CITY OF FRANKLIN FRANKLIN TRAILS COMMITTEE MEETING AGENDA FRANKLIN CITY HALL HEARING ROOM 9229 WEST LOOMIS

ROAD-FRANKLIN, WISCONSIN 6:00 PM, Thursday, July 8, 2010 I. II. Call to Order & Roll Call Approval of Minutes A. June 8, 2010 III. Business Items (Action may be taken on any item) A. B. C. Franklin – Pedestrian Road Show/Walking Workshop 2010 Safe Routes to School Grant Application Review of existing and future bicycle and pedestrian circulation facilities Public Input Schedule Next Meeting

D. E. IV.

Adjournment

Notice is given that a majority of the Franklin Common Council and/or Plan Commission may attend this meeting to gather information about an agenda item over which they have decision making responsibility. This may constitute a meeting of the Common Council or Plan Commission per State ex rel. Badke v. Greendale Village Board, even though the Common Council will not take formal action at this meeting. Notice is further given that upon reasonable notice, efforts will be made to accommodate the needs of disabled individuals through appropriate aids and services. For additional information, please contact the Franklin City Clerk’s office at (414) 425-7500.

City of Franklin Franklin Trails Committee Meeting June 8, 2010 Minutes

Unapproved

CALL TO ORDER

I.

The regular meeting of the Franklin Trails Committee was held on June 8, 2010 and called to order at 6:12 p.m. by Franklin Trails Secretary Fuchs in the Franklin City Hall Hearing Room, 9229 West Loomis Road, Franklin, Wisconsin. Present were Chairman Fowler (arrived at 6:22 p.m.), Aldermen Wilhelm (arrived at 6:18 p.m.) and Solomon, and Members Haley (arrived at 6:15 p.m.), Bolton, Michlig, and Kowalski. Also present was Senior Planner Fuchs.

MINUTES May 6, 2010

II. A.

Member Michlig moved and Member Bolton seconded approval of the Regular Meeting of May 6, 2010 Franklin Trails Committee minutes as amended at roll call. All voted 'aye', motion carried. Nathan Guequierre, Senior Planner, URS Corporation, conducted a prioritizing exercise beginning at 7:32 p.m. for all attendees present. Members returned to their seats at 7:42 p.m. Discussion only regarding the Pedestrian Road Show/Walking Workshop 2010. No action needed, none taken.

BUSINESS ITEMS Franklin-Pedestrian Road Show/Walking Workshop 2010

III. A.

Comprehensive Master Plan Amendment – Milwaukee County Trails Network Plan Public Input Schedule Next Meeting

B.

Discussion only on an amendment to the 2025 Comprehensive Master Plan regarding the Milwaukee County Trails Network Plan. No action needed, none taken. No one came forward and spoke to the items as discussed. The next scheduled meeting of the Franklin Trails Committee is Thursday, July 8, 2010 at 6:00 p.m. Member Haley moved to adjourn the meeting at 8:05 p.m. Seconded by Member Kowalski. All voted 'aye'; motion carried.

C. D.

ADJOURNMENT

IV.

