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SECTION 3 EXCAVATION GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

SECTION 3

EXCAVATION

MATERIALS

DEFINITION

3.01 Earthworks Material

Soil, rock, crushed concrete or crushed inert demolition material which is on or below
the Site at the commencement of the Works, or which is imported to the Site to carry
out the Works.

3.02 Ownership of Earthworks Material

(a) Ownership of the Employer earthworks material within the Site at


commencement of the Works, except as in sub-clause (b) below;

(b) Ownership of the Contractor earthworks material which is required to be


disposed of by the Contractor is the property of the Contractor when it is
removed from the Site. Dispose of in tips provided by the Contractor, unless
otherwise stated in the Contract.

3.03 Suitable Material

Suitable material shall either be -

(a) Naturally occurring or processed material which at the time of deposition is


capable of being compacted in accordance with the specified requirements to
form a stable fill.

The soluble sulphate content of the suitable material placed within 500 mm of
concrete, cement bound material or cementitious material must not exceed 1.9
grams of sulphate, expressed as SO3 per litre. The total sulphate content,
expressed as SO3, of suitable material placed within 500 mm of metalwork must
not exceed 0.5 % by mass.

(b) Grade 200 Recycled Rock Fill as stated in clause 3.06. For works as specified in
the contract, priority shall be given to using Grade 200 Recycled Rock Fill
material unless the material is found inappropriate by the SO.

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3.04 Unsuitable Material

Unsuitable material is material other than suitable material and Grade 200 Recycled
Rock Fill, and including the following -

(a) Peat;

(b) Swelling clays and collapsible soils;

(c) Material having a moisture content greater than the maximum permitted for
such material under the Contract;

(d) Material containing logs, stumps, or other perishable material or rubbish;

(e) Material for swamps;

(f) Material from nullahs, stream courses and covered culverts;

(g) Dangerous or toxic materials or materials susceptible to combustion or volume


change;

(h) Marine mud, soil with a liquid limit exceeding 65 % or a plasticity index
exceeding 35 %; and

(i) Metal, rubber, plastic or synthetic materials contained within soil.

3.05 Public Fill

(a) Public fill means the inert material arising from construction and demolition
activities such as site clearance, excavation, construction, refurbishment,
renovation, demolition and road works. Public fill comprises material including
stone, rock, masonry, brick, concrete, soil and other inert material. There is no
size limitation on the public fill, and a small amount of timber mixed with
otherwise suitable material is permissible. The public fill may also consist of
wet soil.

(b) The use of public fill as fill material for earthwork may be permitted and the size
limitation, transportation, stockpiling, deposit, spreading, compaction and any
particular requirements of such material shall be as specified.

3.06 Grade 200 Recycled Rock Fill

(a) Grade 200 Recycled Rock Fill (RR 200) means a type of recycled construction
and demolition materials supplied by the recycling facilities managed by the Fill
Management Division of Civil Engineering and Development Department
(CEDD);

(b) RR 200 can be collected from the recycling facilities as specified by the CEDD;

(c) In the event of RR 200 is used in the Works, comply with the followings -

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SECTION 3 EXCAVATION GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

(i) Comply with the relevant ordering and collection procedures of RR 200
as specified by the CEDD;

(ii) Complete and submit the order form to the SO at least 10 days before
the collection of RR 200 from the recycling facilities. The ordering and
collection procedures together with the order form can be obtained from
the CEDD web-site;

(iii) Make due allowance in the works programme for the time associated
with ordering and collection of RR200 and bear all associated costs, and
no extension of time will be allowed.

3.07 Topsoil

Topsoil means soil capable of supporting vegetable growth.

3.08 Rock

Rock shall either be -

(a) Naturally occurring hard material which in the opinion of the SO can only be
removed by -

(i) Blasting;

(ii) Pneumatic tools other than clay spades;

(iii) Wedges and sledge hammers;

(iv) Drilling and use of mechanical or hydraulic bursting;

(v) Drilling and use of expanding agents.

(b) Any isolated solid boulder or detached piece of rock exceeds 0.2 m3 in volume.

3.09 Hardcore

Hardcore shall comprise either of the following material to pass a 150 mm diameter ring
-

(a) Rock fill; or

(b) Broken stone, hard brick, concrete or other comparable hard, inert, Approved
material. The material must be free from dust, rubbish and deleterious foreign
matter.

3.10 Embankment

Embankment means an area on the Site, other that a foreshore or sea-bed, where the
ground level is to be raised by filling in layers as part of the Works.

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3.11 Trench Excavation

Trench excavation means excavation staring starting at ground level and not exceeding
5 m in width at surface.

3.12 Bulk Excavation

Bulk excavation means excavation in the open, other than trench excavation.

3.13 Filter Material

(a) Filter material means hard, durable and inert material.

(b) In the event of use in the Works, comply with the followings -

(i) When placed and compacted, filter material shall either be conformed
with the grading limits specified, or other limits separately proposed by
the Contractor to suit the type of adjacent material in accordance with
filter rules acceptable to the Geotechnical Engineering Office (GEO)
and as agreed by the SO;

(ii) Submit to the SO at least 4 weeks prior to actual incorporation into the
Works;

(iii) Graded in accordance with Test Method 8.2 of Geospec 3 : Model


Specification for Soil Testing , GEO, 2001 and free from organic or
other impurities; and

(iv) Sampling in accordance with BS 812 : Part 102 : 1989.

3.14 Formation

Formation means that part of the earthworks final surface on which a pavement,
structure or utility, is constructed, or on which the blinding or bedding for a pavement,
structure or utility is placed.

3.15 Earthworks Final Surface

Earthworks final surface means the surface to which the work included in Section 3 is
finished.

3.16 Intermediate Areas of Fill

Means the areas of fill in which fill material is deposited and compacted directly into
shallow water or onto naturally occurring soft ground.

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SECTION 3 EXCAVATION GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

FILL MATERIALS

3.17 General

(a) Use only suitable materials as previously defined;

(b) Unless otherwise specified, filling which includes backfilling, consists of general
fill materials obtained from excavation on Site, borrow areas or other Approved
sources;

(c) Use fill material obtained from excavation within the Site. If there is insufficient
fill material of the required types within the Site, provide imported fill material
from sources outside the Site.

3.18 Particle Size Distribution and Types of Fill Materials

For different types of fill material, keep particle size distribution as stated in Table 3.1 -

Table 3.1 Particle size distribution

Percentage by mass passing

Type of fill material Size BS Test Sieve


600 63
400 mm 200 mm 75 mm 20 mm
micron micron
Fine fill - - 100 - - -
General fill - 100 75 - 100 - - -
Special fill - - 100 - - 0 - 45
Granular fill - - 100 - 0-5 -
Rock fill
- 100 20 - 75 0 - 50 - -
(Grade 200)
Rock fill
100 20 - 75 10 - 30 0 - 25 - -
(Grade 400)

Notes to table -

(a) General fill material shall be suitable material . It shall contain no material
exceeding 200 mm in size and with 75 to 100 % by mass passing the 75 mm BS
Test Sieve.

(b) Special filling material shall consist of material which has a liquid limit not
exceeding 45 %, a plasticity index not exceeding 20 % and a coefficient of
uniformity exceeding 50. For those special fill material which contains less than
30 % by weight of particles less than 63 m, testing on the liquid limit and
plasticity index of the material is not required;

(c) Granular fill material shall consist of clean, hard and durable material;

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(d) Rock fill material shall consist of pieces of hard, durable rock of which, in the
opinion of the SO, not more than 30 % by mass is discoloured or shows other
evidence of decomposition. Crushed rock or crushed concrete may be
permitted subject to approval by SO;

(e) The soluble sulphate content of fill material placed within 500 mm of concrete,
cement bound material or cementitious material must not exceed 1.9 grams of
sulphate, expressed as SO3, per litre;

(f) The total sulphate content, expressed as SO3, of fill material placed within 500
mm of metalwork must not exceed 0.5 % by mass;

(g) Well-graded material shall consist of material which has a coefficient of uniformity
exceeding 10;

(h) Uniform-graded material shall consist of material which has a coefficient of


uniformity of 10 or less.

WORKMANSHIP

SURVEYS

3.19 Datum

Spot levels and contours shown on the Drawings are, unless otherwise specified, reduced
to Hong Kong Principal Datum for levels and the latest edition of Hong Kong Geodetic
Datum for coordinate locations.

3.20 Record Survey

(a) Check the accuracy of the Site levels shown on the Drawings. Where levels are
found to be inaccurate, notify SO in writing before commencing excavation or
earthwork. No claim in respect of inaccuracy of levels will be entertained after
the relevant Site levels have be altered by the Works;

(b) Where specified, carry out and record a topographical survey of the whole of the
Site before commencement of any work and again after all excavation and filling
work has been completed. Agree with SO that plans and section prepared from
the survey truly represent the original ground levels and the final levels required
and ensure that both the Contractor and SO sign the drawings. These endorsed
drawings, which are to be to a 1 : 200 scale or as instructed by SO, will become
the record surveys for the measurement of earthwork quantities. Original
ground level survey plans and sections, and final as-built plans and sections are to
be on transparent film of dimensionally stable material.

