that facilitate or
most discriminating thing for all the three types hinder the usage of library services. The
of category users with means of 5.7 for hypothesis for this MRP, which were
academic user (category level 1), 5.9 for non- formed after the qualitative research were:
academic user (category level 2) and 5.69 for
literary user (category level 3) and a total mean Hypothesis 2.1: Students visit library
of 5.781 frequently because they live nearer to
library.
Similar analysis was performed for all the 4
hypothesis. Hypothesis 2.2: Students use offline
For the 4th hypothesis the overall acceptance library resources because it has a variety
total means for Bloomberg was 5.7 while for of academic content.
journals was only 5.4 which lead to the rejection
Hypothesis 2.3: Students do not use
of the hypothesis
offline library services because there is no
proper indexing of documents.
Analysis: Hypothesis 2.4: Students use offline
Hypothesis Accepted or Rejected library services because it has a quiet
H1 Accepted surrounding.
H2 Accepted
Hypothesis 2.5: Students use offline
H3 Accepted
H4 Rejected library services because there is support
staff available to help.

Managerial Implications: Data Analysis Tool: Factor Analysis


followed by Cluster Analysis
Library can provide topic specific articles in
mails before placement process. Library can Hypothesis Dependent Independent
provide list of journals related to different H1 Offline Library Nearness
competition. Library should work to find H2 Offline Library Variety
relevant journals for research work. H3 Offline Library Indexing
H4 Offline Library Quiet
H5 Offline Library Support staff
Research Objective 2: What factors
influences the usage of offline library Model Summary (Analysis & Results)
services?
(For analysis snapshots efer Appendix 3
This research objective is aimed to find out Research objective 2)
the factors that influence the usage of library

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may be made on the improvement of the
The significance level in KMOs and Bartels
current factors or the addition of the new
test we can see that the significance level came parameters that had been previously not
out to be 0.001 hence indicating that the been catered to. The hypothesis for this
variables can be factored. MRP, which were formed after the
qualitative research were:
Factor analysis yielded 3 factors that had
Eigenvalues greater than 1. Component 1,2,3 Hypothesis 3.1: Students visit online
had initial Eigenvalues of 1.65, 1.115, 1.036 library website because it has a faster
respectively. website access.
The cluster analysis yielded 3 clusters with Hypothesis 3.2: Students use online
cluster membership of 51, 41 and 29.
library services because it has a variety of
Analysis: academic content.
Hypothesis Accepted or Rejected Hypothesis 3.3: Students do not use online
H1 Accepted library services because there is no
H2 Rejected proper indexing of database.
H3 Accepted
H4 Rejected Hypothesis 3.4: Students do not use online
H5 Rejected library services because it does not have a
personalized dashboard.
Managerial Implications: Hypothesis 3.5: Students use online
Reading rooms should be created for students library services because their availability
who live far away from library. Library should of updated journals.
provide more specific content to users. There
should be proper indexing of books. There is no
Data Analysis Tool: Factor Analysis
exclusive support staff required. followed by Cluster Analysis

