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CHAPTER I

PRELIMINARY

A. BACKGROUND

A nurse or health worker can perform invenous infusion and medication to the
patient. because the nurse must heal the patient until healed. by way of medication
and treat it well.

B. DESTINATION

1. To know the meaning of intravenous infusion and medication


2. To understand the way medication and how to administer intraveonus infusion

C. PROBLEM FORMULATION

1. What is the intravenous infusion and medication


2. What are the types of medication?
3. how is Medical best practice treatment?

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CAPTER I I

DICUSSION

A. INTRAVENOUS INFUSION

Also found : Dictionary, Thesaurus, Thesaurus, Legal, Acronyms,


Encyclopedia. Related to intravenous infusion : Intravenous infusion pum

Intravenous infusion administration of fluids into a vein by means of a steel


needle or plastic catheter. This method of fluid replacemen is used most often to
maintain fluid and electrolyte balance, or to correct fluid volume deficits after
excessive loss of body fluids, in patients unable to take sufficient volumes orally. An
additional use is for prolonged nutritional support of patients with gastrointestinal
dysfunction (PARENTERAL NUTRITION).
Besides these uses, many medications are administered by intravenous
infusion. A piggyback intravenous infusion is the intermittent delivery of an
additional fluid or medication through the primary intravenous line from a second
source of fluid with a secondary set of intravenous tubing.

Piggyback intravenous infusion set.

A push intravenous infusion is the direct injection of medication into a vein


through an intravenousline, needle, or catheter. Manufacturers' instructions must be
followed for preparation and administration of all such medications. The fluid to be

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infused and the flow rate are by prescription. With intravenous infusions of
medication, the danger of drug incompatibility is very real.

Incompatibility charts are not entirely reliable as sources of information about


chemical interaction of drug additives combined in an intravenous infusion. For this
reason admixing should be done by a clinical pharmacologist. Intravenous antibiotics
should be mixed only with electrolytes. Because of their local irritating effects on the
vein, doses of potassium chloride and dextrose solutions with a concentration higher
than 10 per cent should not be given through a peripheral vein. Unless otherwise
directed by the manufacturer, it is best to dilute all intravenous medications before
administering them. When medications must be reconstituted with a solvent or
removed from a glass ampule, a transfer filter should be used to filter out particulate
matter. Once medications have been added to an intravenous solution the container
should be checked every 30 minutes. A flowmeter is applied to the container of fluid
and set to maintain the desired rate of flow. Infusion pumps are used and maintained
according to hospital policy.

intravenous infusion
1. a solution administered into a vein through an infusion set that includes a plastic or
glass vacuum bottle or bag containing the solution and tubing connecting the bottle to
a catheter or a needle in the patient's vein.
2. the process of administering a solution intravenously. Swelling of the limb around
and distal to the site of injection may indicate that the tip of the catheter or needle is
in the subcutaneous tissue and not in the vein. The fluid may be infiltrating the tissue
spaces. It should be withdrawn and the limb elevated. Redness, swelling, heat, and
pain around the vein at the site of injection or proximal to it may indicate
thrombophlebitis. The infusion should be discontinued and the inflammatory
condition treated. The infusion is usually begun again at another site. See also
venipuncture.

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Common intravenous infusion sites

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B. INTRAVENOUS INFUSION TECHNIQUE

intravenous infusion

The injection into a vein of a solution, drugs, or blood components.

Solutions

Many liquid preparations are given by intravenous (IV) infusion. Those commonly
used include isotonic (normal) saline, lactated Ringer, dextrose 5% in water, and
potassium chloride 0.2% in 5% dextrose. The type and quantity depend on the needs
of the patient. The solution is usually given continuously at the rate of 1 to 2 or more
liters per day. In shock, however, rapid infusion of larger volumes may be necessary
to support the circulation.

Site

Intravenous infusion is usually given in the arm through the median basilic or median
cephalic vein, but veins at various other sites may be used. The vein must be exposed
if a cannula is used. Introduction of solution should be at the rate required to deliver
the needed amount of fluid and contained electrolytes, medicines, or nutrients in a
prescribed time.

CAUTION!

Intravenous infusions should be discontinued or infusion fluid replenished when the


solution being administered is depleted. Clotting of blood in the catheter may occur
when the infusion is not continuous.