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TEMPORARY WORKS, SLOPES AND GROUND DRAINAGE

3.21 Temporary Drainage System

(a) Obtain approval to the discharge points of the temporary drainage and pumping
system;

(b) Make all arrangements with and obtain necessary approvals and inspections from
the relevant authorities for discharging to drains, watercourse or the sea;

(c) Do not start the work until the Approved arrangements for disposal of the water
have been implemented;

(d) Take measures to prevent flotation of new and existing structures;

(e) Provide temporary watercourses, ditches, catchpits, drains, pumping or other


means of maintaining the excavations and earthworks free from water;

(f) Discharge the water into the permanent outfall of the piped drainage system
whenever possible;

(g) Provide Approved means of trapping silt on temporary systems discharging into
the permanent drainage system;

(h) Ensure that temporary and permanent drainage systems are adequately
maintained and clear of rubbish and debris.

3.22 Temporary Supports to Earthworks

(a) Use temporary supports such as sheet piling, timbering or other methods to
maintain excavations in a stable condition and to prevent settlement of structures
or utilities due to excavation or dewatering. Method statement should be
submitted to the SO for approval prior to commencement of site works;

(b) Do not operate constructional plant or other vehicles or park adjacent to


excavations and earthworks unless this has been allowed for in the design of the
temporary works for the support of the excavation. Erect barriers at a distance
from excavations not less than the depth of excavations, or where space is not
permitted, at a shorter distance from excavations as agreed with the SO;

(c) Do not place materials adjacent to excavations unless this has been allowed for in
the design of the temporary works for the support of the excavation;

(d) Securely support all sides of trenches, pits, excavations, slopes or stockpiles
exceeding 1.2 m vertical height / depth unless formed to a safe batter
substantiated by design calculation agreed with the SO. If external loads are
likely to be present, or if there is doubt as to the stability of the trench sides due
to the presence of weak ground or high groundwater, especially in inclement
weather, all sides of the trenches should be supported even if the excavation
depth is less than 1.2 m;

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(e) Typical shoring may be acceptable for depths up to 2.5 m. Specific design with
detailed working drawings should be submitted for the SOs approval for
excavations which are -

(i) deeper than 2.5 m and greater than 5 m in length; or

(ii) liable to affect any road, building, structure, slope steeper than 30 or
water main 75 mm in diameter or greater, the affected area being
defined as within the 45 line up from the base of the excavation to the
ground surface;

Refer to clause 3.113 on the detailed requirements when ELSP submission is


required.

(f) No works will be allowed in an unsupported trench with depth greater than 1.2 m.

3.23 Trench Excavation

Without prejudice to other provisions in the Contract, comply with the provisions in the
Guide to Trench Excavations (Shoring Support and Drainage Measures) published
jointly by the Highways Department and the Civil Engineering and Development
Department, Hong Kong Government or its updates as may be promulgated from time
to time in the design of temporary support to trench excavations.

3.24 Bridging Excavations

(a) Vehicular access across excavations in roads shall be provided by steel covers;

(b) The covers shall be designed to BS 449 : Part 2 : 1969 or BS EN 1993 : Part
6 : 2007 and shall be capable of withstanding the full traffic load permitted to
use the road;

(c) The covers shall be secured in position and shall have anti-skid coating so that
the skid resistance values on the covers measured in accordance with BS
3262 : Part 2 : 1999 shall not be less than 45;

(d) Sufficient steel cover shall be kept on the Site adjacent to excavations in roads
to permit vehicular access across the excavations in case of emergency.

3.25 General Safety Precautions

(a) Carry out excavations and earthworks in such a manner to prevent erosion or
slips;

(b) Do not stockpile material where it might cause a landslide;

(c) Do not store excavated materials adjacent to the top edge of mass excavations,
slopes or stockpiles exceeding 1.2 m high unless otherwise approved;

(d) When instructed, trim and seal final faces of excavations to remove all loose rocks
to prevent falling;

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(e) Limit working surfaces to safe slopes and height.

3.26 Safety Precautions for Open Excavation Earthworks

(a) Provide open board fencing, or equivalent, and warning signs to -

(i) Excavations, slopes or stockpiles exceeding the following heights :

Vertical slope face : 2 m

Battered slope face : 3 m

(ii) Trenches or pits exceeding 2 m deep;

(b) Provide temporary fencing or barriers with warning signs to excavations, slopes,
stockpiles, trenches or pits less than the heights / depth given in sub-clause (a)
above but exceeding 1.2 m.

GENERAL

3.27 Excavation and Earthwork

(a) Carry out excavations and earthworks in the dry, unless otherwise authorized by
the SO;

(b) Suppress dust generation during excavation and earthworks operations by


spraying the work area of any excavation or earth moving equipment operation
with water or a dust suppression chemical immediately before, during and
immediately after the operation so as to maintain the entire surface wet;

(c) Control height from which excavated materials are dropped to a practical
minimum;

(d) Carry out the formation of cuttings and filling in such a manner that the surfaces
have at all times a sufficient minimum crossfall and, where practicable a sufficient
longitudinal gradient to enable them to shed water and prevent ponding;

(e) Adopt a method of working which minimizes the area of exposed soil across the
Site;

(f) Carry out excavation to the lines, levels, dimensions and slopes specified;

(g) Carefully level the bottom of excavation and step or bench horizontally as
specified;

(h) Proper hoarding / barriers and warning notices must be provided for segregation
of the excavation works from the public;

(i) Saw-cut to edges of the affected concrete paving / slab before commencement of
excavation;

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(j) Properly maintain emergency vehicular access (EVA) and pavement during course
of the works;

(k) Make necessary arrangements with and obtain necessary approvals from relevant
authorities prior to commencement of excavation at traffic road.

3.28 Protection

Keep earthworks, excavations, filling materials free from water and

(a) Protect from damage due to water;

(b) Protect from exposure to weather. Do not carry out work in weather conditions
which may adversely affect the work unless Approved protection measures are in
place;

(c) Keep surfaces in a stable condition;

(d) Form surfaces to falls to shed water and prevent ponding;

(e) Keep the area of exposed surfaces to a minimum;

(f) Seal or cover with impermeable sheeting or protect by other Approved methods
which are temporarily exposed.

3.29 Submission of Particulars

Submit the following particulars of proposed methods of construction for earthworks to


the SO at least 14 days before relevant work starts

(a) Details of construction plant and haulage vehicles;

(b) Methods of excavation and of deposition and compaction of fill material;

(c) Use of different types of excavated material and sources of imported fill material;

(d) Arrangement for stockpiling excavated material and fill material and for disposing
of earthworks material;

(e) Methods of controlling the moisture content of fill material;

(f) Methods of controlling surface water and groundwater;

(g) Methods of protecting earthworks and earthworks material from damage due to
water and from weather conditions which may affect the earthworks or
earthworks material;

(h) Methods of monitoring groundwater levels;

(i) Methods of monitoring the ground and structures from movement;

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(j) Methods with detailed design and construction procedures of supporting


excavations adjacent to slopes, retaining walls, structures, roads, private
developments or other properties;

(k) Stability calculations of unsupported excavations adjacent to slopes, retaining


walls, structures, roads, private developments or other properties;

(l) Methods of temporary support to sides of trenches, pit, excavation, slopes or


stockpilies exceeding 1.2 m vertical height / depth;

(m) Safety plan, risk assessment and contingency plan; and

(n) Proposed traffic arrangement for the excavation works at traffic road.

3.30 Work near Slopes

(a) Do not form excavations on or near slopes without taking measures to prevent
water collecting in excavation from running down the slopes;

(b) Pay special attention to the presence of pressurized water mains as any damage
to the pipes could lead to slope failures.

3.31 Unsuitable Earthworks Material

(a) Replace the following materials or deal with as Instructed

(i) Earthworks material which has been used, or is required for use, in the
permanent work and which is allowed to become unsuitable such that in
the opinion of the SO it no longer compiles with the specified requirements
for that type of material;

(ii) Earthworks material which is not specified to be excavated and which the
Contractor causes or allows to deteriorate such that in the opinion of the
SO the permanent work will be affected;

(b) Dispose of all unsuitable material;

(c) Replace earthworks material with equivalent quality material as the original,
before deterioration, and obtain Approval.