URS Milwaukee: Franklin Walking Workshop

DRAFT: 6/16/2010

Franklin Walking Workshop Final Report
Draft for Review

This document details results of a Walking Workshop held on April 17, 2010 in the City of Franklin, Wisconsin. The goal of a Walking Workshop is to help neighborhoods increase the number and safety of walking trips - to school, work, for shopping, errands, and for recreation and health. The Walking Workshop and follow-up meeting are planning tools to gather public input from neighborhood residents and business owners about how best to make the area a safer, more pleasant place for walkers. The Franklin Walking Workshop study area neighborhood is located along S. 51 st Street between W. Drexel Avenue and W. Rawson Avenue. The City of Franklin is currently designing a sidewalk for installation on the east side of 51st Street, from Drexel Avenue northward approximately 1/3 mile. At the Walking Workshop, approximately 60 residents, businesspeople and local officials learned about reasons for improving walkability and the barriers that discourage people from walking. Workshop participants undertook a neighborhood walk to identify ways to improve the local pedestrian and bicycling environment and then engaged in a mapping exercise to brainstorm solutions for Franklin. Workshop participants generated specific strategies to bring about a more walkable community. They offered their ideas about how to complete safe walking connections, calm traffic and improve compliance with traffic safety laws through education, engineering, and enforcement. A dozen attendees at a follow-up meeting held at Franklin City Hall on June 8, 2010 reviewed the results of the workshop. At that meeting, the draft recommendations were evaluated and prioritized for implementation. An overview of those solutions to improve walkability in Franklin is found on pages 3 through 5 of this report. A detailed list begins on page 8.

Report Organization Introduction............................................................................................................................... 1 Walking Workshop Overview ................................................................................................... 2 Recommendation Summary..................................................................................................... 3 Priority Recommendation Details ............................................................................................. 6 Full Recommendation List with Revisions................................................................................ 8

The Franklin Walking Workshop was sponsored by the City of Franklin Trails Committee, and funded by the Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Safety. Staff support was provided by the City of Franklin Common Council and Department of City Development. The workshop was conducted by Nathan Guequierre, a planner at URS Corporation.

This report is conceptual or preliminary in nature and is not to be used as the sole basis for final design, construction or remedial action, or as a basis for major capital decisions. Further studies as noted should be performed prior to such decisions. The recommendations included in this report were developed by workshop participants and based on their understanding of conditions in the study area. URS has relied on this information as furnished, is neither responsible for nor has confirmed the accuracy of this information.

1

URS Milwaukee: Franklin Walking Workshop

DRAFT: 6/16/2010

WALKING WORKSHOP OVERVIEW
Walking Workshops bring together a wide variety of stakeholders interested in improving walking conditions in a neighborhood. Approximately 65 residents, business owners, city representatives and others attended the Franklin Walking Workshop, held on April 17, 2010, at the Clare Meadows senior apartment community, 7700 S. 51st Street. After a welcome from the mayor and common council members, participants expressed their vision for the neighborhood’s future or identified particular issues for walkability in the study area. See attached figure. These preliminary statements guided the development of recommended actions:             Connect to key locations in developing areas, as areas develop Safe access to schools Motivate Franklin citizens to walk Prioritize key projects Make pedestrian improvements in a fiscally responsible manner Maintain existing facilities Provide equitable transportation choices for all residents Create better off-street facilities Address traffic speeds Provide options for travel Lack of terrace makes it difficult to build sidewalks Lack of connectivity is the key issue           Need a development policy for trails Provide for independence for nondriving population Access to Pleasant View School Walking on 51st Street Safety for pedestrians – there was a fatal crash near the school Create city-county partnerships Pedestrian access to the High School Provide for ability to walk to community events and facilities Safe access throughout the city for pedestrians Create safe facilities so that Franklin residents can enjoy outdoor activities

Over lunch provided by Moondance Cafe, the URS facilitator gave a presentation on reasons for improving walkability, barriers to walking, and the range of techniques used elsewhere to improve walkability. Stakeholders then took a walk of the neighborhood to identify areas for improvement. After the walk, they returned to the meeting room to engage in a map exercise to identify projects, programs and policies to meet their goals. Approximately 70 individual recommendations were generated in the small group exercises. The recommendations were revised, elaborated and prioritized at a follow up meeting held on June 8, 2010. A dozen people attended this meeting. The recommendations are summarized in the tables on the following three pages. The tables on the following pages provide an overview of recommendations to improve pedestrian and bicycle conditions in the study area. The list is organized by type of recommendation – Project, Program or Policy – and by likely time frame to implement it. Short-term initiatives could be completed within 18 months; medium-term recommendations within three years; and long-term recommendations could take up to five years to implement. Priority recommendations are noted with italics, and those receiving the highest prioritization are in bold italics. The complete list of recommendations begins on page 8.

