Presents

Photography Demystified g p y y
Part - 1
Photography Basics Know your Camera

A thought g

“A photograph is as good as the p g p g photographer”

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What is Photography? g p y

● ● ● ● ●

An art? A science? A creative skill? A passion? An obsession?

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Contents
Photography Basics Terminology gy The Camera Operation and Modes Rules Tips
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Photography Basics

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The Principle p
Light, L Li ht Lens and Sensor dS

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Terminology

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Terminology gy
Focal Length Optical Z O ti l Zoom and FOV d Digital Zoom Exposure Histogram Hi t Shutter Speed Aperture Size F-Stop Depth of Field Film Speed/Sensitivity White balance Resolution Perspective

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Focal Length g
Focal Length - The distance in mm from the optical center of the lens to the focal point, which is located on the sensor or film Usually expressed in mm Focal length of a lens determines its FOV A shorter focal length (eg. 28mm wide angle) produces a wider picture angle, while a longer focal length (eg. 200mm tele) produces a narrower picture angle. Wide angle lenses (short focal length) capture more because they have a wider picture angle, while tele lenses (long focal length) have a narrower picture angle. p g

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Optical Zoom and FOV p
Typical focal lengths and their 35mm format designations < 20mm 24mm - 35mm 50mm 80mm - 300mm > 300mm Super Wide Angle Wide Angle Normal Lens Tele Super Tele p

30mm wide angle

100mm tele has more narrow field of view

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Optical zoom = Max focal length / Min focal length
eg. Optical zoom of a 28-280mm lens is 280mm/28mm or 10X In 35mm photography a 50mm lens is called a normal lens photography, because it produces roughly the same picture angle as the human eye (about 46 )
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Digital Zoom g

To Use Or Not to Use Digital Zoom ? The recommended approach is to shoot image with digital zoom OFF and crop it later the way you want it Di it l Zoom can be used to save card space b t the resulting image b dt d lti i Digital Z but th is of lower quality
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Exposure p
● ● Exposure - the amount of light received by the film or sensor Determined by 1. Aperture 2. Shutterspeed 3. Sensitivity of the film or sensor
Underexposed

The exposure generated by an aperture, shutterspeed, and sensitivity combination can be represented by its exposure value "EV" High EVs will be used in bright conditions which require a low amount of light to be co ected collected by t e film o se so to a o d the or sensor avoid overexposure and vice a versa
Overexposed
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Histogram g

Correct Exposure

Underexposed

Overexposed

Histogram is chart of the pixels divided into 256 levels of brightness from black (value 0) to white (value 255) with 254 gray levels in between, all stacked together The height of each "stack" or vertical "bar" tells you how many pixels there are for that partic lar brightness "0" and "255" are the darkest particular brightness. and brightest values, corresponding to black and white respectively
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Components of Exposure p p

Exposure (in EV)

Sensitivity (in ISO)

Aperture (in f-Stops)

Shutter Speed (in seconds)

LOW Bright Light Sharp Image

HIGH Low Light Grainy Image

SMALL Bright Light Shallow Depth of Field

LARGE Low Light Long Depth of Field

SLOW Low Light Capture Motion Blur

FAST Bright Light Fast Action Freeze Frame

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Film Speed/Sensitivity p y
Digital cameras sensitivity (ISO) Conventional film sensitivity (ASA) Lower the sensitivity - finer grain • More light is needed. • Excellent for outdoor photography Higher the sensitivity – coarse grain • Low-light conditions • Action photography (where fast shutter shutterspeeds are needed) ISO 100 is the "normal" setting, can be increased to 200, 400, 800, 1600 , , , When increasing the sensitivity, the output of the sensor is amplified, so less light is needed. Unfortunately that also amplifies the undesired noise noise.