3.32 Additional Excavation

When Instructed carry out additional excavation to remove earthworks material that has
inadequate strength, durability or stability and treat the voids as follows

(a) Provide general fill, fine fill, or special fill material placed and compacted below
areas of fill and below formations, other than rock;

(b) Provide Grade 15 / 20 concrete below formations in rock;

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(c) Provide granular fill material deposited below standing water;

(d) In other circumstances where the SO requires stabilization of existing material,


use rock fill material (Grade 400) deposited directly into the original material and
compacted to form a stable foundation for the subsequent work.

3.33 Handling and Storage of Earthworks Materials

(a) Do not handle or store in a manner which will result in segregation, deterioration,
erosion or instability of the material;

(b) Keep different types of earthworks material separate from each other. Maintain
material which is suitable for use as fill material in a suitable condition and free
from contamination by other materials;

(c) Stockpile excavated materials away from nullahs, stream courses and covered
culverts and at a point convenient for direct loading onto transport in such a
manner as to cause the minimum nuisance to the public;

(d) Remove topsoil when required before starting excavation or filling and, unless
otherwise specified, deposit on Site in temporary heaps not greater than 2 m in
height for re-use. Ensure the soil is kept free from contamination and undue
compaction;

(e) Temporary spoil heaps will not be allowed on the Site unless otherwise approved
by the SO.

(f) Level and drain properly the material handling and storage areas. Spray
stockpiles of material with water or a dust suppression chemical to minimize
dust generation.

3.34 Existing Drains and Services

During excavation and earthworks

(a) Take all precautions to prevent damage to existing drains and services;

(b) Notify the SO of any damage immediately and make good;

(c) Temporarily divert ditches, land drains and other waterways found in excavation
and subsequently reinstate to Approval;

(d) Excavate by hand adjacent to known utilities.

3.35 Excavation adjacent existing Structures

Excavate by hand unless otherwise permitted by the SO.

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3.36 Excavation for Retaining Walls

Submit full particulars of the design of all temporary slopes or temporary supports to
excavations together with drawings and the proposed sequence and method of
construction for approval. Programme the sequence of construction to ensure that wall
units are cast in alternate bays of limited length as approved by the SO.

3.37 Trimming

Neatly trim the face of excavations. Do not trim the side faces of excavation for at least
24 hours after placing any blinding concrete.

3.38 Foundation Pits and Trenches

Unless otherwise permitted by the SO, trenches for utilities in areas of fill shall not be
excavated until the suitable material has been deposited or compacted up to the
earthworks final surface or formation up to 1 m above the top of the utility, whichever the
lower.

3.39 Excavation in vicinity of Utilities

Contractors are required to observe all relevant regulations, Code of Practice or the like in
avoiding damage to underground utilities.

Contractors are responsible to

(a) Seek information and plans from the utility companies about the location of
underground utilities in the vicinity, well before any excavation;

(b) Ensure that the underground utilities are located before works and thereafter are
protected from damage;

(c) Ensure that information obtained is communicated to the worker actually carrying
out the excavation and that he understands what safety precautions are required;

(d) Engage a competent person, by means of a cable / pipe locator, to locate the
alignment and depth profile of the underground utilities and clearly mark these on
the ground;

(e) Dig trial holes, in size and at intervals as instructed by the SO, along the route of
the proposed excavation using hand tools, so as to ensure that there is an
adequate separation distance between any underground utility and the proposed
excavation;

(f) Avoid using power tools directly over and near the marked alignment of the
underground utilities;

(g) Provide adequate support and anchoring of exposed underground utilities


according to the utility companies recommendation;

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(h) Backfill carefully the excavation and reinstate warning tapes, tiles, protection
plates or other protection to their original position and submit as-built / record
drawings for any diversion of underground utilities; and

(i) Inform the Police, SO, relevant utility company and the estate management office
immediately if the underground utility is damaged or suspected to be damaged
during the excavation.

3.40 Tolerance in Bulk Excavation

Earthwork final surfaces and formation shall be within the tolerances indicted in Table 3.2
below. The tolerances for formations do not apply for pipes or preformed structures
which require to be supported over their complete length or area. In excavation, a
positive tolerance refers to insufficient excavation and a negative tolerance refers to
excess excavation. In areas of fill, a positive tolerance refers to excess fill material and a
negative tolerance refers to insufficient fill material.

Table 3.2 Tolerances for earthworks final surfaces and formations

Type of surface Method of forming surface Tolerance


(mm)
+ -
Formations for structures and Excavation except in rock 0 25
utilities
Excavation in rock 0 150

Deposition and compaction of 0 25


Suitable Material
Formations for pavements, Excavation except in rock 0 50
including carriageways, footways,
cycletracks, paved areas, aircraft Excavation in rock 0 150
pavements and railway trackbeds
Deposition and compaction of 0 50
Suitable Material
Earthworks final surfaces other Excavation except in rock 0 100
than formations, with a gradient
not exceeding 1 vertical to 10 Excavation in rock 0 200
horizontal
Deposition and compaction of 0 100
Suitable Material
Other earthworks final surfaces Excavation except in rock 100 100

Excavation in rock 100 200

Deposition and compaction of 100 100


Suitable Material

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3.41 Tolerance for Foundation Pits and Trenches

Foundation pits and trenches shall be within the tolerances indicted in Table 3.3 below.

Table 3.3 Tolerances for earthworks final surfaces and formations

Type of surface Method of forming surface Tolerance


(mm)
+ -
1. Formations to receive a. Excavation except in rock 0 25
blinding or structural b. Excavation in rock 0 150
concrete
2. Width of excavation a. Excavation except in rock 0 100
b. Excavation in rock 0 200

3.42 Blasting

Unless otherwise approved, blasting will not be permitted.

OBSTRUCTIONS

3.43 Buried Obstructions

Notify the SO of the location and nature of any buried obstruction encountered during
excavation.

3.44 Disused Drains and Manholes

If required by the SO, take up disused drains encountered during the excavation, clear
away and -

(a) Remove any contaminated earth;

(b) Disinfect as necessary and seal off ends with concrete;

(c) Break up and remove disused manholes and backfill where required, properly
compacted;

(d) Submit details of filling materials to be used for approval.

3.45 Old Underground Structures

(a) If required by the SO, break out and remove old walls, foundations, piles and
other underground structures encountered during the excavation and backfill
where required, properly compacted;

(b) Submit details of filling materials to be used for approval.

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3.46 Boulders

Remove isolated boulders encountered during the excavation, or cut flush with the
excavated surfaces as Instructed.

3.47 Piled Foundations

Take necessary precautions to prevent damage to tops of piles during excavation.

CUTTINGS

3.48 Surfaces of Cuttings

Remove the following from surfaces as required by the SO -

(a) Inferior stone or soft material occurring between layers of compact rock;

(b) Rock which the SO considers will not withstand weather sufficiently;

(c) Rock fragments which move when prised with a crow-bar.

3.49 Depth of Removal

The depth from the face of cuttings to which material is to be removed shall be
determined by the SO.

3.50 Making Good

Build up to required profile with Grade 15 / 20 concrete or masonry laid with cement
mortar finishing in rock texture similar to adjoining natural rock faces.

DISPOSAL OF EXCAVATED MATERIAL

3.51 Unsuitable and Surplus Material

(a) Remove unsuitable material and surplus material from site;

(b) Unless otherwise specified, take possession of unsuitable material and surplus
material.

3.52 Suitable Material

Unless otherwise approved, do not remove suitable material from Site without the
permission of the SO.

3.53 Dumping of Unsuitable and Surplus Materials

Inform the SO of the proposed dumping areas and take responsibility for making
arrangements for disposal of these materials. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the SO
retains the right to direct the manner in which the dumping is carried out.

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RETAINING WALLS, SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS AND OTHER STRUCTURES

3.54 Size of Excavations

(a) When excavating for structures, pits and trenches, keep to the minimum size
necessary to construct the permanent work. Keep the sides of excavations
vertical unless otherwise permitted by the SO;

(b) Obtain approval for the length of trench excavation left open at any one time and
do not exceed that amount.

3.55 Approval of Excavation Bottoms

Bottoms of excavations are to be approved before any new work is laid on them. Inform
the SO when the excavation is ready for inspection.