2

URS Milwaukee: Franklin Walking Workshop

DRAFT: 6/16/2010

SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS (Short-term = within 18 months, medium-term = within three years; long-term = within five years) Short-term Recommendations Projects
Improve key crossings of 51st Street with in-street yield to pedestrian signs Install in-street yield signs wherever appropriate Install pedestrian countdown signals at 51st Street near high school Improve drainage at 51st Street and Rawson Road, and 51st Street and Drexel Avenue Improve crosswalks on 51st Street at Rawson, Minnesota, Marquette, Clare Meadows, Drexel and the High School Install traffic calming on 51st Street at key crossing locations Construct a trail from Pleasant View School to Victory Creek subdivision; include benches Construct a trail eastward from Pleasant View School Construct a trail between Evergreen Court and new park to the east (and north-south trail connection) Construct a trail & emergency access from fire station to High School Construct a trail to High School paths from 51st Street near Drexel Avenue City acquire Potrekus property outright Extend Marquette Ave. westward to 49th Street Construct sidewalk on at least one side of 51st Street Construct shared use path on 51st Street Do not add vehicle lanes to 51st Street Encourage the construction of a rest station (with ice cream stand) at 51st Street and Marquette Avenue Create a trail connection south of Drexel Avenue between 60th and 51st Streets, and east to Northwestern Mutual Life campus Construct trail connection between High School and High View subdivision Construct a trail to Oak Leaf Trail through City of Milwaukee nursery Create a path along river from 60th Street to River Street

Medium-term Recommendations

Long-term Recommendations

Install benches for resting where appropriate

Construct workout stations along trail system Extend Marquette Ave. from 49th Street to 51st Street Install pedestrian bump outs on collectors at key crossing locations

3

URS Milwaukee: Franklin Walking Workshop

DRAFT: 6/16/2010

SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS (Short-term = within 18 months, medium-term = within three years; long-term = within five years) Short-term Recommendations Programs
Work with High School wood shop classes to create signage for trail system Work with health department to distribute walking routes brochure Coordinate walking program (group walks) with Pleasant View School (Movin’ and Munchin’ Program) Develop Walking School Bus program with Pleasant View School Create safe walking/motorist responsibilities information materials for schools Work with Eagle Scout program to prioritize pedestrian improvement projects: footbridge to connect to High School; nature trail at High School pond

Medium-term Recommendations

Long-term Recommendations

4

URS Milwaukee: Franklin Walking Workshop

DRAFT: 6/16/2010

SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS (Short-term = within 18 months, medium-term = within three years; long-term = within five years) Short-term Recommendations Policies
Undertake targeted traffic speed enforcement program on 51st Street Develop sidewalk and crosswalk enhancement policy to plan for implementation with street resurfacing or reconstruction to minimize costs and leverage investments Identify partners to pursue grant opportunities cooperatively and pro-actively: city, county, MMSD, state, school district, health department, economic development committee Commit city resources to research and apply for pedestrian facility and programming grants; this is an ideal internship opportunity Develop cooperative sidewalk funding policy to share costs between developers, city and neighbors likely to benefit Commit to pedestrians at a policy level; determine appropriate policy changes to enhance walkability and adopt them Adopt trail design guidelines that include rest locations, shade, lighting and signage Consider policy to include police call boxes on trails to enhance perceptions of safety Establish trail design policy to include locations for lighting, emergency and maintenance access, and ADA standards

Medium-term Recommendations

Long-term Recommendations

Plan trail connections together with school district and neighbors.