Research Objective 3: What factors Hypothesis Dependent Independent


influences the usage of online library H1 Online Library Fast
services? H2 Online Library Variety
H3 Online Library Indexing
Similar to the previous research objective, H4 Online Library Dashboard
through this research objective it was aimed H5 Online Library Updated
to identify the factors that were important in
the decision making of the usage of the Model Summary (Analysis & Results)
online IIM L library services. The
preference of all the three categories of users (For analysis snapshots efer Appendix 3
namely Academic, Non-Academic and Research objective 3)
Literary users were taken in this and no The significance level in KMOs and Bartels
distinction was made on the basis of test we can see that the significance level came
categories of users. The main motive was to out to be 0.000 hence indicating that the
understand the overall important parameters variables can be factored.
that influence the usage of online library
services so that further recommendations
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Factor analysis yielded 2 factors that had Hypothesis 4.1: Variety of videos is more
Eigenvalues greater than 1. Component 1 and 2 important for an academic user than a
had initial Eigenvalues of 1.91 and 1.16 non-academic user.
respectively.
Based on our qualitative research, it was
The cluster analysis yielded 3 clusters with
found that under variety of content, the
cluster membership of 12, 43 and 66.
variety in videos had achieved higher ratings
Analysis: by an academic user than a non-academic
user. Thus, it helped to understand for the
Hypothesis Accepted or Rejected
H1 Accepted formulation of management implication that
H2 Accepted the library should have more variety of
H3 Accepted videos in its website. As in the modern
H4 Accepted world, reading long texts has become a
H5 Rejected cumbersome and time consuming task when
the demand for result is quick.
Managerial Implications: Hypothesis 4.2: Academic User consider
The library portal can be improved further in nearness to hostel more important
terms of loading time. Library should ensure it criteria for convenience.
has an updated variety of academic content.
Library should provide proper indexing. Library Another important observation from the
should provide updated journals. Library should qualitative research was that the academic
introduce personalized dashboard. users do not prefer the nearness of the
library to the hostel to be the most important
Research Objective 4: What criteria do criteria under convenience. Though the
students use in evaluating IIML library establishment of library and the hostels are
services? permanent, hence this result helped us to
Through this research objective, it was understand that for those students who live
aimed to understand the various criteria the far off from library what more features
IIM L students use in evaluation of both the could be included or improved so that they
online and offline mode of IIM L library are motivated to use the library services.
services. Having identified the important Hypothesis 4.3: For non-academic users,
factors in the previous two research the availability of chairs/tables has high
objectives, now the criteria being used to importance in comparison to other
evaluate the IIML library services was factors in decision of ambience.
important as it would help us to understand
the consumer preferences for various library Another important feature which affects the
services being offered. The preferences for decision regarding the ambience of library is
all the three types of student segments were the availability of sufficient number of
identified and which were then tested using tables and chairs. It was found that non-
the quantitative research. The hypothesis for academic users preferred more number of
this MRP, which were formed after the chairs and tables in library which motivated
qualitative research were: them to visit the IIM L library. As the non-
academic users mostly come in groups to

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discuss regarding the placement, summers Data Analysis Tool: Factor Analysis
internships, case competitions etc. hence the followed by Discriminant Analysis
availability of sufficient number of
Hypothesis Dependent Independent
chairs/tables was an important
H1 Videos Variety
encouragement factor to them.
H2 Convenience Nearness
Hypothesis 4.4: For Literary users, the H3 Ambiance Chairs
availability of clean drinking water is H4 Comfort Clean water
more important than other factors in H5 Offline library Indexing
terms of comfort of use.
For literary users, who had more propensity Model Summary (Analysis & Results)
to use the library services for reading the (For analysis snapshots efer Appendix 3
various types of novels, business articles, Research objective 4)
magazines etc. the availability of clean
With KMOs sphere test the significance level
drinking water was not the most important was 0.000 indicating that the variables can be
factor in terms of comfort of use. Thus it factored. The factor analysis yielded 4 factors
highlighted the fact that the management which had eigenvalues grater than 1. Component
should install more number of clean 1, 2, 3 & 4 had eigenvalues 5.02, 3.1, 2, 1.6 and
drinking water facilities which will attract 1.09 respectively.
more academic and non-academic users to
Discriminant summary results explained that
visit the library.
function 1 explained 80.1% of variance while
Hypothesis 4.5: Proper indexing of the function 2 explained only 19.9% variance.
content is more important for non- Analysis:
academic user than an academic user.
Hypothesis Accepted or Rejected
Another important insight that was found H1 Accepted
out by qualitative research that proper H2 Accepted
indexing of the documents was an important H3 Accepted
criterion for a non-academic user than an H4 Rejected
H5 Accepted
academic user. The academic users are
mostly comprised of research scholars who
are frequent users of library than non- Managerial Implications:
academic users who are largely composed of
Library should have more non academic video
PGP students who only visit the library content. Reading rooms should be created for
more during the time of placements and students who live far away from library. Library
competitions. Thus, the academic users are should keep investing on infrastructure. Library
more familiar with the indexing of can include more facilities that are relevant to
documents in the IIM L library than the non- users. Indexing should be present.
academic users. Hence, this hypothesis was
Research Objective 5: What is the
formed based on this idea which was
psychographic profile of users of library
accepted.
services?