3.56 Founding Shallow Foundations

(a) All shallow foundations (rafts or pads) shall be founded on material of the type
and / or bearing capacity specified and at the founding levels shown on the
drawings unless otherwise instructed by the SO;

(b) The founding bases of shallow foundations shall be free of unsuitable materials.
If the base lies below the groundwater table and where necessary, proper means
shall be provided to divert and/or lower the groundwater such that the integrity of
the exposed founding material(s) and the subsequent concrete casing will be
ensured;

(c) If instructed, sink drillholes for carrying out Standard Penetration Test in
accordance with BS 1377 : Parts 2 & 9 : 1990 (Test 3.3), modified by
Geoguide 2, down to the depths as determined by the SO to verify the bearing
capacity of the founding material;

(d) If instructed, take down the excavations for founding of shallow foundations
(except for foundations on rock) first to not less than 300 mm above the designed
founding level and carry out GEO Probe tests or other tests. The GEO Probe
tests shall be in accordance with Appendix 7.1 of the General Specification for
Civil Engineering Works, the Hong Kong Government, 1992. Submit the test
results within 2 days and a record plan showing all the locations and levels of the
GEO Probe tests within 1 week upon completion of the tests;

(e) If considered necessary after examining the actual ground exposures and / or test
results, the SO may order further excavation to deepen the founding level of the
foundations and/or other measures to ensure a satisfactory foundation. The
bases shall be inspected and approved by the SO before concreting;

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SECTION 3 EXCAVATION GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

(f) If considered necessary, the SO may order compaction of the whole or parts of
the founding bases of shallow foundations by at least 12 passes of a vibratory
roller, or other accepted construction plant, with a minimum static load per 100
mm width of roll of 2 kN or 4 kN. In areas adjacent to structures and utilities,
which are existing or constructed as part of the permanent works, compaction
shall be carried out by hand-hammers or manually operated power equipment in
a manner that these structures and utilities are not disturbed or damaged.

(g) If Instructed, carry out Plate Load Test for shallow foundations (except for
foundations on rock) in accordance with Sub-clause (h) and the Code of
Practice for Foundations issued by the Buildings Department;

(h) Plate load test :


(i) Carry out Plate Load Test at shallow pits or trenches or at other locations
when Instructed. The plate load test shall be carried out in accordance
with BS 1377-9 : 1990 (Test 4.1), except where noted hereunder;
(ii) The dimensions of the loading plate shall not be less than 300 mm,
square or circular as Instructed. The loading plate shall be sufficiently
rigid to prevent any distortion or bending at all stage of the loading test.
The alignment and direction of the applied load including the load cells
and jack shall remain vertical and concentric with the loading plate;
(iii) Apply the loading by a reaction system provided by means of kentledge
system to the approval of SO. The kentledge shall be capable of
providing a reaction force equivalent to 3 times of the working pressure
as Instructed by SO;
(iv) Measure displacement of the loading plate by four dial gauges located at
orthogonal positions. Use a reference beam to aid the measurement of
the displacement. The reference beam shall be supported by two rigid
foundations positioned outside the influence zones of the loaded area or
kentledge reaction area. The dial gauges shall be of sufficient travel to
measure the displacement of the plate and to an accuracy of 0.01 mm;
(v) The maximum test load is 3W, where W is equal to allowable working
pressure times the area of loading plate;
(vi) Apply the test load in increments of 0.5W up to W, release and reapply
the test load in increments of 0.5W up to 2W, then release and reapply in
increments of 0.5W up to 3W;
(vii) Maintain the test load at each increment until all movement of the plate
has ceased or when the movement is less than 0.05 mm in 10 minutes;
(viii) Maintain the maximum test load for at least 72 hours before removal;
(ix) Report all details of the test including:
(1) Reduced level at the test location and co-ordinates;
(2) Description of soil stratum where plate load test is conducted;
(3) Details of all calibration and correlation charts;
(4) Description of the method of reaction system used for the
application of required loads, including any drawings to assist the
presentation of the set-up;
(5) Results and interpretation of the tests in determining the soil
modules of the underlying soil;
(6) Temperature and weather at the time of plate loading test; and
Date of test.

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3.57 Proving Bedrock for Footings (Rafts and Pads)

(a) Where footings (rafts and / or pads) are specified to be founded on bedrock, carry
out proving of bedrock in accordance with the following sub-clauses as directed
by the SO. Clear completed excavations for footings of all soils and loose
materials;

(b) Unless otherwise specified, footings shall be founded on bedrock of minimum


bearing capacity as determined by the SO;

(c) When instructed, upon excavation reaching bedrock, take NX size cores for a
depth of 5000 mm into the bedrock and provide rock core samples and records of
bores for the SOs inspection; cores to be taken at the frequency as directed by
the SO;

(d) When instructed, carry out laboratory compression tests or field point load tests
on recovered cores to determine rock strength;

(e) Fill core holes for the full depth with 1 : 3 cement and sand grout with water /
cement ratio of 0.6;

(f) When instructed, upon excavation reaching bedrock, proving test at the
frequency as directed by the SO shall be conducted with a percussive air rock drill
to be supplied by the Contractor, of not less than 35 kg in weight and fitted with
newly sharpened 40 mm diameter steel drilling bit. The proving test shall be
performed with 25 mm diameter steel drilling rods. At the completion of each
1.5 m of drilling, the drilling bit shall be replaced with a newly sharpened 40 mm
diameter bit. Additional lengths of drilling rock shall be fitted at the same time as
appropriate. The rock drill shall be at all times free to penetrate under its own
weight and in a vertical direction. The Contractor shall perform the proving test
by drilling minimum 5.0 m below the founding level. The results of each proving
test shall be recorded by the Contractor, and he shall plot the time in minutes
taken to drill each 300 mm on a graph. A 20 mm diameter Steel rod 5.5 m long
shall be placed in each completed drill hole for the SOs inspection. Fill drill holes
for the full depth with 1:3 cement and sand grout with water / cement ratio of 0.6.

REMEDIAL WORKS

3.58 Excavation bottoms damaged after Approval

If, due to water or other causes, the bottom of the excavation becomes unsuitable after
approval, excavate further to a new Approved level, and backfill with Grade 15 / 20
concrete.

3.59 Over Excavation

Backfill and compact in accordance with this Specification.

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3.60 Damaged Surfaces

(a) Make good surfaces after excavation which, due to exposure to weather
conditions, flooding or other causes, have been allowed to deteriorate to a
condition unacceptable to the SO;

(b) Where this is the case, carry out additional excavation and filling in accordance
with this Specification, or by waiting until the condition of the exposed material is,
in the opinion of the SO, fit to receive the backfill.

PREPARATION FOR FILLING

3.61 Existing Ground

(a) Clear existing ground, over which filling is to be placed, of all loose boulders,
grass, bushes, trees, roots, other vegetation, rubbish, topsoil and unsuitable
material;

(b) Deal with soft spots and voids as Instructed.

3.62 Watercourses

Do not place filling material until watercourses have been diverted or under-drained.

3.63 Sloping Ground

(a) Cut benches and trenches as shown on the drawings and as directed by the SO
where filling is to be formed on sloping ground and provide any necessary
under-draining of the affected part of the Site;

(b) Do not place fill on sloping ground until benches and trenches have been
completed.

3.64 Availability of Plant

Commence filling works only when sufficient compaction plant is in operation at the place
of deposition to ensure compliance with the requirements of this Specification and when
the SOs permission has been obtained.

3.65 Scarifying

Scarify surfaces other than rock, to a depth of 200 mm and compact to the same
standard as the fill material which is to be deposited.

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FILLING OPERATIONS

3.66 Disposal of Water

(a) Keep the fill area free of water;

(b) Leave surface with no area that can retain water at the end of each days work
and, if necessary, cut ditches to achieve this.
3.67 Approval

Obtain approval before commencing filling and before any fill layer is covered.

3.68 Adverse Weather Conditions

Stop work when the state of the weather is such that in the opinion of the SO, it will
adversely affect the placing and compacting of fill.

3.69 Approval of Remedial Measures

Obtain approval for and prior to carrying our remedial measures.

3.70 Remedial Measures for Damaged Fill Areas

Adopt one of the following procedures when material placed and compacted or awaiting
compaction reaches a condition which, in the opinion of the SO, does not comply with this
Specification or has been damages either by weather or in any other way -

(a) Remove the material from Site, replacing it with equivalent suitable material;

(b) Remove the material to stockpile until it is in a condition suitable for re-use;

(c) Make good the material by mechanical or chemical means;

(d) Cease work on the material until it is in a suitable physical condition for re-use.

3.71 Remedial Measures where Fill Overlaid

Remove, and adopt sub-clause (a) and (b) under Clause 3.70 for any material not
complying with this Specification that has been overlaid by more recently laid material.

3.72 Restrictions on Use of Fill Material

(a) Do not use excavated material which is capable of being selected, processed and
mixed to make it suitable for use as fill material, for any other purposes, unless
permitted by the SO;

(b) Replace any such excavated material which the SO permits to be removed from
the Site or used for other purposes by an equivalent Approved material of the
same volume after compaction as the material replaced.

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3.73 Mix Proportions, Mixing and Placing Reconstituted Soil

(a) For reconstituted soil, use 1 : 3 : 12 cement, sand, special filling material by
weight;

(b) Mix in a concrete mixer with sufficient water to ensure the mix is just damp
enough to enable it to be properly mixed and compacted;

(c) Place each batch in its final position and compact within 30 minutes of the water
being added. Mixed material not placed and compacted within this time limit will
be rejected;

(d) Hand mixing of small quantities may be permitted by the SO.