ISO 100

ISO 800
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Shutter Speed p
The shutter speed sets how long the y p camera stays open. What shutter speed you choose can have a big impact on your photos “No bl rring” blurring” For motionless objects “Freeze the action" If you re taking pictures of things you’re that move, shoot at 1000. “Let Water flow” Where moving water is the subject, set slower speeds to show blurry t l d t h bl motion. One can shoot hand-held at about (1/60th of a second) to get sharp photos (with no zoom) h ( ih )

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Aperture p

Aperture refers to the size of the opening in the lens It is measured in F-numbers Determines the amount of light falling onto the film or sensor Affects exposure and depth of field Just like successive shutter-speeds, successive apertures halve the amount of incoming light g g The diaphragm reduces the aperture diameter by a factor 1.4 (square root of 2) so that the aperture surface is halved each successive step. The absolute aperture sizes and diameters depend on the focal length. For p p g instance, a 25mm aperture diameter on a 100mm lens has the same effect as a 50mm aperture diameter on a 200mm lens.
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Aperture (contd..) p ( )
Maximum A M i Aperture or L t Lens Speed Aperture and shutterspeed are interrelated via exposure. i t l t d i The "maximum aperture" of a lens is also called its “lens speed”. d” A lens with a large maximum aperture (e.g. f/2) is called a "fast" l "f t" lens because the large b th l aperture allows you to use high (fast) shutterspeeds and still receive sufficient exposure. Such lenses are ideal to shoot moving subjects in low light conditions.
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Aperture Diaphragm A t Di h

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Aperture: F-stop p p
A "stop" is a relative measurement of light. Double the light is one stop brighter (+1 stop) Half the light is one stop darker (-1 stop) Stops are interchangeable Aperture, shutter, and film settings are all divided up into "stops", even though "stops" the numbering systems are different.

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F-Number
The aperture is expressed in terms of its f-number (or f-stop) rather than its actual size f-number (f ) is the ratio of the focal length (F) of the lens to the diameter of the aperture (D , where the aperture is assumed to be circular)

f = F/D = F/√A
It is the area of the aperture (A) that determines the amount of light let through the shutter th h th h tt That is, every time we double the area ("open up" the aperture), the fnumber changes by a factor of 1/1.4 (1/√2) Eg. for a 50 mm lens with a 25 mm aperture, the f-stop was f /2. With twice the area (i.e. opening up by one full stop), the f-stop changes from 2 to 1.41421. This would be denoted as f /1.4 TIP : Rule to remember – Smaller the f-number, greater is the Aperture
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Putting it all together g g
The "correct" exposure for a given scene is a function of at least 3 things: shutter speed, aperture and film speed. For a given scene there are multiple combinations of elements that will yield a p y correct exposure. Thus any one of the Aperture / Shutter Speed pairs will cause the film to be exposed by the same amount. Exposure reciprocity - For a given scene there are multiple combinations of elements that will yield a correct exposure.
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50 ASA 100 ASA 800 ASA

Shutter:

Aperture:

Film Speed:

f2.8 f4 f5.6 f8 f11 f16 f22

1/4 sec 1/8 sec 1/15 sec 1/30 sec 1/60 sec 1/125 sec 1/250 sec 1/500 sec

ISO1600 ISO800 ISO400 ISO200 ISO100 ISO50

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Components of Exposure p p

Exposure (in EV)

Sensitivity (in ISO)

Aperture (in f-Stops)

Shutter Speed (in seconds)

LOW Bright Light Sharp Image

HIGH Low Light Grainy Image

SMALL Bright Light Shallow Depth of Field

LARGE Low Light Long Depth of Field

SLOW Low Light Capture Motion Blur

FAST Bright Light Fast Action Freeze Frame

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Depth of Field p

Refers t th areas of th photograph both in front and behind R f to the f the h t h b th i f t d b hi d the main focus point which remain "sharp" (in focus). Is affected by the aperture, subject distance, focal length, and film fil or sensor format. f Rule : Larger the aperture (smaller f-number, e.g. f/2) smaller is depth of field.

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White Balance
Normally our eyes compensate for lighting conditions with different colour temperatures. A digital camera needs to find g a reference point which represents white. It will then calculate all the other colours based on this white point. Most digital cameras feature automatic white balance whereby the camera looks at the overall colour of the image and calculates the best fit best-fit white balance. Tip: Leave the White Balance in Auto mode.
The right auto white balance using the clouds as its white reference.
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The auto white balance was unable to find a white reference, resulting in dull and artificial colors.

