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0 Introduction

Ship resistance and propulsion plays a vital role in designing new ship. The Study of

ship resistance is a complex function of displacement, shape and speed. From Froude treatment,

resistance to motion is caused by energy that being changes into surface waves and it occurred

when the ship motion that causes pressure between the surface of hull and the adjacent fluid.

Resistance is higher when the speed of the ship is high, thus it will increase the effective power

to produce thrust to move the ship. Increase in effective horsepower will also increase the fuel

consumption in order to convert the energy into thrust to move the ship. If the fuel is the main

cost consideration when deciding the operating cost, it is uneconomical to design a ship with

high resistance, since it will affect the usage fuel consumption. With the global economic

climate tends to drop, the fuel cost had become a relatively a smaller cost of ship operation.

When the demand of fuel begin to grow back, it is important of ship owner to view the efforts of

reducing ship resistance.

Resistance occurred depends in many factors such as surface finish of the hull,

speed and the hull dimension and form. Design of hull must be able to reduce resistance. The

design of bulbous bow could reduce the wave making resistance thus it will effects the selection

of propulsion system. Roughness also is a factor that could reduce ship resistance. It is

important for the hull body to be smooth as it will help to reduce the resistance. In the form of

hull. The ‘V’ design rather than ‘U’ design shape could also reduce the ship resistance.

In the propulsion point of view, the selection of propeller geometry will help to reduce

the usage of fuel consumption. Some of the consideration of geometry features is diameter of the

propeller, RPM, blade area ratio and much other geometry. The correct selection of the

geometry will give benefits to the ship owner because it will affect the performance, efficiency,

powering and the resistance of the ship.

Fuel is the main chemical energy that is used to convert into mechanical energy to propel

the ship. The impact of fuel price had caused ship owners to give attention regarding the fuel

consumption. The knowledge that we get from resistance and propulsion is important in order to

maintain our global fuel reservoir .The improvement in technology will improve the design of

ship in terms of the propulsion system and resistance. By doing so, the shipping industry will

1

help to reduce fuel consumption and thus will give a longer time for our fuel reservoir to end up

before new types of energy is discovered.

In conclusion, by having the knowledge of ship resistance and propulsion, engineers will

tend to design a better ship that could resolve the problem regarding hull form, fuel consumption

and other factors that lead to the economical and optimum performance of ship while operating.

Figure 1.0

For the project, we were assigned to do some resistance and propulsion characteristics for

buoy tender vessel. Figure 1.0 above show one of the example of buoy tender vessel in

Malaysia owned by Marine Department. Buoy tender vessel operates as a vessel to handle buoy

navigation and mooring buoys. It is also equipped to carry out general harbor work, towage and

occasional pilotage tasks. From the resistance and propulsion point of view, the vessel have a

hull shape that with high wave making resistance. The hull does not have any bulbous bow to

reduce the wave making resistance.

2

The block coefficient CB is between the range of 0.6 - 0.65 since the vessel operates not

to carry any cargo. Speed of the vessel is not a factor when it operates as it only operates nearly

port area.

Before we go further in the calculation of ship resistance, firstly we need to know the

method to obtain ship resistance. The method to get the ship resistance was produced from our

pioneer William Froude. He firstly did the experiment using a plank model and the discovery of

his research gives a lot of benefits to our modern ship design. In this chapter, the method of

obtaining the ship resistance is briefly explained.

Rtm obtained from model test.

The test were done by

3

towing tank

Rfm Rfm

=12ρsv2Cf

Rrm

RrsRrm=

Rrs ∆s∆m

Rfs Rfs

=12ρsv2Cf

Rts = Rfs +

Rts

Rrs

Figure 1.2

From the chart above, it is a step by step method on finding a ship resistance. The Rt is

obtained from the model test that was done at towing tank at varies speed. Next is to obtain the

residuary resistance,Rf by using the frictional resistance equation. The value of Cf could be

obtained either using Blasius, Prandtl, ATTC 1947 line, ITTC 1957 friction line or ITTC 1978

friction line. After gaining the value of Rf , the value Rr could be obtained using Froude law of

Rt = Rr +Rf , then we get the value of Rr for model. To convert the value of Rrm to Rrs, we need to

used the Froude’s Law of Comparion(FLOC) which he stated that the ratio of residuary

resistance is equal to the ratio of displacement. Then after we gain the value of Rrs , use once

again the method to obtain Cf to get the value of Rfs. Lastly, the value of Rts is obtained using the

equation of Froude’s assumption; Rts = Rfs + Rrs.