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The students aimed this research objective at The significance level in KMOs and Bartels
understanding the impact of different types test we can see that the significance level came
of moods on the usage behavior of IIM L out to be 0.001 hence indicating that the
library services. Both the online and offline variables can be factored.
modes of library services were ranked based Factor analysis yielded 4 factors that had
on the different moods of the three Eigenvalues greater than 1. Component 1,2,3
categories of users namely Academic, Non- and 4 had initial Eigenvalues of 2.1, 1.6, 1.06
Academic and Literary users. It also helped and 1.07 respectively in case of online users.
in ascertaining the different times the The cluster analysis yielded 3 clusters with
online/offline modes of library services were cluster membership of 51, 41 and 29.
preferable for different categories of users.
The moods that were ranked were studying We can see from pooled with group matrices
that factor 1 &3 have a .06 correlation while
alone, studying in a group, studying during
factor 2 with factor 4 has a correlation value of
the last night of exam, multiple tasks to
0.006 thus indicating that all the factors are quiet
complete and when the tasks needed to be dissimilar.
completed quickly. The hypothesis for this
MRP, which were formed after the Factor analysis for hypothesis 2 & 3 (offline
qualitative research were: users) yielded 3 factors with Eigenvalues greater
than 1. Component 1,2 and 3 had initial
Hypothesis 5.1: Studying alone is the most Eigenvalues of 2.5, 1.55 and 1.33 respectively.
important factor for online library usage Factor 1 & 3 have a correlation values of 0.016
for academic user. explaining that they are also not much similar.

Hypothesis 5.2: Academic Journals and Analysis:


research papers is the most important Hypothesis Accepted or Rejected
factor in offline library usage for H1 Accepted
academic user. H2 Accepted
H3 Rejected
Hypothesis 5.3: Academic videos is the
most important in case of offline library
usage for non-academic users. Managerial Implications:

Data Analysis Tool: Factor Analysis Library should provide more resources online
for specific purpose. Library should keep an
followed by Cluster Analysis
updated record of journals. Library should have
Hypothesis Dependent Independent updated video library.
H1 Online library Alone
H2 Offline library Research papers
H3 Offline library Academic videos Research Objective 6: How do users
evaluate library services in terms of
Model Summary (Analysis & Results) competitor resource platforms?

(For analysis snapshots efer Appendix 3 Having analyzed the important parameters
Research objective 5) that influence the usage frequency of IIM L
library services, now through this research
objective, the aim was to compare the online

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services of the IIML library with (For analysis snapshots efer Appendix 3
competitors like Google and YouTube. The Research objective 6)
criteria of comparison were variety of The significance level in KMOs sphere test for
content, relevance of content and all the three hypothesis was 0.001 in case of
multimedia content. Based on our qualitative hypothesis 1 and 0.001 in case of hypothesis 2 &
research, it was found that Google had got 3 explaining that the variables can be factored.
higher rating than IIML library online
Now we can see that for variety of content the
services in terms of variety of content. Also,
only Google has eigenvalue greater than 1
it was ascertained that YouTube was highly explaining that it is the most important when
rated in terms of multimedia content than compared to youtube and IIM library and has a
Online IIML services while Online IIML variance of 46.067%
library services had more amount of relevant
For Multimedia content again only google had
content than Google and YouTube. It was
an eigenvalue 1.486 which is greater than 1
important to compare the online services as
explaining that it is the most significant when
it would help in gaining the understanding compared to Youtube and IIM online library
of the shortcoming in the current state of with a variance of 49.539.
features and what more important features
could be added to improve the services, For relevance of content again only google had
which would encourage and attract more an eigenvalue 1.291 which is greater than 1
explaining that it is the most significant when
users towards using the services of IIML
compared to Youtube and IIM online library
library services. The hypothesis for this
with a variance of 43.02.
MRP, which were formed after the
qualitative research were: Analysis:

Hypothesis 6.1: In terms of variety of Hypothesis Result


content google has higher rating than H1 Accepted
H2 Rejected
IIML online library services.
H3 Rejected
Hypothesis 6.2: Online IIML library
services are preferred in term of Managerial Implications:
relevance of content.
Library should include larger variety of content.
Hypothesis 6.3: YouTube is preferred Library should provide more relevant content
more than online IIML library services in through dashboard. More multimedia content
term of variety of multimedia content. should be provided by library.