3.74 Settlement

Make good, to the satisfaction of the SO, settlement in filling and backfilling and any
consequential damage that may occur up to the end of the Maintenance Period.

FILLING FOUNDATION PITS, TRENCHES AND ETC.

3.75 Adjacent Utilities or Structures

Within 500 mm of adjacent utilities or structures, fill only -

(a) Fine fill material;

(b) No more than 5 % by weight of rock fragments are up to 200 mm maximum size,
provided they do not damage and do not interfere with compaction requirements;

(c) After the construction of the structure or utility, it is sufficiently advanced to


accept the imposed forces without disturbance or damage;

(d) Even all sides of structures or utilities carefully to avoid damage;

(e) In such manner of compaction that structures or utilities are not disturbed or
damaged;

(f) Where sheet piling, timbering or other temporary supports to the excavations are
not to be left in place, removing them as the depositing of suitable material
proceeds in a manner that adjacent ground remains stable.

3.76 Filling around Water, Sewerage and Drainage Pipes

Where these have been laid as part of the permanent works -

(a) Use special filling material unless otherwise specified;

(b) Deposit in layers not exceeding 100 mm;

(c) Build up to a minimum of 300 mm above top of the pipes;

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SECTION 3 EXCAVATION GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

(d) Deposit so that a layer on one side of the pipe is never more than 100 mm above
the layer on the other side;

(e) Use hand rammers or manually operated power equipment;

(f) Compact the suitable material over sewerage pipework to a relative compaction of
85 % throughout.

3.77 Filling of Planters

(a) Drainage aggregate to be clean, rounded stone, in size of 25 to 50 mm diameter;

(b) Filter layer to be specified by the SO and laid in accordance with the
manufacturers recommendations;

(c) Soil filling to be evenly textured good clean granular decomposed granite
containing no stone large than 50 mm in any dimension nor any deleterious
matter.

3.78 Backfilling to Foundations

Backfill to top of foundations with general materials.

3.79 Backfilling to Trenches for Automated Refuse Collection System (ARCS)

Backfill to top of trenches with excavated or Approved general filling materials. Cover to
ARCS conveyance pipe to be minimum 600 mm generally and 800 mm in vehicle
circulation areas.

FILLING EXISTING WATERCOURSES

3.80 Preparation

Divert existing watercourses and channels as required and clear the same of all
vegetation growth and unsuitable material.

BACKFILLING BEHIND RETAINING WALLS

3.81 Placing Filter Material

(a) Carefully place filter material to avoid contamination and damage;

(b) Bed in layers simultaneously with the filling material and compact.

3.82 Filling

Unless otherwise specified, place special filling material as backfilling and compact by the
Performance Specification method of compaction under Clauses 3.91 to 3.96.
Compaction plant is to be of such size as to ensure that no undue stress is placed on the
wall during compaction.

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FORMING EMBANKMENTS AND PLATFORMS

3.83 Material Selection

Form embankments with special fill material unless otherwise specified.

3.84 Deposition and Compaction of Fill Material

(a) Deposit and compact all earthwork material for filling as soon as practicable after
excavation;

(b) Build up embankments evenly over the fill width;

(c) Control the construction method to ensure that any compaction of the fill material
resulting from the passage of constructional plant or haulage vehicles is uniform;

(d) In areas of fill formed of fill material other than rock material, form earthworks
final surfaces which are at a gradient steeper than 1 in 3 (vertical to horizontal) by
over-filling and cutting back after compaction. Extend over-filling beyond the
earthworks final surface by a horizontal distance of 500 mm or three times the
thickness of the compacted layer, whichever is greater;

(e) Deposit fill material in layers of a thickness appropriate to the compaction method
used;

(f) Unless otherwise permitted by the SO, place layers of fill material horizontally,
except for any gradient required for drainage, and keep the thickness of each
layer uniform over the area to be filled;

(g) If the difference in level between adjacent areas to be filled exceed 1 m, bench
the edge of the higher area before fill material is placed against it;

(h) Except for intermediate fill area, do not deposit fill material by end-tipping, by
pushing loose material down slope faces or by other methods which may result in
segregation or inadequate compaction of the fill material;

(i) Make good damage to compacted layers caused by construction traffic.

3.85 Compaction

(a) Unless otherwise specified, place filling material, other than rock fill and material
as stated in clause 3.100, by Performance Specification method of compaction
under clauses 3.91 to 3.96.

(b) Place rock fill by the Method Specification method of compaction under clauses
3.97 to 3.99.

(c) Place general fill material with a large portion of coarse material in accordance
with clause 3.100.

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SECTION 3 EXCAVATION GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

3.86 Rock Fill Embankments and Platforms

(a) Place rock fill material so that the final compacted thickness of each layer exceeds
1.5 times the nominal grade size, but not more than twice the nominal grade size
of the rock fill material;

(b) Spread and level the material by a crawler tractor weighting not less than 15
tonnes and compact by the method specification method of compaction;

(c) Ensure each layer consists of reasonably graded rock and fill all surface voids with
broken fragments before the next layer is placed.

3.87 Blinding Rock Fill Embankments and Platform

(a) Blind the top surface and side slopes with fine fill material to seal the surface;

(b) Top soil may be used to blind side slopes and verges.

3.88 Isolated Boulders

At the discretion of the SO, isolated boulders, each within the range of 0.015 m3 to 0.1 m3
in volume, may be incorporated into embankments not of rock fill, provided that the
specified compaction requirements are met. Any boulders exceeding 0.015 m3 must be
placed at a minimum of 2 m below formation level of carriageway or hard shoulders.

3.89 Culverts and Drains, etc.

Form embankments equally on both sides of culverts or drain pipes and the like.

3.90 Surfaces used by Construction Traffic

(a) Where surfaces of embankments are required for use by construction traffic, build
up and maintain at a minimum of 300 mm above formation level, the area
between extremities of carriageways, including any central reserve and hard
shoulders before subsequently trimming to formation level;

(b) Make good surface damage;

(c) Ensure that no construction traffic uses the area once trimming to final formation
level has commenced, with the exception of constructional plant necessary for
such trimming and ensure that no damage is caused to the surface by such
constructional plant.

COMPACTION BY PERFROMANCE SPECIFICATION

3.91 Procedure

(a) Compact fill material in areas of fill in uniform layers to a stable condition as soon
as practicable after deposition and in a manner appropriate to the location and to
the material to be compacted;

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SECTION 3 EXCAVATION GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

(b) Obtain the permission of the SO before the next layer is deposited on each layer
of compact fill material;

(c) Agree with the SO the thickness of each layer which is to be compatible with the
compaction plant used. Carry out carefully controlled tests to determine the
optimum placing thickness for the particular fill and the number of passes to
achieve the required density with the compaction plant provided;

(d) Do not place permanent fill until such tests have been agreed with the SO.
Earthmoving plant will not be accepted as compaction equipment.

3.92 Testing

Test each class of material to be compacted in accordance with the compaction tests
specified in the Testing section of this Specification.

3.93 Moisture Content

Other than rock fill material and material as stated in clause 3.100, the moisture content
of the insitu material during compaction to be within 3 % of the optimum moisture
content determined in accordance with the compaction tests specified in the Testing
section of this Specification. Take all necessary measures to achieve and maintain the
specified moisture content.

3.94 Field Density

After compaction, carry out insitu field density tests in accordance with the compaction
tests in the Testing section of this Specification. Test each layer and obtain approval
before placing of the next layer.

3.95 Standard of Compaction

Unless otherwise specified, relative compaction of compacted materials to be minimum


95 % of the maximum dry density in general and 98 % for fill within 200 mm of any
formation level or slope profile.

3.96 Standard of Compaction between Pile Caps and Suspended Slabs and around Pile Caps

The relative compaction of compacted material in the fill areas between top of pile cap
and underside of suspended slab to be minimum 90 % of the maximum dry density.
Compact fill material around pile caps to achieve a relative compaction of at least 95 %.

COMPACTION BY MEHTOD SPECIFICATION

3.97 Adoption

Use for rock fill material and in exceptional circumstances for other suitable material
when Approved.

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3.98 Rollers

Use vibratory rollers having a static load of 2 kN per 100 mm width of roll for layers with
a compacted thickness not exceeding 500 mm, and at least 4 kN where exceeding 500
mm of compacted thickness.

3.99 Compaction Method

(a) Compact each layer of rock by at least 8 passes of the roller, or by other Approved
equivalent compaction method;

(b) Compact the final surface of rock fill by at least two additional passes of the roller
or by other Approved equivalent method;

(c) Fill voids as compaction proceeds.

