INTRODUCTION

It is Incorporated has now developed a system (a program) that will allow a
manuIacturer or user to knit Iabrics to Iully understand and control the selection oI yarn
and knitting machine through Machine dia, M/C Gauge, Yarn Count, Stitch Length,GSM
processing.
A manuIacturer or user oI cotton knit Iabrics accumulates large amount oI data as related
to dimensions oI the Iabrics (such as weight, width and shrinkage). This presentation will
show that knit Iabric perIormance can be predicted and understood Irom empirical data
gathered Irom those Iabrics. Fabric is a manuIactured assembly oI Iibers and yarns that
has substantial surIace area in relation to its thickness and suIIicient cohesion to give the
assembly useIul mechanical strength. Fabrics are most commonly woven or knitted but
the term includes assemblies produced by Ielting, lace making, net making, non woven
processes and tuIting. Our proiect basically is on knitted Iabric speciIication and
machines which are related to knitted Iabric production.
A precise statement oI a set oI requirement to be satisIied by a materials, product, and
system or service that indicates the procedures Ior determining whether each oI the
requirements is satisIied. In the analysis oI woven Iabric speciIication we consider ends
per inch, picks per inch, yarn count (warp & weIt), and Iabric width but in case oI knitted
Iabric speciIication GSM, stitch length are mainly considered.
The proiect our work is Product development oI knitted Iabric and other related machine
speciIication. There are problem in our industries to produce knitted Iabrics oI required
G.S.M. Other speciIication like Iabric width, Iabric thickness is generally maintained in
industries by previous data sheet. For this reason there are problem iI any order comes
which didn`t produced in previous.
Our target is to Iind out the easy process to get decision about yarn count selection, loop
length selection, machine Diameter selection & machine gauge selection.
We strongly think that by this process we can get decision about yarn count, loop length,
machine gauge, and machine diameter Ior the single iersey, Rib Iabric.
Aims oI the proiect work are the Iollowing:
Find out relation between yarn count and GSM.
Find out the logic oI selection oI stitch length selection.
Selection oI machine diameter and machine gauge to get speciIic width oI Iabric.


Flow Chart of Knit fabric development:
Bayer Sample choose
Receive
Analyses
Yes/Not Ior check
Point to point Analyses
Machine selection
Design selection
Yarn selection
Sample knitting(Check list ,Design check,GSM check)
Sample Dyeing
AIter Iinishing treatment
Shrinkage,Fastness,Spirality
Check the design aIter dyeing
Not Ok
II OK send to the bayer
II sample approved send it Ior the production
Order conIirm
From marketing send a balk order
Start Ior the production
:er sample choice :-
This is the Iirst step Ior development a knit product.Buyer give a sample or
knitting production to manager or merchandiser choose the samplewith his
exorience.
Receive sample :-
Knitting production manager receive the sample Irom merchendiser.BeIore
receiving the sample the manager vizulize the sample by his experience.For
this process highly experienced person is need The maneger should be
highly experienced about 3 to 5 year.
es/Not for check :-
AIter vizulizing the sample the manager say yes or not Ior check.this is
totally depends on knitting manager.iI he thought this design can be made by
this machine he say yes or he thought can not be produce he say not to
merchandiser.
Check the design after deing :-
The design should be checked aIter dyeing because some Iaults are
prominent aIter dyeing.Such as relavation oI Iabric increase spirality,shade
variation,Iabric bow & skewness, GSMcna be changed aIter dyeing.For this
reason Iabric should be rechecked aIter dyeing.
Not ok:-
AIter checking the sample is not similar with the buyer sample the knitting
manager again point to point analyse the sample & try to remove the
previous Iault such as proper m/c selection,yarn selection,knitting,dyeing
&Iinishing Iault.
If ok send to b:er :-
AIter checking the sample design aIter dyeing iI it is similar with the buyer
sample then the knitting maneger send the sample to merchandiser & the
merchendisre send the sample to buyer & wait Ior approval.
If the sample approved send it for the prod:ction :-
When the merchandiser get approved sample he send it knitting manager Ior
bulk production & wai Ior conIorm order which amount oI Iabric need Ior
buyer.
Order conform :-
Then the merchandiser deal with the buyer Ior conIorm the order.Buyer
inIorm the merchandiser what amount oI Iabric he need.


DISCUSSIONS
Obviously, the most critical considerations Ior developing a product are the
construction variables on the knitting machine and the length processing tensions applied
in the dyehouse. In this study, diIIerent combinations oI constructions, yarns, machines,
and Iinishes were evaluated. The basic constructions studied were single iersey, interlock,
single pique and 1x1 rib. Evaluations were perIormed in the greige and aIter each
separate processing step throughout dyeing and Iinishing. Analysis oI all this data yielded
"K-Factors" which relates the structure to its processing. These Iactors became the basis
Ior the predictions oI Iabric perIormance.
"K-Factors" are constants derived Irom empirical data measured in the reIerence
state. The data most important are those oI stitch length, yarn count and the courses and
wales per inch. The "ReIerence State" oI a Iabric is the dimensions oI the substrate when
it will not shrink any Iurther. "ReIerence state" is also known as the "relaxed state." The
consumer is normally the only person who experiences the Iabric in this state oI
normalcy. ReIerence conditions are reached when the Iabrics have been washed and
tumble dried until no Iurther shrinking occurs. On nearly all Iabrics, this state will be
achieved aIter Iive cycles oI washing and tumble drying.
Cotton Incorporated believes that to be most eIIective, each plant must
calculate the "K-Factors" Ior each oI their processing lines. For example, a continuous
bleaching range may result in a diIIerent reIerence state Ior the same greige style than
will an overIlow iet when both Iabrics are extracted, dried and Iinished in the same
manner. In Iact, the greige Iabric "K-Factors" will not match the "K-Factors" oI either oI
these processing routes. ThereIore, the same greige style processed on these two systems
will yield diIIerent shrinkage values when
Iinished to the same weight and width speciIications. Conversely, all 100° cotton Iabrics
knit oI the same construction (i.e. iersey) Irom the same spinning system (i.e. ring spun)
and processed through the same dyeing and Iinishing systems would have the same "K-
Factors."
Currently, using the "K-Factors" cited in the literature plus a new one based on the
Iabric yield. These Iactors are deIined as: "K
s
" Ior stitch density (the product oI the
courses per inch times the wales per inch), "K
w
" Ior width and wales per inch (WPI),
"K
c
" Ior length and courses per inch (CPI), "K
r
" Ior the ratio oI CPI to WPI, and Iinally,
"K
y
" Ior the yield (ounces per square yard). For this discussion only the K
w
, K
c
and K
y
will be used.
The Iactor, K
w
, Ior the wales per inch and width is derived Irom the relationship
that says that the wales per inch in the reIerence state are inversely proportional to the
stitch length. The mathematical value oI the proportion is the constant ("K-Factor"). The
equation is expressed as Iollows:
Wales per inch ÷ K
w
or WPI ÷ K
w