Plan major trail development cooperatively with Milwaukee County

Develop standards for trail and sidewalk design to meet needs Work pro-actively with the Potrekus family to complete key connection through their property before a development is proposed Focus pedestrian improvement activities on “urbanized” areas of the city Include operations and maintenance costs in estimate cost of trails to city Prohibit motorized vehicles on trails, except for emergency vehicles and mobility aids Develop policy to plan trail connections early and integrate them at the design phase of development projects, even if they aren’t to be constructed right away

Discourage walking on arterials by planning and creating parallel routes on safe streets

Create development agreement policy to provide sidewalks on all collector streets

5

URS Milwaukee: Franklin Walking Workshop

DRAFT: 6/16/2010

KEY RECOMMENDATIONS AND FACILITATOR COMMENTS
Priority recommendations are those judged by workshop participants to have the highest value for immediate implementation. The city and its stakeholders should organize the implementation of the priority recommendations noted in bold italics in the foregoing tables. This section elaborates on key priority recommendations. Construct a trail to connect Pleasant View School to Victory Creek subdivision, include benches. This recommendation is well supported. Funding could include the use of a Coast Management Grant as it is close to the Root River. The Parks Committee has some money. Access options will be evaluated in the next month. At least one pedestrian bridge will be necessary, which could cost up to $200,000 for design and construction. This may require an easement from the school district, and would improve access both the Pleasant View School and the High School. This entire area needs a plan for the undeveloped park. The project could be phased this way:    Evaluate structural condition of existing bridge (city engineers); Secure access easement and construct wood chip trail; Design east-west connecting trail north of Victory Creek. This project will require improved communication and cooperation between Trails Committee and Parks Committee, and better communication with neighborhood stakeholders.

Facilitator’s Comments. This is a key recommendation, both to meet stakeholder expectations to achieve the objectives of the Franklin Trails Committee. Its implementation will also enfold a number of other priority and non-priority recommendations to meet the challenges of this project. Those challenges largely involve internal organization, stakeholder involvement and public communication, along with the commitment of resources to this popular project. Ideally, this trail project would be undertaken in the context of developing an design plan for the undeveloped city park north of the Victory Creek subdivision. However, as the trails will connect the schools, residences and ultimately provide broader transportation connections to businesses and community facilities, it will likely require a cooperative effort including the school district, Parks Committee, Trails Committee, the Franklin Engineering and City Development departments, and key neighborhood stakeholders, especially Clare Meadows, the Potrekus estate, adjacent property owners, MMSD and emergency service providers. Essentially, this means creating an area plan for the whole corridor to ensure that connections are reasonable and stakeholders are supportive of any future improvements. One approach may be the formation of a Trail Design Task Force, including members of all the groups listed above. With the exception of the Potrekus estate, these groups were present at the Walking Workshop, and those results form the basis of a conceptual pedestrian plan for the area. It may be desirable to engage a consultant to advise on trail and park design issues and help manage the public engagement process. Additionally, several potential funding sources have been identified, including the impact fees fund, Coastal Management Grants, and Safe Routes to School grants. Conducting a special planning process, based on transparency and good communications between city departments and committee and neighbors will build further support for this effort. The same process could be used to explore the trail connections into and through the High School campus. As a final note, while wood chips may be acceptable trail surface to enable quick implementation, they are not necessarily desirable for a permanent trail surface. Wood chip surfaces can be difficult for cyclists to navigate due to lack of compaction, and may become muddy in wet weather.

6

URS Milwaukee: Franklin Walking Workshop

DRAFT: 6/16/2010

Appended to the end of this document is a page from the Wisconsin Department of Transportation’s Wisconsin Bicycle Facility Design Handbook. This page documents various trail surface treatments and their advantages and disadvantages. Crosswalk Improvements in the 51st Street Corridor  Use countdown signals at an improved crossing of 51st Street near the High School. The implementation of countdown signals is a low-budget, high priority item. There may be opportunities near the High School for in-street yield signs Improve crossing on 51st Street at Rawson, Minnesota, Marquette, Clare Meadows entrance, Drexel and at the High School; use in-street signs where appropriate. This recommendation is derived from the desire of residents to access walking paths and trails on the west side of 51st Street. Use pedestrian bumpouts where appropriate on collectors In-street yield signs where appropriate

 