3.100 Compaction of General Fill Material with a large portion of Coarse Material

(a) For general fill material of which less than 90 % passing a 20 mm BS test sieve, it
will be difficult to permit determination of the moisture content and maximum dry
density according to clauses 3.127, 3.130 and 3.136. This type of material shall
be compacted to the requirements of sub-clauses (b), (c) and (d) below;

(b) Spread and level each horizontal layer of general fill material with a thickness not
less than 1.5 times of the maximum size of the general fill material and not
exceeding the maximum depth of compacted layer in accordance with Table 3.4.
If this criterion is not met due to the presence of over-sized coarse material in the
general fill, the over-sized coarse material shall be removed or broken down to
sizes acceptable to the SO. Compact each layer systematically by a vibratory
roller with the stipulated minimum number of passes corresponding to the
minimum static load per 100 mm width of the roller;

Table 3.4 Compaction requirement for general fill material with


a large portion of coarse material

Force per 100 mm Well-graded material Uniform-graded material


width
(kN) Maximum depth of Minimum Maximum depth of Minimum
compacted layer no. of compacted layer no. of
(mm) passes (mm) passes
0.25 - 0.45 - - 150 16
0.46 - 0.70 - - 150 12
0.71 - 1.25 125 12 150 10
1.26 - 1.75 150 8 200 10
1.76 - 2.30 150 4 225 10
2.31 - 2.80 175 4 250 10
2.81 - 3.50 200 4 275 8
3.51 - 4.20 225 4 300 8
4.21 - 4.90 250 4 300 8

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SECTION 3 EXCAVATION GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

(c) Count only the number of passes of the roller when the roller is travelled on the
material to be compacted at a speed of not more than 2 km per hour with full
vibration. Disregard plant other than vibratory roller to carry out material
spreading or to provide some preliminary compaction only to assist the use of
heavier plant in counting the number of passes;

(d) Vibration from the method or the use of plant different from that specified in
sub-clause (b) will be permitted only if the Contractor demonstrates at site trials
that equivalent compaction is achieved by the alternative method or plant.
Agree with the SO and obtain the SOs approval on the procedure to be adopted
for these site trials;

(e) Without prejudice to the provision of the Conditions of Contract and in order that
the SO may take proper provision for the supervision of compaction in the
permanent work, apply in writing to the SO for permission not less than 24 hours
before the compaction processes;

(f) When materials of widely divergent grading are used in embankments and fill
areas, spread and compact the materials in separate clearly defined areas;

(g) If more than one class of material is being used in such a way that in the opinion
of the SO it is not practicable to define the areas in which each class occurs,
operate the compaction plant as if only the material which requires the greatest
compactive effort is being compacted.

INTERMEDIATE AREAS OF FILL

3.101 Depositing

Fill material may be deposited in intermediate areas of fill by end-tipping or by pushing


into position until, in the opinion of the SO, it is sufficient to form a stable foundation on
which to construct the subsequent work.

3.102 Compaction

Except in areas of fill formed of rock fill material or fill material as stated in clause 3.100,
compact fill material in intermediate areas of fill to a degree which in the opinion of the
SO is practicable. Compact fill material above the level stated in clause 3.101 to obtain a
relative compaction of at least -

(a) 90 % throughout;

(b) 95 % within 1500 mm of earthworks final surfaces and formations; and

(c) 98 % within 200 mm of formations.

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COMPLETION OF GENERAL EARTHWORKS SURFACES

3.103 General

(a) Bring earthworks final surfaces to a stable condition as soon as practicable after
excavation or after deposition and compaction of fill material has been completed;

(b) Carry out the subsequent permanent work or surface protection as soon as
practicable after the earthworks final surface has been completed;

(c) Properly treat exposed earth by compaction, turfing, hydroseeding or sealing with
latex, vinyl, bitumen or other suitable surface stabilizer within six months after the
last construction activity on the exposed earth;

(d) Complete earthworks final surfaces to smooth alignments without abrupt


irregularities unless otherwise specified;

(e) Complete formations above structures or utilities after construction of the


structure or utility.

3.104 Compacting

Compact formations to obtain a relative compaction of at least 98 % to a depth of 200


mm below formation level.

3.105 Proof Rolling

(a) Unless otherwise agreed by the SO, carry out proof rolling on formations;

(b) Roll in the presence of the SO by at least two passes of a non-vibrating roller
having rubber types;

(c) Roller must have a static load per 100 mm width of roll of at least 4 kN and travel
at a speed not exceeding 2 km / h.

3.106 Making Good Defects

Make good to approval any defect in the formation which is revealed during proof rolling
by deformation of the formation which in the opinion of the SO is excessive.

3.107 Pavement Formations

After all other formation work and testing have been completed and damage caused by
testing reinstated, roll any pavement formation with one pass of a smooth steel-wheeled
non-vibrating roller. The roller must have a load per 100 mm width of roll of at least 2
kN.

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3.108 Protection of Formations

Carry out the following procedures -

(a) Unless otherwise permitted by the SO, protect, by methods agreed by the SO,
formations which will not be immediately covered by the subsequent permanent
work;

(b) Keep earthworks final surfaces and formation in a stable condition and protect
from damage due to water or other causes and from exposure to conditions which
may adversely affect the surface;

(c) Do not allow formations to be used by constructional plant or vehicles other than
those which in the opinion of the SO are essential to construct the subsequent
work.

ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE PREPARATION OF ROAD FORMATIONS

3.109 Sequence

Carry out preparation and surface treatment of the road formation after completion of
any specified sub-grade drainage and, unless otherwise agreed by the SO, immediately
prior to laying the sub-base or the road-base where no sub-base is required.

3.110 Formations other than Rock Fill

Carry out the following sequence of operations -

(a) Remove all mud and slurry from surfaces below carriageways, lay-bys, cycle
tracks, footpaths and hard shoulders after general reinstatement of any soft
areas;

(b) Unless otherwise permitted by the SO, carry out proof rolling on the road
formation. Roll in presence of the SO by as least 2 passes of a non-vibrating
roller with rubber tyres. Roller shall have a static load per 100 mm width of at
least 4 kN and travel at speeds not exceeding 2 km / h;

(c) Make good any defect in the formation during proof rolling where required by the
SO;

(d) Trim the formation after testing and when any damaged reinstatement has been
carried out;

(e) Roll the trimmed formation by one pass of a smooth steel-wheeled non-vibrating
roller having a minimum load per 100 mm of 2 kN.

3.111 Rock Fill Formations

Carry out the following sequence of operations -

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SECTION 3 EXCAVATION GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

(a) Trim and blind the formation as clauses 3.86 and 3.87;

(b) Roll the trimmed formation as clause 3.110 (e);

(c) Make good with Grade 15 / 20 concrete any surface irregularities under the
formation which remain after trimming the rock excavation.

ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR FILL SLOPES

3.112 General

(a) Comply with the following sub-clauses for the fill slopes as specified in the
Drawings and submit to the SO the date of commencement of the filling works
of these slopes;

(b) Notwithstanding the requirements on filling works as specified in other clauses


of this Specification, comply with the Standards for Filling Works specified in
Appendix A of PNAP APP-15 as issued by the Building Authority;

(c) During construction, submit monthly reports to the SO giving records of tests on
compaction of fill slopes together with a covering assessment on the adequacy
of compaction. Submit the format of the report to the SO for prior approval.

(d) Incorporate in the report all the test results determined in accordance with this
clause and the Testing section of this Specification, including those tests carried
out by the Direct Testing Contractor(s). Keep records on drawings the soil
type, plan location and elevation reference to Principal Datum of each test.
Graphs of dry density vs. moisture content, laboratory test record sheets, field
sheets, calculation sheets and a complete soil description are to be kept in a
companion folder;

(e) Carry out all tests under the supervision of the TCP Grade T4 as mentioned in
sub-clause (c);

(f) Include in the contents of the covering assessment -

(i) A summary of the results on insitu density tests and laboratory


compaction tests of the fill, highlighting areas of non-compliance with the
specified compaction standards;

(ii) Details of any corrective measures taken to rectify areas of inadequate


compaction; and

(iii) An overall assessment to all the filling works completed at the time of
assessment.

