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Polytechnic University of the Philippines

Sta. Mesa, Philippines


Topic: Norm
Subject: TESL 604

1. Define norm

- is an invariant, which should embrace all variable phonemic, morphological,
lexical, and syntactic patterns with their typical properties circulating in the
language at a definite period of time (Halperin).
- Its an abstract notion, n invariant which should embrace all variants with their
most typical properties
- an assemblage of stable means objectively existing in the language and
systematically used.
- is a regulator that controls the set of variants (Makayev). The most characteristic
and essential property of norm is flexibility.
- is a set of rules and restraints
- is a psychological and social phenomenon not only a system of signs

Hierarchy of norms:

a. Standard
b. Modified standard
c. Regional varieties
d. Local Dialects

Literary language is the sum total of all the realizations of the language system adopted
by the society at a certain stage of its development and thought of as correct and model

Normative level - conformity with the orthographic, punctuation, orthoepic, lexical,

grammar norms of the language.
Communicative level - purposeful usage of the language means within the limits of the
language norm and the norm of the functional style for the sake of realizing a
communicative task, the formation of a communicative strategy.
- is regarded as an important factor for dialogic intercourse of author and
addressee, setting a standard of textual activity for a certain sphere of

Textual norm is defined as follows:

1. It is a firm rule of textual activity which is prevalent historically and accepted by a

society; standard texts for a certain sphere of communication are formed on the
basis of these rules
2. It is a system of communicative pragmatic, genre and style, composition and
speech norms which is proper for a certain type of text and shows its
communicative essence, linguistic character and extra-linguistic orientation

This notion of textual norm takes into account a complex of the following factors:

1. Place of text in the structure of universal model of speech communication by

Roman O. Jakobson
2. model of a language personality which is behind the text, according to the
theory of Yu. N. Karaulov
3. communicative characteristics of speech which has to be reflected in the text
4. the main features and characteristics of the particular text

Types of Language Norms