Facilitator’s Comments These recommendations point to stakeholders’ desire to see improvements to crosswalks at higher pedestrian volume locations throughout the corridor. This will likely become more and more necessary throughout Franklin as commercial development creates destinations, and residents require options for safe travel between residential, commercial, recreational and institutional land uses. The Sendik’s development at 51st and Rawson offers excellent design guidance for internal pedestrian circulation. The city may identify key crossing locations based on land use, presence of sidewalk and trails, and neighbor input. Once identified, numerous options for crosswalk improvement are available. Key solutions include:  Pedestrian countdown signals. These are generally appropriate at intersections that are already signalized, particularly those with complex traffic movements or multi-stage crossings (i.e. with refuge medians or free-flow right turn lanes with separating “pork chop” island). Countdown signals provide pedestrians with additional information about the duration of crossing phases compared to the standard walk-flash-don’t walk signal heads. The intersections of 51st Street with Rawson and 51st Street with Drexel are good candidates for countdown signals. Furthermore, due to the presence of a high proportion of senior citizens at Clare Meadows, it may be appropriate to evaluate the walk phase durations with the recently revised slower walk speed assumptions provided in FHWA guidance. The city should evaluate likely locations for pedestrian countdown signals using the best information and methodology available. In-Street Yield to Pedestrian Signs. In-street yield to pedestrian signs (Sign R1-6) can be very effective in increasing motorist yielding behavior on low-speed, two-lane urban streets, particularly in business districts with high levels of pedestrian activity. As a higher-speed roadway with a rural cross section and lower pedestrian volumes, they may not be appropriate for 51 st Street in the study area and could presumably lead to decreased pedestrian and motorist safety. It may be better for the city to provide sidewalks on 51st Street and encourage crossing at signalized locations where motorists are more likely to expect pedestrian activity. Some locations in the study area may benefit from instreet yield signs, such as near Pleasant View School. Locations must be carefully evaluated using the best credible research and the experience of communities where these signs are in use. These signs are relatively inexpensive to implement, but they do have ongoing operating costs, as they must be regularly refaced and are typically removed for snow plowing. The city could contact other municipalities – Shorewood, Milwaukee, and Whitefish Bay among them – for information on associated costs. High-Visibility Crosswalks. Improvements such as pedestrian-activated signals, speed tables, overhead flashers, and pedestrian bumpouts can have marked impacts on improving pedestrian safety and convenience, lowering traffic speeds and improving rates of motorist yielding. Typically, such infrastructure improvements are implemented with larger street reconstruction or resurfacing projects where they add marginal costs. The Federal Highway Administration and Institute of Transportation Engineers provide comprehensive guidance on evaluating locations for such improvements. The city could consider them in the planning of roadway reconstruction, with other

7

URS Milwaukee: Franklin Walking Workshop

DRAFT: 6/16/2010

capital projects or as grant funding becomes available. Additionally, WisDOT has allowed some municipalities to experiment with innovative designs for crosswalk improvements; a new pedestrianactivated signal designed for crosswalks at mid-block locations has recently been implemented in Grafton with good results.

