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0 Introduction

Ship resistance and propulsion plays a vital role in designing new ship. The Study of
ship resistance is a complex function of displacement, shape and speed. From Froude treatment,
resistance to motion is caused by energy that being changes into surface waves and it occurred
when the ship motion that causes pressure between the surface of hull and the adjacent fluid.
Resistance is higher when the speed of the ship is high, thus it will increase the effective power
to produce thrust to move the ship. Increase in effective horsepower will also increase the fuel
consumption in order to convert the energy into thrust to move the ship. If the fuel is the main
cost consideration when deciding the operating cost, it is uneconomical to design a ship with
high resistance, since it will affect the usage fuel consumption. With the global economic
climate tends to drop, the fuel cost had become a relatively a smaller cost of ship operation.
When the demand of fuel begin to grow back, it is important of ship owner to view the efforts of
reducing ship resistance.

Resistance occurred depends in many factors such as surface finish of the hull,
speed and the hull dimension and form. Design of hull must be able to reduce resistance. The
design of bulbous bow could reduce the wave making resistance thus it will effects the selection
of propulsion system. Roughness also is a factor that could reduce ship resistance. It is
important for the hull body to be smooth as it will help to reduce the resistance. In the form of
hull. The ‘V’ design rather than ‘U’ design shape could also reduce the ship resistance.

In the propulsion point of view, the selection of propeller geometry will help to reduce
the usage of fuel consumption. Some of the consideration of geometry features is diameter of the
propeller, RPM, blade area ratio and much other geometry. The correct selection of the
geometry will give benefits to the ship owner because it will affect the performance, efficiency,
powering and the resistance of the ship.

Fuel is the main chemical energy that is used to convert into mechanical energy to propel
the ship. The impact of fuel price had caused ship owners to give attention regarding the fuel
consumption. The knowledge that we get from resistance and propulsion is important in order to
maintain our global fuel reservoir .The improvement in technology will improve the design of
ship in terms of the propulsion system and resistance. By doing so, the shipping industry will

help to reduce fuel consumption and thus will give a longer time for our fuel reservoir to end up
before new types of energy is discovered.

In conclusion, by having the knowledge of ship resistance and propulsion, engineers will
tend to design a better ship that could resolve the problem regarding hull form, fuel consumption
and other factors that lead to the economical and optimum performance of ship while operating.

1.1 Buoy Tender Vessel

Figure 1.0

For the project, we were assigned to do some resistance and propulsion characteristics for
buoy tender vessel. Figure 1.0 above show one of the example of buoy tender vessel in
Malaysia owned by Marine Department. Buoy tender vessel operates as a vessel to handle buoy
navigation and mooring buoys. It is also equipped to carry out general harbor work, towage and
occasional pilotage tasks. From the resistance and propulsion point of view, the vessel have a
hull shape that with high wave making resistance. The hull does not have any bulbous bow to
reduce the wave making resistance.

The block coefficient CB is between the range of 0.6 - 0.65 since the vessel operates not
to carry any cargo. Speed of the vessel is not a factor when it operates as it only operates nearly
port area.

Figure 1.1 Lines plan for buoy tender vessel

1.2 Methodology of obtaining ship resistance

Before we go further in the calculation of ship resistance, firstly we need to know the
method to obtain ship resistance. The method to get the ship resistance was produced from our
pioneer William Froude. He firstly did the experiment using a plank model and the discovery of
his research gives a lot of benefits to our modern ship design. In this chapter, the method of
obtaining the ship resistance is briefly explained.

Value of resistance that is

Rtm obtained from model test.
The test were done by
towing tank
Rfm Rfm

Rrm Rrm = Rtm -


Rrs ∆s∆m

Rfs Rfs

Rts = Rfs +

Figure 1.2

From the chart above, it is a step by step method on finding a ship resistance. The Rt is
obtained from the model test that was done at towing tank at varies speed. Next is to obtain the
residuary resistance,Rf by using the frictional resistance equation. The value of Cf could be
obtained either using Blasius, Prandtl, ATTC 1947 line, ITTC 1957 friction line or ITTC 1978
friction line. After gaining the value of Rf , the value Rr could be obtained using Froude law of
Rt = Rr +Rf , then we get the value of Rr for model. To convert the value of Rrm to Rrs, we need to
used the Froude’s Law of Comparion(FLOC) which he stated that the ratio of residuary
resistance is equal to the ratio of displacement. Then after we gain the value of Rrs , use once
again the method to obtain Cf to get the value of Rfs. Lastly, the value of Rts is obtained using the
equation of Froude’s assumption; Rts = Rfs + Rrs.
1.3 Methodology of designing propulsion system