Stitch length. L L

therefore. K
w
÷ WPI x L
The Iactor Ior the courses per inch and length is derived Irom the relationship that
says that the courses per inch in the reIerence state are inversely proportional to the stitch
length. The value oI the proportion is the constant. This equation is expressed as Iollows:
Co:rses per inch ÷ K
c
or CPI ÷ K
c

Stitch length. L L

therefore. K
c
÷ CPI x L
The Iactor Ior the yield is derived Irom the relationship that says the ounces per
square yard in the reIerence state are inversely proportional to the product oI the yarn
count and the stitch length. This equation is expressed as Iollows:
O:nces per sq. ard ÷ K

or Oz/d2 ÷ K

arn co:nt x L Ne `L

therefore. K

÷ Oz/d
2
x Ne x L
These equations have been used by Cotton Incorporated to calculate Iactors Ior
100° cotton single ierseys, interlocks, single piques and 1x1 ribs on the diIIerent dyeing
and Iinishing processes in its pilot dyeing and Iinishing laboratory as well as Ior
production Iacilities. For this discussion, only the constants Ior a series oI single iersey
Iabrics which were processed in a mill will be discussed. Two diIIerent processing
sequences will be discussed. The Iirst sequence consists oI preparation and dyeing in an
overIlow machine, balloon pad extraction, relaxed drying on a conveyor dryer an
compaction. The second procedure is one oI continuous bleaching, pad extraction,
suction drum drying and compaction.
These "K-Factors" Ior dyed single iersey were based on Iour gauges oI iersey
knitting with eight diIIerent counts oI yarn at three diIIerent levels oI stitch tightness.
Each Iabric had its "K" values calculated aIter
compaction, and these were all averaged together Ior each gauge to create the "K-
Factors" used in the program. It was Iound that all gauges had the same "K-Factors."
These values are shown below:
"K-Factors"
`
for 100º Cotton Single 1erse
K
w
÷ 4.170
K
c
÷ 5.785
K

÷ 15.670
`Overflow 1et ded. pad extracted. relaxed dried and compacted t:b:larl.
The best way to show these relationships is by the use oI "X-Y" graphs. Figures 1,
2 and 3 show the plots Ior K
w
, K
c
and K
y
respectively.
Figure 1. gives the plot Ior K
w
. Each data point represents a diIIerent machine gauge and
yarn count knit at diIIerent stitch lengths. The wales per inch in the reIerence state (Y-
axis) are plotted against the reciprocal oI the stitch length (X-axis). The best Iit Ior the
slope oI the line is the constant value K
w
÷ 4.170. These data points have an R-square oI
0.996 which is excellent.
Figure 1.

Figure 2. gives the plot Ior K
c
. The courses per inch in the reIerence state (Y-axis) are
plotted against the reciprocal oI the stitch length (X-axis). The slope oI the line is the
constant value K
c
÷ 5.785. These data points have an R-square oI 0.993 which is also
excellent.
Figure 2.

.
Figure 3. gives the plot Ior K
y
. The ounces per square yard in the reIerence state (Y-axis)
are plotted against the reciprocal oI the stitch length multiplied by the yarn count (X-
axis). The best Iit Ior the slope oI the line is the constant value K
y
÷ 15.670. These data
points have an R-square oI 0.989 which is excellent.
Figure 3