Resolution
The resolution of a digital image is defined as the i i d fi d th number of pixels it contains. (5.0 M) pixels 2560 x 1920 (4.0 M) pixels 2304 x 1728 (3.5 M) pixels 2304 x 1536 It is recommended to shoot at a resolution which corresponds with the p camera's effective pixel count. Shooting at lower resolutions only makes se se sense if you are running ae u g out of card space
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Resolution Chart
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Perspective p
Perspective: The perception of Depth Tele - compresses perspective (makes subjects look closer to one another) Wide - exaggerates perspective (makes subjects look more separated)
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A. Scene taken with a 33mm wide angle.

B. Scene taken S k with 80mm tele angle.

C. Scene taken with a 33mm wide angle after coming closer to the subjects.

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The Camera

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Camera Basics

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Know your Camera : Buttons y

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Sensor
The sensor is a CCD
• • • • It i a silicon chip is ili hi It is covered with a regular pattern of very small light sensitive circuits When a few photons hits one of these it causes a few electrons to flow in a circuit These electrical signals are then amplified and converted into a digital format Greater number of pixels will not improve image quality if they information they p y y provide is less reliable Greater number of pixels amounts to greater image size that can be printed without loss of resolution. Consumer cameras use small sensors, only a few millimeters in each dimension making the individual pixels dimension, very small Professional cameras use larger sensors - so that the individual cells are perhaps 5-10 times the area and are also better separated. The larger cells capture more light for the same exposure giving electrical signals that need less exposure, amplification and have less random noise.

Pixel count
• •

Sensor size

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LCD
LCD make all digital cameras, cameras SLR like! LCDs normally measure between 1.5" and 3.0" diagonally with typical resolutions between 120,000 and 240,000 pixels LCD to Play Back Images The LCD screen delivers one of the key benefits of digital photography: the ability to play back your images immediately after shooting LCD Used as Menu The LCD is also used to change the camera settings via the camera buttons.
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Viewfinder
A viewfinder is used to look at what the camera is aiming at and compose a shot Types: Optical Viewfinder Relays an optical image either through the lens (SLR) of through a separate window (consumer) Electronic Viewfinder Uses a smaller 0.5" LCD, simulating the effect of a TTL optical viewfinder
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The Dial
The Dial in a Camera is used to select one of the many available modes.

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Operation Modes

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Buttons
Basic Camera Operating Modes
Icons Description

On/Record Picture taking O /R d
mode - record. After the camera is in record mode, you can select a shooting mode (sometimes a button labelled "power") power )

Playback takes a digital
camera OUT of shooting mode and allows the user to view and edit stored images. images (sometimes found on shooting mode dial)

Off Completely switches off
the camera, usually a button labeled "off" (sometimes a button labeled "power")
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Point and Shoot: Auto Mode
Auto/Program Of all the shooting modes, is probably the most useful. Most people don't really want to learn about how a camera l b th works, and point and shoot photography is the perfect solution. The fully automatic (A)uto or (P)rogram mode is the default for most modern cameras. The photographer can simply aim, press the button, and almost be guaranteed a great image.
Auto/Program Camera Modes:

Auto
The camera will completely control flash p and exposure. On most cameras this is labelled "auto", on others simply "A". Some cameras only have (P)rogram.

Program
Automatic-assist, just uto at c ass st, point and shoot. Unlike full auto mode, you can usually control flash and a few other camera settings.
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Common Shooting Modes g
Movie/Video: In movie mode, Digital cameras can capture live streaming
video. video flash.

Party/Night: Longer exposures to capture darker scenes, without the Macro/Close-Up: This mode used for taking close-up pictures.

background by using high f-stop (aperture) settings. Portrait: To attempt to blur out the background, camera will try to use the fastest available lens setting (aperture). Sports: To freeze motion, camera will use the highest shutter speed possible. Aperture Priority: Photographer sets the aperture (f-stop) and the camera will attempt to deliver a good exposure. Shutter Priority: Ph t Photographer sets the shutter, and the camera will h t th h tt d th ill attempt to deliver a good exposure. Manual: Full manual mode, the photographer must set both the shutter and the aperture.