During the design process it is important to select good propulsion system that will give
effect to the ship operation. The selection of propulsion system covering from the propulsor to
the power to be selected depending to the type of operation of the ship. Since for our vessel,
efficiency is not a major concern, but still we need to select the propulsion to the vessel. The
flow chart below will briefly explain the step in selecting ship propulsion system.

Determine the objective of

selecting the propulsion Determine the ship resistance
system, the operation of to define the characteristics of
the ship
the ship in order to define
the basic requirements for
the ship.

Establishment power plant Selection of propulsor

rating where we need to where we need to select a
decide what power needed propeller that gives
whether it is used for high benefits to the ship. We
speed , medium or low speed. also need to consider al
propeller geometry in order
to give the best

Selection of main power plant

Figure 1.3

2.0 Resistance calculation for Buoy Tender Vessel

2.1 Calculation for ship resistance

Effective Horsepower or EHP is the power required to overcome a vessel’s resistance at a
given speed, not including the power required to turn her own propeller and operate her
machinery. In this section, we need to calculate the effective horsepower of the given hull form
which is on our case, for buoy tender. The calculations are basically based of the standard ITTC
1957 procedure.

Example of calculation for VS = 10 knots = 5.1440 m/s.

Vm=1.3185ms γm freshwater@27℃@80.6℉=0.85409×10-6m3s

LWLm=lm=2.499m ρm@27℃@80.6℉ =966.4kgm3

s, wetted surface area, sm=1.755m2 ss=405.35m2

∆, displacement, ∆s=483.4tonne ∆m=134.3kg

Vmlm=VsL So, Vm ms=5.1440ms37.98m×2.499m=1.3185ms

Rnm=Vm LWLm γm

But, correction kinematic viscosity, γ by doing temperature correction,


So, new kinematics viscosity, γ



Density new,ρm.



Rnm=Vm LWLm γm=1.3185ms2.499m8.098×10-7m3s@59℉


Cfm=0.075logRn-22=0.075log4.07×10-6-22 @59℉


Rfm=Cfm×12ρsv2=3.53×10-3×12(916.302kgm3)1.755m2 1.3185ms2




Law of Comparison, RrsRrm=∆s∆m




For ship,

Seawater temperature = 15℃, ρ seawater=1.025tonnem3 γ seawater=1.19×10-6m3s


Rns=Vs LWLs γs=5.1440ms37.98m1.19×10-6m3s@15℃




Rfs=Cfm×12ρsv2=1.942×10-3×12(1025kgm3)405.35m2 5.144ms2




So, Propulsive Energy (PE),


=151378.2 Watt

Watt Horse power

1 hp= 0.7457 kWatt.


151.3782 kWatt×1 hp0.7457 kWatt.=202.85horse power

Result from calculation,

Vs PE(kW) PE(Hp)

10 151.38 202.85

11 225.84 302.63

12 337.03 451.62

13 463.88 621.60

14 701.11 939.5

15 1058.22 1418.01

16 1591.59 2132.73


Figure 2.1 Graph PE vs VS

The graph shows that, the increasing of speed will cause the higher propulsive energy
needed. This will lead to more fuel consumption required to produce the required forces due to
ship forward movement. Speed will affect the resistance produce which is more required speed
will increase the resistance. Hull form are really important in order to decrease the value of RT
but maintain the design speed. But since the Buoy Tender vessel does not really require the high
speed, the hull form are not important issues to build this ship as long as the vessel can perform
her duty.

3.0 Estimation of Effective Power

Estimation of PE forms one the most important and critical steps in preliminary design.
In this part, we need to do some estimation of PE of the hull form given which Buoy Tender
Vessel by using any one of the available methods for our hull form.