Once the "K-Factor" values have been developed Ior a plant process (a grouping oI
machines such as iet, extractor, dryer, etc.), a simple computer spread sheet program can
be written to predict the weight, width, courses per inch, wales per inch and shrinkage Ior
any Iabric that would be processed through that particular sequence oI operations. Other
data could also be generated iI needed on the same spreadsheet, such as, costs, production
time at diIIerent eIIiciencies, etc. In Iact, the written program can be as comprehensive as
desired by the manuIacturer.
DEMONSTRATION
A simple demonstration is shown in the Iollowing text. For this example, it is
desired to produce a 100° cotton single iersey Iabric on a 20 gauge knitting machine oI
18 inch diameter with 1104 needles using an 18/1 carded ring spun yarn at a stitch length
oI 0.166 inches. The targeted weight and width Ior the Iabric aIter iet dyeing
and Iinishing would be 5.0 ounces per square yard at 22 inches tubular with maximum
shrinkage oI Iive by Iive percent length by width. Our plant would use an overIlow iet Ior
preparation and dyeing Iollowed by balloon pad extraction, relaxation drying on a
conveyor belt dryer, and compaction as the Iinal Iinishing step. As shown in the
"DISCUSSION" segment oI this paper, "K-Factor" values have been established Ior this
processing sequence. ThereIore, a simple spreadsheet program using these "K-Factors" in
the calculations was used to predict whether this knitting setup processed on these
dyehouse machines would meet the requested yield, width, and shrinkage values.
Figure 4 is a printout oI the spreadsheet without the data being entered. The program
allows Ior the construction parameters oI cut, diameter, needles in the cylinder, yarn
count, and stitch length to be entered as standard or given values (shown in the upper
portion oI the printout). The course length needed to produce the speciIied stitch length
Ior one revolution oI the knitting machine is calculated and displayed beneath the stitch
length. The computer then calculates the reIerence state and lists these values in the lower
leIt-hand box oI Figure 4. Once the desired shrinkage values are entered in the lower
right hand box, the computer then calculates the "delivered" dimensions oI weight, width,
courses, and wales per inch to give the desired shrinkage values.
Figure 4
NGINRD KNITTING
PROGRAM
SIACLE 1ERSEY - RIAC SPUA -
DYED
Constr:ction Parameters
Cut




Diameter
Needles

Given
Yarn Count



Stitch Length
Course Lenth 0.00

RFRNC STAT
Method A
Width 0.00
CPI ERR
WPI ERR
Oz/d2 ERR

Prod:ct Specifications
Length Width
Shrinkage,
given


DLIVRD Method A
Width 0.00
CPI ERR
WPI ERR
Oz/yd2 ERR


Method A is based on the stitch length being given.
Figure 5. shows that when the cut, diameter, the number oI needles, yarn count, stitch
length, and shrinkage requirements are entered, the program will calculate the delivered
and reIerence weights, widths, and stitch counts Ior the Iabric. This data shows that with
the speciIied stitch length and yarn count, a Iabric oI 4.73 ounces per square yard at 23.13
inches tubular would be delivered to give (5 x 5)° shrinkage. As is realized, this would
not be acceptable because a 5.0 ounces per square yard Iabric at 22 inches tubular was
speciIied.






Figure 5

NGINRD KNITTING
PROGRAM
SIACLE 1ERSEY - RIAC SPUA -
DYED
Constr:ction Parameters
Cut
20
18
1104

Diameter
Needles

Given
Yarn Count
18.00
0.166

Stitch Length
Course Lenth 183.26

RFRNC STAT
Method A
Width 21.97
CPI 34.85
WPI 25.12
Oz/d2 5.24

Prod:ct Specifications
Length Width
Shrinkage,
given
5 5

DLIVRD Method A
Width 23.13
CPI 33.11
WPI 23.8
Oz/yd2 4.73


Method A is based on the stitch length being given.
Figure 6.. shows that when Method B is added to the program, the desired width can be
entered into the set oI "givens" and the computer will calculate the stitch length needed
Ior the yarn and machine speciIied to give the desired shrinkage and width. The new
stitch length is shown under "Calc." in the upper halI oI the spreadsheet. The data in
Figure 6. gives a delivered yield oI 4.98 ounces per square yard at 22 inches with Iive
percent shrinkage in both the length and width directions. This new stitch length would
be 0.158 inches and the new calculated course length Irom which to set up the knitting
machine would be 174.31 inches. This revised stitch length gives a yield oI 4.98 ounces
per square yard which would be acceptable.





Figure 6
NGINRD KNITTING
PROGRAM
SIACLE 1ERSEY - RIAC SPUA -
DYED
Constr:ction Parameters
Cut
20
18
1104

Diameter
Needles

Given Calc.
Yarn Count
18.00
0.166

18.00
Stitch Length 0.1579*
Course Lenth 183.26 174.31

RFRNC STAT
Method A
Method
B
Width 21.97 20.90
CPI 34.85 36.64
WPI 25.12 26.41
Oz/d2 5.24 5.51

Prod:ct Specifications
Length Width
Shrinkage,
given
5 5


DLIVRD
Method
A
Method
B
Width 23.13 22.00

CPI 33.11 34.81
WPI 23.8 25.09
Oz/yd2 4.73 4.98


Method A is based on the stitch length being given.
Method B is based on the delivered width and shrinkage being given.
Figure 7. gives yet another analysis that is beneIicial to the manuIacturer. It may be
desired to use the greige goods with the stitch length oI 0.166 inches and also Iinish the
goods to 5.0 ounces per square yard at 22 inches. Obviously, iI this is accomplished, the
shrinkage cannot be Iive by Iive percent. Method C is used to allow Ior the original stitch
length to be used with the weight and width targets kept as speciIied. The program then
calculates the shrinkage values that would result and shows these in the lower right hand
portion oI the spreadsheet next to "Calc. Method C." The resulting analysis gives
shrinkage values oI 4.55° in the length by 0.12° in the width.




Figure 7.

NGINRD KNITTING
PROGRAM
SIACLE 1ERSEY - RIAC SPUA -
DYED
Constr:ction Parameters
Cut
20
18
1104

Diameter
Needles

Given
Yarn Count
18.00
0.166

Stitch Length
Course Lenth 183.26

RFRNC STAT
Method A&C
Width 21.97
CPI 34.85
WPI 25.12
Oz/d2 5.24

Prod:ct Specifications
Length

Width

Shrinkage,
given
Calc.
Method C
5 5


4.55 0.12
DLIVRD
Method
A
Method
C
Width 23.13 22.00

CPI 33.11 33.27
WPI 23.8 25.09
Oz/yd2 4.73 5.00



Method A is based on the stitch length being given.
Method C is based on the stitch length, weight and width being given.