COMPLETE LIST OF RECOMMENDATIONS WITH REVISIONS
The following list includes all recommendations generated at the Walking Workshop, including elaborations and revisions from the follow up meeting. Items in bold appeared multiple times on list of recommendations, but are listed only once for brevity. Starred items were added by the facilitator based on conversations at the workshop and technical review. Project Recommendations 51st Street Projects 1. Construct sidewalk on at least one side of 51st Street between Drexel and Rawson. Easier to construct on west side, serve more people directly on east side. This sidewalk is likely to be constructed within two years. Maintenance of new sidewalks is a key issue for residents, especially in areas that are not currently served by sidewalks. Responsibility for snow clearance is a particular concern. Some area communities clear snow from sidewalks, some require property owners to keep sidewalks snow-free. Franklin currently falls in the latter category for areas with sidewalks. Sidewalks are a safety and quality of life issue, and some education of citizens may be required. 2. Construct shared use path on 51st Street 3. Do not add lanes to 51st Street 4. Fix drainage issue at 51st Street and Rawson Road and Drexel Avenue and at all high pedestrian traffic locations 5. Use countdown signals at an improved crossing of 51st Street near the High School. The implementation of countdown signals is a low-budget, high priority item. There may be opportunities near the High School for in-street yield signs 6. Improve crossing on 51st Street at Rawson, Minnesota, Marquette, Clare Meadows entrance, Drexel and at the High School; use in-street signs where appropriate. This recommendation is derived from the desire of residents to access walking paths and trails on the west side of 51 st Street. 7. Encourage the construction of a rest station/ice cream shop/food stand on 51st Street at Marquette. A location for a rest area has been identified in sidewalk planning. Food service is unlikely. 8. Traffic calming on 51st Street at key crossing locations Trail Connections and Amenities 9. South of Drexel, create a connection between 60th and 51st Streets and eastward to Northwestern Mutual Life office complex 10. Construct a trail to connect Pleasant View School to Victory Creek subdivision, include benches. This recommendation is well supported. Funding could include the use of a Coast Management Grant as it is close to the Root River. The Parks Committee has some money. Access options will be evaluated in the next month. At least one pedestrian bridge will be necessary, which could cost up to $200,000 for design and construction. This may require an easement from the school district, and would improve access both the Pleasant View School and the High School. This entire area needs a plan, for the undeveloped park. The project could be phased this way: 1) evaluate structural condition of existing bridge (city engineers); 2) Secure access easement and construct wood chip trail; 3) Design east-west connecting trail north of Victory Creek. This project will require improved communication and cooperation between Trails Committee and Parks Committee, and better communication with neighborhood stakeholders.

8

URS Milwaukee: Franklin Walking Workshop

DRAFT: 6/16/2010

11. Construct trail eastward from Pleasant View School. The trail exists, but should be formalized and improved. The property is owned by the city. This project is likely possible within the context of the current city budget. 12. Create path to connect Evergreen Court eastward to new park 13. Address pedestrian and bike connection between High School campus and High View subdivision to west and High View drive to south. This should be a priority project. An informal path exists now, and it should be formalized. Some consider the area unsafe, but this could likely be addressed through design: adequate lighting and landscaping, and through police presence after nighttime events at the High School. It will reduce parking demand at major High School events. 14. Construct trail from Fire Station and subdivision to High School 15. Construct a trail to Oak Leaf Trail through the City of Milwaukee Nursery 16. Create emergency access path from Fire Station #3 to High School, also to be accessible to pedestrians and bikes 17. Construct trail to High School paths from 51st Street 18. Create pathway along river from 60th Street to River Street 19. Construct workout stations along trail system 20. Add mile markers and informational signage on trail system Access Projects 21. Extend Marquette Avenue west from 49th Street to 51st Street. Include sidewalks. Continue efforts to secure easement. 22. Extend Marquette Avenue westward to 49th Street. This is being undertaken now. 23. City should acquire Potrekus property outright Other Projects 24. Use pedestrian bumpouts where appropriate on collectors 25. In-street yield signs where appropriate 26. Install benches for resting at strategic locations

Policy Recommendations 1. Plan connections early and integrate them at initial design phase as land is being developed, even if they aren’t to be constructed right away. This should be a short-term recommendation and implemented immediately. 2. Targeted traffic speed enforcement on 51st Street 3. Design trails to include locations for lighting, emergency and maintenance access and to ADA standards; *10-foot trail width will meet WisDOT Shared Use Trail standards 4. Identify partners to pursue grant opportunities cooperatively and pro-actively: City, County, MMSD, State, School District, Health Department, Economic Development committee. The school district and city should plan trail connections together. *Plan trail development in concert with Milwaukee County 5. Commit city resources to research and apply for grants; *this is an ideal internship opportunity to be overseen by Community Development Department. This is a priority. 6. Develop cooperative sidewalk funding policy, to share costs between developers, city and neighbors likely to benefit 7. Develop standards for trail and sidewalk design to accommodate needs. Five-foot sidewalks are standard, unless they are accommodating two way traffic (i.e. only on one side of a roadway).