3.1 Series 60 method

Ship particulars

∆s =483.4 tonne

∇s =471.61 m3

LBP =37m=121.39feet

In order for using Series 60 method, we are using LBP = 400 feet =121.92 m. So, we need to
convert all the ship particulars into 400 feet ship particulars.

For Vs=10 knots

V400 =10 knots×400feet121.39 feet

=18.15 knot=9.33 m/s

V in knots
By using Posdunine formula,
L in meter
L =CVV+22×∆13
in tonnes
From actual ship,

C =LVV+22×∆13


C =6.788

So, for V400feet

∆400 feet13=121.92meter6.78818.15knots18.15knots+22

∆400 feet13=22.14

∆400 feet=22.143

∆400 feet=10849.0 tonne

In order to using Series 60 chart, we will estimates the resistance, by finding the value of K ,

K =4πFn∇


V400 =9.33m/s

∇400 feet=10849.0 tonne1.025tonnem3=10584.4m3

So, K is,



So, from Series 60 graph, ©

© =0.78 for 400 feet ship at speed 18.15 knots.

By using B/T ratio graph,

VL =10 knot121.39 feet =0.90

So, from graph,

©L-©400 =+0.069



So, in order to find Resistance ship,




=17.5 kN

So, Effective Power for out ship,


=17.5 kN ×5.14ms


For Vs=11 knots

V400 =11 knots×400feet121.39 feet

=19.97 knot=10.26 m/s

By using Posdunine formula,

V in knots
L in meter

From actual ship, in tonnes




So, for V400feet ,

∆400 feet13=121.92meter6.58519.97knots19.97knots+22

∆400 feet13=22.41

∆400 feet=11254.7 tonne

In order to using Series 60 chart, we will estimates the resistance, by finding the value of K ,

K =4πFn∇


V400 =10.26m/s

∇400 feet=11254.7 tonne1.025tonnem3=10980.2m3

So, K is,



So, from Series 60 graph, ©

© =0.935 for 400 feet ship at speed 19.97 knots.

By using B/T ratio graph,

VL =11 knot121.39 feet=0.99

So, from graph,

©L-©400 =+0.068


©121.39 =1.003

So, in order to find Resistance ship,




=24.99 kN

So, Effective Power for out ship,


=24.99 kN ×5.654ms


For Vs=12 knots

V400 =12 knots×400feet121.39 feet

=21.78 knot=12.2 m/s

By using Posdunine formula,

V in knots
L in meter

From actual ship, in tonnes




So, for V400feet ,

∆400 feet13=121.92meter6.4221.78knots21.78knots+22

∆400 feet13=22.64

∆400 feet=22.643

∆400 feet=11602.3 tonne

In order to using Series 60 chart, we will estimates the resistance, by finding the value of K ,

K =4πFn∇


V400 =11.2m/s

∇400 feet=11602.3 tonne1.025tonnem3=11319.3m3

So, K is,



So, from Series 60 graph, we cannot use the graph since the value cannot be plot.

Figure 3.1

Figure 3.2

3.2 Admiralty coefficient method

This method will give rough estimation regarding the value of PE But Still, it could be
used for estimating and to know the characteristics of the ship power..