This has been a very simple demonstration as to how the Engineered Knitting
Program can be used. Other calculation methods can and have been written to predict
which yarn counts, machine diameters, etc. should be used under diIIerent delivered
speciIications.



Design & Development
Inengineering associates can assist Irom concept to completion in developing and
manuIacturing product, working with you to ensure that buyer exact requirements are
met. Whether they need design support, prototypes or product evaluation, experienced
engineers with proIessional training in Iabric technology are ready to assist. Expertise
and experience allow us to successIully complete proiects that are too complicated Ior
many others.
ManuIacturers are ready to help complete proiect no matter what stage it is in.
Commitment to Ilexibility allows to react quickly to their needs. II they looking Ior a
completely new source Ior their product, iI it is seasonal, or iust need help occasionally
with overIlow we can help.
Prod:ct ngineering

At Core Products International can help design and develop idea Irom concept to
distribution. No matter what stage product-it will help bring ideas to liIe, help engineer
product and provide a proIessional product. It is goal to work hand in hand with in every
aspect oI developing and delivering product.
CAD Drawing and Patterns

It Iull size, Iull scale CAD system ensures that every pattern is perIect, and brings
unlimited Ilexibility in quickly making design changes.
Pre-prod:ction Samples and Prototping
It will provide with initial prototypes that will redeIine and make necessary changes to
aIter buyer have tested it. It will then provide with a Iinal sample Ior their complete
approval.
Design Doc:mentation
Engineering staII Iollow a detailed documentation process with every product Core
manuIactures. When a product is complete and ready Ior production, a Iinal design
document along with a product control will be brought to the production staII Ior training
and quality assurance.

Core Products Iollows the guidelines set by ISO9000 Ior documentation making
products easily CE CertiIied.
1ig and Fixt:re Design
Its ability to design custom iigs & Iixtures ensures that you will get your products made
correctly every time at the best price possible.
CONCLUSIONS AND RCOMMNDATIONS
ManuIacturers oI knitted products should be using some method to determine iI
they will have success meeting their customer speciIications without having to knit, dye,
Iinish and test every candidate. Computer prediction systems are already on the market
that will give the manuIacturer a good idea oI what they can or cannot do. This
presentation has attempted to show the industry that they already have the inIormation
available to them within their operations to also develop a program that will be speciIic to
their actual production Iacilities. Evaluation oI their Iabrics and Iacilities by these
methods will pay dividends iI only as a result oI them better understanding what goes on
in their operations.
Because "K-Factors" are based on goods actually processed through a particular
grouping oI wet processing equipment, they indicate levels oI perIormance actually
achieved. This system oI "engineering cotton knits Ior perIormance" will give the
manuIacturer a good indication oI whether he will be successIul in his eIIorts. Other
considerations include the incorporation oI techniques Ior cutting and sewing in an
apparel operation into the analysis oI "K-Factors." In addition, there are indications that it
may be possible to predict the perIormance oI resin Iinished cotton knits by the use oI
"K-Factors." At the worst, this systematical approach will allow the knitter/Iinisher to:
O develop speciIic products Ior speciIic customers,
O Iine tune speciIic wet processing equipment,
O incorporate cut-and-sew processes into the Iabric processing Ilow, and
O will drastically reduce the required testing oI the Iabric Ior shrinkage
because shrinkage will be predictable.


Fleece knitting Machine:





Selecting o:r Knitting Machine
Selecting your knitting machine should be done careIully. Consider the manual, punch
card and electronic/computer ready knitting machines.
When the decision has been made that you must have a knitting machine Ior yourselI, the
decision making has really only iust begun. Knitting machines are not like sewing
machines. It seems like we were born with the basics oI sewing machines. Knitting
machines are intimidating pieces oI equipment with buttons, springs, wires and hooks
enough to contact the outer world!
The Man:fact:ring Process of Fabric
There are three basic steps required Ior Iabric production. The Iirst step in creating Iabric
is yarn production. Here, the raw materials that have been harvested and processed are
transIormed Irom raw Iibers into yarn and threads. This is done by spinning the Iibers.
Spinning can be done by hand, but this process is quite tedious and time consuming.
These days, the vast maiority oI spinning is done by spinning wheel. The Iibers are drawn
across the wheel, and as it spins, the Iibers are collected on a cylindrical obiect called a
bobbin. The bobbin holds the spun Iibers, which are now connected into a long strand oI
thread or yarn. In the next step, the bobbins will be transIerred to another machine, where
the yarn will continue on its iourney into Iabric.
AIter the raw materials have been converted into yarn, they're ready Ior the second step in
the production process, which involves ioining these individual threads together to Iorm
Iabric. This process oI ioining the yarn together is called weaving. Weaving is done on a
machine known as a loom and requires two sets oI yarn. The Iirst set, called the warp set,
is strung tautly across a metal Irame. The second, called the weIt, is connected to metal
rods, with one thread per rod. The loom is controlled by a computer, which lets the weIt
know how the Iabric should be woven.
AIter the Iabric has been woven, it's removed Irom the loom and is ready Ior the Iinal
step: processing. Fabric that's Iresh oII the loom is called greige, and it looks nothing like
the crisp white sheets or clothing you're used to. It's discolored and Iull oI impurities,
seed particles and debris. BeIore it can be transIormed into useIul textiles, it must be
cleaned. First, it's treated with bleach to puriIy the base color. Next, it's treated with a
variety oI chemicals and cleaners to remove oils, wax and other elements that are
naturally occurring in most Iibers. Finally, it's ready to be shipped out to clothing and
textile manuIacturers.
In addition to loom weaving, there are other methods Ior
ioining Iabric, including knitting and crochet. While both
are traditionally associated with wool materials, crochet is
also common with lace production. Both are traditionally
done by hand. Hand looms are also widely used throughout
the world, and hand-woven textiles tend to be very popular
with consumers