9

URS Milwaukee: Franklin Walking Workshop

DRAFT: 6/16/2010

8. Prioritize and work with property owners to complete key trail connections. Work pro-actively with Potrekus family for the key connection necessary through their property. Do this before a development proposal comes along 9. Focus pedestrian improvement efforts on “urbanized” areas of the city 10. Commit to pedestrians at a policy level 11. Create parallel routes on safe streets to provide options for walking in busy arterial roadway corridors. 12. Create development agreement policy to provide sidewalks on all collector streets 13. Establish trail design guidelines that include rest locations, shade provision, lighting, signage* 14. Include operations and maintenance costs in estimating the cost of trails to the City. 15. No motorized vehicles on trail system except emergency services and mobility aids 16. Include police call boxes on trails 17. Draft sidewalk policy for new development and streets. Consider developing sidewalk policy and plan to be implemented with street resurfacing or reconstruction to minimize costs and leverage investments 18. Explore the applicability of a Complete Streets policy for Franklin.

Program Recommendations 1. Work with Eagle Scout program to prioritize pedestrian improvement projects: footbridge to connect to High School; Nature Trail at High School pond 2. Work with school wood shop classes to create signage program for trail system 3. Work with health department to distribute walking routes brochure 4. Coordinate walking program (group walks) with Pleasant View School “Movin’ and Munchin’” program 5. Create walking routes map and information on safe walking/motorist responsibilities for each school. *The Green Ribbon Campaign utilized in Salt Lake City, Utah and adapted in Whitefish Bay, Wisconsin provides a workable, successful model for pedestrian and motorist education. 6. Initiate cooperative communications campaign to distribute walking information at Fourth of July, Little League and other community events. Draft pedestrian planning updates for city newsletter.

10

Surface Material
Soil cement

Table 4-7: Path Surface Summary Advantages Disadvantages
Uses natural materials, more durable than native soils, smoother surface, low cost. Surface wears unevenly, not a stable all-weather surface, erodes, difficult to achieve correct mix. Surface can rut or erode with heavy rainfall, regular maintenance to keep consistent surface, replenishing stones may be a long-term expense, not for steep slopes. High installation cost, costly to repair, not a natural surface, freeze/thaw can crack surface, heavy construction vehicles need access. High installation cost, joints must be sawn for smooth ride, costly to repair, not natural looking, construction vehicles will need access to the trail corridor. Dusty, ruts when wet, not an allweather surface, can be uneven and bumpy, limited use, inappropriate for bicycles and wheelchairs. High purchase and installation cost, life expectancy unknown.

Crushed aggregate

Soft but firm surface, natural material, moderate cost (varies regionally), smooth surface, accommodates multiple use.

Asphalt

Hard surface, supports most types of use, all weather, does not erode, accommodates most users simultaneously, low maintenance. Hardest surface, easy to form to site conditions, supports multiple use, lowest maintenance, resists freeze/thaw, best cold weather surface. Natural material, lowest cost, low maintenance, can be altered for future improvements, easiest for volunteers to build and maintain. Good use of recyclable materials, surface can vary depending on materials.

Concrete

Native soil

Recycled materials

speeds. And, they have typically been built in less time and at lower cost than paths built with asphalt or concrete. However, the surface of choice in one part of the state may be expensive elsewhere. For example, limestone topped off with screenings is expensive in central and western Wisconsin. There, some agencies use rotten disintegrated granite while others have used seal coat treatments (e.g., Chippewa River Trail, Omaha Trail). Whichever material is available in a particular part of the state, it is fair to say that crushed aggregate is the preferred surface type for the majority of Wisconsin’s many “rail-trails.”

Wisconsin Bicycle Facility Design Manual

4-26