Patient care

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Using scrupulous aseptic technique and universal precautions, the nurse
prepares the IV infusion, selects and prepares a venous site, disinfects the skin, inserts
an IV catheter or cannula to initiate the infusion (if an IV access is not in place), and
secures it in place, restraining joint motion near the insertion site as necessary. The
amount of fluid to be infused per hour is calculated and the flow of the prescribed
fluid (and additive as appropriate) initiated at the desired flow rate. A pump or
controller is typically used to ensure desired volume delivery. After initiating the
infusion, the nurse ensures that the correct fluid is being administered at the
designated flow rate and observes the infusion site and the patient at least every hour
for signs of infiltration or other complications, such as infection, thrombophlebitis,
fluid or electrolyte overload, and air embolism. The site dressing and administration
set are changed according to protocol. Central venous catheters and lines are
associated with more infections and more serious infections and other complications
than peripheral catheters and lines. Strict protocols have been developed for their
care.

intravenous infusion
administration of fluids through a vein; called also phleboclysis, venoclysis
and intravenous feeding. This method of feeding is used most often when a patient is
suffering from severe dehydration and does not drink fluids because it is unconscious,
recovering from an operation, unable to swallow normally, or vomiting persistently.
Prolonged feeding of patients with chronic intestinal dysfunction can be
accomplished by total parenteral nutrition.

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C. MEDICATION

Medication is the primary mode of therapy programmed by physicians to address


client health concerns for therapeutic / healing purposes.

Dosage

Dosage is how much medication needs to be taken to make the medication do what it
is supposed to.

Dosage is very important because all medicines can be poisons if they are taken in
large amounts. If a person takes too much of a medication, they can get very sick or
even die. This is called an overdose. For example, if a person takes too much
acetaminophen (also called paracetamol, Tylenol, or Panadol), they can badly hurt
their liver.

Some dosages are based on age. For example, children often need less medication
than adults. Others are based on body weight. Sometimes, normal dosages have to be
changed if a person has certain medical problems, like kidney failure.

Action

Action is what the medication is supposed to do: the helpful effects that the medicine
is supposed to have on the body.

Many drugs have more than one action. For example, acetaminophen is an analgesic
(it kills pain) and an antipyretic (it makes fevers go away).

Indication

An indication is a reason why a medication is given.

Many drugs have more than one indication. For example, acetaminophen's indications
include pain and fever.

Contraindication

A contraindication is a reason why a medication should not be given.

Almost all medicines, even over-the-counter medications, have some


contraindications. For example, acetaminophen should not be given to people who are
allergic to acetaminophen. For these people, acetaminophen is "contraindicated," and

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another medicine should be used instead. Acetaminophen is also contraindicated in
people who have liver disease.

A person takes a medication because they want it to do certain things. When the
medication also does other things that the person did not want, these are called side
effects. For example, acetaminophen can cause nausea. This is a side effect of
acetaminophen.

Adverse effects are side effects that are dangerous or harm the body. For example, in
some people, acetaminophen can hurt the liver. This is an adverse effect of
acetaminophen.

Most medicines have many possible side effects. This does not mean that anyone who
takes the medicine will have those side effects. For example, not everyone who takes
acetaminophen gets nausea. A side effect is just a possible effect that a medicine can
have on the body.

Medication names

All medications have a few different names.

Chemical name

When a medication is first discovered, it is given a chemical name. This name


describes the atoms or molecules in the medication. Usually, only scientists use this
name.

For example, the chemical names for acetaminophen are N-acetyl-para-aminophenol


and para-acetyl-amino-phenol.

Generic name

Every country has one generic (official) name for every medicine.

In the United States, a medicine is given an official generic name after the Food and
Drug Administration (FDA) says a it is safe to be sold. For example, acetaminophen
is the official generic name used in the United States. (Paracetamol is the generic
name used in the United Kingdom and some other countries.)

Sometimes, generic names come from a medicine's chemical name. For example,
acetaminophen is named after N-acetyl-para-amino-phenol, and paracetamol is
named after para-acetyl-amino-phenol.

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Tylenol 500 mg capsules

Panadol 500 mg tablets

Brand name

Each company that makes a drug gives that drug a brand name. No other company is
allowed to use this name.

For example, in the United States, the most common brand name for acetaminophen
is Tylenol. One of the companies that makes acetaminophen (Johnson & Johnson)
chose the name "Tylenol" for its acetaminophen. Another company that makes
acetaminophen (GlaxoSmithKline) chose "Panadol" as its brand name. Like with
most medicines, there are many other brand names for acetaminophen.

Abbreviations

Some medicines have unofficial abbreviations. For example, acetaminophen is


sometimes abbreviated APAP. This comes from the drug's chemical name: N-Acetyl-
Para-Amino-Phenol.