. Order sheet
Iabric name: Diamond Mesh
75D 72 Iilament-2ply-Ieeder No (2,3,5,6)
75Dbright Polyester-1ply-Ieeder No (1,4)
Composite: 97°micro polyester
WPI: 72
CPI: 96
Stitch Length: 11inch(initial)
÷11*2.54
÷27.94
÷27.94/72
÷.38810
÷3.88mm
GSM: .235*882.6
÷207.41gsm
Cam setting
1------2-----3------4------5------6
K-----T-----K-------------K------K
------K-----K-------------K------K
------K-----K-------------K------K
------K-----K------K-----T------K
Needle setting



Iabric name: Ilece
WPI: 50
CPI:126
Stitch Length: 1inch(initial)
÷1.1*2.54
÷ 2.79
÷2.79/50
÷ .50*10
÷ .55mm
GSM: .367*882.6
÷323gsm
Count: 31Ne

Iabric name: iacquard Iabric
WPI: 32
CPI:50
Stitch Length: 3.5inch(initial)
÷3.5*2.54
÷8.89
÷8.89/32
÷.2778*10
÷2.778mm

GSM: .212*882.6
÷187.11gsm
Count: 26Ne

Iabric name: Mesh
WPI: 28
CPI: 72
Loop Length: 30mm
Stitch Length: 3.4inch(initial)
÷3.4*2.54
÷8.36
÷8.36/28
÷ .30*10
÷30mm
GSM: .176*882.6
÷155gsm
Count: 73Ne






Machine setting
Machine
Dia*gage
Yarn
count
S/L
Finished
GSM
Finished Width Fabric Type Color
30¨, 28 30/1 29 190 74¨ F.Fly S/J white
30¨, 24 30/1 28 230 76¨Open H.Fly S/La white
30¨, 24 30/1 30 190 65¨Open F.Fly S/J white
38¨, 18 40/1 28 160 64¨Open 1*1H.Fly Rib Avg
30¨, 16 20/1 31 300 60¨Open 1*1H.Fly Rib Avg
38¨, 18 20/1 29 300 44¨Open 2*1H.Fly Rib Avg
30¨, 26 40/1 31 200 Baby terry Avg
30¨, 24 30/1 27 140 24¨Tube S/J Avg


CONCLUSIONS AND RCOMMNDATIONS
ManuIacturers oI knitted products should be using some method to determine iI
they will have success meeting their customer speciIications without having to knit, dye,
Iinish and test every candidate. Computer prediction systems are already on the market
that will give the manuIacturer a good idea oI what they can or cannot do. This
presentation has attempted to show the industry that they already have the inIormation
available to them within their operations to also develop a program that will be speciIic to
their actual production Iacilities. Evaluation oI their Iabrics and Iacilities by these
methods will pay dividends iI only as a result oI them better understanding what goes on
in their operations.
Because "K-Factors" are based on goods actually processed through a particular
grouping oI wet processing equipment, they indicate levels oI perIormance actually
achieved. This system oI "engineering cotton knits Ior perIormance" will give the
manuIacturer a good indication oI whether he will be successIul in his eIIorts. Other
considerations include the incorporation oI techniques Ior cutting and sewing in an
apparel operation into the analysis oI "K-Factors." In addition, there are indications that it
may be possible to predict the perIormance oI resin Iinished cotton knits by the use oI
"K-Factors." At the worst, this systematical approach will allow the knitter/Iinisher to:
O develop speciIic products Ior speciIic customers,
O Iine tune speciIic wet processing equipment,
O incorporate cut-and-sew processes into the Iabric processing Ilow, and
O will drastically reduce the required testing oI the Iabric Ior shrinkage
because shrinkage will be predictable.


Process flow chart of Knit Prod:ct Development
Details of Flow chart:
arn Selection:
arn q:alit parameters

Evenness,
Breaking strength,
Elongation,
Twist,
Moisture contents,
Yarn winding,
Yarn lubrication,
Yarn hairiness is to be considered Ior quality raw material Ieed to
knitting.


(i) Suitable yarn count:
Selection oI suitable yarn count should be based on:
a) Machine gauge
Yarn Tex ÷ ¦100/G}
2
b) Machine types which are having varied needle strength hook sizes and dial and
cylinder distances.
c) Knitted structures which are produced with Irom one Ieeder (Plain, rib etc.,) to 3 or 4
Ieeders (blister and multicolour iacquards). More number oI Ieeders necessitates the use
oI Iiner counts.
(iii) Yarn storage:
For the yarns to have suIIicient moisture Ior processing, they should be stored at 20
o
c and
65° RH. Storage under extreme temperatures must be avoided.

Higher temperature leads to paraIIin migration and lower temperature leads to water
condensation.
Lot to lot variation is also a very important in handling quality matters, particularly aIter
dyeing.

(iv) Air conditioning:
Air conditioning oI knitting plant prevents yarn dry-up, reduces yarn breaks (holes) and
improves the surIace structure oI Iabric.

The recommended conditioning is 55° ¹ 10° RH and 25
o
C ¹ 3
o
C temperature.



Machine Selection:

Long lasting and trouble Iree quality Iunctioning oI the knitting machine could be
possible by proper maintenance care and lubrication.