Landscape: Camera will attempt capture detail in foreground and

TIP: Know your modes well, even if your camera does not allow manual controls, most of the settings you would need are covered by one of the preset scene modes.
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Night Mode g

For night scenes or low-light conditions. Shutter speed may be slow, so place the camera on a flat, steady surface or use a tripod. Due to slow shutter speeds, advise people to stay still for a few seconds after the flash fires fires.
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Macro Mode

Macro results are achieved with close-up photography. On digital cameras the Macro Focus mode switches the auto focus system to attempt to focus on subjects much closer to the lens. Hence, the effective magnification is more. Very shallow field of depth.
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Landscape p

To shoot a landscape picture where there’s a field of flowers in the foreground and a mountain scene in the background, a very broad background depth of field such as f/22 is required so that the foreground flowers and background mountains are all in focus. Landscape and nature photography use saturated colours to produce p p g p y p dramatic effects that seem to leap off the print.
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Portrait Mode
For full-frame portraits of people Allows the subject to be sharp and the background to be indistinct Shallow depth of field Softer Images (less sharp) For best results: • Position your subject at least 6 ft (2 m) away and fill the frame with a head and shoulders pose • Use the (Telephoto) zoom to exaggerate background blur
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Sports Mode p
For subjects in Motion Fast shutter speed Small aperture Sharp Images Freeze Frame

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Self Timer and Burst
Additional modes: Self – timer

• The photographer can be in the photo too • Can prevent camera shake because of clicking the shutter release button in low light photography • The camera must be set on a tripod or level surface
Burst

• Lets you take pictures in quick succession (say 3 fps) • Ideal for capturing sporting events or objects in motion

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Camera Settings and Ope at o s Operations

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Colour
Saturated Color (default) • Gi Gives a more vibrant l k ib t look to all colors in your pictures Neutral Color N t lC l • Gives a more balanced and natural look to all colors in your pictures Black & White • For black and white pictures Sepia • For pictures with a edd s b o , antique reddish-brown, a t que look
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Film Speed p
AUTO - Sets an ISO speed (100(100
200) based on scene brightness. Ideal for general picture taking.

ISO 80/100 - For daylight

p pictures in bright sun, when fine g , detail is needed. Ideal f portraits for or nature scenes.

ISO 200 - For cloudy, overcast

days. Ideal when you need extra speed without sacrificing image quality.

ISO 400 - For dusk or night

pictures when flash is prohibited. Ideal for sporting events and excellent for indoor shots with or without flash.

ISO 800 - extends your shooting
p g capabilities in low-light or fastaction when flash is prohibited.
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White Balance
Auto (default) a tomaticall (default)— automatically

corrects white balance. Ideal for general picture taking.

Daylight —for pictures in
natural lighting.

orange cast of household incandescent (tungsten) or halogen light bulbs. Ideal for indoor pictures without flash. green cast of fluorescent lighting. Ideal for indoor pictures under fluorescent lighting without flash. li hti ith t fl h
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Tungsten —corrects the

Fluorescent —corrects the

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Flash
Common Flash Modes
Auto-Flash In most camera modes, Auto-flash is enabled by default and will automatically fire if the camera detects it needs more light. light Disabled Flash The mood of the photograph can sometimes be more dramatic when the natural light is used. g Forced Flash/Fill Flash When forced, the camera will always fire the flash regardless of necessity. To be used to prevent shadows in bright light. h d i b i ht li ht Red eye Reduction Flash fires once so the subject’s eyes become accustomed to the flash, then fires again when the flash picture is taken.
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Digital Camera Flash g
Flash has following modes : Automatic mode Red-eye reduction - fires the flash several times just prior to exposing a photo. photo Reduces the reflection in a subject's eyes which produces red eyes. The rapid flashes cause a subject's pupils to contract and helps minimize the red-eye effect. Suppressed flash - turns the flash off Forced (fill-in) flash - keeps the flash on in situations where automatic mode would keep it off. Used when additional illumination is needed such as when the main source of light is in the back of a subject or shadows prevent details from showing.