1.3 Methodology of designing propulsion system

4

During the design process it is important to select good propulsion system that will give

effect to the ship operation. The selection of propulsion system covering from the propulsor to

the power to be selected depending to the type of operation of the ship. Since for our vessel,

efficiency is not a major concern, but still we need to select the propulsion to the vessel. The

flow chart below will briefly explain the step in selecting ship propulsion system.

selecting the propulsion Determine the ship resistance

system, the operation of to define the characteristics of

the ship

the ship in order to define

the basic requirements for

the ship.

rating where we need to where we need to select a

decide what power needed propeller that gives

whether it is used for high benefits to the ship. We

speed , medium or low speed. also need to consider al

propeller geometry in order

to give the best

Figure 1.3

2.1 Calculation for ship resistance

5

Effective Horsepower or EHP is the power required to overcome a vessel’s resistance at a

given speed, not including the power required to turn her own propeller and operate her

machinery. In this section, we need to calculate the effective horsepower of the given hull form

which is on our case, for buoy tender. The calculations are basically based of the standard ITTC

1957 procedure.

Vm=1.3185ms γm freshwater@27℃@80.6℉=0.85409×10-6m3s

Rnm=Vm LWLm γm

=0.2480.6-59=-5.184%

=0.85409×10-6m3s1-0.05184

=8.098×10-7m3s@59℉

Density new,ρm.

=966.4kgm31-0.05184

=916.302kgm3

=4.07×10-6@59℉

Cfm=0.075logRn-22=0.075log4.07×10-6-22 @59℉

6

=3.53×10-3

Rfm=Cfm×12ρsv2=3.53×10-3×12(916.302kgm3)1.755m2 1.3185ms2

=4.934N

Rrm=Rtm-Rfm=10.143N-4.934N

=5.21N

So,

Rrs=5.21N×483.4tonne0.1343tonne

=18752.9N

For ship,

LWLs=ls=37.98m

=0.1649×109@15℃

Cfs=0.075logRn-22=0.075log0.1649×109-22

=1.942×10-3

Rfs=Cfm×12ρsv2=1.942×10-3×12(1025kgm3)405.35m2 5.144ms2

=10675.2N

Rts=Rfs+Rrs=10675.2N+18752.9N

7

=29428.1N@15℃seawater

PE=Rt×Vs=29428.1N×5.144ms

=151378.2 Watt

So,

Vs PE(kW) PE(Hp)

10 151.38 202.85

11 225.84 302.63

12 337.03 451.62

13 463.88 621.60

14 701.11 939.5

15 1058.22 1418.01

16 1591.59 2132.73

Table2.0

8

The graph shows that, the increasing of speed will cause the higher propulsive energy

needed. This will lead to more fuel consumption required to produce the required forces due to

ship forward movement. Speed will affect the resistance produce which is more required speed

will increase the resistance. Hull form are really important in order to decrease the value of RT

but maintain the design speed. But since the Buoy Tender vessel does not really require the high

speed, the hull form are not important issues to build this ship as long as the vessel can perform

her duty.

Estimation of PE forms one the most important and critical steps in preliminary design.

In this part, we need to do some estimation of PE of the hull form given which Buoy Tender

Vessel by using any one of the available methods for our hull form.

Ship particulars

∆s =483.4 tonne

∇s =471.61 m3

LBP =37m=121.39feet

In order for using Series 60 method, we are using LBP = 400 feet =121.92 m. So, we need to

convert all the ship particulars into 400 feet ship particulars.

V in knots

By using Posdunine formula,

L in meter

L =CVV+22×∆13

in tonnes

From actual ship,

C =LVV+22×∆13

9

=37meter10knot10knot+22×483.4tonne13

C =6.788

∆400 feet13=121.92meter6.78818.15knots18.15knots+22

∆400 feet13=22.14

∆400 feet=22.143

In order to using Series 60 chart, we will estimates the resistance, by finding the value of K ,

K =4πFn∇

=4πVg∇13

V400 =9.33m/s

So, K is,

=4π9.339.8110980.213

=2.25

10

©L-©400 =+0.069

©L=©121.39=0.78+0.069

©121.39=0.849

RTS=π125×12ρ∇23V2©

=π125×121.02560.58835.1420.849

=17.5tonnem3×m323×m2s2×1000kg1tonne

=17.5 kN

PES=RTS×Vs

=17.5 kN ×5.14ms

=90.0kW

V in knots

L=CVV+22×∆13

L in meter

C=LVV+22×∆13

=37meter11knot11not+22×483.4tonne13

C=6.585

11

∆400 feet13=121.92meter6.58519.97knots19.97knots+22

∆400 feet13=22.41

In order to using Series 60 chart, we will estimates the resistance, by finding the value of K ,