Admiralty Coefficient
AC=∆23v3Ps AC=3.7L+75v




ηs.ηB=0.98 machinery aft With,


L ship=37.98 m

For Vs = 10 knot

= 5.14 m/s






PD=108.920.98=106.74 kW

PE=106.74 kW0.97


For Vs = 11 knot

= 5.654 m/s




Ps=483.3tonne235.654 m/s371.88 =154.9kW


PD=154.90.98=151.8 kW

PE=151.8 kW0.97


For Vs = 12 knot

= 6.168 m/s

AC=3.737.98m+756.168 ms



Ps=483.3tonne236.168 m/s367.8=213.2kW


PD=213.20.98=208.9 kW

PE=208.9 kW0.97


For Vs = 13 knot

= 6.682 m/s

AC=3.737.98m+756.682 ms



Ps=483.3tonne236.682m/s364.33 =285.66kW


PD=285.66kW0.98=279.99 kW

PE=279.99 kW0.97


For Vs = 14 knot

= 7.196 m/s

AC=3.737.98m+757.196 ms



Ps=483.3tonne237.196 m/s361.36 =374.05kW


PD=374.05kW0.98=366.66 kW

PE=366.66 kW0.97


For Vs = 15 knot

= 7.71 m/s

AC=3.737.98m+757.71 ms



Ps=483.3tonne237.71 m/s358.8 =480.14kW

So, PD=480.14kW0.98=470.53 kW

PE=470.53 kW0.97


For Vs = 16 knot

= 8.224 m/s

AC=3.737.98m+758.224 ms



Ps=483.3tonne238.224 m/s356.55=605.8kW

So, PD=605.8kW0.98=593.72 kW

PE=593.72 kW0.97


Result and comparison for the method that we use to predict the PE

Vs PE(kW) from Resistance PE(kW) from Series 60 PE(kW) from Admiralty

Test Coefficient

10 151.38 90.0 103.54

11 225.84 141.3 147.2

12 337.03 - 202.65
13 463.88 - 271.50

14 701.11 - 355.60

15 1058.22 - 456.42

16 1591.59 - 575.91

Table 3.3

Table 3.4

From the calculation of estimation of PE, it can be said that at the increasing speed of the
ship, the effective power required will also increase. Using admiralty and series 60 will under
estimate from the value of PE of the ship and it differ from the PE obtain from the real calculation.
Even though it does not give the exact estimation of the PE, but still it give enough early
prediction for the design stage of the ship.

4.0 Propulsion calculation and characteristics

In this chapter, we are required to perform propulsion calculation based on the P E
obtained from part 2. Based on the vessel that were assigned to us, we need to design some
propulsion characteristics to the vessel.

4.1 Propeller geometrical features

For this part, we use 4 type of B-series chart with differing blade number (Z) and blade
area ratio (BAR). The value that we obtain will be compared to select the best features for our
vessel. Firstly, we assumed the value of N (rpm), wake fraction (w), and thrust deduction factor
(t) from the past buoy tender vessel that is slightly similar to our vessel. Before that, we need to
calculate the diameter of the vessel.

4.1.1 Calculation the Diameter of Propeller.

The total of length to put the propeller is, 168.75 cm. Estimate the clearance for Y is 20%
and clearance for Z is 5%. So, the total of clearance is 25%. The diameter for the vessel is:

85100×168.75 cm=126.57cm≈1.3 meter

Figure 4.0

4.1.2 Using the Bu-δ chart for B.4-55

By estimation: - N = 500 rpm, w = 0.25, t = 0.11, Dmax= 1.3m

Taking PE for design speed 12 knots we calculated from part 2.

Figure 4.1 Bu-δ chart

N =
VA= Revs/min
U= = SV a0.00307 in
= 9 knots
S = thrust in lb
D = diameter in

T= R1-t

= 54.61-0.11
= 61.35KN

Convert the amount of T into lbs.

= 61.359.81× 10.4536

= 13787.1 lbs

By referring to the B-series chart




Construct a straight line at Bu-δ until it intersects with maximum efficiency line and we get:-
δ = 295, η = 0.476, PD=0.59
Using δ = 295, find Do find δ' using Dmax associated to our
Do=δVaN δ'=NDVa

=2959500 =5004.2649

=5.31feet@ 1.62m = 236.9

Using the new δ' to find new η and PD

Construct a straight line at Bu-δ until it intersect with maximum efficiency line and we get

η = 0.432 and PD=1.05

Using the efficiency that we get from δ and δ' to calculate the % loss

% loss=0.476-0.4320.476×100


4.2 Torque and thrust characteristics

Using Bu-δ has a limit in defining the characteristics of the propeller. It does not define the value
of torque and thrust characteristics. So, by using B series K-J chart, we could define the torque
and thrust characteristics for the B.4-55 propeller.

Firstly We need find the value of advanced coefficient,J

Figure 4.2 KJ chart

J=VAND T= R1-t

=12×0.51441-0.25500601.3=0.427 = 54.61-0.11=61.35KN

To find the value of KT From graph

KT= TρN2D4 KT.PD=1.01 KQ=0.045

= 61.35×1031025×500602×1.34

Use the value of KQ obtained from the graph to obtain the value of torque

KQ= QρN2D5

Q= 0.045 ×1025 × 23060 2× 1.35=11.89KN.m

η= J2π × KJKQ

= 0.4272π × 0.3020.045

= 0.0456

We will compare the ηo in order to choose between 4 charts which have different number of
blade and different blade area ratio.