Data Analysis Tool: Factor analysis and


discriminant
LIMITATIONS
Hypothesis Dependent Independent
1. Respondents for library services were
H1 Online library Variety majorly not using services frequently so
H2 Online library Relevance might not have given clear answers.
H3 Online library Variety 2. Awareness about most of the library
services was low among users, so we
Model Summary (Analysis & Results) had to explain what a service does, this

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might have brought in response bias on Emerges". Texas Library
researcher in analysis. Journal. 87 (1): 812.
3. User of library terminals were limited in
number so might not have reached 5. Pautz, Hartwig. "Income generation
sample size needed to do the accurate
in public libraries: potentials and
analysis.
pitfalls". Library Review. 63 (8/9):
4. Number of academic users where way
above non-academic and literary users 568
who filled the survey, so there can be a
bias in results towards what academic 6. Moran, B.; Stueart, R.; Morner, C.
users recommends. (2013). Library and Information
Center Management. California:
References Libraries Unlimited.
1. Arumuru, Lawrence (2015) Volume
5, No. 20.Marketing of Academic 7. "ALA | Exhibit Spaces and Bulletin
Library Services for Effective Service Boards". www.ala.org. Retrieved
Delivery in Delta State University 2016-09-20.
Library.
8. Sharma, C. K.; Singh, Kiran (2005),
2. N. Sivathaasan, K. Murugathas, K. Library Management, ISBN 978-
Chandrasekar (2014) Volume 4, No. 81-269-0452-5
1. Attitude towards the Usage of
Electronic Information Resources in
Medical Library, University of
Jaffna, Sri Lanka.

3. Wellish, Hans H. "Dewey Decimal


Classification, Universal Decimal
Classification, and the Broad System
of Ordering: The Evolution of
Universal Ordering Systems".
College of Library and Information
Sciences, University of Maryland.

4. Hawthorne, P (2011). "Succession


Planning and Management: A Key
Leadership Responsibility

APPENDIX I (Research Framework)


MRP, Hypotheses, Questions and Data Analysis Tool

MRP Hypotheses Question Data Analysis Results Managerial


number tool. implication

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R1: What are H1: Q1, Q16 Discriminant Accepted Library can
the perceptions Newspapers Analysis provide topic
of IIML are the most specific
students about important articles in
library factor during mails before
services? placement placement
process for process
academic user.

H2: For Q1,Q16 Accepted Library can


competitions, provide list of
the most jornals related
important to different
factor is competition
Academic
Journals for
academic user.
H3: Academic Q1, Q16 Accepted Library can
books are the take inputs
most important from
during the professors to
exams for provide
academic user. reference
academic
books
H4: Academic Q1, Q16 Rejected Library should
Journals are work to find
the most relevant
important for journals for
research work research work
for non
academic user

R2: What H1: Students Q5 a Factor Accepted Reading rooms


factors use visit Analysis. should be
influences the library Followed by created for
usage of frequently Cluster students who
offline library because they Analysis live far away
services? live nearer to from library
library

H2:.students Q5 a Rejected Library should


use offline provide more
library specific
resources content to
because it has users
a variety of
academic
content

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H3: Students Q5 a Accepted There should
do not use be proper
offline library indexing of
services books
because there
is no proper
indexing of
documents
H4: Students Q5 a Rejected Areas should
use offline be segregated
library based for
services individual and
because the it group study
has a quiet
surrounding
H5: Students Q5 a Rejected There is no
use offline exclusive
library support staff
services required
because there
is support staff
available to
help

