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Chapter 1: Introduction

Amorphous materials - Generally strong but brittle.

Ceramic materials - nonmetallic materials based on clay. Usually crystalline and brittle, do not
conduct heat or electricity and withstand high temperatures. Used for insulation
Clay Brickwork - brick is burned clay masonry unit.
Construction materials - any material used in the construction industry.
Examples of elastic materials are like springs, rubber bands, etc.
Elastomeric materials - a polymer having elastic properties, can be stretched by large amounts
and return to its original shape when the load is removed
Electronic materials - electrons flow through the material.
Insulating materials - electrons do not flow through the material, nor does heat or sound.
Thermal Conductivity of materials: Metals are the highest, then stones, and then others.
Magnetic Materials - when a material has a net magnetic moment or spin
Manufacturing Materials - materials used in machinery or in manufacturing industries
Raw materials - natural products or materials that are transformed through manufacturing
processes are called raw materials (coal, petroleum, iron ore, limestone)
Waste materials - waste matter produced by a manufacturing facility like fly ash, sludge, carbon
dioxide, etc.
Repair materials - materials used to repair a deteriorating structure of concrete, masonry, or
Basic Materials used in CE (structural Materials) are: Wood, Cement and Concrete, Bitumens
and Bituminous materials, Structural clay and concrete units, reinforcing and structural steels.

When a body is pulled or pushed it is said to be acted upon by a force.

Stiffness: a relative measure of the deformability of a material under load. A material that
develops a high level of strain at a given stress is less stiff than a material showing less strain
under the same stress. The greater the stress needed to produce a known strain, the stiffer the

Elastic limit - the maximum stress below which a material will fully recover its original form upon
the removal of applied forces
Proportional limit - the maximum stress below which the ratio between the stress and the strain
is constant.

Elastic modulus (modulus of elasticity) - the ratio of stress to strain below the proportional limit.
Refers to the stiffness in the elastic range.

1. 3 materials used in wall construction: Cement, Sand, Bricks
2. Name 3 materials used for slabs: Concrete, Formwork, Reinforcement
3. Give two examples each of ductile and brittle materials: Ductile - Aluminum, mild steel.
Brittle - glass, cast iron
4. Name two composite materials used in building construction: Brick and Reinforced Concrete
5. Name 3 important physical properties of materials: Density, Porosity, Void Ratio
6. Name 2 ASTM standards:
7. What are the assumptions made in the bending theory: The beam material should be
isotropic and homogeneous, the beam layers should be free to contract and expand, the
radius of curvature should be larger than the cross-section, modulus of elasticity should be
same in both compression and tension, the plane section of the transverse direction should
remain plane even after bending, the beam should be initially straight and all the longitudinal
filaments should bend in the circular arches.

Chapter 2: Aggregates

ASTM C125 defines aggregate as a granular material such as sand, gravel, crushed stone, or
iron blast furnace slag used with a cementing medium to form mortar or concrete, or alone as in
base course or railroad ballast.

Principal mineral constituents of granite are quartz and feldspar

Minerals are crystalline substances having characteristic physical and chemical properties that
depend on their composition and internal structure.

Hardness determined by scratching the smooth surface of a mineral with the surface of another
material of known hardness

Minerals can be identified by cleavage, fracture, color, crystal shape, hardness, specific gravity,
streak, and striations.

Crushed stone, sand, and gravel are the three main types of aggregate commonly used in the
manufacture of portland cement concrete and asphalt concrete, used in buildings, bridges,
highways, dams, and airports.

Properties include density, specific gravity, porosity, compressive strength, etc.

Properties to consider in selecting an aggregate for a particular application are:

Specific Gravity
Bulk Density
Moisture content
Gradation and fineness modulus
Modulus of elasticity
Compressive strength
Chemical reactivity

Absorbed moisture and surface moisture

Absorbed moisture is defined as the weight of water absorbed by dry aggregate particles in
reaching a moisture level or condition called saturated surface dry condition.

Surface moisture = Moisture content - absorption capacity

Fineness modulus is a number obtained by adding the values of the percentages coarser than
each full sieve in the set and dividing the sum by 100
Fineness modulus is generally between 2.0 and 4.0

Toughness is a measure of the resistance of aggregate particles to fracture under an applied

Density of water = 62.4pcf
Convert to yards is *27
Free moisture = Moisture content - absorption
Dry rodded weight = weight of the aggregate/volume of the measure
Dry rodded weight can be used as bulk density
Apparent specific gravity is the ratio of the density of particles which is based on the solid
volume to the density of water. Takes into account the permeable and impermeable voids. Bulk
specific gravity is the density of particles based on the solid volume and the pore volume to the
density of water. Does not take into account voids.

Chapter 3: Cement
Cement is any material that binds or unites
portland cement is a type of hydraulic cement
Two types of Pozzolan cement. Type IP for use in general concrete construction and type P for
use where high strength at early age is not required.
White cement is a cement suitable for exposed aggregate finishes and for making colored
cements with pigment addition.
Lime is a type of non hydraulic cement. There is quick lime and hydrated lime. Lime is one of
the oldest building materials.
Gypsum also used.

Portland cement is manufactured by heating to incipient fusion a carefully controlled mixture of

limestone and clay, with or without secondary raw materials and then grinding the resulting
The three primary constituents of the raw materials used in the manufacture of portland cement
are lime, silica, and alumina. It is manufactured by one of two basic processes: wet and dry

Fineness primary affects the hydration of cement. The rate of hydration incrases with increasing
fineness, which increases the rate of strength development and evolution of heat.

ASTM prescribes a minimum strength of 1800psi.

When a concrete mixture reaches a state in which its form cannot be changed without
producing rupture, it is said to have set. Time of setting depends on heat.

Hydration of portland cement is an exothermic reaction

Heat of hydration reaches maximum at 2 to 4 days after casting and stays low beyond 14 days.