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All the same medicine

No matter which of these names is used, they all describe the same medicine. For
example, there is no difference between N-acetyl-para-aminophenol, acetaminophen,
paracetamol, Tylenol, Panadol, and APAP.

How medications are given

See also: Medical abbreviations for routes of administration

There are many ways that medications can be given. These are called "routes of
administration."

For most medications to work, they need to get into the bloodstream. The blood
carries the medicine around the body and takes it where it is needed. The way a
medication is given affects:

The path that the medicine takes to get into the bloodstream and how long this
takes
How much of the medicine gets into the bloodstream
How much of the medicine reaches the tissue where it is needed
How long the medicine's effects will last

By mouth

The most common way of giving medicine is by mouth. The medicine comes in a pill
or liquid that a person swallows.

When taken by mouth, medication gets into the bloodstream through the digestive
system. It takes a while, usually 15-20 minutes, for the medicine to get through parts
of the digestive system and get taken up into the bloodstream. Also, a very small
amount of the medicine actually gets into the bloodstream. This is because acid in the
stomach kills most of the medicine before it can be taken up into the bloodstream.[8]

Medicines taken by mouth often last longer than medicines taken by other routes of
administration.[9]

Not every medication can be given by mouth. With some medicines, like insulin, the
acid in the stomach will change the medicine or break it down so much that it will not
work.[8]

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Into a vein
Main page: Intravenous

A person gets medicine through an IV in their hand

Some medicines can be given through a needle placed into a vein. This way of giving
medicine is called intravenous (IV).

This is one of the fastest ways to get medicine into the bloodstream. Veins carry
blood, so when a medication is given intravenously, it goes right into the bloodstream
immediately. It takes less than a minute for blood to flow around the entire body.
This means that when given intravenously, a medicine will reach the brain within a
minute or less. All of the medicine (100%) gets into the bloodstream.

However, IV medications will not last as long as medications given by mouth. This is
because the body starts metabolizing medications (breaking them down so the body
can get rid of them) as soon as the medicine gets into the bloodstream.

Not every medicine can be given intravenously.

Into a muscle

Some medicines can be given through a needle placed into a big muscle, like the
muscles in the upper arm, thigh, or buttocks. This way of giving medicine is called
intramuscular (IM).

When a medicine is given intramuscularly, the medicine gets into the bloodstream
through smaller blood vessels in the muscles. This takes longer than an IV injection,
because the medicine is not being injected directly into a blood vessel. However, the
medicine still reaches the bloodstream faster than medicines given by mouth.

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Also, not all of the medicine gets into the bloodstream because some of it gets caught
in the soft tissue in the muscle and never reaches the blood vessels.

Breathed in

Some special medicines can be breathed in. This way of giving medicines is called by
inhalation (sometimes abbreviated INH). This can be especially helpful for lung
problems like asthma. Since the medicine is breathed right into the lungs, it can start
working on the lungs right away.

Other routes

There are many other routes of administration. For example:

Into the bone (intraosseous (IO)). A needle is placed into a large bone, like
the femur (thigh bone), and medicines are given into the bone marrow. Any
medicine that can be given into a vein can also be given into a bone. Like with
IV medicines, all of the medicine gets into the bloodstream, immediately. IO
medicines can only be given by certain medical professionals, like doctors and
paramedics.
Into the rectum (per rectum (PR)). Some medicines can be given into the
rectum. The medicine does not get into the bloodstream very quickly. This
route is mostly used with people who cannot swallow medicines, like very
young children or people who are vomiting (throwing up).
Under the skin (subcutaneous (sub-q)). Some special medicines can be given
through a needle placed under the skin. For example, insulin is often given
this way.
Into the nose (intranasal). Some special medicines can be sprayed into the
nose. When a medicine is given intranasally, all of the medicine will go to the
brain, immediately. For example, naloxone (which is used to treat opiate
overdoses) can be given intranasally.

There are many other routes of administration.

Many medicines can be given more than one way. For example, acetaminophen can
be given by mouth, into the rectum, or into a vein.

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CHAPTER III

COVER

A. CONCLUSION

Medication is an important component because it is required in most health


efforts both to relieve symptoms / symptoms of a disease, drugs can also prevent
illness and even drugs can also cure the disease. But on the other hand the drug may
cause undesirable effects if its use is not appropriate.

When treatment effects fail or are not optimal then we can evaluate some of
the following:

Accuracy of disease diagnosis

The type of drug selected should be appropriate for the attacking disease

Exactly the dose of the given drug

The route of drug administration should be in accordance with the type of drug

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