R3: What H1: Students Q5 b, Q16 Factor analysis Accepted The library
factors visit online followed by portal can be
influences the library website Cluster improved
usage of because it has Analysis further in
online library a faster terms of
services? website access loading time

H2:.students Q5 b, Q16 Accepted Library should


use online ensure it has
library an updated
services variety of
because it has academic
a variety of content
academic
content
H3: Students Q5 b, Q16 Accepted Library should
do not use provide proper
online library indexing
services
because there
is no proper
indexing of
database

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H4: Students Q5 b, Q16 Accepted Library should
do not use introduce
online library personalized
services dashboard
because the it
does not have
a personalized
dashboard
H5: Students Q5 bQ16 Rejected Library should
use online provide
library updated
services journals
because there
availability of
updated
journals

R4: What H1: Variety of Q6 Factor Accepted Library should


criteria do videos is more Analysis, have more non
students use in important for Discriminant academic
evaluating an academic Analysis video content
IIML library user than a
services? non-academic
user.
H2: Academic Q6 Rejected Reading rooms
User consider should be
nearness to created for
hostel more students who
important live far away
criteria for from library
convenience.
H3: For non- Q6 Accepted Library should
academic keep investing
users, the on
availability of infrastructure
chairs/tables
has high
importance in
comparison to
other factors in
decision of
ambience.
H4: For Q6 rejected Library can
Literary users, include more
the availability facilities that
of clean are relevant to
drinking water users
is more
important than
other factors in

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terms of
comfort of use.

H5: Proper Q6 Accepted Indexing


indexing of the should be
content is present
more
important for
non-academic
user than an
academic user.

R5: What is H1: Studying Q11 T-test Accepted Library should


the alone is the provide more
psychographic most important resources
profile of users factor for online for
and non-users online library specific
of library usage. purpose
services?

H2: Academic Q12 T-test Accepted Library should


Journals and keep an
research updated record
papers is the of journals
most important
factor in
offline library
usage
H3: Academic Q12 Paired t-test Rejected Library should
videos is more have updated
important than video library
curriculum
books in case
of offline
library usage.

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R6: How do H1: In terms Q7, Q16 Factor Accepted Library should
users evaluate of variety of Analysis, include larger
library content google Frequency variety of
services in has higher distribution content
terms of rating than
competitor IIML online
resource library
platforms? services

H2: Online Q7, Q16 Accepted Library should


IIML library provide more
services is relevant
preferred in content
term of through
relevance of dashboard
content
H3: Youtube Q7, Q16 Accepted More
is preferred multimedia
more than content should
online IIML be provided by
library library0
services in
term of variety
of multimedia
content

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APPENDIX II (Questionnaire)

Q1. Kindly rank the appropriate library services you prefer with reference to placements
on a scale of (1= Lowest to 6=Highest) :
Academic Books
Novels
Newspapers
Academic Journals
Non-Academic Journals
Bloomberg & othter databases
Q2. Kindly rank the appropriate library services you prefer with reference to competitions
on a scale of (1= Lowest to 6=Highest) :
Academic Books
Novels
Newspapers
Academic Journals
Non-Academic Journals
Bloomberg & othter databases
Q3. Kindly rank the appropriate library services you prefer with reference to exam on a
scale of (1= Lowest to 6=Highest) :
Academic Books
Novels
Newspapers
Academic Journals
Non-Academic Journals
Bloomberg & othter databases
Q4. Kindly rank the appropriate library services you prefer with reference to research
journal on a scale of (1= Lowest to 6=Highest) :
Academic Books

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Novels
Newspapers
Academic Journals
Non-Academic Journals
Bloomberg & othter databases

Q5.a). Please rate the importance of the following factors in your selection of Library
Offline ?

Not at all Very


Important Important
FACTORS
1
7
2 3 4 5 6

a). Variety of Academic Books

b). Nearness to Hostel

c). Quiet surrounding

d). Sufficient Number of Chair/tables

e). Proper indexing of Documents

f). Availability of Support Facilities

Q5. b). Please rate the importance of the following factors in your selection of Library
Online?