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Digital Camera Metering g g
Automatic exposure Standard feature on all digital cameras. The metering system measures the amount of light in a frame and determines the best exposure.

Centre-weighted metering
Area near the centre of the frame is evaluated for exposure calculation.

Matrix metering: underexposed

Matrix (evaluative) metering
Entire frame is referenced referenced.

Spot metering
Only centre of the frame is used to calculated autoexposure settings.
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Spot metering: correct exposure

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Controlling Exposure g p

Balancing Shutter and Aperture: B l i Sh tt dA t Exposure is about different combinations of shutter and f-stop settings. These combinations can drastically affect the finished picture. For example, the above three pictures have been given an equal amount of light, but the f-stop and shutter combinations make each one unique. Why is the background all blurred in the right picture, and sharpest in the left ? Because if the exposure is made with a wide aperture ( like f2.8 ), then objects farther away from the subject are thrown farther out of focus. So.. if the aperture is small (like f22) then objects in the background (and foreground ) will appear sharper However since more light was required to make the exposure on the left ( sharper. However, 1/4 Second ) the subjects became blurred from MOTION. At 1/250th of a second, the shutter is fast enough to freeze motion.
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Exposure Compensation p p
The Th camera's metering system ' t i t will sometimes determine the wrong exposure value needed to correctly expose the image. This can be corrected by the "EV Compensation" feature. Typically the EV compensation yp y p ranges from -2.0 EV to +2.0 EV with adjustments in steps of 0.5 or 0.3 EV. It is important to understand that i i t tt d t d th t increasing the EV compensation by 1 is equivalent to reducing EV by 1 and will therefore double the amount of light.

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Aperture Priority & Shutter Priority p y y
Aperture Priority" mode, In "Aperture Priority mode the camera allows you to select the aperture over the available range and have the camera calculate the best shutter speed to expose the image correctly.
This is important if you want to control depth of field or for special effects. Note that because of their high focal length multiplier, a shallow depth of field is often very hard to achieve with digital compact cameras, even at the largest aperture.

In "Shutter Priority" mode, you can select the shutterspeed over the available range and have the camera calculate the best aperture to expose the image correctly. correctly Shutter speed priority is often used to create special effects such as blurred water on a river/waterfall or to freeze action in action scenes.

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AutoFocus Modes
Single (or one) area focus
Camera focuses on a subject in the central area of j the screen. Focus adjusts according to the distance of the subject.

Continuous autofocus

Focuses continually on a subject; useful when shooting slow moving subjects. Continuous g g j autofocus consumes more b tt t f battery power.

Spot focus

Camera focuses on a very narrow, center area of the screen.

3, 9-area focus

Camera automatically focuses using one or more focus points. The focus positions change according to each subject, focusing on a number of objects within a scene. In 2005, Nikon introduced a Face-Priority autofocus mode which is activated when select CoolPix digital cameras are switched to Portrait mode. According to Nikon, "A special digital detection program will scan for facial details and then control autofocus operation based on the location of the detected face in the scene.

Face-Priority AF

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AutoFocus Bracketing g
Center AF

Most digital cameras use contrast detection to auto focus (AF). Usually, the focus point is a small rectangle in the middle of the viewfinder frame (Center AF), though many digital cameras now also offer additional AF points (Multi-Point AF). Multi-Point AF automatically selects between a number of AF points (the most common p seems to be 5 or 9 AF points - i 4 or 8 AF points i.e. i t clustered around a center focus point) and finds the most contrasty subject among those AF points.

Multi-Point AF

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Focusing g
Focus is Essential
If you don t get the focus set correctly don't for the distance of your subject to the camera, it will appear blurred - out of focus. Occasionally photographers will deliberately use an out of focus blur for artistic effect, but normally it is simply an error. py

Autofocus (AF)
In autofocus mode the camera automatically focuses on the subject in the focus area in the center of the LCD/viewfinder. LCD/ i fi d Autofocus is usually based on detecting contrast and therefore works best on contrasty subjects and less well in low light conditions, in which case the use of an AF assist lamp is very useful. f l

Manual Focus (MF)
Focusing is done by either by hand rotating the lens ring, or is motorised.