Proper horizontal installation oI the machine,
Tension Iree yarn Ieeding,
Flawless yarn guides and needles,
Exact cantering oI needle bed towards one another,
Proper Iabric take-oII
And proper lubrication is the basic quality needs oI a knitting machine



(ii) Machine setting:
Optimum setting is based on yarn type and knitted structure.
Following Iactors are to be considered during setting:

a) Balanced yarn tension prior and aIter to Ieeder.
b) Lower Iabric take up tension.
c) Proper needle timings oI dial and cylinder needles in order to obtain loose or tight
structures.


Finishing:














. Experimental Work

As part oI our experimental study we have collected inIormation Irom various Iactories
having single iersey Iabric, Lycra single iersey Iabric, Rib & Interlock Iacility. The detail
inIormation is discussed below.




.1 Details of single jersev fabric.

The detail product inIormation about single iersey Iabric was collected Irom
Anlima textile Ltd. and Micro Fibre Ltd. and is given in table :-1-4


arn
co:nt
Stitch
length
in Cm
Finish
G.S.M
CPcm WPcm No. of
feeder
No. of
needle
Finish
width of
fabric in
Cm
30`S 0.260 150 21.13 15.92 96 2260 152.40

34`S 0.250 135 22.40 16.88 96 2260 147.32

30`S 0.265 145 21.13 15.92 96 2260 152.40

26`S 0.295 160 18.98 14.30 96 2260 162.56

30`S 0.270 140 20.74 15.63 96 2260 152.40

26`S 0.280 165 20.00 15.07 96 2260 157.48

24`S 0.270 180 20.74 15.63 96 2260 157.48


Table-1: Particulars oI some widely produced single iersey Iabrics (30" Dia and
24G).



arn Stitch Finish CPcm WPcm No. of No. of Finish
co:nt length
in Cm
G.S.M feeder needle width
of
fabric
in Cm
24`S 0.280 180 20.00

15.07

69 1734 121.92
24`S 0.290 170 19.31 14.55 69 1734 121.92


Table 2: Particulars oI some widely produced single iersey Iabrics (23" Dia and
24G).





arn
co:nt
Stitch
length
in Cm
Finish
G.S.M
CPcm WPcm No. of
feeder
No. of
needle
Finish
width
of
fabric
in Cm
30`S 0.290 140 19.31 14.55

72 1808 121.92
26`S 0.260 170 21.54 16.33 72 1808 121.92


Table 3: Particulars oI some widely produced single iersey Iabrics (24"
Dia and 24G).



arn
co:nt
Stitch
length
in Cm
Finish
G.S.M
CPcm WPcm No. of
feeder
No. of
needle
Finish
width
of
fabric
in Cm
26`S 0.290 160 19.31 14.55 108 2712 127.96

26`S 0.280 165 20.74 15.63 108 2712 195.58


Table 4: Particulars oI some widely produced single iersey Iabrics (36"
Dia and 24G).



















.2 Details of Lvcra single jersev fabric.

The detail product inIormation about Lycra single iersey Iabric was
collected Irom Anlima textile Ltd. and Micro Fibre Ltd. and is given in
table:-5-6

arn
co:nt
Stitch
length
in Cm
Finish
G.S.M
CPcm WPcm No. of
feeder
No. of
needle
Finish
width of
fabric in
Cm
30`S¹
20D
0.315 200 18.67

14.07

96 2260 162.56
30`S¹
20D
0.310 195 18.07

13.61

96 2260 165.10
30`S¹
20D
0.300 180 18.67

14.07

96 2260 165.10
30`S¹
20D
0.320 190 17.50

13.19 96 2260 152.40
34`S¹ 0.308 180 18.18 13.70 96 2260 142.24
20D
30`S¹
20D
0.320 210 17.50 13.19

96 2260 152.40


Table5: Particulars oI some widely produced Lycra single iersey Iabrics (30"
Dia and 24G).





arn
co:nt
Stitch
length
in Cm
Finish
G.S.M
CPcm WPcm No. of
feeder
No. of
needle
Finish
width of
fabric in
Cm
40`S¹
20D
0.280 160 20.00 15.07

63 1582 99.06


Table 6: Particulars oI some widely produced Lycra single iersey Iabrics (21Dia and
24G).




. Details of single Lacost fabric.

The detail product inIormation about Lacost was collected Irom Anlima
textile Ltd. and Micro Fibre Ltd. and is given in table:-7-8

arn
co:nt
Stitch
length
in Cm
Finish
G.S.M
CPcm WPcm No. of
feeder
No. of
needle
Finish
width of
fabric in
Cm
30`S 0.240 180 23.33

17.58

60 1508 121.92
30`S 0.245 170 22.86

17.22

60 1508 121.92
30`S 0.250 165 22.40

16.88

60 1508 121.92
26`S 0.255 200 21.96 16.55 60 1508 129.54


Table 7: Particulars oI some widely produced single Lacost Iabric (20" Dia
and 24G).



arn
co:nt
Stitch
length
in Cm
Finish
G.S.M
CPcm WPcm No. of
feeder
No. of
needle
Finish
width of
fabric in
Cm
26`S

0.255 180 21.96

16.55

84 2110 182.88

26`S 0.250 200 22.40 16.08

84 2110 172.72

Table 8: Particulars oI some widely produced single Lacost Iabrics (28" Dia
and 24G).









.4 Details of (1x1) Rib

The detail product inIormation about (1x1) Rib was collected Irom Anlima
textile Ltd. and Micro Fibre Ltd. and is given in table:-9

arn
co:nt
Stitch
length
in Cm
Finish
G.S.M
CPcm WPcm No. of
feeder
No. of
needle
Finish
width of
fabric in
Cm
24`S

0.275 235 20.36

15.35

68 4296 198.12
24`S

0.270 240 20.74

15.63 68 4296 198.12
24`S

0.280 220 23.14

17.44

68 4296 182.88


Table 9: Particulars oI some widely produced Ior (1x1) Rib Iabric (38" Dia
and 18G).


























