Women’s Participation in Politics and Empowerment in Argentina Argentina has a history of female leaders, as well as internationally recognized images

that symbolize the heavy participation of women in the political, social, and domestic fields. Traditionally, the legal position of women was based on Spanish Law, which in turn was based on Roman Law where women were considered as property of the men in the family. They were not allowed to hold any political or administrative positions in the colony. However, due to the influence of foreign cultures, especially that of the French culture, these ideas and attitudes began to change in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Juan Perón , the three times elected president of Argentina together with his second wife, Eva Perón, (who served as the first lady of Argentina from 1946 until her death in 1952), were sincerely determined to improve the lives of women .Eva's role in politics helped women gain the right to vote in 1946. However, by 1962, even after the death of Eva Perón, gender equality had not improved beyond mere suffrage. However, later on Argentina became the first country in the world to adopt a national gender quota law to boost women's political participation. This law stipulates that at least 30 per cent of candidates on electoral lists must be women. When it was passed by the Congress in 1991, only 5 per cent of seats in the chamber of deputies and 4 per cent in the Senate were held by women. Today, those proportions have risen to 38 and 36 percent, respectively. Isabel Martinez de Perón, the third wife of Juan Perón also took part in policy making. She served as the Vice President of Argentina from October 1973 to July 1974 and served as the President from July 1974 to march 1976. Currently, Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner is the President of Argentina. She was a senator for Buenos Aires Province before taking office. She acted as the first lady during 2003- 2007. She is Argentina's first elected woman President and the second woman President to serve after Isabel Peron. She claims that women of her generation owe a debt to Eva Peron for her example of passion and combativeness. Thus what has been witnessed over the years, is that more women are becoming politically aware and are taking active part in politics in Argentina after gradual improvements and struggles for equality. Despite this, Argentinean women are still shadowed by the historically traditional, Catholic influence, and "machismo" culture. Thus the hypothesis for the proposed research is that despite increased political awareness and participation, there is a long way to go to achieve gender equality in Argentina. This research would be based on the discussion between two ideas : Firstly, the perception that women have climbed up the ladder in Latin America when it comes to political participation and Secondly, the idea that inspite of their inclusion and active participation in politics and social movements, oppression of women still exists and is manifested in gender discrimination in many forms. The main objective of this research is to study the improvements and developments of women

pdf • Women makes strides in Latin American politics. Date of access : 4/07/2010.fsdinternational. 1993. Haleh. website: http://www.php 2 . Radcliffe. Date of access : 2/07/2010 website: http://www. BIBLIOGRAPHY: • Sarah A. London. 1996./women • Argentina: A new look at the challenges of women's participation in the legislature../Argentina. New York : Routledge.org/article.idea.S London. 'ViVa' women and popular protest in Latin America . • Women's empowerment issues in Argentina. Feminist theories and different theories of women’s empowerment will thus be an important part of this paper.int/.org/.as-coa. New York : Routledge. website: http://www.that this political participation has brought about and the current situation of women taking the case study of Argentina. Reference to literature which includes books. The research questions for the proposed research are as following: Has an increasing participation of women in politics helped in the empowerment of women and their overall development? Has political participation facilitated women’s equality on every front in Argentina? The objectives for this proposed research includes the presentation of a comprehensive picture of inequality among men and women in Argentina. thereby becomes mandatory for this purpose. particularly from Latin American sources. date of access : 4/07/2010. • Afshar. Women and Politics in the Third World. The objectives of this proposed research also include analyzing if the gradual growth of women’s participation in policy making helped in solving the problems of inequalities based on sex. journals and internet sources.. government publications.

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