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C OMTEYTS

Pace
vi
Foreword

AERONAUTICAL MXTEOROLOGY

Introduction

Chapter

1 AIRCRAF'T I C I N G

1.1 The n a t u r e of a i r c r a f t 1.12 i c e c r y s t a i c o n t e n t of


icing clouds
1.2 Types o f i c e f o r m a t i o n 1.15 E f f i c i e n c y of c a t c h of
d r o p l e t s and c r y s t a l s
1.3 I c e formation during f l i g h t
1.14 Kinetic heating i n c l e a r
1.4 The s u p e r c o o l i n g of water air
1.5 The f r e e e i n g p r o c e s s 1.15 K i n e t i c h e a t i n g i n water
1.6 M a x i m u m f r e e water c o n t e n t clouds
of c l o u d s 1.16 K i n e t i c h e a t i n g i n mixed
1.7 S u p e r c o o l e d water c o n t e n t clouds
o f mixed c l o u d s Kinetic heating i n ice-
1.17
1.8 E f f e c t of s t r e n g t h o f c r y s t a l clouds
up-current 1.18 EnFine i c i n p
1.9 The e f f e c t of e n t r a i n m e n t 1.19 F l i g h t procedures i n
1.10 D e p l e t i o n of w a t e r c o n t e n t c l o u d s and p r e c i p i t a t i o n
by p r e c i p i t a t i o n 1.20 A n t i - i c i n g equipment
1.11 Droplet s i z e d i c t r i b u t i o n 1.21 Forecasting i c i n g
cond i t i ons

11 TURBULENCE

2.1 A i r c r a f t response t o 2.9 Meteorological f a c t o r s


turbulence a f f e c t i n g mountain wiive
turbulence
2.2 The h a z a r d s of a i r c r a f t
turbulence 2.1G H i gh- 1ev e 1 t u r b u1 enc e
2.3 Sources of t u r b u l e n t energy 2.11 Forecasting high-leve1
t u r b u l ence
2.4 Convective turbulence
2.12 Turbul enc e as s o c i a t ed
2.5 Thunderstorm t u r b u l e n c e w i t h f r o n t a l and
2. 6 Mechanical t u r b u l e n c e i n v e r s i o n surf a c e s
2.7 Mountain wave t u r b u l e n c e 2.13 T u r b u l e n c e and
supereonic a i r c r a f t
2.8 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a i r f l o w
o v e r mountains
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Chapter

111 THUNDJiXSTORMS

3.1 Formation conditions 3.6 Hail formation


3.2 Types of thunderstorm 3.7 Hail prediction
3.3 The thunderstorm cell 3.8 Hail prevention
3.4 Aviation hazards 3.9 Lightning
3.5 Hail hazards 3.10 Avoidance of
thunderstorms

IV REDUCED VISIBILITY AND OTHER HAZBRDS 39

4.1 Factors affecting 4.6 Clouds and


visibility precipitation
4.2 Fog classification 4.7 Runway snow, slush
and water
4.3 Air 6ass fogs
4.8 Sand and duststorms
4.4 Frontal fogs
4.9 Air pollutants
4.5 Pog dispersa1
4.10 The low-leve1 jet
stream

WEATHER RADARS 47

5.1 Principles of design 5.10 Thunderstorms


5.2 . The fundamental radar 5.11 Hail
equation 5.12 Lightning
5.3 The back-scattering of an 5.13 Tornadoes and water-
acsemblage of particles SDOUtS
5.4 Rainfall intensity 5.14 Duststorms and
5.5 Attenuation effects sandstorms
5.6 Interpretation of 5.15 Tropical cyclones
precipitation echoes
5.16 Anomalous propagation
5.7 Precipitation from
stratiform clouds 5.17 Angel echoes
5.0 Precipitation from 5.10 Smoke echoes
convective clouds 5.19 Short-period
5.9 Snow forecasting
5.20 Aviation forecasting
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VI FLIGHT NAVIGATION 59

6.1 Terminology 6.6 Pressure pattern flying


6.2 Effect of wind on aircraft 6.7 Minimal flight path
6.3 Flight levels 6.8 Altimetric
determination of drift
6.4 Altimeter setting procedures
6.9 Single heading flight
6.5 The D-factor

VI1 FLIGT PLlLNNING 67

7.1 Definitions 7.7 Documentation


7.2 Flight planning services 7.8 Presentation of
documentation
7.5 Sources of meteorological
information 7.9 Documentation pract i c e s
7.4 Available meteorologicel 7.10 Display
information
7.11 Briefing services
7.5 Fiight planning requirements
7.12 Briefing practices
7.6 Significance of meteor-
ological information

VI11 AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES 79

8.1 Definitions 8.6 Approach control


service
8.2 Flight rules
8.3 The nature of air traffic 8.7 Aerodrome control
services service
8.8 Responsibility for air
8.4 Air traffic control service traffic cervices
8.5 Area control service

IX OPERATION OF AIRCRAFT 91

9.1 Principles of flight 9.8 General flipht navigation


9.2 Air density and aircraft 9.9 Air pilotage
performance Dead reckoning
9.10
9.3 Density altitude Electronic navigation
9.11
9.4 Other factors affecting Celestial navigation
aircraft performance 9.12
9.13 Aids to approach and
9.5 Fue1 consumption landing
9.6 Radio meteorology
9.14 Flight planning aspects
9.7 Effects of meteorological
9.15 Aerodrome me t eoro1 ogi c al
phenomena on ground
communications minima
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X GENERAL AVIATION SERVICES 104

10.1 Operation aspects 10.5 Meteorological


requirements f o r
10.2 Flight preparation agricultura1 aviation
10.3 Flight plan 10.6 Meteorology for
10.4 Met eorol ogical servic e helicopter operations
10.5 Agricultura1 aviation

XI METEOROLOGICAL SEF.VICE FOR INTERNATIONAL AIR NAVIGATION 112

11.1 Terminology 11.12 Information required


from operators
11.2 Area forecast centres
11.13 Information f o r pilots-
11.3 Aeronautical meteorological in-command prior to
offices d eparture
11.4 Aeronautical meteorological 11.14 Information f o r pilots-
stations in-command during
11.5 Observations made at flight
aeronautical meteorological 11.15 Debriefing
stations
11.6 Meteorological reports from 11.16 Information f o r and from
air traffic services
-
aeronautical meteorolonical
s tations 11.17 Forms of meteorological
11.7 Aerodrome forecasts mes sages
Forecasts for take-off 11.18 Information for search
11 .R and rescue
11.9 Landing forecasts
11.19 Aeronautical
11.10 Dissemination of climat01 ogical
meteorological information information
11.11 Information for operators'
1oc al representat iv es

XII ORGANIZATION FOR INTERNATIONAL AVIATION SERVICE 123

12.1 WMO Global 12.4 International


Telecommunication System co-ordination of
procedures
12.? Aer onautical
te1 ecommunication 12.5 Regulatory documents
facil i ties and related
pub1ications
12.7 Veteorolorica1
t el econmunication
faci1 1 t 1 e s
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