(g) Keep records of compaction tests also on site for inspection by the SO, ICU and
the officers of Geotechnical Engineering Office (GEO). The costs of providing
the monthly reports are deemed to be included in the Contract rates of the
filling works;

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(h) Where there is no reason to believe that the placed fill may be loose, or if the SO
from time to time directs, carry out field checks under the SOs direction, initially
by dynamic probe tests (supplemented by observations of fill materials in trial
pits if an appropriate cobble and boulder content in the fill is suspected).
Provide the necessary equipment, apparatus and labourers for the dynamic
probe tests and trial pit excavation. Carry out dynamic probe tests in
accordance with Appendix 7.1 of the General Specification for Civil Engineering
Works , The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region,
2006;

(i) If loose fill is detected, arrange for the Approved Laboratory to carry out insitu
density tests of the loose layer in accordance with the Testing section of this
Specification in the presence of the SO. Carry out the tests within seven (7)
days after the detection of the loose fill. If the tests results fail to comply with
the Contract requirements, rectify the filling works to the satisfaction of the SO
as a matter of urgency. Where extensive loose fill is found which could pose a
significant threat if not required, the SO may issue an order to suspend the
works in accordance with relevant clause(s) under the Conditions of Contract;

(j) If the filling work has been done after compliance with the requirements of the
Conditions of Contract, and is found to be executed in accordance with the
Contract, the expense of investigation, testing, reinstating and making good the
same shall be valued at the relevant Contract rates but in any other case the
expense shall be borne by the Contractor;

(l) Upon completion of the filling work, submit to the SO -

(i) As-built plans and sections of the work showing its relationship to existing
and proposed structures; and

(ii) Records of insitu density tests and laboratory compaction tests of the fill.

The costs of providing as-built records are deemed to be included in the


Contract rates of the filling works;

(m) Bear all associated costs and make due allowance in the programme of the
works for the provisions as stated in the above sub-clauses. No claim for
extension of time will be entertained in connection therewith.

SUBMISSION

3.113 Technical Proposal for Excavation and Lateral Support Plan (ELSP) Submission

(a) Upon request by the SO, submit technical proposal within 14 days to facilitate the
SOs submission of ELSP for scrutiny by the Building Authority or other
government departments. The technical proposal may include, but not limited
to, site investigation report, structural design, details and calculation of the lateral
support system, and method statement of the excavation works.

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(b) In general, ELSP submissions are required where the excavations are -

(i) Deeper than 2.5 m, and greater than 5 m in length; and liable to affect
any road, building, structure, slope steeper than 30o or water main 75 mm
in diameter or greater, the affected area being defined as within 45o line
up from the base of the excavation to the ground surface;

(ii) Of substantial depth, the collapse of which would cause serious


consequence to public safety as per PNAP APP-57 issued by the Building
Authority;

(iii) Any other excavation and lateral support works requiring ELSP submission
as specified by the SO.

(c) Submit ELSP for SO's approval at least 75 days before commencement of ELSW.
The geotechnical report / supporting documentation for the ELSP shall be
prepared and signed by the RGE appointed in accordance with Section 1. Allow
for a further 45 days for granting of approval by SO before commencement of
ELSW for each ELSP re-submission.
(d) The ELSP submission shall include information as directed by SO ;

(e) For ELSW with pile walls and bulk excavation :


(i) Comply with restrictions as directed by SO on commencement for pile
walls driving work ;
(ii) Comply with the requirements of the Approved ELSP ;
(iii) At the completion of pile walls driving works, submit record plans
showing the actual penetration depth of the pile walls to SO for
approval. Allow at least of 35 days for granting of approval by SO on :
(1) Certification of completion of the works using Form ICU 14
(2) Commencement of bulk excavation works
Allow sufficient time in the programme of Works for obtaining the said
Approvals. Do not commence driving of pile walls and bulk excavations without
written Approval for commencement from the SO.
(f) For ELSW with bulk excavation only :
(i) Comply with the restrictions as directed by SO on commencement on bulk
excavation works;
(ii) Allow sufficient time in the programme of Works for obtaining the said
Approvals. Do not commence ELSW without written Approval for
commencement from the SO;
Comply with the requirements under the Approved ELSP.
TESTING

FILL MATERIAL GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

3.114 Batch

A batch of fill material is any quantity of fill material of the same type and which, in the
opinion of the SO, has similar properties throughout. For the purpose of testing for
moisture content and relative compaction, a batch is also any fill material which is
deposited in a single layer in any area of fill represented by the Contractor for testing on
one occasion.

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3.115 Samples

Each sample of fill material must consist of at least four increments taken from different
parts of the batch. Combine the increments and thoroughly mix and divide by
quartering or by using a riffle box to obtain specimens of an appropriate size to carry out
the individual tests.

3.116 Sample Size

Take the size of samples of fill material, other than rock fill, in accordance with clause
2.5.1, 4.2 and Table 2.1 of Geospec 3 : Model Specification for Soil Testing , GEO, 2001.
Each sample of rock fill material of grade size not exceeding 200 is to have a mass of at
least 250 kg and each sample of rock fill material of grade size exceeding 200 must have
a mass of at least 1000 kg.

SITE TESTS FOR SOIL AND GROUNDWATER

3.117 General

(a) Arrange for an independent laboratory to carry out the tests described in
Geospec 3 : Model Specification for Soil Testing , GEO, 2001;

(b) Select the laboratory from one of those listed on the Development Bureaus List of
Approved Suppliers of Materials and Specialist Contractors for Public Works : Soil
and Rock Testing and Approved. In addition, the laboratory must be accredited
by HOKLAS for the said tests.

3.118 Compaction Test for Fill Slopes

(a) Arrange for independent laboratories as stated in Clause 3.117 on a roster system
to carry out compaction tests stated in Clauses 3.133 to 3.137 for all fill slopes
specified in the drawings. No independent laboratories shall carry out
compaction tests for a cumulative period longer than 3 months within any
twelve-month period;

(b) Instruct the independent laboratories to deliver directly to the SO in a sealed


envelope or by other means agreed by the SO, without routing through the
contractor, a copy of all test reports including preliminary testing results compiled
by the independent laboratories, not later then the copy sent to the contractor;

(c) In addition, where considered necessary, the SO will order Direct Testing
Contractor(s) to carry out the same tests as mentioned in sub-clause (a) above;

(d) Provide attendance on the Direct Testing Contractor(s) and render all necessary
assistance to the Direct Testing Contractor(s) including -

(i) Provision of all facilities for the Direct Testing Contractor(s) in the taking of
samples;

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(ii) Provision of information for the preparation of the report, all as required
by the Direct Testing Contractor(s); and

(iii) Reinstatement and making good of the sampled areas to its original
condition where instructed;

(e) Carry out additional tests for relative compaction in accordance with clause 3.137
if the result of any test for relative compaction of fill material does not comply with
the specified requirements;

(f) Investigate and report findings on any non-compliance or irregularities identified


by the compaction tests and carry out rectification as necessary to the satisfaction
of the SO before proceeding to the next stage of the filling works;

(g) Bear all associated costs and allow sufficient time in the programming of the filling
works for the compliance with this clause. No claim whatsoever will be
entertained for the interruption, if any, due to the Direct Testing Contractors
works.

FILL MATERIAL - PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION, LIQUID LIMIT, PLASTICITY INDEX,


COEFFICIENT OF UNIFORMITY AND SULPHATE CONTENT

3.119 General

The size of sample and method of sampling to be in accordance with Geospec 3 : Model
Specification for Soil Testing published by GEO. Where required, test samples of fill
material for particle size distribution, liquid limit, plasticity index, coefficient of uniformity
and sulphate content shall be delivered at least 14 days, or such shorter period as agreed
by the SO, before deposition of the fill material starts. Provide samples from each batch
as stated in Table 3.5 -

Table 3.5 Sampling requirements for fill material

Description Size of batch No. of samples per batch


Special fill material 0 3,000 m3 3
Exceeding 3,000 m3 1 for each 1,000 m3 or part
thereof
Fill material other than special 0 15,000 m3 3
fill material Exceeding 15,000 m3 1 for each 5,000 m3 or part
thereof

3.120 Testing Criteria

For samples of fill material in Table 3.5 -

(a) Particle size distribution : test as clause 3.121 (a);

(b) Special fill material : test for the coefficient of uniformity as clause 3.121 (b);

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(c) Liquid limit : test all samples other than rock fill material (unless otherwise agreed
by the SO) as clause 3.121 (c);

(d) Plasticity index : as sub-clause (c) above and Clause 3.121 (d);

(e) Soluble sulphate : test each sample of fill that will be deposited within 500 mm of
concrete, cement bound, or cementitious material, or metalwork, as Clause 3.121
(e).

3.121 Test Method

Test in accordance with Geospec 3 : Model Specification for Soil Testing , GEO, 2001 as
follows -

(a) Particle size : test as Test Method 8.1 or 8.2 whichever is instructed for particles
passing a 75 mm BS Test Sieve. Take the size of particles of fill material which
do not pass a 75 mm BS Test Sieve as the largest dimension measured in any
plane;

(b) Coefficient of uniformity : calculate the coefficient of uniformity (Cu) from the
equation -

Cu = D60 / D10

where :

D60 and D10 are the equivalent sieve size in millimetres, interpolated from
the particle size distribution curve, through which 60 % and 10 % of the
fill material would pass respectively;

(c) Liquid limit : test in accordance with Test Method 6.1 for that proportion of fill
passing a 425 micron BS Test Sieve;

(d) Soluble sulphate : test as Test Method 9.3;

(e) Total sulphate : test as Test Method 9.3.