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Autofocus Assist Lamp p
An Autofocus Assist Lamp assists a digital camera focus when taking photos in low-light. When the shutter-release button is depressed half-way, a light beams from the camera to illuminate an area where the camera focuses on the subject subject. Some digital cameras have an AF Assist lamp that is infrared. Because infrared light is invisible, a subject won't be startled as they may be by a visible light. Always use the AF Assist Lamp within the recommended range. If your digital camera doesn't have an AF Assist Lamp, turn off doesn t continuous autofocus or multi-area focus (or focus manually). Use a single area focus mode when shooting in low light. If your camera fails to achieve focus, aim at something which has contrast and is of the same distance as your subject. Press the shutter release button halfshutter-release half way down, recompose your shot, then fully depress the shutter button.
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Two-step Shutter Release Button p
Shutter Release is a two step process when using a digital camera When the camera. shutter-release button is depressed half-way, exposure and focus are locked as long as you hold it in that position. Controlling focus and exposure Confirming focus and exposure lock - An indicator on the LCD or a light on the camera near the viewfinder will glow steadily to confirm the lock. Once the camera confirms focus and exposure, then fully depress the shutter button. button Pressing the shutter-release button down correctly helps prevent camera shake. Even the slightest movement g during the record time of a shot can cause photos to be blurred.
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Correct way to hold the camera y

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Camera Grip p

The INCORRECT Way •Arms extended •Shaky grip •Unsteady hands
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The CORRECT Way •Arms close to the body •Firm grip with both hands •Steady Hold
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Digital Photoshop

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JPEG
The most commonly used digital image format is JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group). Universally compatible with browsers, viewers, and image editing tibl ith b i di diti software, it allows photographic images to be compressed by a factor 10 to 20 compared to the uncompressed original with very little visible loss in image quality.

The Theory in a Nutshell
JPEG rearranges the image information into colour and detail information. This is achieved by combining several mathematical and compression methods.

Practical Tips
When editing an image in several sessions, save the intermediate image in an uncompressed format such as TIFF. TIFF When saving in JPEG, closing it, and repeating JPEG it again and again, the file size will not reduce further, but quality will have degraded further. So only compress after all editing is done. TIP: Cameras usually have different JPEG quality settings, such as FINE, NORMAL, BASIC etc. Sh t i th tti h FINE NORMAL BASIC, t Shoot in the highest available JPEG quality setting.
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EXIF
Besides information about the pixels of the image most cameras store additional image, information such as the date and time the image was taken, aperture, shutterspeed, ISO, and most other camera settings. These data also known as "metadata" are data, metadata stored in a "header". A common type of header is the EXIF (Exchangeable Image File) header. EXIF is a standard for storing information created by JEIDA (Japan Electronic Industry Development Association) to encourage interoperability between imaging devices. EXIF data are very useful because you do not need to worry about remembering the settings you used when taking the image. Later you can then analyze on your computer which camera settings created the best results, so you can learn from y your experience. p

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Photo Editing g
It's like having a darkroom in your computer - photo editing software puts the power of an entire photolab at your command. Taking the picture is only the first step. Don't forget about photo editing. You can adjust : Brightness and Contrast Hue and Saturation Adjust Levels Add Noise Sharpen and Blur Selection Masks Feather Clone Brush

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Digital Darkroom g

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Sneak Peak

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Topics for Session 2 p
Composition Choice f bj t Ch i of subject Subject Positioning Creativity Proper Lighting p g g Framing Seeing in two dimensions, like a camera does Rule of 1/3rd Focus Flash Camera Angle Shutter Speed Aperture size A t i F-stop Pre-visualizing depth of field Exposure compensation p p Holding your camera steady - Use a tripod!, Stay still!
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“Learning by Doing”

Thank You!

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