.5 Details of (1x1) Lvcra Rib

The detail product inIormation about (1x1) Lycra Rib was collected Irom
Anlima textile Ltd. and Micro Fibre Ltd. and is given in table:-10


arn
co:nt
Stitch
length
in Cm
Finish
G.S.M
CPcm WPcm No. of
feeder
No. of
needle
Finish
width of
fabric in
Cm
24`S¹ 0.290 280 19.31 14.55 68 3416 152.40
30D
30`S¹
40D
0.290 240 19.31

14.55 68 3416 137.16
26`S¹
40D
0.310 240 18.07

13.61

68 3416 137.16

Table 10: Particulars oI some widely produced Ior (1x1) Lycra Rib Iabric (34"
Dia and 16G).

























.ô Details of Interlock fabric

The detail product inIormation about interlock Iabric was collected Irom
Anlima textile Ltd. and Micro Fibre Ltd. and is given in table:-11


arn
co:nt
Stitch
length
in Cm
Finish
G.S.M
CPcm WPcm No. of
feeder
No. of
needle
Finish
width of
fabric in
Cm
40`S

0.320 180 35.00 26.38

96 4520 152.40


Table 11: Particulars oI some widely produced Ior interlock Iabric (30" Dia and
24G).




























.7 Wales per Inches

A column oI loops along the length oI a Iabric is called Wales. The number oI visible
loops per unit length measured along a course. The traditional unit has been Wales per
inch but the value is now expressed as Wales per cm.


Figure 6: Photographs oI the Wales per Inch.

Meas:rement of Wales per Inch:

We calculated the number oI Wales in one inch with the help oI counting glass
and needle. At Iirst we selected the one square Iabric and by the help oI counting glass
we calculated the number oI Wales per inch. The tested results are shown in tables Table
1.

















.8 Course per Inches

Wales
A row oI loops across the width oI a Ilat Iabric or around the circumIerence oI a
circular Iabric. In weIt knitting the course may by one or more traverses oI a Ieeder.
Some Iabrics knitted on two needle beds have a diIIerent number oI courses on one side
oI the Iabric Irom the other. The number oI visible loops per unit length measured along a
wale. The traditional unit has been courses per inch but the value is now expressed as
courses per cm.


Figure 7: Photographs oI the Course per Inch.

Meas:rement of Co:rse per Inch:

We calculated the number oI courses in one inch with the help oI counting glass
and needle. At Iirst we selected the one square Iabric and by the help oI counting glass
we calculated the no. oI courses per inch. The tested results are shown in tables Table 1.


















.9 Stitch length

Course
An intermeshed loop is called stitch. The length oI yarn in a knitted loop is known as
stitch length. In Iollowing Iigure colour portion reIers to the stitch length oI the knitted
loop.

Figure 8: Photographs oI the Stitch Length.

Meas:rement of Stitch Length:

Stitch length is theoretically is a single length oI yarn which include one needle loop and
halI the length oI Yarn (halI oI a sinker loop) between that needle loop and the adiacent
needle loops on either side oI it. Loop exists in course in course length and it is that
which inIluence Iabric dimension and other properties including weight. In order to
determine the stitch length, we count 100 number Wales or stitch and count its length by
hanging the yarn on the stitch length counters. The reading is Iound in mm unit.
We calculated the stitch length oI the Iabric. At Iirst we selected the one square Iabric
and by the help oI counting glass we calculated the stitch length. The tested results are
shown in tables Table 1.









.1ô Measurement CSM

The standard measurement Ior weight and quality oI Iabrics is grams per square meter,
usually abbreviated as GSM. This is the accepted standard in the United States as well as
in Ioreign countries.


Figure 9: Photographs oI GSM Cutter with GSM Balance.


The Grey GSM (Grams per square meter) is a very important parameter Ior speciIied a
certain quality oI knitted Iabric. The production oI knitted Iabric is calculated in weight.
The production cost and selling and purchasing representing a certain quality oI knitted
Iabric. During experiment the using GSM cutter diameter is 14 cm.

We calculated the GSM oI the Iabrics. At Iirst we selected the one square Iabric and by
the help oI GSM cutter we calculated the GSM. The tested results are shown in tables
Table: 12

Name oI the
sample
Wales per Cm Course per Cm Stitch length
per 100
needles
Finish GSM oI
the Iabric
S/Jersey 16.88 22.40 25.00 135







4. Discussion of result

4.1 EIIect oI stitch length on GSM oI single iersey Iabric
The table -1 to 4 and Iigure 10 to 11 shows that as the stitch length increases the GSM
decreases. This is due to the Iact that as the stitch length increases the knitted loops
becomes larger so that both the course/inch and Wales/inch will decrease and the amount
yarn in the certain amount oI Iabric will decrease so that GSM will be lower.

GSM

155
160
165
170
175
180
185
28 28.5 29 29.5


Stitch length

Figure: 10 EIIect oI Stitch length on GSM (23¨ Dia, 24G,24`S
cotton)











GSM

125
130
135
140
145
150
155
26 26.5 27 27.5


Stitch length
Figure: 11 EIIect oI Stitch length on GSM (30¨ Dia, 24G, 30`S cotton)








.



4.2 EIIect oI Stitch length on GSM oI Lycra single iersey
Iabric
The table-5 to 6 and Iigure 12 shows that as the stitch length increases the GSM
increases. This is due to the Iact that as the stitch length increases the knitted loops size
will increase but the tension on lycra will also increase so that the Iabric shrinkage will be
higher as a result the GSM will be higher.