3.122 Non-compliance with Tests

Where the tests show non-compliance, adopt the following procedures -

(a) Soluble sulphate content : test each sample to determine the total sulphate
content as in Test Method 9.3 of Geospec 3 : Model Specification for Soil Testing
, GEO, 2001;

(b) Particle size distribution, liquid limit, plasticity index, and coefficient of uniformity
or total sulphate content : provide additional samples, in numbers as stated in
Table 3.5, from same batch and retest as before.

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FILL MATERIAL OPTIMUM MOISTURE CONTENT AND MAXIMUM DRY DENSITY

3.123 General

Where required, test samples or fill material for optimum moisture content and maximum
dry density and deliver results at least 72 hours, or such shorter period as agreed by the
SO, before deposition of the fill material starts. Provide samples from each batch as
specified in Table 3.5.

3.124 Location

Inform the SO of the exact location in which the fill material from which each sample is
taken is to be deposited.

3.125 Additional Samples

Take additional samples to test for optimum moisture content and maximum dry density
after the fill material has been deposited in its final position, at intervals of not more than
28 days.

3.126 Materials not for Sampling

Do not take samples from the following material -

(a) Fill material including rock fill material which contains an insufficient proportion of
particles passing a 20 mm BS Test Sieve to permit determination of the moisture
content and maximum dry density;

(b) Fill material which is to be deposited as intermediate areas of fill, as specified


under clause 3.101.

3.127 Testing Methods

Test each sample for

(a) Optimum moisture content, as Test Method 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6,
10.7 or 10.8 of Geospec 3 : Model Specification for Soil Testing , GEO, 2001
whichever is instructed;

(b) Maximum dry density, as for sub-clause (a) above and whichever is instructed.

3.128 Inconsistent Materials

Where tests for optimum moisture content or maximum dry density indicate
inconsistencies in the fill material and are likely, in the opinion of the SO, to affect
subsequent relative compaction tests -

(a) Divide the batch into smaller batches of material with similar properties
throughout;

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SECTION 3 EXCAVATION GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

(b) Provide additional samples from each of the smaller batches, the number of
samples being as in accordance with Table 3.5;

(c) Carry out additional tests for optimum moisture content and maximum dry
density, of each sample.

FILL MATERIAL MOISTURE CONTENT

3.129 Samples

(a) Test samples of fill material for moisture content during deposition and
compaction and not more than 1 hour after the fill material has been deposited in
its final position;

(b) Provide the number of samples from each batch in accordance with Table 3.6.
Do not provide samples if, in accordance with clause 3.126 (a) or 3.126 (b), the
optimum moisture content has not been determined.

3.130 Testing Methods

Test each sample to determine moisture content as Method 1 below, or if agreed by the
SO, by Method 2 -

(a) Method 1 : Test Method 5.1 or 5.2 of Geospec 3 : Model Specification for Soil
Testing , GEO, 2001 whichever is instructed;

(b) Method 2 : Microwave over drying method as clauses 3.141 to 3.145.

3.131 Moisture Content Compliance Criteria

If, in the opinion of the SO, there is any undue discrepancy between the results of tests
for moisture content of fill material using Method 1 and the results of tests using Method
2, adopt only the results using Method 1.

3.132 Difference between Moisture Content and Optimum Moisture Content Results

(a) If the result of any test for moisture content of fill material differs from the
optimum moisture content by more than the specified amount and, if instructed,
adjust the moisture content of the whole of the batch of fill material;

(b) Provide additional samples from the same batch and undertake additional tests
for moisture content;

(c) Take the number of additional samples as stated in Table 3.6 below -

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Table 3.6 Number of samples to be tested for moisture content and


number of tests for relative compaction

Description Size of area of fill in No. of samples /


batch test per batch
Areas of fill in excavations 0 100 m2 3
for structures, pits and
trenches and on formation 100 500 m2 2 for each 100 m2 or part
thereof
Exceeding 500 m2 1 for each 100 m2 or part
thereof
Other areas of fill 0 1 ha 4 for each 1000 m2 or
part thereof
1 10 ha 3 for each 1000 m2 or
part thereof
Exceeding 10 ha 2 for each 1000 m2 or
part thereof

FILL MATERIAL RELATIVE COMPACTION

3.133 Requirement for Testing

(a) Unless otherwise agreed by the SO, test each batch of fill material to determine
relative compaction;

(b) Carry out each test after the fill material has been deposited and compacted in its
final position;

(c) The number of tests will be in accordance with the requirements of Table 3.6;

(d) Do not test the following -

(i) Fill material including rock fill materials which contain an insufficient
proportion of particles passing a 20 mm BS Test Sieve to permit
determination of the relative compaction; and

(ii) Fill material which has been deposited as intermediate areas of fill as
clause 3.101.

3.134 Location of Tests

Carry out tests as positions which, in the opinion of the SO, are representative of the
batch of compacted fill material as a whole.

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3.135 Method

Determine the relative compaction (RC) of fill material from the equation -

RC = IDD / MDD x 100 %

where :

IDD is the insitu dry density determined as Clause 3.136;

MDD is the maximum dry density determined as Clause 3.127(b).

3.136 Insitu Bulk Density and Insitu Dry Density

Test fill material in accordance with Test Method 11.1 or 11.2 of Geospec 3 : Model
Specification for Soil Testing , GEO, 2001 as appropriate to the grain size of the fill
material.

3.137 Non-compliance of relative Compaction Test

If the result of any test for relative compaction of fill material does not comply with the
specified requirements for relative compaction, carry out additional tests for relative
compaction on the same batch. The number of additional tests is states in Table 3.6.

TEST METHODS FOR FILL MATERIALS

3.138 General

The definition, terms, abbreviations, symbols, and grouping of materials stated in


relevant parts of Geospec 3 : Model Specification for Soil Testing , GEO, 2001 apply
except as stated in Clauses 3.139 and 3.140.

3.139 Abbreviations and Symbols

Terms used in this Specification and in the relevant parts of Geospec 3 : Model
Specification for Soil Testing, GEO, 2001 are identified by the following abbreviations and
symbols -

Abbreviation / Symbol Term


BD bulk density
DD dry density
IBD insitu bulk density
IDD insitu dry density
MDD maximum dry density
RC relative compaction
w moisture content
wi insitu moisture content
wo optimum moisture content

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3.140 Grouping of Materials

(a) Fine grained material is material of which at least 90 % passes a 2 mm BS Test


Sieve;

(b) Medium grained material is material of which at least 90 % passes a 20 mm BS


Test Sieve and more than 10 % is retained on a 2 mm BS Test Sieve.

DETERMINATION OF THE MOISTURE CONTENT OF FINE GRAINED


AND MEDIUM GRAINED MATERIAL BY THE MICROWAVE OVEN DRYING METHOD

3.141 Scope

This method covers the determination of the moisture content of fine grained and
medium grained material as a percentage of the mass of the dry material.

3.142 Apparatus

Use the following apparatus -

(a) A microwave oven with a timer and an adjustable power setting;

(b) An airtight container of microwave safe and non-reflective material;

(c) A balance readable and accurate to 0.01 g;

(d) A desiccator containing anhydrous silica gel.

3.143 Procedure

Adopt the following procedure -

(a) The container must be clean, dry and weighed to the nearest 0.01 g (m1);

(b) Crumble a specimen and place loosely in the container and replace the lid.
Ensure each specimen of fine grained material is at least 30 g and each specimen
of medium grained material at least 300 g. specimens of medium grained
material may be tested in several parts each less than 300 g and the results
aggregated;

(c) Weigh the container and contents to be nearest 0.01 g (m2);

(d) Remove the lid of the specimen container and place the contained with its lid and
content in the microwave oven and dry. Consider the specimen to be dry when,
after an initial drying period, successive weighing at intervals of 1 minute
produces results which are the same to the nearest 0.01 g. Alternatively, the
oven may be set to an appropriate time and power setting to dry the specimen as
determined by calibration of the oven on soil of a similar type;

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SECTION 3 EXCAVATION GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2013

(e) After drying, remove the container and contents from the microwave oven and
place in the desiccator to cool;

(f) Replace the lid and weigh the container and contents to the nearest 0.01 g (m3).

3.144 Calculation

Calculate the moisture content of the material (w) as a percentage of the dry mass of the
material from the equation -

w = (m2 m3) / (m3 m1) x 100 %

where :

- m1 is the mass of the container (g)

- m2 is the mass of the container and contents before drying (g)

- m3 is the mass of the container and contents after drying (g)

3.145 Reporting

Report on the following -

(a) Source and identification of the soil;

(b) The moisture content of the material to the nearest 0.1 %;

(c) That the test method used was in accordance with this Specification.

*****

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