B.3-35 B 3-50 B 4-55 B 4 70

Bu 40.16 40.16 40.16 40.16

Po/D 0.57 0.58 0.59 0.68

δ 300 300 295 280

D from Bu- δ 1.65 1.65 1.62 1.54

ηo for D from Bu- δ 53% 51% 47.6% 47.5%

D from AutoCAD 1.3 meter 1.3 meter 1.3 meter 1.3 meter

ηo for D =1.3m from Bu- δ 41% 42% 43% 43%

% losses from Bu- δ 23% 17.65% 9.24% 9.47%

Thrust for KJ chart 61.35 kN 61.35 kN 61.35 kN 61.35 kN

Q from KQ 14.54kN.m 14.00kN.m 11.89kn.m 12.157kN.m

ηo from KJ chart 37% 38.7% 45.6% 45%

Table 4.3

4.3 Calculation of installed power

From the comparison, we can conclude that the optimum propeller design is with 4
blades and with 0.55 area of blade ratio since it have the largest value of efficiency which is
45.6% and the lowest losses which is 9.24%. Then we will calculate the value of propeller
efficiency, ηD.
We estimate:
ηD=ηo.ηR.ηH ηH=1-t1-w=1-0.111-0.25=1.182

=0.456×0.98×1.182 ηR=0.98

ηo from the KJ chart=0.456

After that, we will calculate the PD from the equation,


PD=337.03 kW0.53


From equation,




So, PB should include margin power above predicted value by adding 20%,

PB+margin=P install


4.4 Calculation of PEtrial and PEservice

To calculate PE trial


We add some % margin about 20%, for each speed.


Same goes for PE service


Vs PEtrial kW PEservice kW

10 knot 181.596 217.92

11 knot 271.008 325.21

12 knot 404.436 485.32

13 knot 556.656 667.99

14 knot 841.332 1009.59

15 knot 1269.864 1523.84

16 knot 1909.91 2291.89

Table 4.4

Figure 4.5

5.0 Conclusion
Resistance and propulsion play a major role in designing a ship. In terms of designing a
ship the most important thing that we need to consider is the resistance and propulsion
characteristics itself. From part 2, this is the most standard way in designing a new ship. By
performing a model test and applying Froude theory, we could obtain the ship resistance. Many
methods were develop for predicting ship resistance. One of the mostly used is ITTC 1957.
From part 2, we can see that the value of resistance increase with the speed of the vessel. This
shows that more power needed to propel the ship. The power will become greater when the
demand of speed increase. So, it is important for naval architect to know the powering
requirements for latter stage of design.

In part 3, we are exposed to predict the powering of the ship without doing any model
test. This method is important in preliminary proposals for the ship owner. In order to know the
early characteristics of the ship, we need to estimate the PE of the ship and it will become
important information in developing the design stage. Though, in this project it only provides
two methods. But still there are a lot more method in predicting the PE of the ship.

By doing some propulsion characteristics in part 4, we could select the best propeller
design to be fitted to our ship. To overcome the resisting forces, we must design the best
propeller that could provide forward thrust. Through this part, we already obtain the best
efficiency, RPM, diameter, number of blade and BAR. The geometrical features will give the
effect in propulsive efficiency and the installation of main power plant. To select the best
efficiency for buoy tender vessel, we have to consider all the geometrical features that will give
the best efficiency to the operation of the ship. Even though the efficiency is not as high as the
merchant ship, the value of the efficiency is still considerable.

Buoy tender vessel basically should be able to carry out buoy tendering operations in
close quarters in harbors and in open seas. A good efficiency when handle the vessel is really
important and, from this project, we should know what is the best design that the vessel can have
from the hull form, such as, we cannot have a big diameter propeller since this ship are small. It
is proven that, in order to make a decision, on choosing the design of a ship, there is numerous
considerations that need to be considered.