K =4πFn∇

=4πVg∇13

V400 =10.26m/s

So, K is,

=4π10.269.8110980.213

=2.46

©L-©400 =+0.068

©L=©121.39=0.935+0.068

©121.39 =1.003

3

So, in order to find Resistance ship,

RTS=π125×12ρ∇23V2©

12

=π125×121.02560.58835.65421.003

=24.99tm3×m323×m2s2×1000kg1tonne

=24.99 kN

PES=RTS×Vs

=24.99 kN ×5.654ms

=141.3kW

V in knots

L=CVV+22×∆13

L in meter

C=LVV+22×∆13

=37meter12knot12knot+22×483.4tonne13

C=6.42

∆400 feet13=121.92meter6.4221.78knots21.78knots+22

∆400 feet13=22.64

∆400 feet=22.643

In order to using Series 60 chart, we will estimates the resistance, by finding the value of K ,

K =4πFn∇

13

=4πVg∇13

V400 =11.2m/s

So, K is,

=4π11.29.8111319.313

=2.68

So, from Series 60 graph, we cannot use the graph since the value cannot be plot.

Figure 3.1

14

Figure 3.2

This method will give rough estimation regarding the value of PE But Still, it could be

used for estimating and to know the characteristics of the ship power..

Admiralty Coefficient

Assumption,

AC=∆23v3Ps AC=3.7L+75v

PD=Psηs.ηB

PE=PD.ηD

Assumption,

ηD=0.97

L ship=37.98 m

For Vs = 10 knot

= 5.14 m/s

AC=3.737.98m+755.14ms

=76.8

Ps=∆23v3AC

Ps=483.3tonne235.14m/s376.8=108.92kW

So,

15

PD=108.920.98=106.74 kW

PE=106.74 kW0.97

=103.54kW

For Vs = 11 knot

= 5.654 m/s

AC=3.737.98m+755.654ms

=71.88

Ps=∆23v3AC

So,

PD=154.90.98=151.8 kW

PE=151.8 kW0.97

=147.2kW

For Vs = 12 knot

= 6.168 m/s

AC=3.737.98m+756.168 ms

=67.8

Ps=∆23v3AC

Ps=483.3tonne236.168 m/s367.8=213.2kW

So,

PD=213.20.98=208.9 kW

PE=208.9 kW0.97

=202.65kW

16

For Vs = 13 knot

= 6.682 m/s

AC=3.737.98m+756.682 ms

=64.33

Ps=∆23v3AC

Ps=483.3tonne236.682m/s364.33 =285.66kW

So,

PD=285.66kW0.98=279.99 kW

PE=279.99 kW0.97

=271.5kW

For Vs = 14 knot

= 7.196 m/s

AC=3.737.98m+757.196 ms

=61.36

Ps=∆23v3AC

So,

PD=374.05kW0.98=366.66 kW

PE=366.66 kW0.97

=355.6kW

For Vs = 15 knot

= 7.71 m/s

AC=3.737.98m+757.71 ms

17

=58.8

Ps=∆23v3AC

So, PD=480.14kW0.98=470.53 kW

PE=470.53 kW0.97

=456.42kW

For Vs = 16 knot

= 8.224 m/s

AC=3.737.98m+758.224 ms

=56.55

Ps=∆23v3AC

Ps=483.3tonne238.224 m/s356.55=605.8kW

So, PD=605.8kW0.98=593.72 kW

PE=593.72 kW0.97

=575.91kW

Result and comparison for the method that we use to predict the PE

Test Coefficient

12 337.03 - 202.65

18

13 463.88 - 271.50

14 701.11 - 355.60

15 1058.22 - 456.42

16 1591.59 - 575.91

Table 3.3

Table 3.4

From the calculation of estimation of PE, it can be said that at the increasing speed of the

ship, the effective power required will also increase. Using admiralty and series 60 will under

estimate from the value of PE of the ship and it differ from the PE obtain from the real calculation.

Even though it does not give the exact estimation of the PE, but still it give enough early

prediction for the design stage of the ship.

In this chapter, we are required to perform propulsion calculation based on the P E

obtained from part 2. Based on the vessel that were assigned to us, we need to design some

propulsion characteristics to the vessel.

19

4.1 Propeller geometrical features

For this part, we use 4 type of B-series chart with differing blade number (Z) and blade

area ratio (BAR). The value that we obtain will be compared to select the best features for our

vessel. Firstly, we assumed the value of N (rpm), wake fraction (w), and thrust deduction factor

(t) from the past buoy tender vessel that is slightly similar to our vessel. Before that, we need to

calculate the diameter of the vessel.