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Not at all Very
Important Important
FACTORS
1
7
2 3 4 5 6

a). Variety of Academic Content

b). Fast Access website

c). Simple indexing of database

d). Personalized Dashboard (Suggestions based on


interest)

e). Availability of Updated Content (journals)

Q6. Please evaluate the following parameters in the importance of usage of library
services?
Not at all Very
Important Important
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Variety Database
Books
Videos
Journals
Convenience Easily
accessible
Near to Hostel
Anytime
Access
Ambience Low Noise
Availability of
A. C.
Chairs/Tables
Wi-fi hotspots
Study kiosks
Comfort to Availability of

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use clean urinals
Availability of
Drinking
Water

Q7 a. Please rate the following services in comparison to different competitors (online)


(variety of content)

1= 2 3 4 5 6 7
Lowest

Google

Online
IIM L
Library

Youtube

Q7b. Please rate the following services in comparison to different competitors (online)
(Variety of content)

1= 2 3 4 5 6 7
Lowest

Google

Online
IIM L
Library

Youtube

Q7c. Please rate the following services in comparison to different competitors (online)
(multimedia content)

1= 2 3 4 5 6 7
Lowest

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Google

Online
IIM L
Library

Youtube

Q8. Please rate the following preferences as users required for Online / Offline services.

Online Offline
Academic Curriculum
User books
Videos
Papers
Journals
Non- Availability
Academic of company
User data
Availability
of sufficient
chairs / tables
Availability
of AC
Peaceful
environment
Availability
of support
facilities
Literary Availability
User of Novels
Availability
of A. C.
Chairs/Tables
Wi-fi
hotspots
Study kiosks
Proper
Indexing

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Q9. Please rank the following library services on the basis of Online mode(1= Lowest to
8=Highest):

1. Curriculum Books
2. Academic Videos
3. Academic journals and research papers
4. Journals and Articles (Nonacademic/Placements/Competitions)
5. Research Papers (Nonacademic/Placements/ Competitions)
6. Novels
7. Newspapers
8. Magazines

Q10. Please rank the following library services on the basis of Offline mode(1= Lowest to
6=Highest):

1. Curriculum Books
2. Academic Videos
3. Academic journals and research papers
4. Journals and Articles (Non academic/Placements/Competitions)
5. Research Papers ( Non academic/Placements/ Competitions)
6. Novels
7. Newspapers
8. Magazines

Q11. Please rank the following psychographic behavior based on online library
sevices(1=lowest,6=highest) :
When I study alone I prefer
When I study in a group I prefer
When I study during the last night of Exam I prefer
When I have multiple task to complete I prefer
When I want to complete my task quickly I prefer

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Q12. Please rank the following psychographic behavior based on offline library
services(1=lowest,6=highest) :
When I study alone I prefer
When I study in a group I prefer
When I study during the last night of Exam I prefer
When I have multiple task to complete I prefer
When I want to complete my task quickly I prefer

Q13. Your Gender:


1. Male _____
2. Female _____

Q14. Your Hostel:


1. Hostel 1-8 _____
2. Hostel 9-10 _____
3. Hostel 11-17 _____
4. FPM Hostel _____

Q15. Work Experience


1. None _____
2. 1-12 months _____
3. 13-24 months _____
4. 24-36 months _____
5. 36+ months _____

Q16. Please tick the relevant category of users you fall in:
Academic User _____
Non- Academic User _____
Literary User _____
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Q17. How often do you visit IIML library? Offline Online
a. Less than once a week ____ ____
b. Once a week ____ ____
c. 2 or 3 times a week ____ ____
d. Four or more times a week ____ ____

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APPENDIX III (Spss output)

Research Objective 1 Hypothesis 1

Research Objective 1 Hypothesis 2

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Research Objective 1 Hypothesis 3

Research Objective 1 Hypothesis 4

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Research Objective 2

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Research Objective 3

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Research Objective 4

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Research Objective 5 Hypothesis 1

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Research Objective 5 Hypothesis 2 & 3

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Research Objective 6 Hypothesis 1

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Research Objective 6 Hypothesis 2

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Research Objective 6 Hypothesis 3

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