165
170
175
180
185
190
195
200
205
210
215
30 31 31.5 32

Stitch length
Figure 12: EIIect oI Stitch length on GSM (30¨ Dia, 24G, 30`S¹20D
cotton)













4.3 EIIect oI Stitch length on GSM oI single Lacost
The table-7 to 8 and Iigure 13 shows that as the stitch length increases the GSM
decreases. This is due to the Iact that as the stitch length increases the knitted loops
becomes larger so that both the course/inch and Wales/inch will decrease and the amount
yarn in the certain amount oI Iabric will decrease so that GSM will be lower.


GSM

140
145
150
155
160
165
170
175
180
185
24 24.5 25 25.5


Stitch length
Figure 13: EIIect oI Stitch length on GSM (38¨ Dia, 18G, 24`S
cotton





4.4 EIIect oI Stitch length on GSM oI (1x1) Rib
The table-9 and Iigure 14 shows that as the stitch length increases the GSM decreases.
This is due to the Iact that as the stitch length increases the knitted loops becomes larger
so that both the course/inch and Wales/inch will decrease and the amount yarn in the
certain amount oI Iabric will decrease so that GSM will be lower.

GSM

190
200
210
220
230
240
250
260
27 27.5 28 28.5


Stitch length
Figure: 14 EIIect oI Stitch length on GSM (20¨ Dia, 24G, 30`S
cotton)





4.5 EIIect oI Count on GSM oI single iersey Iabric
The table -1 to 4 and Iigure 15 shows that as the yarn count increases the GSM decreases.
This is due to the Iact that as the yarn count increases the yarn is Iinnier and the Iabric
will be lower weight so that GSM will be lower.


GSM


0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
24 26 28 30


Count

Figure 15: EIIect oI Count on GSM (24" Dia, 24G machine and stitch
length 27.0)



4.6 EIIect oI change oI stitch length on GSM

From the table 1-9 the change oI GSM Ior 1 mm change oI stitch was calculated and
shown in table:- 13 and Iigure:- 16. It can be seen in the table and graph that GSM is
highly aIIected by change in stitch length Ior Rib structure while the eIIect lowest Ior
single iersey. The eIIect oI Lycra S/J, Lacost and (1x1) Rib is in between.

Fabric type Stitch length
in mm
GSM

Single iersey 1 1

Lycra single iersey 1 1.5

Lacost 1 1.67

(1x1) Rib

1 2.67


GSM

0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
S/jesey Lycra S/J Lacost (1x1) Rib
Stitch
Length
Figure 16: EIIect oI stitch length on GSM Ior 1mm.




5. Defects in knitted fabrics

Some deIects and causes in knitted Iabrics are:

a. Holes or cracks
During loop Iormation, already broken yarn Iorms holes oI diIIerent sizes

Ca:ses
Bad needle, taken down mechanism too tight, high tension on yarn, bad yarn, needle too
tight in their slots, dial height too low or too high, badly tied knots, improper stitch
setting.

b. Drop stitches/cloth fall o:t
Yarn not properly laid in the needle hook.

Ca:ses
Take down mechanism too loose, deIective needles, too loose yarn tension not suIIicient,
wrong needle timing set, and needle tricks closed

c. Vertical Lines
Longitudinal gaps in Iabric-irregular space between adiacent Wales broken appearance
in Iabric.

Ca:ses
DeIective needle, dirt in needle slots, needle too loose or two tight in the tricks, needles
not enough lubricated.

d. T:ck or Do:ble loops
Badly or non knitted loops, showing thick places or small beads in Iabric a shadow
appearance

Ca:ses
Take down mechanism too loose, improper stitch cam setting, needle move too Ireely in
their slots, dial height too low.

e. arre or horizontal stripes
Uneven courses traverse horizontally and repeat regularly or irregularly.

Ca:ses
Bad yarn, uneven tension, yarn slippage in positive Ieed, improper stitch cam setting.

g. :nching-:ps/Piles :ps
Fabrics appear as bands.

Ca:ses
Fabric too tight, takedown mechanism too low, too much blister in the yarn.



h. Colo:r fl/tinges
Consists single Iibres, bunches oI Iibres or yarn pieces oI varying colours.

Ca:ses
Congested machine installation, producing colour iacquards along with single colour
Iabrics, processing a large number oI colours.

i. ow
Courses or rows oI stitches curved instead oI straight.

Ca:ses
Dial tilted, Iabric not level in takedown rollers, nip pressure not constant Irom end to end,
Iabric spreader oII centre or tilted.

j. Skew
Courses or rows oI stitches straight but not at perpendicular to the Iabric edges.

Ca:ses
Mainly associated with take down rollers and spreader. At stenter, price ends not being
iointed course to course.

k. Needle trace
A properly knitted wale which, Ior a variety oI reason stands out prominently Irom those
adiacent to it on either side.

Ca:ses
A new needle which is tight in its trick, a worn trick about needle, tight latch.

l. Centre line
A line down the centre oI the Iabric

Ca:ses
Fading oI Iabric along Iolded edge due to exposure to sun light.

m. Soiled arn
Dirty streak or streaks along a course or courses

Ca:ses
Contamination oI cones due to miss handling, knot tying with dirty hands.

n. R:st mark
Reddy stain on Iabric usually associated with a hole in Iabric

Ca:ses
Rusty needle, rust in tricks




o. Sl:b
Short bulky length oI yarn, identiIied by broken end oI thread.

Ca:ses
Broken Iilaments being pushed back along the thread line excessive tails oI knitter-knot.

p. Loop distortion
Distorted stitches lead to a very unsettle Iabric appearance. The Iabric appearance is
skittering.

Ca:ses
Bad and bent needles, bent trick walls, uneven yarn tension, needle timing set wrong,
yarn carriers set wrong.






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