The total of length to put the propeller is, 168.75 cm. Estimate the clearance for Y is 20%

and clearance for Z is 5%. So, the total of clearance is 25%. The diameter for the vessel is:

Figure 4.0

20

Figure 4.1 Bu-δ chart

N =

VA= Revs/min

Vs1-w

U= = SV a0.00307 in

121-0.25

HP

= 9 knots

S = thrust in lb

D = diameter in

feet

T= R1-t

= 54.61-0.11

= 61.35KN

= 61.359.81× 10.4536

= 13787.1 lbs

21

Bu=NS0.5Va20.005541

=50013787.10.592×0.05541

=40.16

Construct a straight line at Bu-δ until it intersects with maximum efficiency line and we get:-

δ = 295, η = 0.476, PD=0.59

Using δ = 295, find Do find δ' using Dmax associated to our

vessel

Do=δVaN δ'=NDVa

=2959500 =5004.2649

Using the new δ' to find new η and PD

Construct a straight line at Bu-δ until it intersect with maximum efficiency line and we get

Using the efficiency that we get from δ and δ' to calculate the % loss

% loss=0.476-0.4320.476×100

=9.24%

Using Bu-δ has a limit in defining the characteristics of the propeller. It does not define the value

of torque and thrust characteristics. So, by using B series K-J chart, we could define the torque

and thrust characteristics for the B.4-55 propeller.

22

Figure 4.2 KJ chart

J=VAND T= R1-t

=12×0.51441-0.25500601.3=0.427 = 54.61-0.11=61.35KN

= 61.35×1031025×500602×1.34

=0.302

Use the value of KQ obtained from the graph to obtain the value of torque

KQ= QρN2D5

η= J2π × KJKQ

= 0.4272π × 0.3020.045

= 0.0456

23

We will compare the ηo in order to choose between 4 charts which have different number of

blade and different blade area ratio.

D from AutoCAD 1.3 meter 1.3 meter 1.3 meter 1.3 meter

24

Thrust for KJ chart 61.35 kN 61.35 kN 61.35 kN 61.35 kN

Table 4.3

From the comparison, we can conclude that the optimum propeller design is with 4

blades and with 0.55 area of blade ratio since it have the largest value of efficiency which is

45.6% and the lowest losses which is 9.24%. Then we will calculate the value of propeller

efficiency, ηD.

We estimate:

ηD=ηo.ηR.ηH ηH=1-t1-w=1-0.111-0.25=1.182

=0.456×0.98×1.182 ηR=0.98

=0.53

ηS=0.98

After that, we will calculate the PD from the equation,

ηD=PEPD

PD=337.03 kW0.53

=635.91kW

From equation,

PDPB=ηS

25

PB=PDηS=635.91kW0.98

=648.89kW

So, PB should include margin power above predicted value by adding 20%,

PB+margin=P install

648.89kW+0.2×648.89kW=778.67kW

To calculate PE trial

PEtrial=PE×1+x

PEtrial=PE×1.2

PEservice=PEtrial×1.2

Vs PEtrial kW PEservice kW

26

Table 4.4

Figure 4.5

5.0 Conclusion

Resistance and propulsion play a major role in designing a ship. In terms of designing a

ship the most important thing that we need to consider is the resistance and propulsion

characteristics itself. From part 2, this is the most standard way in designing a new ship. By

performing a model test and applying Froude theory, we could obtain the ship resistance. Many

methods were develop for predicting ship resistance. One of the mostly used is ITTC 1957.

From part 2, we can see that the value of resistance increase with the speed of the vessel. This

shows that more power needed to propel the ship. The power will become greater when the

demand of speed increase. So, it is important for naval architect to know the powering

requirements for latter stage of design.

27

In part 3, we are exposed to predict the powering of the ship without doing any model

test. This method is important in preliminary proposals for the ship owner. In order to know the

early characteristics of the ship, we need to estimate the PE of the ship and it will become

important information in developing the design stage. Though, in this project it only provides

two methods. But still there are a lot more method in predicting the PE of the ship.

By doing some propulsion characteristics in part 4, we could select the best propeller

design to be fitted to our ship. To overcome the resisting forces, we must design the best

propeller that could provide forward thrust. Through this part, we already obtain the best

efficiency, RPM, diameter, number of blade and BAR. The geometrical features will give the

effect in propulsive efficiency and the installation of main power plant. To select the best

efficiency for buoy tender vessel, we have to consider all the geometrical features that will give

the best efficiency to the operation of the ship. Even though the efficiency is not as high as the

merchant ship, the value of the efficiency is still considerable.

Buoy tender vessel basically should be able to carry out buoy tendering operations in

close quarters in harbors and in open seas. A good efficiency when handle the vessel is really

important and, from this project, we should know what is the best design that the vessel can have

from the hull form, such as, we cannot have a big diameter propeller since this ship are small. It

is proven that, in order to make a decision, on choosing the design of a ship, there is numerous

considerations that need to be considered.

28

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